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1.  Consequence of the introduction of routine FCH PET/CT imaging for patients with prostate cancer: a dual centre survey 
Radiology and Oncology  2014;48(1):20-28.
Background
Fluorocholine(18F) (FCH) was introduced at the beginning of April 2010 in France, Slovenia and three other EU member states for the localisation of bone metastases of prostate cancer with PET. The aim of the study was to compare the evolution of diagnostic imaging in patients with prostate cancer using a new radiopharmaceutical FCH, observed in France and in Slovenia, and to quantify the consequence of the results of new imaging modality on the detection rate of abnormal metastases and recurrences of prostate cancer.
Patients and methods
In two centres (France/Slovenia), a survey of the number of nuclear medicine examinations in patients with prostate cancer was performed, covering 5 quarters of the year since the introduction of FCH. For each examination, the clinical and biological circumstances were recorded, as well as the detection of bone or soft tissue foci.
Results
Six hundred and eighty-eight nuclear medicine examinations were performed impatients with prostate cancer. Nuclear medicine examinations were performed for therapy monitoring and follow-up in 23% of cases. The number of FCH PET/CT grew rapidly between the 1st and 5th period of the observation (+220%), while the number of bone scintigraphies (BS) and fluoride(18F) PET/CTs decreased (−42% and −23% respectively). Fluorodeoxyglucose(18F) (FDG) PET/CT remained limited to few cases of castrate-resistant or metastatic prostate cancer in Paris. The proportion of negative results was significantly lower with FCH PET/CT (14%) than with BS (49%) or fluoride(18F) PET/CT (54%). For bone metastases, the detection rate was similar, but FCH PET/CT was performed on average at lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and was less frequently doubtful (4% vs. 28% for BS). FCH PET/CT also showed foci in prostatic bed (53% of cases) or in soft tissue (35% of cases).
Conclusions
A rapid development of FCH PET/CT was observed in both centres and led to a higher detection rate of prostate cancer lesions.
doi:10.2478/raon-2013-0049
PMCID: PMC3908843  PMID: 24587775
prostate cancer; PET/CT; fluorocholine (FCH); fluoride(18F); bone scintigraphy; indication of imaging
2.  Early outcome prediction on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone 
Oncotarget  2014;5(23):12448-12458.
Objective: We investigated the role of 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT) in the early evaluation of abiraterone and outcome prediction in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Patient and methods: Forty-three patients with metastatic CRPC progressing after docetaxel received abiraterone 1,000 mg daily with prednisone 5 mg twice daily. Patients were evaluated monthly for serological PSA response and safety. FCH-PET/CT was done at baseline and after 3 to 6 weeks. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models addressed potential predictors of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Results: Declines in PSA level of ≥50% were seen in 21 of 43 (49%) patients. Forty-two patients were evaluable for FCH-PET/CT response. FCH-PET/CT bone flare was observed in 4 of 42 (10%) evaluable patients. In univariate analysis, PSA decline and FCH-PET/CT response predicted PFS, while PSA decline and FCH-PET/CT (progression vs non progression) predicted OS. In multivariate analysis, only FCH-PET/CT (progression vs nonprogression) remained significant for PFS and OS (p = 0.022 and p = 0.027, respectively).
Conclusion: Early FCH-PET/CT can predict clinical outcome in CRPC beyond PSA response. These data support further studies on FCH-PET/CT for abiraterone monitoring and outcome prediction in patients with CRPC.
PMCID: PMC4322993  PMID: 25504434
Abiraterone; Castration-resistant prostate cancer; 18F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography; PSA; Bone flare
3.  Diagnostic role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in prostate cancer 
Oncology Letters  2014;7(6):2013-2018.
The role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) in prostate cancer remains controversial due to a limited number of previous clinical investigations. The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of FDG PET-CT in prostate cancer, with an emphasis on the detection of metastatic disease. Twenty-five relevant cases of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, referred for staging, or with a history of prostate cancer or recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) relapse, referred for the detection of metastatic disease, were included in the present study. None of the patients had known imaging or pathological evidence of metastatic disease prior to FDG PET-CT, however, the PSA levels had been recorded in all patients in the two months prior to FDG PET-CT imaging. Verification of the FDG PET-CT observations was made by biopsy, regional diagnostic CT and/or whole-body bone scintigraphy. The sensitivity of FDG PET-CT in identifying untreated primary lesions was only 33% (3/9). However, FDG PET-CT detected metastatic disease in six of the nine patients who underwent initial staging. Out of 16 patients with previous treatments and recent PSA relapse, FDG PET-CT successfully identified metastatic diseases in 12 and tumor recurrence within the prostatic fossa of two patients. The difference in the PSA levels was identified to be statistically significant between the FDG PET-CT-positive and -negative subgroups of the 16 restaging patients. The results indicated that FDG PET-CT is not useful for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, but may aid with the detection of metastatic disease in appropriately selected patients.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.1997
PMCID: PMC4049681  PMID: 24932281
fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography; metastasis; prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen
4.  Measurement of Circulating Cell-Free DNA in Relation to 18F-Fluorocholine PET/CT Imaging in Chemotherapy-Treated Advanced Prostate Cancer 
Abstract
Purpose:
To examine the effects of chemotherapy on circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) composition in relation to investigational whole-body measurement of tumor activity by fluorine-18 fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
Methods:
Serial FCH PET/CT scans were performed in eight patients with HRPC receiving docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Corresponding serial cfDNA samples were characterized by microfluidic electrophoresis, quantified by real-time PCR, and compared with PET/CT results. Promoter methylation of two prostate cancer-associated genes, GSTP1 and RARB2, was assessed by methylation-specific PCR of bisulfite-converted cfDNA.
Results:
Plasma cfDNA concentrations increased significantly from 13.3 ng/mL at baseline to 46.8 ng/mL and 50.9 ng/mL after one and three treatment cycles, respectively (p= 0.001). GSTP1 and/or RARB2 promoter methylation was identified in all pretreatment samples. The appearance of large (200 bp–10.4 kb) cfDNA fragments was noted in posttreatment samples along with loss of methylation at GSTP1 and/or RARB2. Tumor activity on PET/CT correlated with cfDNA concentration (r=−0.50, p= 0.01). Patients meeting criteria for PET tumor response had significantly lower pretreatment cfDNA levels than those who did not (8.0 vs. 16.4 ng/mL, p= 0.03).
