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1.  Direct cost associated with acquired brain injury in Ontario 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:76.
Background
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) from traumatic and non traumatic causes is a leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is limited research summarizing the health system economic burden associated with ABI. The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of publicly funded health care services from the initial hospitalization to three years post-injury for individuals with traumatic (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI) in Ontario Canada.
Methods
A population-based cohort of patients discharged from acute hospital with an ABI code in any diagnosis position in 2004 through 2007 in Ontario was identified from administrative data. Publicly funded health care utilization was obtained from several Ontario administrative healthcare databases. Patients were stratified according to traumatic and non-traumatic causes of brain injury and whether or not they were discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation center. Health system costs were calculated across a continuum of institutional and community settings for up to three years after initial discharge. The continuum of settings included acute care emergency departments inpatient rehabilitation (IR) complex continuing care home care services and physician visits. All costs were calculated retrospectively assuming the government payer’s perspective.
Results
Direct medical costs in an ABI population are substantial with mean cost in the first year post-injury per TBI and nTBI patient being $32132 and $38018 respectively. Among both TBI and nTBI patients those discharged to IR had significantly higher treatment costs than those not discharged to IR across all institutional and community settings. This tendency remained during the entire three-year follow-up period. Annual medical costs of patients hospitalized with a brain injury in Ontario in the first follow-up year were approximately $120.7 million for TBI and $368.7 million for nTBI. Acute care cost accounted for 46-65% of the total treatment cost in the first year overwhelming all other cost components.
Conclusions
The main finding of this study is that direct medical costs in ABI population are substantial and vary considerably by the injury cause. Although most expenses occur in the first follow-up year ABI patients continue to use variety of medical services in the second and third year with emphasis shifting over time from acute care and inpatient rehabilitation towards homecare physician services and long-term institutional care. More research is needed to capture economic costs for ABI patients not admitted to acute care.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-76
PMCID: PMC3518141  PMID: 22901094
2.  Older adults with acquired brain injury: a population based study 
BMC Geriatrics  2013;13:97.
Background
Acquired brain injury (ABI), which includes traumatic (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI), is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the trends, characteristics, cause of brain injury, and discharge destination of hospitalized older adults aged 65 years and older with an ABI diagnosis in a population with universal access to hospital care. The profile of characteristics of patients with TBI and nTBI causes of injury was also compared.
Methods
A population based retrospective cohort study design with healthcare administrative databases was used. Data on acute care admissions were obtained from the Discharge Abstract Database and patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases – Version 10 codes for Ontario, Canada from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2010. Older adults were examined in three age groups – 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years.
Results
From 2003/04 to 2009/10, there were 14,518 episodes of acute care associated with a TBI code and 51, 233 episodes with a nTBI code. Overall, the rate of hospitalized TBI and nTBI episodes increased with older age groups. From 2007/08 to 2009/10, the percentage of patients that stayed in acute care for 12 days or more and the percentage of patients with delayed discharge from acute care increased with age. The most common cause of TBI was falls while the most common type of nTBI was brain tumours. The percentage of patients discharged to long term care and complex continuing care increased with age and the percentage discharged home decreased with age. In-hospital mortality also increased with age. Older adults with TBI and nTBI differed significantly in demographic and clinical characteristics and discharge destination from acute care.
Conclusions
This study showed an increased rate of acute care admissions for both TBI and nTBI with age. It also provided additional support for falls prevention strategies to prevent injury leading to cognitive disability with costly human and economic consequences. Implications for increased numbers of people with ABI are discussed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-97
PMCID: PMC3849645  PMID: 24060144
Brain injury; Epidemiology; Outcomes
3.  Ethnic Differences in Discharge Destination Among Older Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury 
Objective
To estimate the association between ethnicity and discharge destination in older patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Design
A retrospective analysis.
Setting
Nationally representative sample of older patients from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation in 2002 and 2003.
Participants
Patients (N=9240) aged 65 years or older who received inpatient rehabilitation services for TBI.
Interventions
Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures
Discharge destination (home, assisted living facility, institution) and ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic).
Results
Multinomial logit models showed that older Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 –3.02) and older blacks (OR=2; 95% CI, 1.55–2.59) with TBI were significantly more likely to be discharged home than older whites with TBI, after adjusting for relevant risk factors. Older blacks were also 78% less likely (OR = .22; 95% CI, .08–.60) to be discharged to an assisted living facility than whites after adjusting for relevant risk factors.
Conclusions
Our findings indicate that older minority patients with TBI were significantly more likely to be discharged home than white patients with TBI. Studies are needed to investigate underlying factors associated with this ethnic difference.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2007.08.143
PMCID: PMC2659645  PMID: 18226645
Elderly; Ethnic groups; Head injuries; Rehabilitation
4.  Race and Insurance Disparities in Discharge to Rehabilitation for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2013;30(24):2057-2065.
Abstract
Post-acute inpatient rehabilitation services are associated with improved functional outcomes among persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to investigate racial and insurance-based disparities in access to rehabilitation. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005–2010 were analyzed using standard descriptive methods and multivariable logistic regression to assess race- and insurance-based differences in access to inpatient rehabilitation after TBI, controlling for patient- and hospital-level variables. Patients with moderate to severe TBI aged 18–64 years with complete data on race and insurance status discharged alive from inpatient care were eligible for study. Among 307,675 TBI survivors meeting study criteria and potentially eligible for discharge to rehabilitation, 66% were white, 12% black, 15% Hispanic, 2% Asian, and 5% other ethnic minorities. Most whites (70%), Asians (70%), blacks (59%), and many Hispanics (49%) had insurance. Compared with insured whites, insured blacks had reduced odds of discharge to rehabilitation (odds ratio [OR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.95). Also, insured Hispanics (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44–0.60) and insured Asians (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.39–0.73) were less likely to be discharged to rehabilitation than insured whites. Compared with insured whites, uninsured whites (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.51–0.63), uninsured blacks (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.26–0.42), uninsured Hispanics (OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.22–0.33), and uninsured Asians (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.22–0.73) were less likely to be discharged to rehabilitation. Race and insurance are strong predictors of discharge to rehabilitation among adult TBI survivors in the United States. Efforts are needed to understand and eliminate disparities in access to rehabilitation after TBI.
doi:10.1089/neu.2013.3091
PMCID: PMC3868359  PMID: 23972035
disparities; epidemiology; rehabilitation; traumatic brain injury
5.  Mood after Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87414.
Objective
To evaluate the course of mood and identify its determinants up to 3 years after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Design
Prospective cohort study.
