We present a rare variant of prostate carcinoma. The patient is a 45-year-old male with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels at screening. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperenhancing lesions throughout the axial skeleton. The fluorine-18 fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed no abnormal bone findings. Subsequently, a technetium-99 methydiphosphonate (Tc99m-MDP) bone scan was performed, with additional correlative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging of the pelvis and the results were essentially normal. A percutaneous core biopsy of one of the bone lesions in L5 was performed and histology confirmed small cell (neuroendocrine) variant of prostate cancer. Our case illustrates a possible pitfall in molecular imaging of prostate carcinomas, whereby both bone scintigraphy and FCH PET/CT scans showed no definite bone lesions to correlate with marrow signal abnormalities seen on MR imaging. This highlights the need for caution in the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancers with known small cell variants.
Fluorocholine; positron emission tomography; prostate carcinoma; small cell cancer
To examine the effects of chemotherapy on circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) composition in relation to investigational whole-body measurement of tumor activity by fluorine-18 fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
Serial FCH PET/CT scans were performed in eight patients with HRPC receiving docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Corresponding serial cfDNA samples were characterized by microfluidic electrophoresis, quantified by real-time PCR, and compared with PET/CT results. Promoter methylation of two prostate cancer-associated genes, GSTP1 and RARB2, was assessed by methylation-specific PCR of bisulfite-converted cfDNA.
Plasma cfDNA concentrations increased significantly from 13.3 ng/mL at baseline to 46.8 ng/mL and 50.9 ng/mL after one and three treatment cycles, respectively (p= 0.001). GSTP1 and/or RARB2 promoter methylation was identified in all pretreatment samples. The appearance of large (200 bp–10.4 kb) cfDNA fragments was noted in posttreatment samples along with loss of methylation at GSTP1 and/or RARB2. Tumor activity on PET/CT correlated with cfDNA concentration (r=−0.50, p= 0.01). Patients meeting criteria for PET tumor response had significantly lower pretreatment cfDNA levels than those who did not (8.0 vs. 16.4 ng/mL, p= 0.03).
Chemotherapy is associated with significant changes in plasma cfDNA content and FCH PET/CT-detected tumor activity. These interrelated measures are potential candidate markers of therapeutic response in HRPC. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume #: 1–6
prostate cancer; nucleic acids; epigenetics; positron emission tomography
Physicians often order periodic bone scans (BS) to check for metastases in patients with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA; biochemical recurrence [BCR]) after radical prostatectomy (RP), but most scans are negative. We studied patient characteristics to build a predictive model for a positive scan.
Patients and Methods
From our prostate cancer database we identified all patients with detectable PSA after RP. We analyzed the following features at the time of each bone scan for association with a positive BS: preoperative PSA, time to BCR, pathologic findings of the RP, PSA before the BS (trigger PSA), PSA kinetics (PSA doubling time, PSA slope, and PSA velocity), and time from BCR to BS. The results were incorporated into a predictive model.
There were 414 BS performed in 239 patients with BCR and no history of androgen deprivation therapy. Only 60 (14.5%) were positive for metastases. In univariate analysis, preoperative PSA (P = .04), seminal vesicle invasion (P = .02), PSA velocity (P < .001), and trigger PSA (P < .001) predicted a positive BS. In multivariate analysis, only PSA slope (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; P = .03), PSA velocity (OR, 0.93; P = .003), and trigger PSA (OR, 1.022; P < .001) predicted a positive BS. A nomogram for predicting the bone scan result was constructed with an overfit-corrected concordance index of 0.93.
Trigger PSA, PSA velocity, and slope were associated with a positive BS. A highly discriminating nomogram can be used to select patients according to their risk for a positive scan. Omitting scans in low-risk patients could reduce substantially the number of scans ordered.
To determine whether higher intensity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) surveillance was associated with earlier detection of biochemical recurrence (BCR) or survival.
Patients and Methods
We identified a population-based cohort of 832 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between January 1, 1995, and July 31, 2006. These men were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy or external beam radiation therapy (RT), or primary androgen deprivation therapy or chose watchful waiting. To test the associations of intensity in PSA surveillance with study outcomes, we used a 2-year landmark analysis to assess whether the number of PSA tests during the first 2 years after treatment was associated with earlier detection of BCR, prostate cancer–related mortality, and all-cause mortality. We used landmark analysis to assess the association of PSA intensity, adjusting for clinicopathologic covariate, with outcome.
