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1.  Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera 
Background
Dioscorea bulbifera is an African medicinal plant used to treat microbial infections. In the present study, the methanol extract, fractions (DBB1 and DBB2) and six compounds isolated from the bulbils of D. bulbifera, namely bafoudiosbulbins A (1), B (2), C (3), F (4), G (5) and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene (6), were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria involving multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes expressing active efflux pumps.
Methods
The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the above samples.
Results
The results of the MIC determinations indicated that when tested alone, the crude extract, fractions DBB1 and DBB2 as well as compounds 2 to 5 were able to prevent the growth of all the fifteen studied microorganisms, within the concentration range of 8 to 256 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract and fractions (16 μg/mL) was obtained with DBB1 and DBB2 on E, coli AG100A and DBB2 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTCS2. The lowest value for individual compounds (8 μg/mL) was recorded with compound 3 on M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis ATCC and MTCS2 strains respectively. The activity of the samples on many MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes EA289, CM64, Klebsiella pneumoniae KP63 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA124 was better than that of chloramphenicol. When tested in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most of the samples increased. MBC values not greater than 512 μg/mL were recorded on all studied microorganisms with fraction DBB2 and compounds 2 to 5.
Conclusions
The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract D. bulbifera as well as some of the compounds and mostly compounds 3 could be considered as potential antimicrobial drugs to fight against MDR bacteria.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-228
PMCID: PMC3528471  PMID: 23176193
Diterpenoids; Antimycobacterial; Antibacterial; Dioscorea bulbifera; Dioscoreaceae
2.  Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae) 
Background
Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR), as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5) and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1) and (E)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8).
Methods
The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species.
Results
The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic.
Conclusion
The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-6
PMCID: PMC3037948  PMID: 21269424
3.  Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from Artocarpus communis (Moraceae) 
Background
Artocarpus communis is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract (ACB) and compounds isolated from the bark of this plant, namely peruvianursenyl acetate C (1), α-amyrenol or viminalol (2), artonin E (4) and 2-[(3,5-dihydroxy)-(Z)-4-(3-methylbut-1-enyl)phenyl]benzofuran-6-ol (5).
Methods
The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species.
Results
The MIC results indicated that ACB as well as compounds 4 and 5 were able to prevent the growth of all tested microbial species. All other compounds showed selective activities. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25922 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The corresponding value of 32 μg/ml was recorded with compounds 4 and 5 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and compound 5 on E. coli ATCC 8739, their inhibition effect on P. aeruginosa PA01 being more than that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic.
Conclusion
The overall results of this study provided supportive data for the use of A. communis as well as some of its constituents for the treatment of infections associated with the studied microorganisms.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-42
PMCID: PMC3118951  PMID: 21612612
4.  Antimicrobial activity of Bauhinia tomentosa and Bauhinia vahlii roots 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2010;6(23):204-207.
The hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts from Bauhinia tomentosa and Bauhinia vahlii roots were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (four strains), Gram-negative bacteria (three strains) and three fungi strains using microdilution methods, for the determination of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC). The MIC values of hexane extracts of B. tomentosa and B. vahlii roots were more than 250 µg/ml. The MIC values of ethylacetate and methanol extracts of B. tomentosa roots varied from 7.81 to 31.25 µg/ml and 31.25 to 62.50 µg/ml, respectively. The MIC values of ethylacetate and methanol extracts of B. vahlii roots varied from 15.63 to 62.5 µg/ml and 62.5 to 250 µg/ml, respectively. MMC values obtained are two times greater than the corresponding MIC values. The activities of ethylacetate extracts are attributed to the presence of flavonoids and that of methanol extracts are attributed to the presence of tannins.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.66937
PMCID: PMC2950383  PMID: 20931080
Antibacterial; antifungal; Bauhinia tomentosa; Bauhinia vahlii; minimal inhibition concentration; minimal microbicidal concentration
5.  Byrsonima fagifolia Niedenzu Apolar Compounds with Antitubercular Activity 
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of Byrsonima fagifolia leaves led to the isolation of active antitubercular compounds alkane dotriacontane (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC, 62.5 μg mL−1), triterpenoids as bassic acid (MIC = 2.5 μg mL−1), α-amyrin acetate (MIC = 62.5 μg mL−1), a mixture of lupeol, α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1) and a mixture of lupeol, and acetates of α- and β-amyrin (MIC = 31.5 μg mL−1). The antimycobacterial activity was determined by the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) and the structures of promising compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. This investigation constitutes the first report of a chemical and antitubercular study of apolar compounds from B. fagifolia Niedenzu (IK).
doi:10.1093/ecam/nen077
PMCID: PMC3135853  PMID: 19091782
6.  Microplate alamar blue assay versus BACTEC 460 system for high-throughput screening of compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium. 