Patients
Patients hospitalised with moderate to severe TBI, who survived until hospital discharge.
Methods
At 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months post-injury, mood was assessed with the Wimbledon Self-Report Scale (WSRS) in the home environment. Motor and cognitive outcome were assessed with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM), respectively. Repeated measurements analysis was performed to determine the course of mood over time and its determinants.
Results
A total of 98 patients (72% men), aged 33 (SD 12.9) years, 78% with severe TBI, was included. Mood did not change until 18 months post TBI, after which it significantly improved (p = 0.016). The FIM score significantly improved up to 18 months post-TBI (p = 0.012) and the FAM score up to 12 months post-TBI (p = 0.000), after which both remained stable. In univariable analyses, time post TBI (β = −0.04, p = 0.008), initial discharge destination (β = 2.13, p = 0.010), FIM (β = −0.22, p<0.001) and FAM (β = −0.29, p<0.001) were significant predictors of mood. In a multivariable mixed model, time post TBI, FAM score, and discharge destination were the strongest predictors of mood. Higher FAM scores were related to better mood scores (β = −0.28, p<0.001). Patients initially discharged home tended to have better mood scores over time than patients first treated in inpatient rehabilitation centers or nursing homes (β = 1.27; p = 0.071).
Conclusion
Mood starts to improve 18 months after TBI when motor and cognitive outcome have stabilized. Time post TBI, cognitive outcome and initial discharge destination are the strongest predictors of mood up to 3 years after TBI. These data suggest that mood scores of patients with moderate and severe TBI should be frequently monitored, especially in rehabilitation centers and nursing homes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087414
PMCID: PMC3913594  PMID: 24503864
6.  Change in Inpatient Rehabilitation Admissions for Individuals With Traumatic Brain Injury After Implementation of the Medicare Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Prospective Payment System 
Objective
To evaluate the impact of Medicare’s inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) prospective payment system (PPS) on use of inpatient rehabilitation for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Design
Retrospective cohort study of patients with TBI.
Setting
One hundred twenty-three level I and II trauma centers across the U.S. who contributed data to the National Trauma Data Bank.
Participants
Patients (N = 135,842) with TBI and an Abbreviated Injury Score of the head of 2 or greater admitted to trauma centers between 1995 and 2004.
Interventions
None.
Main Outcome Measure
Discharge location: IRF, skilled nursing facility, home, and other hospitals.
Results
Compared with inpatient rehabilitation admissions before IRF PPS came into effect, demographic characteristics of admitted patients changed. Those admitted to acute care trauma centers after PPS was enacted (January 2002) were older and nonwhite. No differences were found in rates of injury between men and women. Over time, there was a significant drop in the percent of patients being discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, which varied by region, but was found across all insurance types. In a logistic regression, after controlling for patient characteristics (age, sex, race), injury characteristics (cause, severity), insurance type, and facility, the odds of being discharged to an IRF after a TBI decreased 16% after Medicare’s IRF PPS system was enacted.
Conclusions
The enactment of the Medicare PPS appears to be associated with a reduction in the chance that patients receive inpatient rehabilitation treatment after a TBI. The impact of these changes on the cost, quality of care, and patient outcome is unknown and should be addressed in future studies.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2012.04.030
PMCID: PMC4207214  PMID: 22840827
Brain injuries; Medicare; Rehabilitation
7.  A systematic review protocol for measuring comorbidity in inpatient rehabilitation for non-traumatic brain injury 
Systematic Reviews  2015;4(1):14.
Background
Comorbidity can affect health-care utilization and outcomes, and the results and interpretation of risk adjustment studies that attempt to predict rehabilitation utilization and outcomes are influenced by the choice of comorbidity measurement. Although the identification of an appropriate measurement has been conducted in some populations and outcomes, this information is currently lacking for the non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI) population in inpatient rehabilitation settings. As such, this is a systematic review protocol to survey the methods used to measure comorbidities in the rehabilitation setting for patients with nTBI.
Methods/design
MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments will be systematically searched using the concepts ‘nTBI,’ ‘comorbidity,’ and ‘rehabilitation.’ Grey matters and the reference list of eligible articles will also be searched. Study selection will be performed independently by two reviewers based on predetermined eligibility criteria through two rounds of screening using, first, the title and abstract, followed by full-text. Extracted information will include study purpose, design, and setting; data source and type; outcomes variables; statistical methods; comorbidity measurement method, rationale, justification, or validation; and results involving comorbidity. The data will be tabulated and narratively synthesized. Meta-analyses will be performed if appropriate.
Systematic review registration
This protocol has not been registered with PROSPERO.
Discussion
This protocol provides a systematic method for surveying current practice as well as monitoring the progress on comorbidity measurement methodology and effects of comorbidity on rehabilitation outcomes for patients with nTBI. The selection of an appropriate comorbidity measurement method has implications for the interpretation of both descriptive and risk adjustment studies, and thus, the validity of evidence used to inform planning and delivery of services.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2046-4053-4-14) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-4-14
PMCID: PMC4328947  PMID: 25634135
Brain injury; Rehabilitation; Health services; Comorbidity; Risk adjustment; Epidemiology; Systematic review
8.  Physiotherapy Rehabilitation After Total Knee or Hip Replacement 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this health technology policy analysis was to determine, where, how, and when physiotherapy services are best delivered to optimize functional outcomes for patients after they undergo primary (first-time) total hip replacement or total knee replacement, and to determine the Ontario-specific economic impact of the best delivery strategy. The objectives of the systematic review were as follows:
To determine the effectiveness of inpatient physiotherapy after discharge from an acute care hospital compared with outpatient physiotherapy delivered in either a clinic-based or home-based setting for primary total joint replacement patients
To determine the effectiveness of outpatient physiotherapy delivered by a physiotherapist in either a clinic-based or home-based setting in addition to a home exercise program compared with a home exercise program alone for primary total joint replacement patients
To determine the effectiveness of preoperative exercise for people who are scheduled to receive primary total knee or hip replacement surgery
Clinical Need
Total hip replacements and total knee replacements are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in Ontario. Physiotherapy rehabilitation after first-time total hip or knee replacement surgery is accepted as the standard and essential treatment. The aim is to maximize a person’s functionality and independence and minimize complications such as hip dislocation (for hip replacements), wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism.