Conclusions:
Chemotherapy is associated with significant changes in plasma cfDNA content and FCH PET/CT-detected tumor activity. These interrelated measures are potential candidate markers of therapeutic response in HRPC. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume #: 1–6
doi:10.1111/j.1752-8062.2011.00375.x
PMCID: PMC3500883  PMID: 22376260
prostate cancer; nucleic acids; epigenetics; positron emission tomography
5.  Prostate-Specific Antigen and Prostate-Specific Antigen Velocity as Threshold Indicators in 11C-Acetate PET/CTAC Scanning for Prostate Cancer Recurrence 
Clinical Nuclear Medicine  2014;39(9):777-783.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to identify which patient characteristics are associated with the highest likelihood of positive findings on 11C-acetate PET/computed tomography attenuation correction (CTAC) (PET/CTAC) scan when imaging for recurrent prostate cancer.
Methods
From 2007 to 2011, 250 11C-acetate PET/CTAC scans were performed at a single institution on patients with prostate cancer recurrence after surgery, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation. Of these patients, 120 met our inclusion criteria. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between predictability of positive findings and patients’ characteristics, such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at the time of scan, PSA kinetics, Gleason score, staging, and type of treatment before scan.
Results
In total, 68.3% of the 120 11C-acetate PET/CTAC scans were positive. The percentage of positive scans and PSA at the time of scanning and PSA velocity (PSAV) had positive correlations. The putative sensitivity and specificity were 86.6% and 65.8%, respectively, when a PSA level greater than 1.24 ng/mL was used as the threshold for scanning. The putative sensitivity and specificity were 74% and 75%, respectively, when a PSAV level greater than 1.32 ng/mL/y was used as the threshold. No significant associations were found between scan positivity and age, PSA doubling time, Gleason score, staging, or type of treatment before scanning.
Conclusions
This retrospective study suggests that threshold models of PSA greater than 1.24 ng/mL or PSAV greater than 1.32 ng/mL per year are independent predictors of positive findings in 11C-acetate PET/CTAC imaging of recurrent prostate cancer.
doi:10.1097/RLU.0000000000000516
PMCID: PMC4136979  PMID: 25036021
11C-acetate PET; prostate cancer recurrence; prostate cancer imaging; PSA; 11C-choline PET
6.  New Acquisition Protocol of 18F-Choline PET/CT in Prostate Cancer Patients: Review of the Literature about Methodology and Proposal of Standardization 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:215650.
Purpose. (1) To evaluate a new acquisition protocol of 18F-choline (FCH) PET/CT for prostate cancer patients (PC), (2) to review acquisition 18F-choline PET/CT methodology, and (3) to propose a standardized acquisition protocol on FCH PET/CT in PC patients. Materials. 100 consecutive PC patients (mean age 70.5 years, mean PSA 21.35 ng/mL) were prospectively evaluated. New protocol consisted of an early scan of the pelvis immediately after the injection of the tracer (1 bed position of 4 min) followed by a whole body scan at one 1 hour. Early and 1 hour images were compared for interfering activity and pathologic findings. Results. The overall detection rate of FCH PET/CT was 64%. The early static images of the pelvis showed absence of radioactive urine in ureters, bladder, or urethra which allowed a clean evaluation of the prostatic fossae. Uptake in the prostatic region was better visualized in the early phase in 26% (7/30) of cases. Other pelvic pathologic findings (bone and lymph nodes) were visualized in both early and late images. Conclusion. Early 18F-choline images improve visualization of abnormal uptake in prostate fossae. All pathologic pelvic deposits (prostate, lymph nodes, and bone) were visualized in both early and late images.
doi:10.1155/2014/215650
PMCID: PMC4119889  PMID: 25121090
7.  Incidental uptake of 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) in the head or in the neck of patients with prostate cancer 
Radiology and Oncology  2014;48(3):228-234.
Background
Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) is routinely performed in patients with prostate cancer. In this clinical context, foci of FCH uptake in the head or in the neck were considered as incidentalomas, except for those suggestive of multiple bone metastases.
Results
In 8 patients the incidental focus corresponded to a benign tumour. The standard of truth was histology in two cases, correlative imaging with MRI in four cases, 99mTc-SestaMIBI scintigraphy, ultrasonography and biochemistry in one case and biochemistry including PTH assay in one case. The final diagnosis of benign tumours consisted in 3 pituitary adenomas, 2 meningiomas, 2 hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands and 1 thyroid adenoma.
Malignancy was proven histologically in 2 other patients: 1 papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and 1 cerebellar metastasis.
Conclusions
To the best of our knowledge, FCH uptake by pituitary adenomas or hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands has never been described previously. We thus discuss whether there might be a future indication for FCH PET/CT when one such tumour is already known or suspected: to detect a residual or recurrent pituitary adenoma after surgery, to guide surgery or radiotherapy of a meningioma or to localise a hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland. In these potential indications, comparative studies with reference PET tracers or with 99mTc-sestaMIBI in case of hyperparathyroidism could be undertaken.
doi:10.2478/raon-2013-0075
PMCID: PMC4110078  PMID: 25177236
FCH, PET/CT; incidentaloma; meningioma; pituitary adenoma; hyperparathyroidism; thyroid adenoma
8.  False-Negative Bone Scan and Choline Pet/Ct Study in a Case of Prostate Cancer: The Pitfall of the Small Cell Prostate Carcinoma Variant 
We present a rare variant of prostate carcinoma. The patient is a 45-year-old male with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels at screening. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperenhancing lesions throughout the axial skeleton. The fluorine-18 fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed no abnormal bone findings. Subsequently, a technetium-99 methydiphosphonate (Tc99m-MDP) bone scan was performed, with additional correlative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging of the pelvis and the results were essentially normal. A percutaneous core biopsy of one of the bone lesions in L5 was performed and histology confirmed small cell (neuroendocrine) variant of prostate cancer. Our case illustrates a possible pitfall in molecular imaging of prostate carcinomas, whereby both bone scintigraphy and FCH PET/CT scans showed no definite bone lesions to correlate with marrow signal abnormalities seen on MR imaging. This highlights the need for caution in the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancers with known small cell variants.
doi:10.4103/1450-1147.103422
PMCID: PMC3555398  PMID: 23372441
Fluorocholine; positron emission tomography; prostate carcinoma; small cell cancer
9.  Cancer Screening: A Mathematical Model Relating Secreted Blood Biomarker Levels to Tumor Sizes  
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(8):e170.
