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1.  On-Site Array CGH Applications in Clinical In Vitro Fertilization: Reproductive Outcomes and Impact on Cryopreservation of Non-transferred Human Embryos 
Background: IVF pregnancy rates have trended upward although gains have been accompanied by unwelcome increases in pre-term delivery and multiple gestation. These adverse outcomes happen because multiple embryos are typically transferred during IVF. Integrating newer molecular cytogenetic techniques with IVF can optimize selection of a single embryo for transfer. Methods: The SurePlex DNA amplification system (BlueGnome Ltd; Cambridge, UK) was used on-site for whole genome amplification of human blastocyst trophectoderm (TE) cells obtained by biopsy. IVF patients (initial cycle, age <35, no prior miscarriage, normal karyotype) were prospectively randomized into two groups: In Group 1, embryos were selected on the basis of morphology and comprehensive chromosomal screening via array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) from d5 TE biopsy, while Group 2 embryos were assessed by morphology only. All patients underwent a single fresh blastocyst transfer on d6. For embryos in the aCGH group, only one euploid blastocyst was selected for transfer and surplus euploid blastocysts were vitrified. In the non-aCGH (control) group, a single blastocyst was selected for fresh transfer based on appearance only, with vitrification of any surplus blastocysts with satisfactory morphology. Results: Aneuploidy was identified in 191/425 of Group 1 balstocysts (44.9%). Control embryos (n=389) were assessed by microscopy only. A higher clinical pregnancy rate was observed in Group 1 patients compared to the control group (70.9 vs. 45.8%; p = 0.017). Only 64 (28.3%) surplus euploid embryos were frozen in Group 1 while 157 (40.4%) blastocysts were cryopreserved for Group 2 (p=0.017). Conclusion: These data underscore the intrinsic imprecision of IVF when conventional morphology is used alone to select embryos for transfer. Embryos evaluated with aCGH implant with greater efficiency and achieve clinical pregnancy more often than those selected without aCGH. Patients should be advised that aCGH screening may reduce the number of surplus embryos for cryopreservation.
PMCID: PMC3635430
2.  Selection of euploid blastocysts for cryopreservation with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) results in increased implantation rates in subsequent frozen and thawed embryo transfer cycles 
Background
In assisted reproductive treatments, embryos remaining after fresh embryo transfer are usually selected for cryopreservation based on traditional morphology assessment. Our previous report has demonstrated that array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) screening for IVF patients with good prognosis significantly improves clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in fresh embryo transfer cycles. The current study further investigates the efficiency of applying aCGH in the selection of euploid embryos for cryopreservation as related to pregnancy and implantation outcomes in subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles.
Methods
First-time IVF patients with good prognosis undergoing fresh single embryo transfer and having at least one remaining blastocyst for cryopreservation were prospectively randomized into two groups: 1) Group A patients had embryos assessed by morphology first and then by aCGH screening of trophectoderm cells and 2) Group B patients had embryos evaluated by morphology alone. All patients had at least one blastocyst available for cryopreservation after fresh embryo transfer. There were 15 patients in Group A and 23 patients in Group B who failed to conceive after fresh embryo transfer and completed the FET cycles. Blastocyst survival and implantation rates were compared between the two groups.
Results
There were no significant differences in blastocyst survival rates between Group A and Group B (90.9% vs. 91.3%, respectively; p >0.05). However, a significantly higher implantation rate was observed in the morphology assessment plus aCGH screening group compared to the morphology assessment alone group (65.0% vs. 33.3%, respectively; p = 0.038). There was no miscarriage observed in Group A while a 16.7% miscarriage rate was recorded in Group B (0% vs. 16.7%, respectively; p >0.05).
Conclusions
While aCGH screening has been recently applied to select euploid blastocysts for fresh transfer in young, low-risk IVF patients, this is the first prospective study on the impact of aCGH specifically on blastocyst survival and implantation outcomes in the subsequent FET cycles of IVF patients with good prognosis. The present study demonstrates that aCGH screening of blastocysts prior to cryopreservation significantly improves implantation rates and may reduce the risk of miscarriage in subsequent FET cycles. Further randomized clinical studies with a larger sample size are needed to validate these preliminary findings.
doi:10.1186/1755-8166-6-32
PMCID: PMC3766007  PMID: 23937723
aCGH; Trophectoderm biopsy; Cryopreservation; Implantation
3.  Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study 
Background
Single embryo transfer (SET) remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH) to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET.
Methods
First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age <35, no prior miscarriage) and normal karyotype seeking elective SET were prospectively randomized into two groups: In Group A, embryos were selected on the basis of morphology and comprehensive chromosomal screening via aCGH (from d5 trophectoderm biopsy) while Group B embryos were assessed by morphology only. All patients had a single fresh blastocyst transferred on d6. Laboratory parameters and clinical pregnancy rates were compared between the two groups.
Results
For patients in Group A (n = 55), 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient). Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9%) of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48), 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017); ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009). There were no twin pregnancies.
Conclusion
Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss), this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9%) among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.
doi:10.1186/1755-8166-5-24
PMCID: PMC3403960  PMID: 22551456
4.  A pilot proof-of-principle study to compare fresh and vitrified cycle preimplantation genetic screening by chromosome microarray and next generation sequencing 
Background
Single embryo transfer (SET) has been utilized as a strategy to reduce the chance of multifetal gestations in in vitro fertilization (IVF) but lower pregnancy rate remains a concern. Recent studies showed that favorable outcome regarding SET can be achieved by selecting embryos with “more normal” genetic components. We explored the use of rapid array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to select blastocysts for fresh SET and compared with the protocols adopting vitrified (ultrarapidly frozen) embryo transfer cycle. Validation of the rapid protocol of aCGH and comparison of the result with the regular protocol of aCGH and next generation sequencing (NGS) are also performed.