The Therapy
The physiotherapy rehabilitation routine has 4 components: therapeutic exercise, transfer training, gait training, and instruction in the activities of daily living. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for people who have had total joint replacement surgery varies in where, how, and when it is delivered. In Ontario, after discharge from an acute care hospital, people who have had a primary total knee or hip replacement may receive inpatient or outpatient physiotherapy. Inpatient physiotherapy is delivered in a rehabilitation hospital or specialized hospital unit. Outpatient physiotherapy is done either in an outpatient clinic (clinic-based) or in the person’s home (home-based). Home-based physiotherapy may include practising an exercise program at home with or without supplemental support from a physiotherapist.
Finally, physiotherapy rehabilitation may be administered at several points after surgery, including immediately postoperatively (within the first 5 days) and in the early recovery period (within the first 3 months) after discharge. There is a growing interest in whether physiotherapy should start before surgery. A variety of practises exist, and evidence regarding the optimal pre- and post-acute course of rehabilitation to obtain the best outcomes is needed.
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy, which included searching the databases of Ovid MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PEDro from 1995 to 2005. English-language articles including systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and studies with a sample size of greater than 10 patients were included. Studies had to include patients undergoing primary total hip or total knee replacement, aged 18 years of age or older, and they had to have investigated one of the following comparisons: inpatient rehabilitation versus outpatient (clinic- or home-based therapy) rehabilitation, land-based post-acute care physiotherapy delivered by a physiotherapist compared with patient self-administered exercise and a land-based exercise program before surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative physical functioning. Secondary outcomes included the patient’s assessment of therapeutic effect (overall improvement), perceived pain intensity, health services utilization, treatment side effects, and adverse events
The quality of the methods of the included studies was assessed using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. After this, a summary of the biases threatening study validity was determined. Four methodological biases were considered: selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias, and detection bias. A meta-analysis was conducted when adequate data were available from 2 or more studies and where there was no statistical or clinical heterogeneity among studies. The GRADE system was used to summarize the overall quality of evidence.
Summary of Findings
The search yielded 422 citations; of these, 12 were included in the review including 10 primary studies (9 RCTs, 1 non-RCT) and 2 systematic reviews.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat review included 2 primary studies (N = 334) that examined the effectiveness of an inpatient physiotherapy rehabilitation program compared with an outpatient home-based physiotherapy program on functional outcomes after total knee or hip replacement surgery. One study, available only as an abstract, found no difference in functional outcome at 1 year after surgery (TKR or THR) between the treatments. The other study was an observational study that found that patients who are younger than 71 years of age on average, who do not live alone, and who do not have comorbid illnesses recover adequate function with outpatient home-based physiotherapy. However results were only measured up to 3 months after surgery, and the outcome measure they used is not considered the best one for physical functioning.
Three primary studies (N = 360) were reviewed that tested the effectiveness of outpatient home-based or clinic-based physiotherapy in addition to a self-administered home exercise program, compared with a self-administered exercise program only or in addition to using another therapy (phone calls or continuous passive movement), on postoperative physical functioning after primary TKR surgery. Two of the studies reported no difference in change from baseline in flexion range of motion between those patients receiving outpatient or home-based physiotherapy and doing a home exercise program compared with patients who did a home exercise program only with or without continuous passive movement. The other study reported no difference in the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores between patients receiving clinic-based physiotherapy and practising a home exercise program and those who received monitoring phone calls and did a home exercise program after TKR surgery.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed two systematic reviews evaluating the effects of preoperative exercise on postoperative physical functioning. One concluded that preoperative exercise is not effective in improving functional recovery or pain after TKR and any effects after THR could not be adequately determined. The other concluded that there was inconclusive evidence to determine the benefits of preoperative exercise on functional recovery after TKR. Because 2 primary studies were added to the published literature since the publication of these systematic reviews the Medical Advisory Secretariat revisited the question of effectiveness of a preoperative exercise program for patients scheduled for TKR ad THR surgery.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat also reviewed 3 primary studies (N = 184) that tested the effectiveness of preoperative exercise beginning 4-6 weeks before surgery on postoperative outcomes after primary TKR surgery. All 3 studies reported negative findings with regard to the effectiveness of preoperative exercise to improve physical functioning after TKR surgery. However, 2 failed to show an effect of the preoperative exercise program before surgery in those patients receiving preoperative exercise. The third study did not measure functional outcome immediately before surgery in the preoperative exercise treatment group; therefore the study’s authors could not document an effect of the preoperative exercise program before surgery. Regarding health services utilization, 2 of the studies did not find significant differences in either the length of the acute care hospital stay or the inpatient rehabilitation care setting between patients treated with a preoperative exercise program and those not treated. The third study did not measure health services utilization.
These results must be interpreted within the limitations and the biases of each study. Negative results do not necessarily support a lack of treatment effect but may be attributed to a type II statistical error.
Finally, the Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed 2 primary studies (N = 136) that examined the effectiveness of preoperative exercise on postoperative functional outcomes after primary THR surgery. One study did not support the effectiveness of an exercise program beginning 8 weeks before surgery. However, results from the other did support the effectiveness of an exercise program 8 weeks before primary THR surgery on pain and functional outcomes 1 week before and 3 weeks after surgery.
Conclusions
Based on the evidence, the Medical Advisory Secretariat reached the following conclusions with respect to physiotherapy rehabilitation and physical functioning 1 year after primary TKR or THR surgery:
There is high-quality evidence from 1 large RCT to support the use of home-based physiotherapy instead of inpatient physiotherapy after primary THR or TKR surgery.
There is low-to-moderate quality evidence from 1 large RCT to support the conclusion that receiving a monitoring phone call from a physiotherapist and practising home exercises is comparable to receiving clinic-based physiotherapy and practising home exercises for people who have had primary TKR surgery. However, results may not be generalizable to those who have had THR surgery.