In response to the need for rapid, inexpensive, high-throughput assays for antimycobacterial drug screening, a microplate-based assay which uses Alamar blue reagent for determination of growth was evaluated. MICs of 30 antimicrobial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, and Mycobacterium avium were determined in the microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA) with both visual and fluorometric readings and compared to MICs determined in the BACTEC 460 system. For all three mycobacterial strains, there was < or = 1 dilution difference between MABA and BACTEC median MICs in four replicate experiments for 25 to 27 of the 30 antimicrobics. Significant differences between MABA and BACTEC MICs were observed with 0, 2, and 5 of 30 antimicrobial agents against H37Rv, H37Ra, and M. avium, respectively. Overall, MICs determined either visually or fluorometrically in MABA were highly correlated with those determined in the BACTEC 460 system, and visual MABA and fluorometric MABA MICs were highly correlated. MICs of rifampin, rifabutin, minocycline, and clarithromycin were consistently lower for H37Ra compared to H37Rv in all assays but were similar for most other drugs. M. tuberculosis H37Ra may be a suitable surrogate for the more virulent H37Rv strain in primary screening of compounds for antituberculosis activity. MABA is sensitive, rapid, inexpensive, and nonradiometric and offers the potential for screening, with or without analytical instrumentation, large numbers of antimicrobial compounds against slow-growing mycobacteria.
PMCID: PMC163841  PMID: 9145860
7.  Antimicrobial Activities of Hexane Extract and Decussatin from Stembark Extract of Ficus congensis 
Ficus congensis (Moraceae) is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases including infectious diseases, infertility, and gastrointestinal disorders. Investigation of hexane extract of the stem bark using chromatographic techniques led to isolation of a xanthone, 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone (Decussatin). The compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry (MS). Decussatin and the hexane extract were screened in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities using broth microdilution (MHB) and disc Agar diffusion (DAD) techniques against Escheichia coli, Bacilus substilis, Klebsiela pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans. Hexane extracts showed potent antibacterial activity against E. coli and B. subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 8 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL, respectively, while Decussatin of the highest concentration (8 mg/mL) used in this study showed no appreciable antimicrobial activity. Only hexane extract was active against C. albicans with a MIC of 1 mg/mL.
doi:10.3390/ijms12042750
PMCID: PMC3127144  PMID: 21731468
Moraceae; Ficus congensis; decussatin; antimicrobial; DAD; MHB
8.  Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing for Leptospira spp. 
Leptospirosis in humans has traditionally been treated with penicillin or doxycycline. The choice of therapy offered at the time of initial patient presentation is often empirical, as definitive diagnosis can take weeks. Determining the activity of numerous antimicrobial agents against a wide range of Leptospira serovars may broaden empirical therapeutic options. Various antimicrobials have been shown to be active against a limited number of serovars in in vitro studies, chiefly by the use of broth macrodilution techniques. We developed a broth microdilution technique using the commercially available growth indicator alamarBlue. MICs produced by this technique were compared to MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations produced by the traditional broth macrodilution technique. The internal validity of our methods was assessed with 11 runs over numerous days with a single isolate of Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. By either method, the MICs for these internal-validity runs fell within 2 dilutions of each other for more than 90% of antimicrobials. A broader application of these two techniques included 12 serovars (including seven species) of Leptospira and six antimicrobials (penicillin G, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin). Observed reproducibility fell within 2 dilutions for 99% of the duplicate result sets for the MIC microdilution method, compared to 89% for the MIC macrodilution method. The macrodilution method tended to have a higher MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90) than did the microdilution method, but the MIC90s of both methods were within 2 dilutions of each other for all six drugs. The macrodilution and microdilution techniques produced similar results, with microdilution allowing a faster, more streamlined method of producing MIC results.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.5.1548-1552.2004
PMCID: PMC400540  PMID: 15105104
9.  Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:299.
Background
The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy.
Results
The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY).
