To compare forward shift of posterior corneal surface and higher-order aberration (HOA) changes after LASIK, LASEK, and wavefront-guided LASEK surgery in moderate myopia
One hundred eighty four eyes undergoing LASIK, LASEK and wavefront-guided LASEK with VISX STAR S4 were included in this study. The posterior corneal elevation was measured with Orbscan before, 2 and 4 months after surgery. Changes of the elevation were assessed using the difference map generated from preoperative and postoperative elevation maps. The values of higher-order aberrations were evaluated preoperatively and 2 months postoperatively with Wavefront aberrometer.
The posterior corneal surface displayed forward shift of 27.2±11.45 µm, 24.3±9.76 µm in LASIK group, 23.4±10.5 µm, 23.6±10.55 µm in LASEK group, 24.0±14.95 µm, 28.4±14.72 µm in wavefront-guided LASEK group at 2 months and 4 months, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among those three groups, and between 2 and 4 months. The root mean score (RMS) of HOA was increased after LASIK and LASEK (p=0.000, p=0.000, respectively). The mean change of HOA-RMS was significantly smaller in wavefront-guided LASEK than LASIK or LASEK (p=0.000, p=0.000, respectively, Bonferroni-corrected).
The changes of posterior corneal surface forward shift showed no difference among LASIK, LASEK and wavefront-guided LASEK in moderate myopia. HOAs were significantly increased after LASIK and LASEK. The changes of HOAs were significant smaller in wavefront-guided LASEK than LASIK or LASEK.
Aberration; LASEK; LASIK; Posterior corneal surface; Wavefront-guided ablation
Background and methods
Myopic photorefractive surgery induces a reduction in central corneal thickness, which may lead to underestimation of intraocular pressure. This retrospective clinical study compared intraocular pressure measurements obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometry (DCT-Pascal) in eyes undergoing myopic intralaser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (IntraLASIK) or laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK).
Of a total of 51 eyes, 21 underwent LASEK and 30 underwent IntraLASIK. By GAT, mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 16.2 ± 1.99 mmHg and postoperatively was 10.84 ± 1.45 mmHg. By DCT, mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 15.9 ± 2.08 mmHg and postoperatively was 16.1 ± 2.3 mmHg. Both preoperative and postoperative differences between measurements made by GAT and DCT were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.04 and P < 0.01, respectively). GAT and DCT readings were unaffected by type of surgery (P = 0.74 and P = 0.46, respectively).
Postoperative GAT measurements were lower than those obtained by DCT. The difference between preoperative and postoperative DCT measurements was minimal, so DCT may be preferable for the measurement of intraocular pressure in eyes undergoing myopic IntraLASIK or LASEK.
intraocular pressure; Goldmann applanation tonometry; dynamic contour tonometry; intralaser-assisted in situ keratomileusis; laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis
In this study, we used a Pentacam® device to evaluate the corneal changes that occur after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).
Our study included 60 eyes of 32 patients. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using LASIK. The eyes were examined preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively using a Pentacam to assess corneal changes with regard to curvature, elevation, and asphericity of the cornea.
A statistically significant decrease in mean keratometric power of the anterior corneal surface (P = 0.001) compared with its pre-LASIK value was detected after 3 months, but there was no significant change in keratometric power of the posterior surface (P = 0.836). Asphericity (Q-value) of the anterior and posterior surfaces increased significantly after LASIK (P = 0.001). A significant forward bulge of the anterior corneal surface 4 mm and 7 mm from the central zone was detected 3 months post-LASIK (P = 0.001 for both), but there was no significant increase in posterior elevation at 4 mm and 7 mm from the center (P = 0.637 and P = 0.26, respectively). No cases of post-LASIK ectasia were detected. Correlation between different parameters of the corneal surface revealed an indirect relation between changes in pachymetry and anterior corneal elevation at 4 mm and 7 mm from the central zone (r = −0.27, P = 0.13, and r = −0.37, P = 0.04, respectively), and a direct proportion between changes in pachymetry and mean keratometric power of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces (r = 0.7, P = 0.001 and r = 0.4, P = 0.028, respectively).
LASIK causes significant changes at the anterior corneal surface but the effect is subtle and insignificant at the posterior surface.
LASIK; laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis; Pentacam®; corneal elevation; corneal asphericity
BACKGROUND—Laser intrastromal keratomileusis (LASIK) is an evolving technique which enables high degrees of myopia (>8.0 dioptres) and myopic astigmatism to be corrected. This paper describes initial experience with this procedure. It also details the methodology, the results, the problems encountered, and discusses retreatment procedures.