There is moderate evidence to suggest that an exercise program beginning 4 to 6 weeks before primary TKR surgery is not effective.
There is moderate evidence to support the effectiveness of an exercise program beginning 8 weeks before surgery to improve physical functioning 3 weeks after THR surgery.
PMCID: PMC3382414  PMID: 23074477
9.  Mobility Status during Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Comparison of Patients with Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury 
Objective
To compare the mobility status (admission and discharge status, in addition to change in status) between patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) during inpatient rehabilitation and to determine the relationship between mobility status and outcome variables including length of stay.
Design
Prospective study using a consecutive sample
Setting
Freestanding tertiary rehabilitation centre
Participants
A total of 210 stroke and traumatic brain injury patients consecutively admitted for inpatient rehabilitation.
Main Outcome Measures
Clinical Outcome Variable Scale, a 13 item scale of mobility status (measured on admission and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation) and rehabilitation length of stay.
Results
With age and time since injury controlled in the model, the TBI group demonstrated a significantly higher mobility status on admission and discharge over the stroke group, but the change (improvement) in mobility status was not different. The admission mobility status accounted for 61% and 60% of variability of the discharge mobility status for the stroke and TBI groups, respectively. The admission mobility status accounted for 40% and 50% of the variability in rehabilitation length of stay for the stroke and TBI groups, respectively. Either the admission mobility status or the physical therapist’s prediction of the discharge status could be used to determine the actual discharge mobility status, although the physical therapist’s predictions were more accurate than using a statistical model.
Conclusions
The TBI group demonstrated a higher mobility status at admission and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation than the stroke group, however, the rate of improvement (improvement in mobility status per day) was not different between groups. Admission mobility status using the Clinical Outcome Variable Scale, was an excellent predictor of discharge mobility status and rehabilitation length of stay in stroke and TBI patients.
PMCID: PMC3478323  PMID: 11932849 CAMSID: cams2408
Brain Injuries; rehabilitation; outcome assessment
10.  Representativeness of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database 
Objective
To determine whether the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS-NDB) is representative of individuals aged 16 years and older admitted for acute, inpatient rehabilitation in the United States with a primary diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Design
Secondary analysis of existing datasets.
Setting
Acute inpatient rehabilitation facilities.
Participants
Patients 16 years of age and older with a primary rehabilitation diagnosis of TBI.
Interventions
None.
Main Outcome Measure
demographic characteristics, functional status and hospital length of stay.
Results
From October 2001 through December 2007 patients included in the TBIMS-NDB were largely representative of all individuals 16 years and older admitted for rehabilitation in the U.S. with a primary diagnosis of TBI. The major difference in distribution was age—the TBIMS-NDB cohort did not include as many patients over age 65 as were admitted for rehabilitation with a primary diagnosis of TBI in the United States. Distributional differences for age-related characteristics were observed; however, groups of patients partitioned at age 65 differed minimally, especially the under 65 subset. Regardless of age, the proportion of patients with a rehabilitation stay of 1-9 days was larger nationwide. Nationwide admissions showed an age distribution similar to patients discharged alive from acute care with moderate, severe or penetrating TBI. The proportion of patients age 70 and older admitted for TBI rehabilitation in the United States increased every year, a trend that was not evident in the general population, TBIMS-NDB or among TBI patients in acute care.
Conclusions
These results provide substantial empirical evidence that the TBIMS-NDB is representative of patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the U.S. Researchers utilizing the TBIMS-NDB may want to adjust statistically for the lower percentage of patients over age 65 or those with stays less than 10 days.
doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e3182238cdd
PMCID: PMC3410043  PMID: 21897288
craniocerebral trauma; traumatic brain injury; rehabilitation; methodology
11.  Relationship of speech-language pathology inpatient rehabilitation interventions and patient characteristics to outcomes following spinal cord injury: The SCIRehab Project 
Background/objective
Describe associations of patient characteristics and speech–language pathology (SLP) interventions provided during impatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) to outcomes at discharge and 1-year post-injury.
Methods
Speech–language pathologists at six inpatient rehabilitation centers documented details of treatment provided. Least squares regression modeling was used to predict outcomes at discharge and 1-year injury anniversary. Cognitive, participation, and mood outcomes for a subsample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive-communication limitations (CCLs) were examined.
Results
SLP treatment factors explain a small amount of variation in cognitive Functional Independence Measure (FIM), participation, and mood. Variation explained by treatment factors for cognitive outcomes at the time of discharge increased when the patient group was more homogeneous (patients with TBI and CCLs). More time in SLP cognitive-communication interventions had a negative relationship, while longer length of stay was positive. The added explanatory power was not seen for similar outcomes at 1-year post-injury.
Conclusion
Patients with SCI who have the greatest need for interventions to address cognitive limitations due to TBI receive the most SLP cognitive-communication treatment and show the greatest amount of improvement during rehabilitation. Their cognitive functioning remained impaired at discharge; this likely accounts for the consistent finding that more hours of SLP cognitive-communication treatment is associated with lower cognitive FIM scores at discharge. Future research on individuals with dual SCI and TBI should include more comprehensive assessment of individual differences in cognitive performance in order to better examine the complex relationships between SLP treatments and outcomes.
Note
This is the fifth of nine articles in this SCIRehab series.
doi:10.1179/2045772312Y.0000000063
PMCID: PMC3522897  PMID: 23318037
Spinal cord injuries; Rehabilitation; Traumatic brain injury; Dual diagnosis; Practice-based evidence; Speech–language pathology; Participation; Cognitive outcomes
12.  Influence of Sex and Age on Inpatient Rehabilitation Outcomes Among Older Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury 
Objectives
Assess the influence of sex and age on inpatient rehabilitation outcomes in a large national sample of older adults with TBI.
Design
Prospective case series.
Setting
848 inpatient rehabilitation facilities that subscribe to the UDSMR.
Participants
Patients (n = 18,413) aged 65 years and older admitted for inpatient rehabilitation following TBI from 2005 through 2007.
Intervention
None.
Main Outcome Measures
Rehabilitation length of stay, discharge FIM motor and cognitive ratings, discharge setting, and scheduled home health services at discharge.