Conclusion
The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-299
PMCID: PMC3438083  PMID: 22709668
Multi-Drug Resistant bacteria; Spices; Methanol extract; Cameroon
10.  Induction of mitochondrial dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells by an extract from Dorstenia psilurus: a spice from Cameroon 
Background
The use of edible plants is an integral part of dietary behavior in the West region of Cameroon. Dorstenia psilurus (Moraceae) is widely used as spice and as medicinal plant for the treatment of several diseases in Cameroon. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic potential of methanol extract of D. psilurus in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and prostate cancer (PC-3) cells.
Methods
Cytotoxicity of D. psilurus extract was tested in HL-60 and PC-3 cells using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay and flow cytometric methods
Results
The methanol extract of D. psilurus have significant in vitro cytotoxic activity in HL-60 cells and PC-3 cells with IC50 value of 12 ±1.54 μg/ml and 18 ± 0.45 μg/ml respectively after 48 h. The mechanism of antiproliferative activity showed that after 24 h, D. psilurus extract induces apoptosis on HL-60 cells by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, modification in the DNA distribution and enhance of G2/M phase cell cycle.
Conclusion
The extract induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells associated with ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic DNA fragmentation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-223
PMCID: PMC3847675  PMID: 24016040
Dorstenia psilurus; Spice; Apoptosis; HL-60; ROS; Mitochondrial membrane potential
11.  Antileptospiral activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and synergy of gamma-mangostin with penicillin G 
Background
Leptospirosis, one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by spirochetes bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The present study examined inhibitory activity of purified xanthones and crude extracts from Garcinia mangostana against both non-pathogenic and pathogenic leptospira. Synergy between γ-mangostin and penicillin G against leptospires was also determined.
Methods
Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude extracts and purified xanthones from G. mangostana and penicillin G for a non-pathogenic (L. biflexa serovar Patoc) and pathogenic (L. interrogans serovar Bataviae, Autumnalis, Javanica and Saigon) leptospires were determined by using broth microdilution method and alamar blue. The synergy was evaluated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index.
Results
The results of broth microdilution test demonstrated that the crude extract and purified xanthones from mangosteen possessed antileptospiral activities. The crude extracts were active against all five serovars of test leptospira with MICs ranging from 200 to ≥ 800 μg/ml. Among the crude extracts and purified xanthones, garcinone C was the most active compound against both of pathogenic (MIC =100 μg/ml) and non-pathogenic leptospira (MIC = 200 μg/ml). However, these MIC values were higher than those of traditional antibiotics. Combinations of γ-mangostin with penicillin G generated synergistic effect against L. interrogans serovars Bataviae, Autumnalis and Javanica (FIC = 0.52, 0.50, and 0.04, respectively) and no interaction against L. biflexa serovar Patoc (FIC =0.75). However, antagonistic activity (FIC = 4.03) was observed in L. interrogans serovar Saigon.
Conclusions
Crude extracts and purified xanthones from fruit pericarp of G. mangostana with significant antibacterial activity may be used to control leptospirosis. The combination of xanthone with antibiotic enhances the antileptospiral efficacy.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-182
PMCID: PMC3734031  PMID: 23866810
Leptospira; Mangosteen; Xanthones; Gamma-Mangostin; Synergy; Penicillin G
12.  Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Entada abyssinica Stend ex A. Satabie 
Background
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and isolated compounds from Entada abyssinica stem bark, plant used traditionally against gastrointestinal infections.
Methods
The methanol extract of E. abyssinica stem bark was pre-dissolved in a mixture of methanol and water, and then partitioned between n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate portion was fractionated by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by broth microdilution techniques on bacteria and yeasts. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging method.
Results
Four known compounds [(5S,6R,8aR)-5-(carboxymethyl)-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-5,6,8a-trimethylnaphthalenecarboxylic acid (1), methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (2), benzene-1,2,3-triol (3) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyltriacontanoate (4)] were isolated. Compared to the methanol extract, fractionation increased the antibacterial activities of the n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, while the antifungal activities increased in ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue fractions. The isolated compounds were generally more active on bacteria (9.7 to 156.2 μg/ml) than yeasts (78.1 to 312.5 μg/ml). Apart from compound 1, the three others displayed DPPH· scavenging activity (RSa), with RSa50 values of 1.45 and 1.60 μg/ml.