Background
Increasing efforts and financial resources are being invested in early cancer detection research. Blood assays detecting tumor biomarkers promise noninvasive and financially reasonable screening for early cancer with high potential of positive impact on patients' survival and quality of life. For novel tumor biomarkers, the actual tumor detection limits are usually unknown and there have been no studies exploring the tumor burden detection limits of blood tumor biomarkers using mathematical models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model relating blood biomarker levels to tumor burden.
Methods and Findings
Using a linear one-compartment model, the steady state between tumor biomarker secretion into and removal out of the intravascular space was calculated. Two conditions were assumed: (1) the compartment (plasma) is well-mixed and kinetically homogenous; (2) the tumor biomarker consists of a protein that is secreted by tumor cells into the extracellular fluid compartment, and a certain percentage of the secreted protein enters the intravascular space at a continuous rate. The model was applied to two pathophysiologic conditions: tumor biomarker is secreted (1) exclusively by the tumor cells or (2) by both tumor cells and healthy normal cells. To test the model, a sensitivity analysis was performed assuming variable conditions of the model parameters. The model parameters were primed on the basis of literature data for two established and well-studied tumor biomarkers (CA125 and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]). Assuming biomarker secretion by tumor cells only and 10% of the secreted tumor biomarker reaching the plasma, the calculated minimally detectable tumor sizes ranged between 0.11 mm3 and 3,610.14 mm3 for CA125 and between 0.21 mm3 and 131.51 mm3 for PSA. When biomarker secretion by healthy cells and tumor cells was assumed, the calculated tumor sizes leading to positive test results ranged between 116.7 mm3 and 1.52 × 106 mm3 for CA125 and between 27 mm3 and 3.45 × 105 mm3 for PSA. One of the limitations of the study is the absence of quantitative data available in the literature on the secreted tumor biomarker amount per cancer cell in intact whole body animal tumor models or in cancer patients. Additionally, the fraction of secreted tumor biomarkers actually reaching the plasma is unknown. Therefore, we used data from published cell culture experiments to estimate tumor cell biomarker secretion rates and assumed a wide range of secretion rates to account for their potential changes due to field effects of the tumor environment.
Conclusions
This study introduced a linear one-compartment mathematical model that allows estimation of minimal detectable tumor sizes based on blood tumor biomarker assays. Assuming physiological data on CA125 and PSA from the literature, the model predicted detection limits of tumors that were in qualitative agreement with the actual clinical performance of both biomarkers. The model may be helpful in future estimation of minimal detectable tumor sizes for novel proteomic biomarker assays if sufficient physiologic data for the biomarker are available. The model may address the potential and limitations of tumor biomarkers, help prioritize biomarkers, and guide investments into early cancer detection research efforts.
Sanjiv Gambhir and colleagues describe a linear one-compartment mathematical model that allows estimation of minimal detectable tumor sizes based on blood tumor biomarker assays.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Cancers—disorganized masses of cells that can occur in any tissue—develop when cells acquire genetic changes that allow them to grow uncontrollably and to spread around the body (metastasize). If a cancer (tumor) is detected when it is small, surgery can often provide a cure. Unfortunately, many cancers (particularly those deep inside the body) are not detected until they are large enough to cause pain or other symptoms by pressing against surrounding tissue. By this time, it may be impossible to remove the original tumor surgically and there may be metastases scattered around the body. In such cases, radiotherapy and chemotherapy can sometimes help, but the outlook for patients whose cancers are detected late is often poor. Consequently, researchers are trying to develop early detection tests for different types of cancer. Many tumors release specific proteins—“cancer biomarkers”—into the blood and the hope is that it might be possible to find sets of blood biomarkers that detect cancers when they are still small and thus save many lives.
Why Was This Study Done?
For most biomarkers, it is not known how the amount of protein detected in the blood relates to tumor size or how sensitive the assays for biomarkers must be to improve patient survival. In this study, the researchers develop a “linear one-compartment” mathematical model to predict how large tumors need to be before blood biomarkers can be used to detect them and test this model using published data on two established cancer biomarkers—CA125 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). CA125 is used to monitor the progress of patients with ovarian cancer after treatment; ovarian cancer is rarely diagnosed in its early stages and only one-fourth of women with advanced disease survive for 5 y after diagnosis. PSA is used to screen for prostate cancer and has increased the detection of this cancer in its early stages when it is curable.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
To develop a model that relates secreted blood biomarker levels to tumor sizes, the researchers assumed that biomarkers mix evenly throughout the patient's blood, that cancer cells secrete biomarkers into the fluid that surrounds them, that 0.1%–20% of these secreted proteins enter the blood at a continuous rate, and that biomarkers are continuously removed from the blood. The researchers then used their model to calculate the smallest tumor sizes that might be detectable with these biomarkers by feeding in existing data on CA125 and on PSA, including assay detection limits and the biomarker secretion rates of cancer cells growing in dishes. When only tumor cells secreted the biomarker and 10% of the secreted biomarker reach the blood, the model predicted that ovarian tumors between 0.11 mm3 (smaller than a grain of salt) and nearly 4,000 mm3 (about the size of a cherry) would be detectable by measuring CA125 blood levels (the range was determined by varying the amount of biomarker secreted by the tumor cells and the assay sensitivity); for prostate cancer, the detectable tumor sizes ranged from similar lower size to about 130 mm3 (pea-sized). However, healthy cells often also secrete small quantities of cancer biomarkers. With this condition incorporated into the model, the estimated detectable tumor sizes (or total tumor burden including metastases) ranged between grape-sized and melon-sized for ovarian cancers and between pea-sized to about grapefruit-sized for prostate cancers.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The accuracy of the calculated tumor sizes provided by the researchers' mathematical model is limited by the lack of data on how tumors behave in the human body and by the many assumptions incorporated into the model. Nevertheless, the model predicts detection limits for ovarian and prostate cancer that broadly mirror the clinical performance of both biomarkers. Somewhat worryingly, the model also indicates that a tumor may have to be very large for blood biomarkers to reveal its presence, a result that could limit the clinical usefulness of biomarkers, especially if they are secreted not only by tumor cells but also by healthy cells. Given this finding, as more information about how biomarkers behave in the human body becomes available, this model (and more complex versions of it) should help researchers decide which biomarkers are likely to improve early cancer detection and patient outcomes.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050170.