Results
Mean age of the sample was 79±7 years and 47% were women. In multi-variable models, higher age was associated with shorter lengths of stay (p < .001), lower discharge FIM motor and cognitive ratings (p < .001), and greater odds of home health services at discharge (p < .001). Women demonstrated shorter lengths of stay (p = .006) and greater odds of being scheduled for home health services at discharge (p < .001) than men. The sex-by-age interaction term was not significant in any outcome model. Sex differences and trends were consistent across the entire age range of the sample.
Conclusions
Sex and age patterns in rehabilitation outcomes among older adults with TBI varied by outcome. The current findings related to rehabilitation length of stay may be helpful for facility-level resource planning. Additional studies are warranted to identify the factors associated with returning to home and to assess the long-term benefits of combined inpatient rehabilitation and home health services for older adults with TBI.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2009.09.017
PMCID: PMC4148208  PMID: 20103395
aged; brain injuries; rehabilitation
13.  Examining acute rehabilitation outcomes for children with total functional dependence after traumatic brain injury: a pilot study 
Objective
To examine in a pilot cohort factors associated with functional outcome at discharge and three-month follow-up following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation in children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who entered rehabilitation with the lowest level of functional skills.
Participants
39 children and adolescents (3 to 18 years) who sustained a severe TBI and had the lowest possible rating at rehabilitation admission on the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM total score = 18).
Methods
Retrospective review of data collected as part of routine clinical care.
Results
At discharge, 59% of the children were partially dependent for basic activities while 41% remained dependent for basic activities. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, time to follow commands, and time from injury to rehabilitation admission were correlated with functional status at discharge. Time to follow commands and time from injury to rehabilitation admission were correlated with functional status at three-month follow-up. Changes in functional status during the first few weeks of admission were associated with functional status at discharge and follow-up.
Conclusion
Even children with the most severe brain injuries, who enter rehabilitation completely dependent for all daily activities, have the potential to make significant gains in functioning by discharge and in the following few months. Assessment of functional status early in the course of rehabilitation contributes to the ability to predict outcome from severe TBI.
doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e31824da031
PMCID: PMC3470756  PMID: 22613944
traumatic brain injury; children and adolescents; functional independence measure; outcome; rehabilitation
14.  Mental Trauma Experienced by Caregivers of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 
Trauma Monthly  2013;18(2):56-61.
Context
As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contributor of TBI or DAI. The essence of trauma is the infliction of pain and suffering and having to bear the pain (i.e. by the TBI survivor) and the burden of having to take care and manage and rehabilitate the TBI survivor (i.e. by the TBI caregiver). Moreover many caregivers are not trained for their care giving task, thus compounding the stress of care giving and rehabilitating patients. Most research on TBI including DAI, focus on the survivors and not on the caregivers. TBI injury and its effects and impacts remain the core question of most studies, which are largely based on the quantitative approach.
Evidence Acquisition
Qualitative research can better assess human sufferings such as in the case of DAI trauma. While quantitative research can measure many psychometric parameters to assess some aspects of trauma conditions, qualitative research is able to fully reveal the meaning, ramification and experience of TBI trauma. Both care giving and rehabilitation are overwhelmingly demanding; hence , they may complicate the caregivers’ stress. However, some positive outcomes also exist.
Results
Caregivers involved in caring and rehabilitation of TBI victims may become mentally traumatized. Posttraumatic recovery of the TBI survivor can enhance the entire family’s closeness and bonding as well as improve the mental status of the caregiver.
Conclusions
A long-term longitudinal study encompassing integrated research is needed to fully understand the traumatic experiences of caregivers. Unless research on TBI or DAI trauma is given its proper attention, the burden of trauma and injury on societies will continue to exacerbate globally.
doi:10.5812/traumamon.11522
PMCID: PMC3860681  PMID: 24350153
Wounds and Injuries; Brain Injuries; Rehabilitation; Diffuse Axonal Injury
15.  Association of Care by Hospitalists on Discharge Destination and 30-day Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke 
Medical Care  2011;49(8):701-707.
Objectives
The use of hospitalists is increasing. Hospitalists have been associated with reductions in length of stay and associated costs while not negatively impacting outcomes. We examine care for stroke patients because it requires complex care in the hospital and has high post discharge complications. We assessed the association of care provided by a hospitalist with length of stay, discharge destination, 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, and 30-day emergency department visits.
Methods
This study used the 5% Medicare sample from 2002 to 2006. Models included demographic variables, prior health status, type of admission and hospital, and region. Multinomial logit models, generalized estimating equations, Cox proportional hazard models, and propensity score analyses were explored in the analysis.
Results
After adjusting models for covariates, hospitalists were associated with increased odds of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation or other facilities compared with discharge home (Odds Ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07–1.43 and Odds Ratio, 1.34; 95% CI 1.05–1.69, respectively). Mean length of stay was 0.37 days lower for patients in hospitalist care compared to nonhospitalist care. This reduction in length of stay was not appreciably changed after adjusting for discharge destination. Hospitalist care was not associated with differences in 30-day emergency department use or mortality. Readmission rates were higher for patients in hospitalist care (Hazard, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11–1.52).
Conclusions
Hospitalists are associated with reduced length of stay and higher rates of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation. The higher readmission rates should be further explored.
doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e3182166cb6
PMCID: PMC3304585  PMID: 21765377
stroke; hospitalist; length of stay; discharge destination
16.  ED disposition of the Glasgow Coma Scale 13 to 15 traumatic brain injury patient: analysis of the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI study☆,☆☆ 
Objective
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients are frequently admitted to high levels of care despite limited evidence suggesting benefit. Such decisions may contribute to the significant cost of caring for mTBI patients. Understanding the factors that drive disposition decision making and how disposition is associated with outcomes is necessary for developing an evidence-base supporting disposition decisions. We evaluated factors associated with emergency department triage of mTBI patients to 1 of 3 levels of care: home, inpatient floor, or intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods
This multicenter, prospective, cohort study included patients with isolated head trauma, a cranial computed tomography as part of routine care, and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13 to 15. Data analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression.