Conclusion
The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of E. abyssinica in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections and the isolated compounds could be useful in the standardisation of antimicrobial phytomedicine from this plant.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-57
PMCID: PMC3157447  PMID: 21771305
13.  Antioxidant Activities of Some Cameroonian Plants Extracts Used in the Treatment of Intestinal and Infectious Diseases 
Antioxidant activity test using two different methods namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothialozinesulfonate) diammonium salt free radical scavenging test has been carried out on three Cameroonian plant extracts used in the treatment of intestinal and infectious diseases: Pittosporum mannii Hook f. (Pittosporaceae), Vepris heterophylla R. Letouzey (Rutaceae) and Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill) Pierre ex Pax (Euphorbiaceae). Results of this study in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging test show that the ethyl acetate extract of P. mannii and the methanol extract of V. heterophylla exhibit high free radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 177.74 and 204.69 μg/ml, respectively while the methanol/dichloromethane (1+1) extract of R. heudelotii showed weak free radical scavenging activities as compared to Trolox (939.19 μg/ml) used as standard. In the same manner, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothialozinesulfonate) diammonium salt radical scavenging test of these extracts was in accordance of the result of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test. The antioxidant properties of these extracts probably explain partly, the use of these plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and inflammations.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.62236
PMCID: PMC2883220  PMID: 20582209
Antioxidant activity; DPPH and ABTS radical; Pittosporum mannii; Ricinodendron heudelotii; Vepris heterophylla
14.  Evaluating the anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. axenically under reducing oxygen conditions and in intracellular assays 
Background
In tuberculosis (TB), the steadily increasing bacterial resistance to existing drugs and latent TB continue to be major concerns. A combination of conventional drugs and plant derived therapeutics can serve to expand the antimicrobial spectrum, prevent the emergence of drug resistant mutants and minimize toxicity. Alpinia galanga, used in various traditional medicines, possesses broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The study was undertaken to assess the antimycobacterial potential of A. galanga in axenic (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions) and intracellular assays.
Methods
Phytochemical analysis was done using HPTLC. The acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) of A. galanga were tested axenically using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) H37Rv and three drug sensitive and three multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The activity of the extracts was also evaluated intracellularly in A549 cell line against these strains. The extracts active under intracellular conditions were further tested in an axenic setup under reducing oxygen concentrations using only H37Rv.
Results
1´ acetoxychavicol acetate, the reference standard used, was present in all the three extracts. The acetone and ethanolic extracts were active in axenic (aerobic and anaerobic) and intracellular assays. The aqueous extract did not demonstrate activity under the defined assay parameters.
Conclusion
A. galanga exhibits anti M.tb activity with multiple modes of action. Since the activity of the extracts was observed under reducing oxygen concentrations, it may be effective in treating the dormant and non-replicating bacteria of latent TB. Though the hypothesis needs further testing, A. galanga being a regular dietary component may be utilized in combination with the conventional TB therapy for enhanced efficacy.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-84
PMCID: PMC3946111  PMID: 24592852
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Medicinal plants; Alpinia galanga; Anaerobic assay; Intracellular assays
15.  Anticholinesterase Activity of Endemic Plant Extracts from Soqotra 
A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria diversifolia (Balf. and Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by using in vitro Ellman method at 50 and 200 µg/ml concentrations. Chloroform extracts of Croton socotranus, Boswellia socotrana, Dorstenia gigas, and Pulicaria stephanocarpa as well as methanol extracts of Eureiandra balfourii exhibited inhibitory activities higher than 50 % at concentration of 200 µg. At a concentrations of 50 µg, the chloroform extract of Croton socotranus exhibited an inhibition of 40.6 %.
PMCID: PMC3252222  PMID: 22468008
plant extracts; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; Soqotra; Alzheimer's disease
16.  Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants 
Background
Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Methods
The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays.
Results
The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100 μg/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06 μg/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis.
Conclusion
The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-74
PMCID: PMC3479042  PMID: 22704594
17.  Qualitative Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Ficus Thonningii (Moraceae) 
The methanolic stem bark extract of Ficus thonningii (Moraceae) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial tests. The phytochemical tests was carried out using standard methods of analysis and these investigations revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed using the agar plate disc diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques. Test micro organisms were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. (Gram-positive). The extracts inhibited the growth of all the test organisms at different concentrations especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp. which had mean inhibition zone of 33.33±7.33 mm and 32.33±2.51 mm respectively. The results showed the MIC of 10 mg ml−1 against pseudomonas and 1.25 against remaining organisms tested. The MBC against Staphylococcus aureus was 2.5 mg ml−1 and that of Streptococcus spp. was found to be 0.625mg ml−1. The extracts showed varied inhibitory activity against the organisms studied.