METHODS—51 eyes (48 primary cases and three retreatments) underwent LASIK for simple myopia or compound myopic astigmatism. After the keratotomy was fashioned with a Chiron corneal shaper, the ablation was performed with either a Summit or Meditec excimer laser. The actual preoperative astigmatism ranged from −0.5 D to −6.0 D (in the astigmatic myopic LASIK (AML) series), while the range of preoperative myopia in the combined myopic LASIK (ML) and AML series was −8.0 D to −37.0 D. Of the ML cases, group 1 (−8.0 to −15.0 D (dioptres)), group 2 (> −15.0 to −20.0 D), and group 3 (> −20.0 D) had mean preoperative myopia values (spherical equivalent) of −11.26 D, −16.84 D and −27.78 D. The same groupings (1, 2, and 3) for the AML cases had respective values of −9.702, −17.4, and −23.08. In the AML series the mean preoperative astigmatism was −2.109 D. Follow up ranged from 8 to 27 months (mean 15.8 months). Six of the cases required retreatment.
RESULTS—There was a reduction in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (of 1 Snellen line) in seven of the primary cases (14.5 %) (three in the ML group and four in the AML group), and in one of the retreatment cases. The BCVA improved in 28 cases (58%) in the primary treatment group. The mean correction attempted (spherical equivalent) for the ML groups 1, 2, and 3 was 10.51 D, −14.5 D, and −27.78 D, versus a mean correction achieved of −9.445 D, −15.625 D, and −21.571 D. Similarly, for the AML groups, attempted correction values were −9.702 D, −17.4 D, and −23.08 D, while the values achieved were −6.95 D, −51.425 D, and −15.708 D. Regression was minimal and stabilisation of the refractive result was achieved in all groups, except group 3 of the ML series, by the 3 month examination period. The mean postoperative astigmatism in the AML series was −0.531 D. Vector analysis of the AML series showed that the mean surgically induced astigmatism was +0.93 D. The most common complication encountered was undercorrection, which occurred in 35 cases—23 cases in the ML group and 12 cases in the AML series. Twenty eight per cent of the ML cases, and 25% of the AML cases were within plus or minus 1.5 D of the attempted refraction.
CONCLUSION—For the correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism, LASIK results in less postoperative pain and relatively little subepithelial haze compared with high myopic photorefractive keratectomy. Furthermore, a stable refraction and reasonably predictable outcome occurs much earlier. High myopia up to −37.0 D can be corrected, albeit with some limitations at the extremes of myopia—in terms of the amount of myopia correctable; this represents a limitation of the technique. Retreatment is a technically straightforward and effective way to treat undercorrection. Undercorrection, the main complication seen in our series, should become less common when the ablation algorithms are further refined.
To analyze the changes in higher-order aberrations (HOAs) that occur after wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).
Private practice, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
This retrospective analysis comprised eyes that had PRK or LASIK from June 2004 through October 2005. Postoperative outcome measures included 3-month uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), changes in the root mean square (RMS) and grouped coefficient HOAs (microns) measured with a corneal analyzer, and subjective assessment of visual aberrations.
One hundred consecutive eyes of 54 patients had PRK, and 100 contemporaneous consecutive eyes of 71 patients had LASIK. The PRK and LASIK populations were similar in general demographics, preoperative HOAs, and postoperative UCVA and BSCVA. The mean MRSE was slightly hyperopic after PRK (mean +0.11 diopters [D]) and slightly myopic after LASIK (mean −0.19 D) (P<.0001). There were no statistically significant changes in RMS or grouped coefficient HOA values after PRK or LASIK, nor were there significant differences in postoperative RMS or grouped coefficient HOA values between PRK and LASIK. One percent of PRK and LASIK patients reported a subjective increase in postoperative visual aberrations; 5% reported a subjective improvement postoperatively.
Wavefront-optimized excimer laser surgery did not induce significant HOAs after PRK or LASIK. The 2 techniques were equally efficacious and had equivalent postoperative HOA profiles.