Median follow-up time for the entire cohort was 6.7 years. Higher Gleason score was the only clinicopathologic variable associated with higher PSA frequency in multivariable analysis for both the RP and RT groups (P value of .001 and .05, respectively). After adjustment for other covariates, the frequency of PSA tests during the first 2 years after RP did not increase the ability to detect BCR (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.19) or all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.30) in the landmark analysis.
Higher intensity of PSA surveillance during the 2 years after RP or RT did not improve earlier detection of BCR or survival. Evidence-based guidelines for PSA surveillance after primary treatment are needed.
ACM, all-cause mortality; ADT, androgen deprivation therapy; BCR, biochemical recurrence; HR, hazard ratio; PCSM, prostate cancer–specific mortality; PSA, prostatic-specific antigen; RP, radical prostatectomy; RT, radiation therapy; WW, watchful waiting
The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value adjusted for total tumor volume (PSA/tumor volume) and serum PSA value adjusted for non-cancerous prostate tissue volume (NCPV) (PSA/NCPV) as a predictor of pathological findings and clinical outcome after radical prostatectomy. Clinical and pathological data of 407 patients (median age: 66.5 years; range: 41.8–85.7 years) were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up period was 18.1 months (range: 1.0–107.8 months). Biochemical recurrence was defined as detectable PSA levels (greater than 0.2 ng ml−1) and the time of biochemical recurrence was taken to be the first time PSA became detectable. In the multivariate model, PSA/NCPV was an independent predictor of extracapsular extension and positive surgical margin (P<0.05), but PSA/tumor volume was not. Kaplan–Meier curves revealed that PSA/NCPV correlated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (P<0.001; log-rank test) but PSA/tumor volume did not (P=0.275; log-rank test). PSA/NCPV was also a significant independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence-free survival on multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (P=0.004, relative risk=2.42). Our findings suggest that PSA/NCPV is associated independently with extracapsular extension and surgical margin status and may be an independent prognostic variable of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
prostatectomy; prostatic neoplasm; PSA; treatment outcome; tumor volume
Tumour density (TD) may be an independent prognostic factor in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between prostate cancer TD and recurrence following radical prostatectomy.
Materials and Methods:
Between 1995 and 2007, 645 patients from The Ottawa Hospital or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center who had cancer and prostate volumes measured from radical prostatectomy specimens. Tumour density was defined as the relative tumour to prostate volume (tumour volume/prostate volume) and recurrence was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >0.2 ng/mL and rising, or postoperative use of radiation or hormonal therapy. Associations between TD and recurrence are adjusted for preoperative PSA, prostatectomy Gleason sum, tumour stage and margin status.
Median follow-up was 40.8 months. Tumour density was associated with preoperative PSA, Gleason sum, tumour stage and surgical margin status (all p < 0.0001). As a continuous variable, TD predicted recurrence-free survival (adjusted HR 1.34 per 10% increase in TD; p = 0.04). As a categorical variable, the group of patients with a TD of >10% had a 2.7 times greater hazard of recurrence compared to patients with a TD <5% (95%CI 1.41, 5.19; p = 0.003). Despite the independent association between TD and recurrence, the clinical value of TD remains in question as the discriminative performance (area under the curve) of predictive models only improved from 0.865 to 0.876.
Prostate cancer TD is associated with known prognostic factors and is also independently predictive of recurrence following radical prostatectomy.
To describe treatment options for clinically localized prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy, external beam radiation, and active surveillance.
Quality of evidence
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) outcomes presented are from non-randomized, cohort, and other comparisons trials (level II evidence). We describe PSA outcomes from Canadian centres when they are available. One small randomized controlled trial (level I evidence) in localized prostate cancer is available to compare radical prostatectomy with brachytherapy.
Treatment choice in prostate cancer is based on initial PSA level, clinical stage of disease, and Gleason score, together with baseline urinary function, comorbidities, and patient age. In this article, we describe patients’ eligibility for and the common side effects of all treatment options. Prostate brachytherapy and active surveillance have evolved as new standard treatments of localized prostate cancer. We give a brief overview of the brachytherapy procedure, side effects, and PSA outcomes across Canada, as well as active surveillance guidelines.
Prostate cancer treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with input from both urology and radiation oncology. Input from family physicians is often as important in helping guide patients through the treatment decision process.
We assessed the role of urinary prostate-specific antigen (uPSA) in the follow-up of prostate cancer after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) for the early detection of local recurrences.