The US National Cancer Institute provides a brief description of what cancer is and how it develops and a fact sheet on tumor markers; it also provides information on all aspects of ovarian and prostate cancer for patients and professionals, including information on screening and testing (in English and Spanish)
The UK charity Cancerbackup also provides general information about cancer and more specific information about ovarian and prostate cancer, including the use of CA125 and PSA for screening and follow-up
The American Society of Clinical Oncology offers a wide range of information on various cancer types, including online published articles on the current status of cancer diagnosis and management from the educational book developed by the annual meeting faculty and presenters. Registration is mandatory, but information is free
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050170
PMCID: PMC2517618  PMID: 18715113
10.  Prospective Evaluation of 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG PET/CT in Detection of Occult Metastatic Disease in Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer 
Clinical Nuclear Medicine  2012;37(7):637-643.
Purpose
This study aimed to perform a prospective evaluation of 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of occult metastatic disease in men with prostate cancer and biochemical relapse.
Methods
Thirty-seven men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse (median, 3.2 ng/mL; range, 0.5–40.2 ng/mL) after definitive therapy for localized prostate cancer [26 radical prostatectomy (RP), 11 external beam radiation therapy] and negative conventional imaging underwent 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET/CT on 2 separate days within the same week. Studies were interpreted by 2 experienced radiologists in consensus for abnormal uptake suspicious for metastatic disease. The reference standard was a combination of imaging and clinical follow-up. Rank of PSA values for positive and negative PET/CT was compared using analysis of variance adjusting for primary therapy. Association between PSA and scan positivity in patients with RP was evaluated using Wilcoxon rank sum test.
Results
Result of the 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was positive for nodal disease in 2 patients. True-positive detection rate for occult osseous metastases by 18F-NaF PET/CT was 16.2%. Median PSA levels for positive versus negative PET/CT scans were 4.4 and 2.9 ng/mL, respectively, with the difference marginally significant in prostatectomized men (P = 0.072). Percentages of patients with either 18F-NaF– or 18F-FDG–positive PET/CT in RP and external beam radiation therapy were 10% (n = 10) and undefined (n = 0) for a PSA of 2 ng/mL or less, 29% (n = 7) and 50% (n = 2) for PSA greater than 2 ng/mL but 4 ng/mL or less,60% (n = 5) and 40%(n = 5) for PSA greater than 4 ng/mL but 10 ng/mL or less, and 25% (n = 4) and 25% (n = 4) for PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, respectively.
Conclusions
In biochemical relapse of prostate cancer, 18F-NaF PET/CT is useful in the detection of occult osseous metastases, whereas the yield of 18F-FDG PET/CT is relatively limited. 18F-NaF PET/CT positivity tends to associate with increasing PSA level in prostatectomized men and may occur in lower PSA ranges than conventionally recognized.
doi:10.1097/RLU.0b013e318252d829
PMCID: PMC3375600  PMID: 22691503
18F-NaF; 18F-FDG; prostate; cancer; PSA
11.  Sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT regarding the detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer recurrence 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:340.
Background
The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of choline PET/CT regarding the detection of lymph node (LN) metastases in recurrent prostate cancer (PCa).
Methods
49 patients with a biochemical recurrence of PCa (PSA >0.2 ng/ml) were included in the study. All patients were selected for further diagnostics with a choline-PET/CT. All patients underwent salvage extended lymphadenectomy. The PET/CT result and the histological findings were analyzed regarding the specificity and sensitivity and with respect to the localization of the metastases. The detection rate of LN metastases was analyzed with respect to interdependencies between the pre-PET/CT PSA-value as well as the role of prior ADT.
Results
41 out of 49 (83.6%) patients showed positive PET/CT results. Positive LNs were found in 27 out of 49 patients (55.1%). 48.9% of the PET-CT-findings proved true positive, 36.7% were found to be false positive. 8.1% proved true negative and 8.1% false negative. This results in a specificity of 22.7% and a sensitivity of 85.1%. Out of the true positive PET/CT scans, 61.9% were not congruent regarding the localization of positive LNs. In patients with PSA [greater than or equal to] 5 ng/ml, the sensitivity of the PET/CT result was 93.7%, while specificity was 0%. In 24 patients who underwent ADT prior to the PET/CT diagnostics, the sensitivity was 84.6% and specificity 9.0%.
Conclusions
The reliability of PET/CT imaging for detection of LN metastases is limited by a high false-positive rate. The influence of ADT further diminishes the PET/CT reliability. Sensitivity of the PET/CT is highest in patients with a PSA of [greater than or equal to] 5 ng/ml. Based on our results, we propose the following conclusions: 1. There is no well-established diagnostic alternative to Choline-PET/CT Scan. Therefore this method may continue to be performed in patients with BCR. 2. It is not sufficient to remove only those LNs that show up in the PET/CT. 3. Salvage extended lymphadenectomy should follow a predefined template (e.g. the “Kiel template”) and not just the PET/CT scan results.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-340
PMCID: PMC4096858  PMID: 25045614
Prostate cancer recurrence; Detection of lymph node metastases; PET CT scan
12.  11C-Acetate PET/CT before Radical Prostatectomy: Nodal Staging and Treatment Failure Prediction 
Despite early detection programs, many patients with prostate cancer present with intermediate- or high-risk disease. We prospectively investigated whether 11C-acetate PET/CT predicts lymph-node (LN) metastasis and treatment failure in men planned for radical prostatectomy.
Methods
107 men with intermediate-or-high-risk localized prostate cancer with negative conventional imaging underwent PET/CT with 11C-acetate. Five underwent LN staging only and 102 LN staging and prostatectomy. PET/CT findings were correlated with pathologic nodal status. Treatment-failure-free survival (TFFS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. The ability of PET/CT to predict outcomes was evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis.