Purpose: To verify whether there exists any difference in higher order aberrations after undergoing myopic LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) with conventional ablation and customized ablation in different eyes of the same patient. Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of 54 myopic eyes (27 patients) that underwent LASIK using the Nidek EC-5000 excimer laser system (Nidek, Gamagori, Japan). Topography-guided customized aspheric treatment zone (CATz) was used in the first eye of the patient (study group) and the other eye of the same patient was operated on with conventional ablation (control group). Higher order aberrations [root-mean-square (RMS) in the 5-mm zone] of both groups were observed with the Nidek OPD-Scan aberrometer before and 3 months after LASIK. Preoperative mean refractive error was similar between two eyes of the same patient (t=−0.577, P>0.05). Results: Preoperatively, higher order aberrations (RMS in the 5-mm zone) in the CATz ablation and conventional groups were (0.3600±0.0341) µm and (0.2680±0.1421) µm, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (t=1.292, P>0.05). Three months after LASIK, higher order aberrations (RMS in 5-mm zone) in the CATz ablation and conventional groups were (0.3627±0.1510) µm and (0.3991±0.1582) µm, respectively. No statistically significant difference was noted between pre- and postoperative higher order aberrations in the CATz group (t=−0.047, P>0.05). However, a statistically significant increase in higher order aberrations was observed after conventional ablation (t=−5.261, P<0.05). A statistically significant difference was noted in the increase of higher order aberrations after LASIK between groups (t=−2.050, P=0.045). Conclusion: LASIK with conventional ablation and topography-guided CATz ablation resulted in the same BSCVA (best spectacle-corrected visual acuity) 3 month after LASIK. Higher order aberrations were increased, but the increase of higher order aberrations after customized ablation treatment was less than that after conventional ablation.
Myopic LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis); Higher order aberrations; Customized ablation
The corneal change induced by refractive procedures influence both the postoperative refractive status and the ocular spherical aberration (SA). We evaluated changes in corneal SA after three types of surface ablation: phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and myopic wavefront-guided laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK).
Twenty-six eyes (25 patients) were subjected to PTK 26 eyes (14 patients) to PRK, and 34 eyes (17 patients) to wavefront-guided LASEK. Corneal SA was measured with the iTrace in all patients both preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively.
Six months after surgery, mean corneal SA was -0.173 ± 0.171 µm in the PTK group, 0.672 ± 0.200 µm in the PRK group, and 0.143 ± 0.136 µm in the wavefront-guided LASEK group. The mean difference between the preoperative and postoperative corneal SA (ΔSA) was -0.475 µm in the PTK group, 0.402 µm in the PRK group, and -0.143 µm in the wavefront-guided LASEK group.
Surgically induced changes in corneal SA vary with procedure. The prediction of the pattern of SA change induced by various surface ablation procedures may be helpful for developing future surgical procedures.
Aberration; Laser epithelial keratomileusis; Photorefractive keratectomy; Phototherapeutic keratectomy
To assess the efficacy, predictability, and safety of topography-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the surgical correction of low to moderate myopia with astigmatism using the Nidek CXIII excimer laser equipped with the customized aspheric treatment zone (CATz) algorithm.
In a multicenter US Food and Drug Administration study of topography-guided LASIK, 4 centers enrolled 135 eyes with manifest refraction sphere that ranged from −0.50 to −7.00 D (mean, −3.57 ± 1.45) with up to −4.00 D of astigmatism (mean, −1.02 ± 0.64 D). The intended outcome was plano in all eyes. Refractive outcomes and higher-order aberrations were analyzed preoperatively and postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was assessed using both the validated Refractive Status and Vision Profile (RSVP) questionnaire and a questionnaire designed for this study. Six-month postoperative outcomes are reported here.
By 6 months postoperatively, the manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) for all eyes was −0.09 ± 0.31 D. Six months postoperatively, 116 of 131 eyes (88.55%) had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and 122 of 131 eyes (93.13%) had a MRSE within ±0.50 D. Distance best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) increased by 2 or more lines in 21 of 131 eyes (19.01%), and no eyes lost 2 lines or more of BSCVA. The total ocular higher-order aberrations root-mean-square increased by 0.04 μm postoperatively. Patients reported significantly fewer night driving and glare and halo symptoms postoperatively than preoperatively.
Nidek CXIII CATz treatment of myopia with astigmatism is safe, efficacious, and predictable, and it reduces patient symptoms associated with night driving and glare and halo symptoms.
A thirty-nine year old man was referred to our institute due to progressive decreased visual acuity five years after bilateral Laser in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK). Topography revealed signs of post – LASIK ectasia. Patients’ left eye was treated with simultaneous Topography Guided Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) followed by Corneal Collagen Cross Linking (CXL). Twelve months after the combined procedure both uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) showed significant improvement while topographic findings revealed an improvement of the astigmatic pattern. All higher order aberrations showed a significant decrease twelve months postoperatively. Combined topography guided PRK and corneal cross linking could represent an alternative treatment for post – LASIK ectasia.