PMCID: PMC2816454  PMID: 20448855
Antibacterial; stembark; in vitro; phytochemical; Ficus thonningii; Moraceae
18.  Antibacterial Activities of Selected Cameroonian Plants and Their Synergistic Effects with Antibiotics against Bacteria Expressing MDR Phenotypes 
The present work was designed to assess the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of some Cameroonian medicinal plants and the effect of their associations with currently used antibiotics on multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria overexpressing active efflux pumps. The antibacterial activities of twelve methanol extracts of medicinal plants were evaluated using broth microdilution. The results of this test showed that three extracts Garcinia lucida with the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varying from 128 to 512 μg/mL, Garcinia kola (MIC of 256 to 1024 μg/mL), and Picralima nitida (MIC of 128 to 1024 μg/mL) were active on all the twenty-nine studied bacteria including MDR phenotypes. The association of phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN or efflux pumps inhibitor) to different extracts did not modify their activities. At the concentration of MIC/2 and MIC/5, the extracts of P. nitida and G. kola improved the antibacterial activities of some commonly used antibiotics suggesting their synergistic effects with the tested antibiotics. The results of this study suggest that the tested plant extracts and mostly those from P. nitida, G. lucida and G. kola could be used alone or in association with common antibiotics in the fight of bacterial infections involving MDR strains.
doi:10.1155/2012/623723
PMCID: PMC3304440  PMID: 22474511
19.  Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria 
Background
In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica).
Methods
The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria.
Results
The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml.
Conclusion
The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-164
PMCID: PMC3710276  PMID: 23837916
Antibacterial; Multi-drug resistant bacteria; Dietary plants
20.  Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 
Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50) at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.
doi:10.3390/ijms13078210
PMCID: PMC3430230  PMID: 22942699
anti-MRSA activity; Hypericum japonicum; Isojacareubin; MIC; synergy
21.  Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts and Topical Products of the Stem Bark of Spathodea Campanulata for Wound Healing 
The antibacterial activity of the aqueous, ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether Soxhlet extracts of sundried stem bark of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) was investigated by testing the extracts against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extract was determined against the four bacteria strains and C. albicans using the broth dilution method. Four topical products were prepared by incorporating the methanol extract of S. campanulata (20 % w/w) into aqueous cream, soft paraffin, emulsifying ointment and simple ointment bases and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial efficacy. The effect of storage time on the activity of the methanol extract of S. campanulata and S. campanulata extract incorporated in aqueous cream base was also investigated. The methanol and ethanol extracts showed good activity while the aqueous and petroleum ether extracts exhibited little activity. The methanol extract showed the best antibacterial activity. The MIC of the methanol extract of S. campanulata was: C. albicans (45 – 50 mg/ml), B. subtilis and E. coli (50 – 55 mg/ml), P. aeruginosa (60 – 65 mg/ml), S. aureus (145 – 150 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of S. campanulata in the topical bases was in the order: aqueous cream > emulsifying ointment > simple ointment > white soft paraffin. Antimicrobial activity of S. campanulata in aqueous cream decreased (p < 0.05) upon storage at room temperature for 6-months. The antifungal activity of the methanol extract of S. campanulata was reduced (p < 0.05) upon storage while antibacterial activity was largely unaffected.
PMCID: PMC2816570  PMID: 20209009
Spathodea campanulata; antimicrobial activity; minimum inhibitory concentration; antibacterial; antifungal; wound healing
22.  Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria 
Background
Many edible plants are used in Cameroon since ancient time to control microbial infections. This study was designed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of ten Cameroonian vegetables against a panel of twenty nine Gram negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains.
Methods
The broth microdilution method was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and the Minimal Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) of the studied extracts. When chloramphenicol was used as a reference antibiotic, the MICs were also determined in the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine β-Naphtylamide (PAβN), an efflux pumps inhibitor (EPI). The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods.
Results
All tested extracts exhibited antibacterial activities, with the MIC values varying from 128 to 1024 mg/L. The studied extracts showed large spectra of action, those from L. sativa, S. edule, C. pepo and S. nigrum being active on all the 29 bacterial strains tested meanwhile those from Amaranthus hybridus, Vernonia hymenolepsis, Lactuca.carpensis and Manihot esculenta were active on 96.55% of the strains used. The plant extracts were assessed for the presence of large classes of secondary metabolites: alkaloids, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and triterpenes. Each studied plant extract was found to contain compounds belonging to at least two of the above mentioned classes.