We recruited 50 patients previously treated for prostate cancer with RRP and who had not experienced a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence within their first postoperative year into a cross-sectional laboratory assessment and prospective 6-year longitudinal follow-up study. We defined biochemical failure as a serum PSA (sPSA) of 0.3 μg/L or greater. Patients provided blood samples and a 50-mL sample of first-voided urine. We performed Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests for statistical analysis.
The median sPSA was 0.13 μg/L. The median uPSA was 0.8 μg/L, and was not significantly different when comparing Gleason scores or pathological stages. Of the 50 patients, 27 initially had a nondetectable sPSA but a detectable uPSA, and 11 patients experienced sPSA failure after 6 years. Six patients had detectable sPSA and uPSA initially. Fifteen patients were negative for both sPSA and uPSA, and 13 remained sPSA-free after 6 years. The odds ratio (OR) of having sPSA failure given a positive uPSA test was 4.5 if sPSA was undetectable, but was reduced to 2.6 if sPSA was detectable. The pooled Mantel–Haenszel OR of 4.2 suggested that a detectable uPSA quadrupled the risk of recurrence, independent of whether sPSA was elevated or not. The sensitivity of uPSA for detecting future sPSA recurrences was 81% and specificity was 45%.
Urinary PSA could contribute to an early detection of local recurrences of prostate cancer after a radical prostatectomy.
This was an exploratory analysis of a trial of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) in men with biochemical relapse (BR) to establish first cycle characteristics prognostic for progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and death.
Patients and Methods
Men with BR of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation (RT) were treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) comprised of leuprolide and flutamide. After 9 months on treatment, ADT was stopped, and monthly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were observed during the off-treatment interval. When the PSA reached a threshold value (1 ng/mL for RP, 4 ng/mL for RT), ADT was resumed in a new cycle. Patients were treated intermittently in this manner until CRPC, which was defined as ≥ two consecutive increasing PSA values while on ADT with castrate testosterone levels.
Seventy-two of 100 patients enrolled onto the study met criteria for this analysis. The duration of the first off-treatment interval (≤ v > 40 weeks) was associated with shorter time to CRPC (hazard ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 7.7; P = .03) and death (hazard ratio = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 13.6; P = .04) after adjusting for age, stage, grade, and PSA at diagnosis.
In patients who completed the first cycle of IAD, a duration of the first off-treatment interval of ≤ 40 weeks defines a subset of patients at higher risk of CRPC and death. Conversely, patients with an off-treatment interval of more than 40 weeks have a significantly better long-term prognosis.
We have developed an integrated, multidisciplinary methodology, termed systems pathology, to generate highly accurate predictive tools for complex diseases, using prostate cancer for the prototype. To predict the recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy, defined by rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), we used machine learning to develop a model based on clinicopathologic variables, histologic tumor characteristics, and cell type–specific quantification of biomarkers. The initial study was based on a cohort of 323 patients and identified that high levels of the androgen receptor, as detected by immunohistochemistry, were associated with a reduced time to PSA recurrence. The model predicted recurrence with high accuracy, as indicated by a concordance index in the validation set of 0.82, sensitivity of 96%, and specificity of 72%. We extended this approach, employing quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence, on an expanded cohort of 682 patients. The model again predicted PSA recurrence with high accuracy, concordance index being 0.77, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 72%. The androgen receptor was selected, along with 5 clinicopathologic features (seminal vesicle invasion, biopsy Gleason score, extracapsular extension, preoperative PSA, and dominant prostatectomy Gleason grade) as well as 2 histologic features (texture of epithelial nuclei and cytoplasm in tumor only regions). This robust platform has broad applications in patient diagnosis, treatment management, and prognostication.
A progressively rising level of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP) invariably indicates the recurrence of prostate cancer. The optimal management of patients with post-RP PSA relapse has remained uncertain due to a wide variability in the natural course of post-RP PSA relapse and the inability to separate a recurrent disease confined to the prostate bed from that with occult distant metastasis. Management uncertainty is further compounded by the lack of phase III clinical studies demonstrating which therapeutic approach, if any, would prolong life with no significant morbidity. Radiotherapy has been the main therapeutic modality with a curative potential for patients with post-RP PSA relapse. This review article depicts issues and challenges in the management of patients with post-RP PSA relapse, presents the literature data for the efficacy of salvage radiotherapy, either alone or in combination of androgen ablation therapy, and discusses future directions that can optimize treatment strategies.