Post; LASIK ectasia; topography; guided PRK; CXL.
To compare visual performance of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with iris-registration (Wg-LASIK group) and conventional LASIK (LASIK group) one year after surgery and analyze the correlation between wavefront aberrations and visual performance.
Eight hundred and fifty-two myopic eyes of 430 patients were enrolled in this prospective study and divided into two groups: Wg-LASIK group (436 eyes) and LASIK group (416 eyes). A Wavescan Wavefront aberrometer was used to analyze Zernike coefficients and the root-mean-square (RMS) of higher order aberrations, and Optec 6500 visual function instrument was used to measure contrast sensitivity (CS) before and 3, 6, 12 months after surgery.
The mean spherical equivalent (SE) in Wg-LASIK group was significantly better than those in LASIK group one year after surgery (P=0.024). Wg-LASIK eyes showed better CS values than LASIK eyes at all spatial frequencies with and without glare after surgery (P all<0.01). Moreover, the increase of higher RMS (RMSh), coma, RMS3, RMS4, RMS5 in Wg-LASIK group were significantly lower than those in LASIK group 1 year after surgery (P all<0.05). The increase of coma, spherical aberration (SA), RMS3 and RMS4 in Wg-LASIK and coma and RMS3 in LASIK group were negatively correlated with reduction of contrast sensitivity 1 year after surgery.
A significant better visual performance is got in Wg-LASIK group compared with LASIK group 1 year after surgery, and the Wg-LASIK is particularly suitable for eyes with high-magnitude RMSh.
aberration; contrast sensitivity; visual performance; laser in situ keratomileusis
PURPOSE: To determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in the treatment of refractive errors following penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: A retrospective review was done of 57 eyes of 48 patients with anisometropia or high astigmatism who were unable to wear glasses or a contact lens after penetrating keratoplasty and who underwent LASIK for visual rehabilitation. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and corneal transplant integrity were recorded before surgery as well as up to 60 months after LASIK. RESULTS: The mean follow-up after the LASIK was 21.4 +/- 14.2 months (range, 3-60 months). Mean preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) was -4.19 +/- 3.38 diopters (D). Mean preoperative astigmatism was 4.67 +/- 2.18 D. Preoperative BCVA was 20/40 or better in 42 eyes (74%). At 2 years the mean SE was -0.61 +/- 1.81 D and mean astigmatism was 1.94 +/- 1.35 D for the 28 eyes with follow-up. UCVA was 20/40 or better in 12 eyes (43%), and BCVA was 20/40 or better in 24 eyes (86%) at 2 years. A gain in BCVA of one line or more was seen in eight eyes (29%). Two eyes (7%) had loss of two or more lines of BCVA at 2 years. Nine eyes (16%) developed epithelial ingrowth. Five eyes (9%) in this series had repeat corneal transplants. CONCLUSIONS: LASIK is effective for reducing ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty. Proper patient counseling is necessary because the results of LASIK after penetrating keratoplasty are not as good as, and complications are more frequent than, in eyes with naturally occurring myopia and astigmatism. Complications are especially common in patients with mismatch of the donor and host cornea and in those with poor endothelial cell function.
To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) using wavefront (WF) guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms.
In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients), with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS) value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing.
Mean values for UDVA (logMAR) were −0.067 ± 0.087 and −0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909). UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000). In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012), coma increased 11% (P = 0.065), and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214), while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490). In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126), coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144), spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713) and trefoil decreased 19% (P = 0.660). One patient lost one line of CDVA secondary to residual irregular astigmatism.