Conclusion
These results confirm the traditional claims and provide promising baseline information for the potential use of the tested vegetables in the fight against bacterial infections involving MDR phenotypes.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-26
PMCID: PMC3598735  PMID: 23368430
Antibacterial; Gram-negative bacteria; Multi-drug resistant; Extract; Vegetable
23.  Anti-infective and cytotoxic properties of Bupleurum marginatum 
Chinese Medicine  2014;9:4.
Background
Bupleurum marginatum Wall. ex DC (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb widely used in traditional Chinese and Kampo medicine for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The biological activities of B. marginatum have not been fully investigated. This study aims to investigate the antitrypanosomal, antimicrobial and antiviral activities of methanol (ME) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of B. marginatum aerial parts and the ability of both extracts to inhibit the growth of different cancer cell lines.
Methods
Phytochemical characterization of the extracts was performed by LC-MS profiling. The antitrypanosomal activity was evaluated using the resazurin method. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using agar diffusion and microdilution methods, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined. The antiviral activity was determined for 6.25, 12.5, and 50 μg/mL doses using a plaque reduction assay. Cytotoxicity was investigated in eight cancer cell lines (Caco-2, CCL-81, CCRF-CEM, COS-7, HL-60, MIA PaCa-2, MCF-7, and PANC-1) using the MTT assay and the caspase 3/7 activity was determined over the range of 62.5–1000 μg/mL.
Results
Phytochemical analyses resulted in the characterization of 15 components, mainly flavonoids and lignans. The DCM extract showed significant antitrypanosomal activity (IC50: 36.21 μg/mL) and moderate activity against Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC value: 0.25 mg/mL). At a dose of 12.5 μg/mL, the DCM extract inhibited 73.6% of the plaque production by hepatitis A virus. CCRF-CEM cells were the most sensitive to both extracts (IC50: 12.5–22.7 μg/mL). The cytotoxicity was mediated by induction of apoptosis (19-fold increase in the cellular caspase 3/7 level after treatment with the DCM extract at 1 mg/mL).
Conclusions
ME and DCM extract of B. marginatum showed anti-infective and antiproliferative effects.
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-9-4
PMCID: PMC3901767  PMID: 24438177
24.  In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia 
The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with Rf values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation, purification and characterization of the different primary and secondary metabolites may further yield alternative options to the microbial chemotherapy.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.102540
PMCID: PMC3507342  PMID: 23204619
Clematis longicauda; Clematis burgensis; phytochemical screening; antimicrobial activity; ethiopia
25.  Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract, fractions and eight compounds isolated from Eriosema robustum (Fabaceae) 
Background
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the cytotoxicity of the ethanol crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds from the twigs of Eriosema robustum, a plant used for the treatment of coughs and skin diseases.
Methods
Column chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques were used to isolate and identify eight compounds, robusflavones A (1) and B (2), orostachyscerebroside A (3), stigmasterol (4), 1-O-heptatriacontanoyl glycerol (5), eicosanoic acid (6), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (7) and 6-prenylpinocembrin (8), from E. robustum. A two-fold serial microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi and bacteria, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity.
Results
Fraction B had significant antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptoccocus neoformans (MIC 0.08 mg/ml), whilst the crude extract and fraction A had moderate activity against A. fumigatus and Candida albicans (MIC 0.16 mg/ml). Fraction A however had excellent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 0.02 mg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (MIC 0.04 mg/ml). The crude extract had significant activity against S. aureus, E. faecalis and E. coli. Fraction B had good activity against E. faecalis and E. coli (MIC 0.08 mg/ml). All the isolated compounds had a relatively weak antimicrobial activity. An MIC of 65 μg/ml was obtained with robusflavones A (1) and B (2) against C. albicans and A. fumigatus, orostachyscerebroside A (3) against A. fumigatus, and robusflavone B (2) against C. neoformans. Compound 8 had the best activity against bacteria (average MIC 55 μg/ml). The 3 fractions and isolated compounds had LC50 values between 13.20 to > 100 μg/ml against Vero cells yielding selectivity indices between 0.01 and 1.58.
Conclusion
The isolated compounds generally had a much lower activity than expected based on the activity of the fractions from which they were isolated. This may be the result of synergism between different compounds in the complex extracts or fractions. The results support the traditional use of E. robustum to treat infections. The crude extract had a good activity and low preparation cost, and may be useful in topical applications to combat microbial infections.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-289
PMCID: PMC3817817  PMID: 24165199
Eriosema robustum; Fabaceae; Flavonoids; Antimicrobial; Cytotoxicity

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