Salvage radiotherapy; PSA relapse; Post radical prostatectomy
 Fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG-PET) is commonly used to assess response to patients treated with radiation (RT) or Chemotherapy and RT (CRT). The intent of this pilot study is to explore whether FCH-PET can serve as an early predictive biomarker for early detection of RT/CRT response.
Fourteen patients have been accrued and analyzed. The lesions were base of tongue, tonsil, nodes, hypopharynx, maxilla, palate, lung, pancreas, brain, uterine and rectal. There were 16 lesions that were considered target lesion and were followed for correlation between change in FCH-PET SUVmax readings and clinical outcome. Median tumor size was 4.4 cm. Median RT dose was 66Gy. The change in SUVmax (Δ SUVmax) of FCH-PET scans performed before and during RT was correlated with clinical outcome at the last follow-up.
The median FCH-PET SUVmax for the 1st and 2nd scans was 6.15 and 4.65 respectively. Fourteen (87.5%) lesions showed a reduction in SUVmax in either a CR/PR (complete/partial response) and 2 lesions showed an increase in SUVmax both of which were determined to be NR. The median percentage change between the 1st and 2nd scan was −19.5%. Forty-four percent lesions (7/16) had CR, 44% (7/16) had PR and 12% (2/16) had NR (No response). Median follow-up was 12 months. The results showed a difference between NR and PR, between NR and CR, showed a trend towards significance (p=0.06).
FCH-PET scan demonstrated changes in SUVmax during RT that were predictive of final outcome
Choline; PET; Radiation; response; FDG
To assess the influence of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline (18 F-FCH) PET/CT in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with a high-risk for lymph node (LN) involvement.
Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients underwent a pelvic SPECT acquisition following a transrectal ultrasound guided injection of 99mTc-Nanocoll into the prostate. In all patients but one an 18 F-FCH PET/CT for RT treatment planning was performed. SPECT studies were coregistered with the respective abdominal CTs. Pelvic SNs localized on SPECT/CT and LN metastases detected by 18 F-FCH PET/CT were compared to standard pelvic clinical target volumes (CTV).
A total of 104 pelvic SNs were identified on SPECT/CT (mean 5.2 SNs/patient; range 1–10). Twenty-seven SNs were located outside the standard pelvic CTV, 17 in the proximal common iliac and retroperitoneal regions above S1, 9 in the pararectal fat and 1 in the inguinal region. SPECT/CT succeeded to optimize the definition of the CTV and treatment plans in 6/20 patients due to the presence of pararectal SNs located outside the standard treatment volume. 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified abnormal tracer uptake in the iliac LN region in 2/19 patients. These abnormal LNs were negative on SPECT/CT suggesting a potential blockade of lymphatic drainage by metastatic LNs with a high tumour burden.
Multimodality imaging which combines SPECT/CT prostate lymphoscintigraphy and 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified SNs outside standard pelvic CTVs or highly suspicious pelvic LNs in 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients, highlighting the potential impact of this approach in RT treatment planning.
Prostate cancer; Radiotherapy; SPECT; Sentinel node; 18 F-choline PET/CT
[-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (2pPSA), a proform of PSA, is a new marker in patients at risk of prostate cancer. We explored the potential role of 2pPSA in the identification of patients with metastatic progression following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Seventy-six patients with biochemical (PSA) recurrence following radical prostatectomy were studied retrospectively. Diagnostic imaging performed at the time of biochemical recurrence confirmed metastatic disease in 31 of the 76 patients. Serum samples were collected and stored at the time of imaging-confirmed metastatic progression or at the most recent procedure for patients with negative imaging. Median values of PSA, free PSA (fPSA), %fPSA, 2pPSA and prostate health index (PHI) were compared between metastatic and non-metastatic patients by the Mann-Whitney U test. The results of each test were then correlated with metastatic status by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. PSA, fPSA, %fPSA, 2pPSA serum concentrations and PHI values were statistically significantly higher in patients with metastatic disease. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that 2pPSA remained a statistically significant predictor of imaging-proven metastatic prostate cancer among patients with biochemical recurrence. At a cut-off value of 12.25 pg/ml, 2pPSA outperformed the other markers in terms of sensitivity and specificity (97 and 80%, respectively) with respect to imaging-confirmed metastatic progression. This is the first study suggesting that 2pPSA predicts diagnostic imaging-proven metastatic disease in previously resected prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence. Our results merit validation in a prospective study.
prostate cancer; cancer metastasis; biochemical recurrence; [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen
An increasing serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is the initial sign of recurrent prostate cancer among patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Salvage radiation therapy (SRT) may eradicate locally recurrent cancer, but studies to distinguish local from systemic recurrence lack adequate sensitivity and specificity. We developed a nomogram to predict the probability of cancer control at 6 years after SRT for PSA-defined recurrence.