Both the WaveLight Allegretto and the VISX CustomVue platforms had equal visual and safety outcomes. Most wavefront optimized HOA values trended upward, with a statistically significant increase in total HOA RMS. Eyes treated with the WF guided platform showed a decreasing trend in HOA values.
wavefront guided; wavefront optimized; laser in situ keratomileusis; LASIK; Allegretto; VISX
This study evaluated the visual quality after wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for treating myopia. Thirty-two eyes with moderate myopia (-5.78~-2.17D) and 25 eyes with high myopia (-7.78~-6.17D) were prospectively reviewed. The contrast sensitivity (CS), glare and the total higher order aberrations (HOA) were measured before and 1 week, 1 month and 2 months after LASIK. The pupil diameter was measured at day- and night-time illumination. The CS and glare at all spatial frequencies were not reduced after wavefront-guided LASIK (p<0.05) and the difference between the moderate and high myopia group was not significant. No significant correlation was found between the amounts of myopia and the postoperative CS (p>0.05). The area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) showed no correlation with the total HOA (r2=-0.071, p=0.612, between the daytime AULCSF and the total HOA with a 4 mm entrance pupil, r2=-0.176, p=0.260, between the nighttime AULCSF and the total HOA with a 6 mm entrance pupil). There was no decrease in CS and glare after wavefront-guided LASIK for myopia. In conclusion, wavefront-guided LASIK based on the individual ablation patterns is a good option for refractive surgery to improve the visual quality in both moderate and high myopia cases.
Contrast Sensitivity; High Order Aberration; Glare; Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ; Myopia; Wavefront
To compare changes in corneal hysteresis (CH) and the corneal resistance factor (CRF) in myopic and hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and evaluate their relationship with the number of photoablative pulses delivered, a surrogate for ablation volume.
Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Preoperative and 1-week postoperative Ocular Response Analyzer measurements in eyes that had femtosecond-assisted LASIK were studied retrospectively. Changes in CH and CRF were compared and tested for correlation with the number of excimer laser pulses.
Thirteen myopic eyes and 11 hyperopic eyes were evaluated. Preoperative corneal thickness, CH, CRF, programmed correction magnitude, flap thickness, and total number of fixed spot-size photoablative pulses were similar in the 2 groups (P>.1). Decreases in CH and CRF were greater after myopic LASIK than after hyperopic LASIK (P<.005), and changes in CRF were correlated with the number of excimer laser pulses in the myopic group only (r = −0.63, P = .02). Regardless of ablation profile, changes in CH were more strongly correlated with preoperative CH values than with attempted ablation volume.
With comparable flap thickness and attempted ablation volumes, myopic photoablation profiles were associated with greater decreases in CRF and CH than hyperopic profiles. Results indicate that preoperative corneal biomechanical status, ablation volume, and the spatial distribution of ablation are important factors that affect corneal resistance and viscous dissipative properties differently. Preferential tissue removal in the natively thicker paracentral cornea in hyperopia may partially account for the rarity of ectasia after hyperopic LASIK.
To evaluate the increase in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in adults with anisometropic amblyopia.
The medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with anisometropic amblyopia at the time of refractive evaluation who underwent LASIK were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with at least a two-line difference of visual acuity (VA) between the eyes with a spherical refractive error difference of at least 3.00 diopters (D) or an astigmatic difference of at least 2.00D were included. Patients with any other possible reason for amblyopia other than anisometropia or those who had undergone previous amblyopia treatment were excluded. Amblyopic eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism were considered as group 1, hypermetropia or hypermetropic astigmatism constituted group 2, and mixed astigmatism patients comprised group 3. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), subjective manifest refraction, and CDVA were analyzed at 1 week and 1 month, 3, and 6 months.
The study included 57 eyes of 57 patients. There were 33 eyes in group 1, 12 eyes in group 2, and 12 eyes in group 3. The preoperative mean values for spherical equivalent of subjective manifest refraction (SE) in groups 1, 2, and 3 were (-4.66±1.97)D, (4.40±1.00)D, and (0.15±1.05)D, respectively. Mean CDVA improved 0.1 log units (1 line LogMAR) at 6 months (P<0.05). Sixteen eyes (28%) exhibited an improvement in CDVA in week 1. Fourteen eyes (25%) experienced two or more lines of CDVA improvement at month 6. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of CDVA (P>0.05). Moreover, age, the amount of preoperative refractive error, and the levels of preoperative corrected and UDVA had no effect on postoperative CDVA improvement (P>0.05).
Correction of refractive errors with LASIK produced significant CDVA improvement in adult patients with anisometropic amblyopia and no previous amblyopia treatment.
amblyopia; laser in situ keratomileusis; refractive surgery; visual acuity
PURPOSE: To report a successful case management of a retinal tear post-Laser in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) and retreatment. RESULTS: A patient with the history of ocular trauma underwent LASIK procedure for myopic astigmatism. Three months post-LASIK, she received additional excimer laser treatment for a symptomatic persistent central island. One month later; the patient experienced a flap tear at the edge of a prior chorioretinal scar. Retinal tear repair was successfully accomplished by indirect application of photocoagulation laser without damage to the corneal flap. CONCLUSIONS: To date, no definitive causal relationship has been established between retinal tear(s) and corneal refractive surgery. This report describes a retinal tear and repair, post-LASIK retreatment. The use of the indirect binocular argon laser alleviates the need to compress the LASIK flap and minimizes the potential for creating flap folds and striae, especially in the early post operative period. Clinicians should be on alert to consider this possible complication, post-LASIK and excimer laser; especially within a population whose clinical findings place them at greater risk.