Results
Of the 304 patients included, 167 (55%) were discharged home, 76 (25%) were admitted to the inpatient floor, and 61 (20%) were admitted to the ICU. In the multivariable model, admission to the ICU, compared with floor admission, varied by study site, odds ratio (OR) 0.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06–0.57); antiplatelet/anticoagulation therapy, OR 7.46 (95% CI, 1.79–31.13); skull fracture, OR 7.60 (95% CI, 2.44–23.73); and lower GCS, OR 2.36 (95% CI, 1.05–5.30). No difference in outcome was observed between the 3 levels of care.
Conclusion
Clinical characteristics and local practice patterns contribute to mTBI disposition decisions. Level of care was not associated with outcomes. Intracranial hemorrhage, GCS 13 to 14, skull fracture, and current antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy influenced disposition decisions.
doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2014.04.003
PMCID: PMC4283794  PMID: 24857248
17.  Residual Cognitive Disability after Completion of Inpatient Rehabilitation among Injured Children 
The Journal of pediatrics  2013;164(1):130-135.
Objective
To determine the prevalence and nature of residual cognitive disability after inpatient rehabilitation for children aged 7-18 years with traumatic injuries.
Study design
This retrospective cohort study included children aged 7-18 years in the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation who underwent inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic injuries in 523 facilities from 2002-2011. Traumatic injuries were identified by standardized Medicare Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility–Patient Assessment Instrument codes. Cognitive outcomes were measured by the Functional Independence Measure instrument. A validated, categorical staging system derived from responses to the items in the cognitive domain of the functional independence measure was used and consisted of clinically relevant levels of cognitive achievement from stage 1 (total cognitive disability) to stage 7 (completely independent cognitive function).
Results
There were 13 798 injured children who completed inpatient rehabilitation during the 10-year period. On admission to inpatient rehabilitation, patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) had more cognitive disability (median stage 2) than those with spinal cord injury or other injuries (median stage 5). Cognitive functioning improved for all patients, but children with TBI still tended to have significant residual cognitive disability (median stage on discharge, 4).
Conclusions
Injured children gained cognitive functionality throughout inpatient rehabilitation. Those with TBI had more severe cognitive disability on admission and more residual disability on discharge. This is important not only for patient and family expectation setting but also for resource and service planning, as discharge from inpatient rehabilitation is a critical milestone for reintegration into society for children with serious injury.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.09.022
PMCID: PMC3967408  PMID: 24268846
18.  Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this analysis was to compare hospital-at-home care with inpatient hospital care for patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who present to the emergency department (ED).
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. This airflow limitation is usually both progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. The natural history of COPD involves periods of acute-onset worsening of symptoms, particularly increased breathlessness, cough, and/or sputum, that go beyond normal day-to-day variations; these are known as acute exacerbations.
Two-thirds of COPD exacerbations are caused by an infection of the tracheobronchial tree or by air pollution; the cause in the remaining cases is unknown. On average, patients with moderate to severe COPD experience 2 or 3 exacerbations each year.
Exacerbations have an important impact on patients and on the health care system. For the patient, exacerbations result in decreased quality of life, potentially permanent losses of lung function, and an increased risk of mortality. For the health care system, exacerbations of COPD are a leading cause of ED visits and hospitalizations, particularly in winter.
Technology
Hospital-at-home programs offer an alternative for patients who present to the ED with an exacerbation of COPD and require hospital admission for their treatment. Hospital-at-home programs provide patients with visits in their home by medical professionals (typically specialist nurses) who monitor the patients, alter patients’ treatment plans if needed, and in some programs, provide additional care such as pulmonary rehabilitation, patient and caregiver education, and smoking cessation counselling.
There are 2 types of hospital-at-home programs: admission avoidance and early discharge hospital-at-home. In the former, admission avoidance hospital-at-home, after patients are assessed in the ED, they are prescribed the necessary medications and additional care needed (e.g., oxygen therapy) and then sent home where they receive regular visits from a medical professional. In early discharge hospital-at-home, after being assessed in the ED, patients are admitted to the hospital where they receive the initial phase of their treatment. These patients are discharged into a hospital-at-home program before the exacerbation has resolved. In both cases, once the exacerbation has resolved, the patient is discharged from the hospital-at-home program and no longer receives visits in his/her home.
In the models that exist to date, hospital-at-home programs differ from other home care programs because they deal with higher acuity patients who require higher acuity care, and because hospitals retain the medical and legal responsibility for patients. Furthermore, patients requiring home care services may require such services for long periods of time or indefinitely, whereas patients in hospital-at-home programs require and receive the services for a short period of time only.
Hospital-at-home care is not appropriate for all patients with acute exacerbations of COPD. Ineligible patients include: those with mild exacerbations that can be managed without admission to hospital; those who require admission to hospital; and those who cannot be safely treated in a hospital-at-home program either for medical reasons and/or because of a lack of, or poor, social support at home.
The proposed possible benefits of hospital-at-home for treatment of exacerbations of COPD include: decreased utilization of health care resources by avoiding hospital admission and/or reducing length of stay in hospital; decreased costs; increased health-related quality of life for patients and caregivers when treated at home; and reduced risk of hospital-acquired infections in this susceptible patient population.
Ontario Context
No hospital-at-home programs for the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD were identified in Ontario. Patients requiring acute care for their exacerbations are treated in hospitals.
Research Question
What is the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of hospital-at-home care compared with inpatient hospital care of acute exacerbations of COPD?
Research Methods
Literature Search
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on August 5, 2010, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database for studies published from January 1, 1990, to August 5, 2010. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists and health technology assessment websites were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the systematic search.
Inclusion Criteria
English language full-text reports;
health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs);
studies performed exclusively in patients with a diagnosis of COPD or studies including patients with COPD as well as patients with other conditions, if results are reported for COPD patients separately;
studies performed in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD who present to the ED;
studies published between January 1, 1990, and August 5, 2010;
studies comparing hospital-at-home and inpatient hospital care for patients with acute exacerbations of COPD;
studies that include at least 1 of the outcomes of interest (listed below).
Cochrane Collaboration reviews have defined hospital-at-home programs as those that provide patients with active treatment for their acute exacerbation in their home by medical professionals for a limited period of time (in this case, until the resolution of the exacerbation). If a hospital-at-home program had not been available, these patients would have been admitted to hospital for their treatment.