Results
PET/CT was positive for pelvic LN or distant metastasis in 36 of 107 patients (33.6%). LN metastasis was present histopathologically in 25 (23.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of PET/CT for detecting LN metastasis were 68.0%, 78.1%, 48.6% and 88.9% respectively. 64 patients failed: 25 with metastasis, 17 with persistent post-prostatectomy prostate specific antigen (PSA) >0.20 ng/mL, and 22 with biochemical recurrence (PSA >0.20 ng/mL after nadir) during follow-up for a median of 44.0 months. TFFS was worse in PET-positive than in PET-negative patients (p<0.0001) and in those with false-positive versus true-negative scans (p<0.01), suggesting that PET may have demonstrated nodal disease not removed surgically or identified pathologically. PET positivity independently predicted failure in preoperative (hazard ratio=3.26, p<0.0001) and postoperative (HR=3.07, p=0.0001) multivariate models.
Conclusion
In patients planned for or completing prostatectomy, 11C-acetate-PET/CT detects LN metastasis not identified by conventional imaging and independently predicts TTFS.
doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.111153
PMCID: PMC3787881  PMID: 23471311
prostatic cancer; PET; acetate; cancer staging; lymphatic metastasis
13.  The diagnostic value of PET/CT imaging with the 68Ga-labelled PSMA ligand HBED-CC in the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer 
Purpose
Since the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC (=68Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11), this method has been regarded as a significant step forward in the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). However, published data exist for small patient cohorts only. The aim of this evaluation was to analyse the diagnostic value of 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT in a large cohort and the influence of several possibly interacting variables.
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis in 319 patients who underwent 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT from 2011 to 2014. Potential influences of several factors such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and doubling time (DT), Gleason score (GSC), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), age and amount of injected tracer were evaluated. Histological verification was performed in 42 patients after the 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT. Tracer uptake was measured in 901 representative tumour lesions.
Results
In 82.8 % of the patients at least one lesion indicative of PCa was detected. Tumor-detection was positively associated with PSA level and ADT. GSC and PSA-DT were not associated with tumor-detection. The average maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of tumour lesions was 13.3 ± 14.6 (0.7–122.5). Amongst lesions investigated by histology, 30 were false-negative in 4 different patients, and all other lesions (n = 416) were true-positive or true-negative. A lesion-based analysis of sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) revealed values of 76.6 %, 100 %, 91.4 % and 100 %. A patient-based analysis revealed a sensitivity of 88.1 %. Of 116 patients available for follow-up, 50 received local therapy after 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT.
Conclusion
68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT can detect recurrent PCa in a high number of patients. In addition, the radiotracer is highly specific for PCa. Tumour detection is positively associated with PSA and ADT. 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT can help delay systemic therapy of PCa.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00259-014-2949-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00259-014-2949-6
PMCID: PMC4315487  PMID: 25411132
Prostate cancer; PET/CT; Positron emission tomography; PSMA; FMCH; FECH
14.  Serum prostate-specific antigen value adjusted for non-cancerous prostate tissue volume in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: a new predictor of biochemical recurrence in localized or locally advanced prostate cancer 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2010;13(2):248-253.
The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value adjusted for total tumor volume (PSA/tumor volume) and serum PSA value adjusted for non-cancerous prostate tissue volume (NCPV) (PSA/NCPV) as a predictor of pathological findings and clinical outcome after radical prostatectomy. Clinical and pathological data of 407 patients (median age: 66.5 years; range: 41.8–85.7 years) were reviewed retrospectively. The median follow-up period was 18.1 months (range: 1.0–107.8 months). Biochemical recurrence was defined as detectable PSA levels (greater than 0.2 ng ml−1) and the time of biochemical recurrence was taken to be the first time PSA became detectable. In the multivariate model, PSA/NCPV was an independent predictor of extracapsular extension and positive surgical margin (P<0.05), but PSA/tumor volume was not. Kaplan–Meier curves revealed that PSA/NCPV correlated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (P<0.001; log-rank test) but PSA/tumor volume did not (P=0.275; log-rank test). PSA/NCPV was also a significant independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence-free survival on multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (P=0.004, relative risk=2.42). Our findings suggest that PSA/NCPV is associated independently with extracapsular extension and surgical margin status and may be an independent prognostic variable of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.
doi:10.1038/aja.2010.152
PMCID: PMC3739195  PMID: 21102474
prostatectomy; prostatic neoplasm; PSA; treatment outcome; tumor volume
15.  Early detection of prostate cancer local recurrence by urinary prostate-specific antigen 
Purpose:
We assessed the role of urinary prostate-specific antigen (uPSA) in the follow-up of prostate cancer after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) for the early detection of local recurrences.
Methods:
We recruited 50 patients previously treated for prostate cancer with RRP and who had not experienced a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence within their first postoperative year into a cross-sectional laboratory assessment and prospective 6-year longitudinal follow-up study. We defined biochemical failure as a serum PSA (sPSA) of 0.3 μg/L or greater. Patients provided blood samples and a 50-mL sample of first-voided urine. We performed Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests for statistical analysis.
Results:
The median sPSA was 0.13 μg/L. The median uPSA was 0.8 μg/L, and was not significantly different when comparing Gleason scores or pathological stages. Of the 50 patients, 27 initially had a nondetectable sPSA but a detectable uPSA, and 11 patients experienced sPSA failure after 6 years. Six patients had detectable sPSA and uPSA initially. Fifteen patients were negative for both sPSA and uPSA, and 13 remained sPSA-free after 6 years. The odds ratio (OR) of having sPSA failure given a positive uPSA test was 4.5 if sPSA was undetectable, but was reduced to 2.6 if sPSA was detectable. The pooled Mantel–Haenszel OR of 4.2 suggested that a detectable uPSA quadrupled the risk of recurrence, independent of whether sPSA was elevated or not. The sensitivity of uPSA for detecting future sPSA recurrences was 81% and specificity was 45%.
Conclusion:
Urinary PSA could contribute to an early detection of local recurrences of prostate cancer after a radical prostatectomy.