PURPOSE: To compare correction of low myopia by intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) and by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with respect to early visual recovery and refractive outcomes. METHODS: Eighty-two eyes implanted with ICRS in a phase III study for US Food and Drug Administration review were matched with 133 eyes treated with LASIK by criteria of age (> 18 years, < 65 years), preoperative myopia (-1.00 to -3.50 diopters [D]), astigmatism (< or = 1.00 D), single treatment, and attempted full correction. Examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at days 1 and 7 and months 1 and 3. Visual acuity and manifest refraction data were collected retrospectively. Visual function scores were assigned, and summarized results were compared. RESULTS: Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 or better at day 1 in 24% of eyes (20/82) after ICRS and in 55% of eyes (73/133) after LASIK, and at month 3 in 75% of eyes (58/77) after ICRS and in 67% of eyes (84/126) after LASIK. Spherical equivalent refraction at month 3 was within +/- 1.00 D of intended correction in 99% of eyes (76/77) after ICRS and in 96% of eyes (121/126) after LASIK. Excellent visual function scores were noted at month 3 in 90% of eyes (69/77) after ICRS and in 78% of eyes (98/126) after LASIK. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with LASIK showed better uncorrected visual acuity immediately following surgery; however, beyond 1 month, patients treated with ICRS achieved better uncorrected visual acuity that continued to improve with time. Visual function scores indicate that ICRS eyes see at higher levels of uncorrected visual acuity than LASIK eyes do with the same refractive error. The ICRS and LASIK were comparable in the correction of mild myopia.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term postoperative incidence of and key factors in the genesis of corneal ectasia after myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in a large number of cases.
A retrospective review of one surgeon’s myopic LASIK database was performed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on date of surgery, ie, group 1 (1313 eyes) from 1999 to 2001 and group 2 (2714 eyes) from 2001 to 2003. Visual acuity, refraction, pachymetry, and corneal topography data were available for each patient from examinations performed both before and after the refractive procedures.
Of the 4027 surgically treated eyes, 23 (0.57%) developed keratectasia during the follow-up period, which was a minimum seven years; nine eyes (0.69%) were from group 1 and 14 eyes (0.51%) were from group 2. The onset of corneal ectasia was at 2.57 ± 1.04 (range 1–4) years and 2.64 ± 1.29 (range 0.5–5) years, respectively, for groups 1 and 2. The most important preoperative risk factors using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System were manifest refractive spherical error in group 1 and a thin residual stromal bed in group 2. Each of the cases that developed corneal ectasia had risk factors that were identified.
Ectasia was an uncommon outcome after an otherwise uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis procedure. The variables present in eyes developing postoperative LASIK ectasia can be better understood using the Randleman Ectasia Risk Score System.
corneal topography; Ectasia Risk Score System; keratectasia; myopia; LASIK
To measure total corneal power using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Refractive surgery practices at 2 academic eye centers in Cleveland, Ohio, and Los Angeles, California, USA.
Thirty-two eyes of 17 patients having myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Manifest refraction, OCT, and Placido ring corneal topography with the Atlas 995 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) were performed preoperatively and 3 months after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). A high-speed (2000 axial scans/second) corneal and anterior segment OCT prototype was used. The total corneal power was calculated by summation of the anterior and posterior surface powers, and the value was compared with that determined by simulated keratometry. Two methods of measuring total corneal power were tested: the direct method, which used OCT to measure both corneal surfaces directly, and the hybrid method, which combined OCT with anterior corneal topography.
The repeatability (pooled standard deviation) of measuring total corneal power using the hybrid method was 3 times better than that using the direct method. It was 0.23 diopter (D) before LASIK and 0.26 D after LASIK. Preoperative total power was 1.13 D (2.6%) lower than the simulated keratometry. Compared to the LASIK-induced change in spherical equivalent refraction, the change in total corneal power was equivalent, while the change in simulated keratometry power was significantly smaller (-18.8%) (P<.001).