Exclusion Criteria
< 18 years of age
animal studies
duplicate publications
grey literature
Outcomes of Interest
Patient/clinical outcomes
mortality
lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second)
health-related quality of life
patient or caregiver preference
patient or caregiver satisfaction with care
complications
Health system outcomes
hospital readmissions
length of stay in hospital and hospital-at-home
ED visits
transfer to long-term care
days to readmission
eligibility for hospital-at-home
Statistical Methods
When possible, results were pooled using Review Manager 5 Version 5.1; otherwise, results were summarized descriptively. Data from RCTs were analyzed using intention-to-treat protocols. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was done assigning all missing data/withdrawals to the event. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. A priori subgroup analyses were planned for the acuity of hospital-at-home program, type of hospital-at-home program (early discharge or admission avoidance), and severity of the patients’ COPD. Additional subgroup analyses were conducted as needed based on the identified literature. Post hoc sample size calculations were performed using STATA 10.1.
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed, taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review: 1 health technology assessment, 5 systematic reviews, and 7 RCTs.
The following conclusions are based on low to very low quality of evidence. The reviewed evidence was based on RCTs that were inadequately powered to observe differences between hospital-at-home and inpatient hospital care for most outcomes, so there is a strong possibility of type II error. Given the low to very low quality of evidence, these conclusions must be considered with caution.
Approximately 21% to 37% of patients with acute exacerbations of COPD who present to the ED may be eligible for hospital-at-home care.
Of the patients who are eligible for care, some may refuse to participate in hospital-at-home care.
Eligibility for hospital-at-home care may be increased depending on the design of the hospital-at-home program, such as the size of the geographical service area for hospital-at-home and the hours of operation for patient assessment and entry into hospital-at-home.
Hospital-at-home care for acute exacerbations of COPD was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in the risk of mortality and hospital readmissions compared with inpatient hospital care during 2- to 6-month follow-up.
Limited, very low quality evidence suggests that hospital readmissions are delayed in patients who received hospital-at-home care compared with those who received inpatient hospital care (mean additional days before readmission comparing hospital-at-home to inpatient hospital care ranged from 4 to 38 days).
There is insufficient evidence to determine whether hospital-at-home care, compared with inpatient hospital care, is associated with improved lung function.
The majority of studies did not find significant differences between hospital-at-home and inpatient hospital care for a variety of health-related quality of life measures at follow-up. However, follow-up may have been too late to observe an impact of hospital-at-home care on quality of life.
A conclusion about the impact of hospital-at-home care on length of stay for the initial exacerbation (defined as days in hospital or days in hospital plus hospital-at-home care for inpatient hospital and hospital-at-home, respectively) could not be determined because of limited and inconsistent evidence.
Patient and caregiver satisfaction with care is high for both hospital-at-home and inpatient hospital care.
PMCID: PMC3384361  PMID: 23074420
19.  A Gel-Based Proteomic Comparison of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid between Inflicted and Non-Inflicted Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury 
Journal of neurotrauma  2007;24(1):43-53.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of traumatic death in infancy, and inflicted TBI (iTBI) is the predominant cause. Like other central nervous system pathologies, TBI changes the composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which may represent a unique clinical window on brain pathophysiology. Proteomic analysis, including two-dimensional (2-D) difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), was used to compare the CSF protein profile of two pooled samples from pediatric iTBI (n = 13) and non-inflicted TBI (nTBI; n = 13) patients with severe injury. CSF proteins from iTBI and nTBI were fluorescently labeled in triplicate using different fluorescent Cy dyes and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Approximately 250 protein spots were found in CSF, with 90% between-gel reproducibility of the 2-D gel. Following in-gel digestion, the tryptic peptides were analyzed by MS for protein identification. The acute phase reactant, haptoglobin (HP) isoforms, showed an approximate fourfold increase in nTBI versus iTBI. In contrast, the levels of prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) and cystatin C (CC) were 12-fold and sevenfold higher in iTBI versus nTBI, respectively. The changes of HP, PGDS, and CC were confirmed by Western blot. These initial results with conventional gel-based proteomics show new protein changes that may ultimately help to understand pathophysiological differences between iTBI and nTBI.
doi:10.1089/neu.2006.0061
PMCID: PMC2721471  PMID: 17263669
acute phase response; cerebrospinal fluid; child abuse; haptoglobin; mass spectrometry; shaken baby syndrome; two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
20.  Injury severity variables as predictors of WeeFIM scores in pediatric TBI: Time to follow commands is best 
After pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), early prognosis of expected function is important for optimizing care. The power of several common brain injury severity measures for predicting functional outcome in children with TBI was investigated; the severity variables studied were Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, time to follow commands (TFC), duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and total duration of impaired consciousness (TFC+PTA). Outcome was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation (n = 120) and, in a subset of children, at 3 months following discharge. Correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted using GCS, TFC, PTA, and TFC+PTA to predict age-corrected WeeFIM scores. Models in which TFC and PTA duration were entered as separate variables and as a combined variable (TFC+PTA) were all significantly predictive of WeeFIM scores at discharge; however, TFC accounted for the greatest portion of variance in WeeFIM scores. Among children with moderate to severe TBI who received inpatient rehabilitation, TFC was the best predictor of general functional outcome at discharge and follow-up. Our findings highlight the need for careful and consistent assessment of TFC to assist in predicting functional outcomes as early and accurately as possible.