PMCID: PMC2692171  PMID: 19543465
16.  Pattern of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Failure Dictates the Probability of a Positive Bone Scan in Patients With an Increasing PSA After Radical Prostatectomy 
Purpose
Physicians often order periodic bone scans (BS) to check for metastases in patients with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA; biochemical recurrence [BCR]) after radical prostatectomy (RP), but most scans are negative. We studied patient characteristics to build a predictive model for a positive scan.
Patients and Methods
From our prostate cancer database we identified all patients with detectable PSA after RP. We analyzed the following features at the time of each bone scan for association with a positive BS: preoperative PSA, time to BCR, pathologic findings of the RP, PSA before the BS (trigger PSA), PSA kinetics (PSA doubling time, PSA slope, and PSA velocity), and time from BCR to BS. The results were incorporated into a predictive model.
Results
There were 414 BS performed in 239 patients with BCR and no history of androgen deprivation therapy. Only 60 (14.5%) were positive for metastases. In univariate analysis, preoperative PSA (P = .04), seminal vesicle invasion (P = .02), PSA velocity (P < .001), and trigger PSA (P < .001) predicted a positive BS. In multivariate analysis, only PSA slope (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; P = .03), PSA velocity (OR, 0.93; P = .003), and trigger PSA (OR, 1.022; P < .001) predicted a positive BS. A nomogram for predicting the bone scan result was constructed with an overfit-corrected concordance index of 0.93.
Conclusion
Trigger PSA, PSA velocity, and slope were associated with a positive BS. A highly discriminating nomogram can be used to select patients according to their risk for a positive scan. Omitting scans in low-risk patients could reduce substantially the number of scans ordered.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.06.058
PMCID: PMC1850929  PMID: 15774789
17.  Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography may aid the diagnosis of aggressive primary prostate cancer: A case series study 
Oncology Letters  2013;7(2):381-386.
Recent evidence has shown that positive results may be observed for fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in undifferentiated, biologically aggressive and metastatic tumors. The present study describes a case series of six patients with normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels who underwent FDG-PET due to other causes. Positive PET results were observed at the prostate and the patients were subsequently diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer. Clinical, anamnestic, laboratory and instrumental data were collected from six asymptomatic patients with total serum PSA levels of <4 ng/ml who had undergone FDG-PET due to other causes. The FDG-PET and prostate biopsy were positive for prostate cancer. All the patients were treated with radical intent. The median age was 66 years (range, 52–72 years), the median total PSA value was 2.4 ng/ml (range, 1.5–3.9 ng/ml) and the body mass index was 26.4 (range, 21.8–30.2). Three of the six patients underwent FDG-PET due to a clinical suspicion of multiple myeloma, while three patients were examined for other oncological diseases. The pathological analysis at the prostate biopsy revealed three patients with a Gleason score of 6, two with a score of 7 (4+3) and one with a score of 8 (4+4). Five of the six patients were treated by radical prostatectomy and one by radiotherapy. The pathological analysis revealed one patient of pT2a stage, three of pT2c and one of pT3b. No patients demonstrated lymph node invasion. The definitive Gleason score was 3+3 in one patient, 4+3 in one patient, 4+4 in two patients and 5+3 in one patient. Following a median follow-up time of six months (range, 1–12 months), five of the six patients underwent FDG-PET again, which revealed negative results. At the end of this study, these patients were alive without evidence of disease. By contrast, one patient demonstrated positive FDG-PET results. In conclusion, FDG-PET has been used to characterize prostate cancers in patients with apparently normal PSA levels.
doi:10.3892/ol.2013.1747
PMCID: PMC3881937  PMID: 24396452
prostate cancer; cancer metabolism; positron emission tomography; high-risk prostate cancer; prostate specific antigen
18.  Target volume definition in high-risk prostate cancer patients using sentinel node SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline PET/CT 
Background
To assess the influence of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline (18 F-FCH) PET/CT in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with a high-risk for lymph node (LN) involvement.
Methods
Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients underwent a pelvic SPECT acquisition following a transrectal ultrasound guided injection of 99mTc-Nanocoll into the prostate. In all patients but one an 18 F-FCH PET/CT for RT treatment planning was performed. SPECT studies were coregistered with the respective abdominal CTs. Pelvic SNs localized on SPECT/CT and LN metastases detected by 18 F-FCH PET/CT were compared to standard pelvic clinical target volumes (CTV).
Results
A total of 104 pelvic SNs were identified on SPECT/CT (mean 5.2 SNs/patient; range 1–10). Twenty-seven SNs were located outside the standard pelvic CTV, 17 in the proximal common iliac and retroperitoneal regions above S1, 9 in the pararectal fat and 1 in the inguinal region. SPECT/CT succeeded to optimize the definition of the CTV and treatment plans in 6/20 patients due to the presence of pararectal SNs located outside the standard treatment volume. 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified abnormal tracer uptake in the iliac LN region in 2/19 patients. These abnormal LNs were negative on SPECT/CT suggesting a potential blockade of lymphatic drainage by metastatic LNs with a high tumour burden.
Conclusions
Multimodality imaging which combines SPECT/CT prostate lymphoscintigraphy and 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified SNs outside standard pelvic CTVs or highly suspicious pelvic LNs in 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients, highlighting the potential impact of this approach in RT treatment planning.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-7-134
PMCID: PMC3561224  PMID: 22873771
Prostate cancer; Radiotherapy; SPECT; Sentinel node; 18 F-choline PET/CT
19.  Frequency of PSA-mRNA-bearing cells in the peripheral blood of patients after prostate biopsy 
British Journal of Cancer  2001;85(4):557-562.