Patients and Methods
Using multivariable Cox regression analysis, we constructed a model to predict the probability of disease progression after SRT in a multi-institutional cohort of 1,540 patients.
The 6-year progression-free probability was 32% (95% CI, 28% to 35%) overall. Forty-eight percent (95% CI, 40% to 56%) of patients treated with SRT alone at PSA levels of 0.50 ng/mL or lower were disease free at 6 years, including 41% (95% CI, 31% to 51%) who also had a PSA doubling time of 10 months or less or poorly differentiated (Gleason grade 8 to 10) cancer. Significant variables in the model were PSA level before SRT (P < .001), prostatectomy Gleason grade (P < .001), PSA doubling time (P < .001), surgical margins (P < .001), androgen-deprivation therapy before or during SRT (P < .001), and lymph node metastasis (P = .019). The resultant nomogram was internally validated and had a concordance index of 0.69.
Nearly half of patients with recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy have a long-term PSA response to SRT when treatment is administered at the earliest sign of recurrence. The nomogram we developed predicts the outcome of SRT and should prove valuable for medical decision making for patients with a rising PSA level.
Clinically localized prostate cancer is typically managed by well established therapies like radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, and external beam radiation therapy. While many patients can be cured with definitive local therapy, some will have biochemical recurrence (BCR) of disease detected by a rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Management of these patients is nuanced and controversial. The natural history indicates that a majority of patients with BCR will not die from prostate cancer but from other causes. Despite this, a vast majority of patients with BCR are empirically treated with non-curable systemic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), with its myriad of real and potential side effects. In this review article, we examined the very definition of BCR after definitive local therapy, the current status of imaging studies in its evaluation, the need for additional therapies, and the factors involved in the decision making in the choice of additional therapies. This review aims to help clinicians with the management of patients with BCR. The assessment of prognostic factors including absolute PSA level, time to recurrence, PSA kinetics, multivariable nomograms, imaging, and biopsy of the prostatic bed may help stratify the patients into localized or systemic recurrence. Patients with low-risk of systemic disease may be cured by a salvage local therapy, while those with higher risk of systemic disease may be offered the option of ADT or a clinical trial. An algorithm incorporating these factors is presented.
prostate cancer; radical prostatectomy; radiation therapy; biochemical recurrence; PSA recurrence; salvage
Radical prostatectomy and external beam radiation therapy are the established and definitive interventions for clinically localized prostate cancer. These treatment modalities are yet subject to failure observed first by biochemical recurrence, defined by increases in the serum PSA level. We investigated the significance of biochemical recurrence after definitive therapy and the available salvage therapy options for cancer recurrence.
A literature search was performed in PubMed, and applicable studies addressing biochemical recurrence and salvage options after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy were reviewed.
After radical prostatectomy, a detectable serum PSA level indicates biochemical recurrence. Whether to administer salvage therapy locally or systemically depends largely on prognostic factors including PSA doubling time, Gleason’s score, pathologic stage, and the time interval between radical prostatectomy and biochemical recurrence. Early initiation of salvage therapy has been shown to significantly impact on cancer outcomes.
After external beam radiation therapy, no single PSA level can define biochemical recurrence. Instead, it has been defined by increases in the PSA level above the nadir. Following radiation therapy, PSA doubling time and Gleason score play important roles in determining the need for local versus systemic salvage therapy.
After the diagnosis of biochemical recurrence, it is critical to perform a timely clinical assessment using the prognostic factors mentioned above. Prompt initiation of salvage therapy may prevent subsequent clinical progression and prostate cancer-specific mortality.