PMCID: PMC2868267  PMID: 20467579
Traumatic brain injury; children; outcome; coma; post-traumatic amnesia
21.  Prevalence of Comorbidity and its Association with Traumatic Brain Injury and Outcomes in Older Adults 
The study aims were to examine the association between age, comorbidity, and cause of injury in older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI); and to determine which comorbidities relate to mortality, length of stay, and functional outcome at hospital discharge, controlling for initial injury severity, age, and sex. A retrospective cohort study design was used; clinical and outcome trauma registry data were obtained for 196 adults 55 and older with TBI. The majority had at least one comorbid condition (e.g., hypertension, alcohol abuse). In-hospital mortality was 31%. Among the oldest-old, motor vehicle collisions and falls were significantly associated with specific chronic diseases. Prior myocardial infarction was significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death. Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale score were predictive of discharge function, but comorbidity did not add significantly to the model. Primary TBI prevention efforts in older adults must consider the impact of comorbidity and cause of injury, particularly in the oldest-old. Alcohol abuse is common in older adults with TBI; screening should be conducted and interventions developed to prevent future injury. Future study is warranted to understand the interplay between pathophysiology of comorbid disease and injury and how to best manage rehabilitation within the context of aging.
doi:10.3928/19404921-20111206-02
PMCID: PMC3569845  PMID: 22165997
22.  A Pilot Project of Early Integrated Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore 
Objective. Document acute neurosurgical and rehabilitation parameters of patients of all traumatic brain injury (TBI) severities and determine whether early screening along with very early integrated TBI rehabilitation changes functional outcomes. Methods. Prospective study involving all patients with TBI admitted to a neurosurgical department of a tertiary hospital. They were assessed within 72 hours of admission by the rehabilitation team and received twice weekly rehabilitation reviews. Patients with further rehabilitation needs were then transferred to the attached acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit (TREATS) and their functional outcomes were compared against a historical group of patients. Demographic variables, acute neurosurgical characteristics, medical complications, and rehabilitation outcomes were recorded. Results. There were 298 patients screened with an average age of 61.8 ± 19.1 years. The most common etiology was falls (77.5%). Most patients were discharged home directly (67.4%) and 22.8% of patients were in TREATS. The TREATS group functionally improved (P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed by the intervention of TREATS, that there was a statistically significant FIM functional gain of 18.445 points (95% CI −30.388 to −0.6502, P = 0.03). Conclusion. Our study demonstrated important epidemiological data on an unselected cohort of patients with TBI in Singapore and functional improvement in patients who further received inpatient rehabilitation.
doi:10.1155/2014/950183
PMCID: PMC4055383  PMID: 24967105
23.  Variation in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes in the United States 
Objective
To ascertain the degree of variation, by state of hospitalization, in outcomes associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a pediatric population.
Design
A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients admitted to a hospital with a TBI.
Setting
Hospitals from states in the United States that voluntarily participate in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.
Participants
Pediatric (age ≤19y) patients hospitalized for TBI (N =71,476) in the United States during 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010.
Interventions
None.
Main Outcome Measures
Primary outcome was proportion of patients discharged to rehabilitation after an acute care hospitalization among alive discharges. The secondary outcome was inpatient mortality.
Results
The relative risk of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation varied by as much as 3-fold among the states, and the relative risk of inpatient mortality varied by as much as nearly 2-fold. In the United States, approximately 1981 patients could be discharged to inpatient rehabilitation care if the observed variation in outcomes was eliminated.
Conclusions
There was significant variation between states in both rehabilitation discharge and inpatient mortality after adjusting for variables known to affect each outcome. Future efforts should be focused on identifying the cause of this state-to-state variation, its relationship to patient outcome, and standardizing treatment across the United States.
doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.02.020
PMCID: PMC4146619  PMID: 24631594
Healthcare disparities; Patient outcome assessment; Rehabilitation; Traumatic brain injury
24.  Natural History of Headache after Traumatic Brain Injury 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2011;28(9):1719-1725.
Abstract
Headache is one of the most common persisting symptoms after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet there is a paucity of prospective longitudinal studies of the incidence and prevalence of headache in a sample with a range of injury severity. We sought to describe the natural history of headache in the first year after TBI, and to determine the roles of prior history of headache, sex, and severity of TBI as risk factors for post-traumatic headache. A cohort of 452 acute, consecutive patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation services with TBI were enrolled during their inpatient rehabilitation from February 2008 to June 2009. Subjects were enrolled across 7 acute rehabilitation centers designated as TBI Model Systems centers. They were prospectively assessed by structured interviews prior to inpatient rehabilitation discharge, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. Results of this natural history study suggest that 71% of participants reported headache during the first year after injury. The prevalence of headache remained high over the first year, with more than 41% of participants reporting headache at 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury. Persons with a pre-injury history of headache (p<0.001) and females (p<0.01) were significantly more likely to report headache. The incidence of headache had no relation to TBI severity (p=0.67). Overall, headache is common in the first year after TBI, independent of the severity of injury range examined in this study. Use of the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria requiring onset of headache within 1 week of injury underestimates rates of post-traumatic headache. Better understanding of the natural history of headache including timing, type, and risk factors should aid in the design of treatment studies to prevent or reduce the chronicity of headache and its disruptive effects on quality of life.
doi:10.1089/neu.2011.1914
PMCID: PMC3172878  PMID: 21732765
headache; natural history; traumatic brain injury
25.  Traumatic Brain Injury Related Hospitalization and Mortality in California 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:143092.
Objective. The aim of this study is to describe the traumatic brain injury (TBI) population and causes and identify factors associated with TBI hospitalizations and mortality in California. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study of 61,188 patients with TBI from the California Hospital Discharge Data 2001 to 2009. We used descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses in SAS version 9.3. Results. TBI-related hospitalizations decreased by 14% and mortality increased by 19% from 2001 to 2009. The highest percentages of TBI hospitalizations were due to other causes (38.4%), falls (31.2%), being of age ≥75 years old (37.2%), being a males (58.9%), and being of Medicare patients (44%). TBIs due to falls were found in those age ≤4 years old (53.5%), ≥75 years old (44.0%), and females (37.2%). TBIs due to assaults were more frequent in Blacks (29.0%). TBIs due to motor vehicle accidents were more frequent in 15–19 and 20–24 age groups (48.7% and 48.6%, resp.) and among Hispanics (27.8%). Higher odds of mortality were found among motor vehicle accident category (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14–1.41); males (AOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.27–1.46); and the ≥75-year-old group (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.9–8.4). Conclusions. Our findings suggest a decrease in TBI-related hospitalizations but an increase in TBI-related mortality during the study period. The majority of TBI-related hospitalizations was due to other causes and falls and was more frequent in the older, male, and Medicare populations. The higher likelihood of TBI-related mortalities was found among elderly male ≥75 years old who had motor vehicle accidents. Our data can inform practitioners, prevention planners, educators, service sectors, and policy makers who aim to reduce the burden of TBI in the community. Implications for interventions are discussed.
doi:10.1155/2013/143092
PMCID: PMC3845866  PMID: 24324953

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