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is standard diagnostic procedure for prostate cancer (PCa). However, possibility of dissemination of cancer cells by biopsy is not negligible. To investigate this possibility, we examined prostate specific antigen (PSA)-bearing cells in peripheral blood of the 108 patients before and after prostate biopsy. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 108 patients with elevated serum PSA (sPSA) levels, who had undergone sextant prostate biopsy using TRUS. The presence of PSA-mRNA bearing cells was examined using the nested RT-PCR method enabling detection of one LNCaP cell diluted in 1 ml of whole blood. Among 108 patients, 62 and 46 were diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa, respectively. PSA-mRNA was detected in 3 PCa cases but in no BPH patients before and after biopsy, and in 16 BPH (25.8%) and in 21 PCa (45.7%) patients only after biopsy (P< 0.01). The patients with positive mRNA before biopsy had higher sPSA (P< 0.001), and those after biopsy had higher sPSA and PSA density (PSAD) levels (P< 0.05). Positive PSA-mRNA cases had more cancer involved biopsy cores than the negative PSA-mRNA cases (P< 0.001). Although further investigations are needed, the present findings suggest that prostate biopsy might scatter prostate cells in the blood stream especially in cases with high sPSA and, thus, might contribute to tumour spreading in the cases of prostate cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.1924
PMCID: PMC2364088  PMID: 11506496
RT-PCR; PSA-mRNA bearing cells; prostate cancer
20.  Distinct ERG rearrangement prevalence in prostate cancer: higher frequency in young age and in low PSA prostate cancer 
Background:
The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion resulting in ERG overexpression has been found in around 50% of prostate cancers (PCa) and is a very early event in tumorigenesis. Most studies have reported on selected surgical cohorts with inconsistent results. We hypothesized that ERG gene rearrangements impact tumor development and investigated the frequency of ERG overexpression in the context of clinicopathological tumor characteristics.
Methods:
ERG overexpression (ERG+ or ERG-) was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 1039 radical prostatectomy (RP) tumors and association with PSA, D'Amico risk score, histopathology, biochemical recurrence, body mass index and age of PCa cases was analyzed.
Results:
ERG+ was associated with younger age at diagnosis (P<0.0001), lower serum PSA (P=0.002) and lower prostate volume (PV) (P=0.001). It was most frequent in the youngest age quartile (⩽55 years, 63.9% ERG+) and decreased constantly with increasing age to 40.8% in the oldest age quartile (⩾67 years, P<0.0001). In the PSA range <4 ng ml−1 the frequency of ERG positivity was 60.2% compared with 47.5 and 49.1% in the PSA ranges 4–10 and ⩾10 ng ml−1, respectively. In the first age quartile, ERG+ patients had lower median serum PSA and fPSA% and smaller PV. In the highest age quartile tumor volume (TV) was increased. Similar differences were observed in the low PSA range. Multivariate analysis identified the first age quartile as a predictor for ERG status (odds ratios (OR) 2.05, P=0.007). No association was found with the D'Amico progression risk score and with biochemical tumor recurrence.
Conclusions:
ERG+ tumors manifest clinically at lower PSA levels and their prevalence is age dependent. This suggests acceleration of tumor development by ERG overexpression that results in earlier tumor detection in young patients. Long-term results are warranted to determine the impact of ERG overexpression on disease outcome.
doi:10.1038/pcan.2013.4
PMCID: PMC3655380  PMID: 23381693
age; ERG frequency distribution; ERG overexpression; early-onset prostate cancer; PSA screening
21.  Preliminary Clinical Experience of trans-1-Amino-3-(18)F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic Acid (anti-(18)F-FACBC) PET/CT Imaging in Prostate Cancer Patients 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:305182.
Background. In this retrospective analysis we assessed the role of [18F]-FACBC-PET/CT in the prostatic cancer staging. Procedure. 30 first [18F]-FACBC-PET/CT images of 26 patients (68.1 ± 5.8 years) were analyzed. PET/CT findings were compared with PSA concentrations, with PSA doubling times (PDT), and with correlative imaging. Results. On 16 [18F]-FACBC (53.3%) scans, 58 metabolically active lesions were found. 12 (20.7%) lesions corresponding to the local relapse were found in prostate/prostate bed and seminal vesicles, 9 (15.5%) lesions were located in regional lymph nodes, 10 (17.2%) were located in distal lymph nodes, and 26 (44.8%) metabolically active lesions were found in the skeleton. In one case, focal uptake was found in the brain, confirmed further on MRI as meningioma. The mean S-PSA level in patients with positive [18F]-FACBC findings was 9.5 ± 16.9 μg/L (0.54–69 μg/L) and in patients with negative [18F]-FACBC findings was 1.96 ± 1.87 μg/L (0.11–5.9 μg/L), but the difference was not statistically significant. However, the PSA doubling time (PDT) in patients with positive findings was significantly shorter than PDT in patients with negative findings: 3.25 ± 2.09 months (0.3–6 months) versus 31.2 ± 22.02 months (8–84 months), P < 0.0001. There was a strong positive correlation between PSA value and number of metabolically active lesions (R = 0.74) and a negative correlation between PDT and number of metabolically active lesions (R = −0.56). There was a weak negative correlation between PDT and SUVmax⁡ (R = −0.30). Conclusion. According to our preliminary clinical experience, [18F]-FACBC-PET may play a role in in vivo restaging of an active prostate cancer, especially in patients with a short S-PSA doubling time.
doi:10.1155/2014/305182
PMCID: PMC4058669  PMID: 24991547
22.  Biodisposition and metabolism of [18F]fluorocholine in 9L glioma cells and 9L glioma-bearing Fisher rats 
Purpose
[18F]Fluorocholine [18F]FCH) was developed as an analog of [11C]choline for tumor imaging, however, its metabolic handling remains ill-defined. In this study, the metabolism of [18F]FCH is evaluated in cultured 9L glioma cells and Fisher 344 rats bearing 9L glioma tumors.
Methods
9L glioma cells were incubated with [18F]FCH and [14C]choline under normoxic and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions and analyzed for metabolic fate. [18F]FCH and [14C]choline kinetics and metabolism were studied in Fisher 344 rats bearing subcutaneous 9L tumors.
Results
[18F]FCH and [14C]choline were similarly metabolized in 9L cells in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions over a 2 hr incubation period. In normoxia, radioactivity was predominantly in phosphorylated form for both tracers after 5 min incubation. In hypoxia, the tracers remained mainly in nonmetabolized form at early timepoints (< 20 min). Slow dephosphorylation of intracellular [18F]phosphofluorocholine (0.043–0.060 min−1) and [14C]phosphocholine (0.072–0.088 min−1) was evidenced via efflux measurements. In rat, both [18F]FCH and [14C]choline showed high renal and hepatic uptake. Blood clearance of both tracers was rapid with oxidative metabolites, [18F]fluorobetaine and [14C]betaine, representing the majority of radiolabel in plasma after 5 min post-injection. Oxidation (in liver) and lipid incorporation (in lung) were somewhat slower for [18F]FCH relative to [14C]choline. The majority of radiolabel in hypoxic subcutaneous tumor, as in hypoxic cultured 9L cells, was found as nonmetabolized [18F]FCH and [14C]choline.