Prostate cancer; Radical prostatectomy; Radiation therapy; Biochemical recurrence; PSA recurrence; Salvage
Prostate cancer is the most common tumor in men. The most commonly used diagnostic and tumor recurrence marker is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). After surgical removal or radiation treatment, PSA levels drop (PSA nadir) and subsequent elevated or increased PSA levels are indicative of recurrent disease (PSA recurrence). For clinical follow-up and local care PSA nadir and recurrence is often hand calculated for patients, which can result in the application of heterogeneous criteria. For large datasets of prostate cancer patients used in clinical studies PSA measurements are used as surrogate measures of disease progression. In these datasets a method to measure PSA recurrence is needed for the subsequent analysis of outcomes data and as such need to be applied in a uniform and reproducible manner. This method needs to be simple and reproducible, and based on known aspects of PSA biology.
We have created a simple Perl-based algorithm for the calculation of post-treatment PSA outcomes results based on the initial PSA and multiple PSA values obtained after treatment. The algorithm tracks the post-surgical PSA nadir and if present, subsequent PSA recurrence. Times to PSA recurrence or recurrence free intervals are supplied in months.
Use of the algorithm is demonstrated with a sample dataset from prostate cancer patients. The results are compared with hand-annotated PSA recurrence analysis. The strengths and limitations are discussed.
The use of this simple PSA algorithm allows for the standardized analysis of PSA recurrence in large datasets of patients who have undergone treatment for prostate cancer. The script is freely available, and easily modifiable for desired user parameters and improvements.
We previously showed that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir after radical prostatectomy (RP) significantly predicts biochemical recurrence (BCR). Herein, we sought to explore the effect of including PSA nadir into commonly used models on their accuracy to predict BCR after RP.
This was a retrospective analysis of 943 and 1792 subjects from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) and Duke Prostate Cancer (DPC) databases, respectively. The discrimination accuracy for BCR of seven previously published models was assessed using concordance index and compared with and without adding PSA nadir level in SEARCH. Using data from SEARCH, we developed a new nomogram incorporating PSA nadir to other known predictors (preoperative PSA, pathological Gleason score, PSA nadir level, surgical findings, prostate weight, body mass index and race) of BCR and externally validated it in the DPC.
In SEARCH, the mean concordance index across all seven nomograms was 0.687. After the inclusion of PSA nadir, the concordance index increased by nearly 7% (mean = 0.753). The concordance index of the new nomogram in SEARCH was 0.779 (bias-corrected = 0.767), which was 5% better than the next best model. In DPC, the new nomogram yielded a concordance index of 0.778.
The addition of postoperative PSA nadir to commonly used nomograms increased their accuracies by nearly 7%. Based upon this, we developed and externally validated a new nomogram, which was well calibrated and highly accurate, and is a potentially valuable tool for patients and physicians to predict BCR after RP.
disease-free survival; nomograms; prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen; prostatectomy; validation studies
Among men treated with prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer, the state of an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is known as biochemical recurrence (BCR). BCR can be predictive of the development of subsequent distant metastases and ultimately death, but BCR often predates other signs of clinical progression by several years. Although patients may be concerned about their rising PSA levels, physicians attempting to address patient anxiety must inform them that BCR is not typically associated with imminent death from disease, and that the natural history of biochemical progression may be prolonged. Misinterpretation of the significance of early changes in PSA may cause patients to receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prematurely, especially in settings where the disease is unlikely to impact survival. In addition, knowledge of the morbidities associated with ADT (hot flashes, impotence, sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, bone loss, and increased risk of vascular disease) has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options for these patients. Clinical trials investigating when and how to best use and supplement hormonal therapies in this patient population are under way, as are trials of novel nonhormonal targeted agents, immunotherapies, natural products, and other pharmaceuticals that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for other indications. This review will summarize the acceptable standards of care for the management of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, and will also outline some novel experimental approaches for the treatment of this disease state.
Prostate cancer; biochemical recurrence; PSA recurrence
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) has emerged as the most applicable and important tumor marker for carcinoma prostate. In the present study PSA was determined in serum of healthy subjects, patients of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and Carcinoma Prostate (Ca−P) to evaluate its diagnostic efficiency in day to day management of prostate cancer patients and in differentiating patients of early prostate cancer from those with BPH. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) revealed 2 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml cut off serum PSA level for BPH and untreated carcinoma prostate patients (Ca−P). An extremely significant increase (P<0.0001) was observed in mean PSA concentration in BPH patients and adenocarcinoma prostate patients when compared to healthy males. Clinical relevance of PSA was highlighted by a case study of cancer patient prior to any therapy till death.
Total PSA; BPH; Carcinoma Prostate; long term case study
Often, a diagnosis of pT3 is made on the basis of radical retropubic prostatectomy specimens, despite a Gleason score of 6 on the preoperative prostate biopsy. Thus, we investigated the preoperative variables in patients displaying these characteristics.