Keratometry using the traditional index of 1.3375 overestimated the total power in preoperative corneas and underestimated LASIK-induced refractive change. Measuring both corneal surfaces using a combination of OCT and Placido ring topography provided a better measure of total corneal power that closely tracked the refractive change in post-LASIK eyes.
The introduction of the excimer laser for keratorefractive surgery in the 1990s permanently reshaped the treatment landscape for correcting refractive errors, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Until that point, these treatments had relied on less predictable techniques, such as radial keratotomy and automated lamellar keratectomy. In recent years, other new technologies, along with increased understanding of the basic science of refractive errors, higher-order aberrations, biomechanics, and the biology of corneal wound healing, have allowed for a reduction in the surgical complications of keratorefractive surgery. Novel technologies, such as eye tracking, anterior segment imaging, the femtosecond laser, and asphericity-optimized and wavefront-guided custom laser in situ keratomileusis, have assisted refractive surgeons in achieving greater predictability of their laser vision correction procedures. Understanding the cascade of events involved in the corneal wound healing process and examination of how corneal wound healing influences corneal biomechanics and optics are crucial to improve the efficacy and safety of laser vision correction.
angiogenesis; corneal wound healing; laser vision correction; metalloproteinases; refractive outcomes
The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgically-induced astigmatism after spherical ablation in photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia with astigmatism < 1.00 D.
The charts of patients undergoing spherical PRK or LASIK for the correction of myopia with minimal astigmatism of <1.00 D from 2002 to 2012 at the John A Moran Eye Center in Salt Lake City, UT, were retrospectively reviewed. Astigmatism was measured by manifest refraction. The final astigmatic refractive outcome at 6 months postoperatively was compared with the initial refraction by Alpins vector analysis.
For PRK, average cylinder increased from 0.39 ± 0.25 (0.00–0.75) preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.48 (0.00–1.75) postoperatively (P = 0.014), compared with an increase in LASIK eyes from 0.40 ± 0.27 (0.00–0.75) preoperatively to 0.52 ± 0.45 (0.00–2.00) postoperatively (P = 0.041). PRK eyes experienced an absolute value change in cylinder of 0.41 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.50) and LASIK eyes experienced a change of 0.41 ± 0.31 (0.00–1.50, P = 0.955). Mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.59 ± 0.35 (0.00–1.70) in PRK eyes, with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.44 D for each additional 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder; in LASIK eyes, mean surgically-induced astigmatism was 0.55 ± 0.32 (0.00–1.80, P = 0.482), with an increase in surgically-induced astigmatism of 0.29 D for each 1.00 D of preoperative cylinder.
Spherical ablation can induce substantial astigmatism even in eyes with less than one diopter of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK. No significant difference in the magnitude of surgically-induced astigmatism was found between eyes treated with PRK and LASIK, although surgically-induced astigmatism was found to increase with greater levels of preoperative astigmatism in both PRK and LASIK.
surgically-induced astigmatism; ablation; photorefractive keratectomy; laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
To compare corneal high-order aberrations and visual acuity after LASIK with the flap created by a femtosecond laser (bladeless) to LASIK with the flap created by a mechanical microkeratome.
Prospective, randomized, paired-eye study.
Fellow eyes of 21 patients with myopia or myopic astigmatism were randomized by ocular dominance. Corneal topography and visual acuity were measured before and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months after LASIK. Wavefront errors from the anterior corneal surface were calculated from the topography data over 4- and 6-mm-dimater pupils and decomposed into Zernike polynomials to the 6th order.
There were no differences in corneal total high-order aberrations, spherical aberration, coma or trefoil between methods of flap creation at any examination over 4-and 6-mm-diameter pupils. Over a 6 mm pupil, total high-order aberrations increased by 1 month after LASIK with both treatments (p≤0.001) and remained increased through 36 months (p≤0.001). Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity did not differ between methods at any examination and remained stable postoperatively through 3 years; the minimum detectable difference in visual acuity between treatments was ≤0.1 logMAR (≤1 line of vision, α=0.05/6, β=0.20, n=21).
The planar configuration of the femtosecond laser flap did not offer any advantage in corneal high-order aberrations or visual acuity through 3 years after LASIK. Corneal high-order aberrations remain stable through 3 ears after LASIK.