Conclusions
[18F]FCH mimics choline uptake and metabolism by 9L glioma cells and tumors. However, subtle changes in biodistribution, oxidative metabolism, dephosphorylation, lipid incorporation and renal excretion show moderate effects of the presence of the radiofluorine atom in [18F]FCH. The decrease in phosphorylation of exogenous choline by cancer cells should be considered in interpretation of PET images in characteristically hypoxic tumors.
doi:10.1007/s00259-008-0736-y
PMCID: PMC2386980  PMID: 18264706
choline; fluorocholine; 18F; 9L glioma; rat; metabolism; hypoxia
23.  Positive resection margins may not reflect the true margin in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(5):2237-2242.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that a positive resection margin (RM1) of an excised specimen may not reflect the true margin in patients that have undergone radical prostatectomy (RP). Between September 2003 and March 2011, 370 Japanese patients underwent an antegrade RP at the National Kyushu Cancer Center (Fukuoka, Japan), however, 95 of these patients were excluded from the study due to a history of receiving hormonal therapy or insufficient preoperative clinical data. The incidence of biochemical failure (BCF) was evaluated using multivariate analysis, which revealed that the preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, pathological tumor stage, RP Gleason score and a PSA nadir <0.008 ng/ml were significant predictors (P=0.0065, 0.0006, 0.0002 and <0.0001, respectively). By contrast, an RM1 was not found to be a significant predictor of BCF, while the parameter with the highest hazard ratio (HR) was a PSA nadir <0.008 ng/ml (HR, 10.055; 95% confidence interval, 5.005–20.200). From the 56 cases that were RM1, 41 cases (73.2%) exhibited a PSA nadir <0.008 ng/ml. There were 42 cases (75.0%) in which only one site was identified to be RM1; among these cases, no significant difference was observed between a PSA level <0.008 ng/ml and a PSA level ≥0.008 ng/ml at the RM1 site (apex, P=0.1460; base, P=0.1384; anterior, P=0.3870; and posterolateral, P=0.5040). There were 14 cases (25.0%) in which multiple sites were RM1; these cases were classified by the number of sites that were RM1 (one vs. multiple) and no significant difference was observed between a PSA level <0.008 ng/ml and a PSA level ≥0.008 ng/ml (P=0.6090). Based on these results, an RM1 of an excised specimen may not reflect the true margin in patients that are treated with RP, specifically in cases where the PSA level is identified to decrease to below the postoperative measurement threshold value (PSA nadir <0.008 ng/ml).
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2491
PMCID: PMC4186613  PMID: 25295112
prostate cancer; surgical margin; radical prostatectomy; ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen; prostate-specific antigen nadir
24.  Detection of local recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in terms of salvage radiotherapy using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI without endorectal coil 
Purpose
To evaluate the value of dynamic contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) without endorectal coil (EC) in the detection of local recurrent prostate cancer (PC) after radical prostatectomy (RP).
Material and methods
Thirty-three patients with recurrent PC underwent DCE-MRI without EC before salvage radiotherapy (RT). At median 15 (mean 16±4.9, range 12–27) months after completion of RT all patients showed complete biochemical response. Additional follow up post RT DCE-MRI scans were available. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels at the time of imaging were correlated to the imaging findings.
Results
In 22/33 patients (67%) early contrast enhancing nodules were detected in the post-prostatectomy fossa on pre-RT DCE-MRI images. The average pre-RT PSA level of the 22 patients with positive pre-RT DCE-MRI findings was significantly higher (mean, 0.74±0.64 ng/mL) compared to the pre-RT PSA level of the 11 patients with negative pre-RT DCE-MRI (mean, 0.24±0.13 ng/mL) (p<0.001). All post-RT DCE-MRI images showed complete resolution of initial suspicious lesions. A pre-RT PSA cut-off value of ≥0.54 ng/ml readily predicted a positive DCE-MRI finding.
Conclusions
This is the first study that shows that DCE-MRI without EC can detect local recurrent PC with an estimated accuracy of 83% at low PSA levels. All false negative DCE-MRI scans were detected using a PSA cut-off of ≥0.54 ng/mL.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-7-185
PMCID: PMC3560084  PMID: 23114282
Prostate cancer; PSA recurrence; Salvage radiotherapy; Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI; Gross tumor volume
25.  PSA mass as a marker of prostate cancer progression after radical prostatectomy 
Summary
Background
Obese patients with prostate cancer may have lower preoperative PSA concentration due to hemodilution. Lower PSA concentration may falsely affect assessing the risk of progression after radical prostatectomy (RP). The aim of this study was to determine preoperative PSA mass as the absolute amount of PSA protein secreted into circulation, and evaluation of its usefulness in prediction of biochemical recurrence after RP.
Material/Methods
177 patients after RP due to prostate cancer were included in the study. On the basis of formulas, PSA mass was calculated {PSA mass [μg] = (weight [kg])0.425 × (height [cm])0.72 × 0.007184 × 1.670 × PSA concentration [ng/ml]}. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to increasing values of PSA mass. The following features were assessed and compared between these groups (χ-square test): pathologic stage T3, nodal metastases, positive surgical margins, biochemical and local recurrence and the rate of death. Cancer-specific survival was assessed depending on PSA mass (Kaplan-Meier curves with log rank test). The usefulness of PSA mass in prediction of biochemical recurrence was compared with PSA concentration (logistic regression with ROC curves).
Results
Pathologic stage T3, nodal metastases, positive surgical margins and progression were more common in patients with higher levels of PSA mass (p<0.01). Cancer-specific survival was significantly shorter in patients with elevated values of PSA mass (p=0.02). Preoperative PSA mass was a more sensitive predictor of biochemical recurrence than was PSA concentration (p=0.04).
Conclusions
The preoperative PSA mass is a better predictor of biochemical recurrence after RP than PSA concentration.
doi:10.12659/MSM.881395
PMCID: PMC3524695  PMID: 21278686
hemodilution; obesity; prostate cancer; PSA mass; radical prostatectomy

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