Materials and Methods
Study subjects comprised patients at our institute from 1996 to July 2010 who had exhibited a Gleason score of 6 on their prostate biopsies and had undergone a radical retropubic prostatectomy. Through univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated pT3 predictive factors including age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-weighted prostate volume, digital rectal examination findings, bilaterality via prostate biopsy, prostatic cancer in prostate base cores via prostate biopsy, maximum length and percent of prostatic cancer, and number of cores detected in prostatic cancer via prostate biopsy.
In the univariate logistic regression mode, a PSA value of 7.4 ng/ml or higher, TRUS-weighted PSA density of 0.2 ng/ml/cc or higher, prostate cancer detected in the basal core, and prostate cancer detected in 2 or more cores out of 12 were predictive factors for extraprostatic extension. Independent predictive factors for stage pT3 were a PSA of 7.4 ng/ml or higher and prostate cancer detected in 2 or more cores out of 12.
In the case of patients with the foregoing risk factors, it is advisable not to perform nerve-sparing surgery but to prepare for the possibility of a pT3 stage.
Prostatectomy; Prostate-specific antigen; Prostatic neoplasms
Introduction. 11C-choline-PET/CT is a promising technique for detection/restaging of patients with biochemical failure (BF) after curative therapy for prostate cancer (PCA). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the PSA response in patients with BF after radical prostatectomy (RP) who underwent secondary lymphadenectomy (LAD) due to 11C-choline-PET/CT findings. Material and Methods. Eight patients with BF and positive lymph nodes in 11C-choline-PET/CT after RP were retrospectively included in the study. Extended LAD until the common iliac arteries was performed in all patients. Results. Six of 8 patients had histologically proven lymph node metastases. Four patients showed an initial PSA reduction after LAD, and in 4 patients the PSA increased. Two of the latter had no histological lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Because 50% of our patients showed an initial PSA response, our data suggest that positive 11C-choline-PET/CT after RP and BF could help to select patients that could benefit from secondary LAD.
The authors evaluated the long-term outcomes of men with prostate cancer and very high (≥50 ng/mL) preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values that were treated with radical prostatectomy.
This study included 236 men with preoperative serum PSA values ≥50 ng/mL who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between 1987 and 2004. For comparison, the study cohort was divided into 2 groups: patients with PSA levels between 50 and 99 ng/mL and patients with PSA levels ≥100 ng/mL. Biochemical recurrence was defined as a single postoperative serum PSA value of 0.4 ng/mL or greater. Systemic disease progression was defined as the development of a local recurrence or systemic metastases, and any death resulting from prostate cancer or its treatment was defined as a cancer-specific mortality.
Biochemical recurrence-free survival rates in the groups of patients with a PSA level 50 to 99 ng/mL and ≥100 ng/mL were 43% and 36% at 10 years, respectively. Systemic progression-free survival rates in the PSA 50 to 99 ng/mL and PSA ≥100 ng/mL groups were 83% and 74% at 10 years, respectively. Estimated overall cancer-specific survival was 87% at 10 years.
Patients with prostate cancer and a serum PSA level ≥50 ng/mL have very high-risk prostate cancer that carries a high likelihood of being pathologically advanced. Although the probability of realizing long-term survival in these high-risk patients is less than in patients with more favorable disease, 10-year survival outcomes remain excellent and argue for aggressive management of these cases.
androgen deprivation therapy; external beam radiotherapy; prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen; radical prostatectomy
Purpose of review
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in US men, and is most frequently diagnosed through prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening. Nevertheless, PSA testing has become increasingly controversial. In this review, we will present the evidence supporting the role of PSA in prostate cancer screening.
Numerous studies have shown that the risk of current and future prostate cancer is directly related to the serum PSA level. Moreover, increasing PSA levels predict a greater risk of adverse pathologic features and worse disease-specific survival. Substantial epidemiologic evidence has suggested a reduction in advanced disease and improvements in prostate cancer survival rates since the introduction of PSA-based screening. Recently, evidence from a randomized trial further validated that PSA testing reduces both metastatic disease and prostate cancer-specific mortality.
PSA is a valid marker for prostate cancer and its aggressiveness. Level 1 evidence is now available that PSA-based screening reduces both the rate of metastatic disease and prostate cancer-specific mortality.
prostate cancer; screening; prostate-specific antigen; detection