To evaluate the astigmatic correcting effect of paired opposite clear corneal incisions (OCCIs) on the steep axis in patients with residual astigmatism after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-one eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 28.4 years ±2.46 (range, 19-36 years) were recruited for the study. Inclusion criteria included residual astigmatism of ≥1.5 diopter (D) after LASIK with inadequate residual stromal bed thickness that precluded ablation. The cohort was divided into two groups; group I (with astigmatism ranging from -1.5 D to -2.5 D) and group II (with astigmatism > -2.5 D). The steep axis was marked prior to surgery. Paired three-step self-sealing opposite clear corneal incisions were performed 1-mm anterior to the limbus on the steep axis with 3.2-mm keratome for group I and 4.1 mm for group II. Patients were examined 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, postoperatively. Visual acuity, refraction, keratometry, and corneal topography were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Analysis of the difference between groups was performed with the Student t-test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The mean uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) improved from 0.35±0.13 (range, 0.1-0.6) to 0.78±0.19 (range, 0.5-1) in group I and from 0.26±0.19 (range, 0.1-0.5) to 0.7±0.18 (range, 0.4-1) in group II. The increase in UCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P=0.001, both cases). The mean preoperative and postoperative keratometric astigmatism in group I was 2.0±0.48 D (range, 1.5-2.5 D) and 0.8±0.37 D (range, 0.1-1.4 D), respectively. The decrease in keratometric astigmatism was highly statistically significant in group II (P=0.001.). Mean surgically induced astigmatic reduction by vector analysis was 1.47±0.85 D and 2.21±0.97 D in groups I and II respectively. There were no incision-related complications.
Paired OCCIs were predictable and effective in correcting post-LASIK astigmatism and required no extra surgical skill or expensive instruments. OCCIs are especially useful in eyes with insufficient corneal thickness for LASIK retreatment.
Clear Corneal Incisions; Post-Laser In Situ Keratomileusis astigmatism
Aim: To assess the safety and predictability of photorefractive keratotomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) based on preoperative corneal topography.
Methods: A non-randomised comparative study was carried out on 84 eyes that presented with topographic abnormalities before undergoing PRK (n = 44) or LASIK (n = 40) procedures. 84 spherical equivalent paired normal eyes served as the control group. Either PRK or LASIK procedures were performed on 168 eyes using the Summit apex plus excimer laser. Topographic abnormalities, including apex displacement (AD), increased asphericity (AS), meridional irregularity (MI), increased inferior-superior asymmetry (IS), increased curvature (CU), and combined features (CO), were assessed preoperatively using the EyeSys analysis system. Safety and predictability of the two procedures were defined as a postoperative visual acuity of 20/40 or better and the loss of one or more lines of spectacle corrected visual acuity (SCVA).
Results: All patients were followed for 6 months. There was a significant loss of best corrected visual acuity in the PRK-AD (p<0.001), PRK-CO (p<0.05), and LASIK-AS (p<0.001) patients. The number of eyes within plus or minus 1.0D of the surgical plan postoperatively was similar in all groups.
Conclusion: These data suggest that although predictability was similar, PRK and LASIK performed in corneas with topographic abnormalities might cause loss of vision.
photorefractive keratotomy; LASIK; corneal topography
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) to prevent the progression of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) corneal ectasia.
In a prospective, nonrandomized, single-centre study, CXL was performed in 20 eyes of 11 patients who had LASIK for myopic astigmatism and subsequently developed keratectasia.The procedure included instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-20% dextrane solution 30 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for an additional 30 minutes during irradiation. The eyes were evaluated preoperatively and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The complete ophthalmologic examination comprised uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell count, ultrasound pachymetry, corneal topography, and in vivo confocal microscopy.
CXL appeared to stabilise or partially reverse the progression of post-LASIK corneal ectasia without apparent complication in our cohort. UCVA and BCVA improvements were statistically significant(P<0.05) beyond 12 months after surgery (improvement of 0.07 and 0.13 logMAR at 1 year, respectively). Mean baseline flattest meridian keratometry and mean steepest meridian keratometry reduction (improvement of 2.00 and 1.50 diopters(D), respectively) were statistically significant (P<0.05) at 12 months postoperatively. At 1 year after CXL, mean endothelial cell count did not deteriorate. Mean thinnest cornea pachymetry increased significantly.
The results of the study showed a long-term stability of post-LASIK corneal ectasia after crosslinking without relevant side effects. It seems to be a safe and promising procedure to stop the progression of post-LASIK keratectasia, thereby avoiding or delaying keratoplasty.
crosslinking; keratoconus; ultraviolet; cornea; ectasia; laser in situ keratomileusis