Results
First-time IVF patients with normal karyotype (n = 21) were enrolled for elective fresh SET cycle (n = 8; designated as fresh SET group) or vitrified embryo transfer cycle (n = 13; designated as vitrified ET group) coupling with comprehensive chromosomal screening by a 9-h rapid aCGH from Day 5 trophectoderm (TE) biopsy. In fresh SET group, 86 blastocysts (10.8 blastocysts/patient) were biopsied and analyzed. Aneuploidy was detected in 53.5 % (46/86) of the biopsied blastocysts. All patients had a single embryo transferred on the following day. The clinical pregnancy rate was 87.5 % (7/8) and the ongoing pregnancy rate was 62.5 % (5/8). In vitrified ET group, 58 blastocysts (4.5 blastocysts/patient) were biopsied and 56 blastocysts were analyzed. Aneuploidy was detected in 39.3 % (22/56) of biopsies. The patients accepted for SET or double embryos transfer (DET) in non-stimulated cycles. The clinical pregnancy rate and the ongoing pregnancy rate was 76.9 % (10/13) and 53.8 % (7/13) respectively. Spontaneous abortions occurred in both of the two patient groups. In the series of fresh SET group, no twin pregnancy was noted and at least one healthy baby had been born at gestational age (GA) 37+6 weeks when submission. The results of PGS by rapid aCGH, regular aCGH and NGS were comparable in most occasions.
Conclusion
This study evaluates the use of rapid aCGH to select blastocysts for fresh SET and demonstrates its feasibility in a real clinical IVF program. A successful livebirth is achieved and the favorable outcome is superior to the protocol adopting vitrified ET cycle in our own setting. Additional studies are needed to verify this pilot data and validate its application in large randomized trials.
doi:10.1186/s13039-016-0238-8
PMCID: PMC4802588  PMID: 27006692
Chromosomal microarray; Aneuploidy; Fresh embryo transfer; SET; PGS
5.  Randomized comparison of next-generation sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization for preimplantation genetic screening: a pilot study 
BMC Medical Genomics  2015;8:30.
Background
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have provided new methods for preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) of human embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. However, there is still limited information about clinical applications of NGS in IVF and PGS (IVF-PGS) treatments. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NGS screening on clinical pregnancy and implantation outcomes for PGS patients in comparison to array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) screening.
Methods
This study was performed in two phases. Phase I study evaluated the accuracy of NGS for aneuploidy screening in comparison to aCGH. Whole-genome amplification (WGA) products (n = 164) derived from previous IVF-PGS cycles (n = 38) were retrospectively analyzed with NGS. The NGS results were then compared with those of aCGH. Phase II study further compared clinical pregnancy and implantation outcomes between NGS and aCGH for IVF-PGS patients. A total of 172 patients at mean age 35.2 ± 3.5 years were randomized into two groups: 1) NGS (Group A): patients (n = 86) had embryos screened with NGS and 2) aCGH (Group B): patients (n = 86) had embryos screened with aCGH. For both groups, blastocysts were vitrified after trophectoderm biopsy. One to two euploid blastocysts were thawed and transferred to individual patients primarily based on the PGS results. Ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were compared between the two study groups.
Results
NGS detected all types of aneuploidies of human blastocysts accurately and provided a 100 % 24-chromosome diagnosis consistency with the highly validated aCGH method. Moreover, NGS screening identified euploid blastocysts for transfer and resulted in similarly high ongoing pregnancy rates for PGS patients compared to aCGH screening (74.7 % vs. 69.2 %, respectively, p >0.05). The observed implantation rates were also comparable between the NGS and aCGH groups (70.5 % vs. 66.2 %, respectively, p >0.05).
Conclusions
While NGS screening has been recently introduced to assist IVF patients, this is the first randomized clinical study on the efficiency of NGS for preimplantation genetic screening in comparison to aCGH. With the observed high accuracy of 24-chromosome diagnosis and the resulting high ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates, NGS has demonstrated an efficient, robust high-throughput technology for PGS.
doi:10.1186/s12920-015-0110-4
PMCID: PMC4477308  PMID: 26100406
NGS; aCGH; PGS; Aneuploidy screening; Ongoing pregnancy; Implantation
6.  AB095. Comparison pregnancy of day 6 fresh blastocyst and day 5 frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer following array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) 
Annals of Translational Medicine  2015;3(Suppl 2):AB095.
Advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have benefitted many infertile couples. However while many modern technologies were applied in ART, pregnancy rates remained lower than expected. Some studies have suggested that successful embryo implantation depends on many factors including genetic anomalies such as aneuploidy. While pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was introduced around 20 years ago to screen for aneuploidy in selected subsets of chromosomes, it failed to improve pregnancy rates and reduce miscarriage rates. FISH had technical limitations, some inaccuracies, and could only screen up to 8-11 chromosomes. Recent more modern technology, array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), has been shown to significantly improve pregnancy rates and decrease miscarriage rates by allowing the detection of aneuploidy in all 23 pairs of chromosomes, and allowing the transfer of euploid embryos. Couples have an ovarian stimulation, eggs are collected and fertilized using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and any normally fertilized embryos are cultured to the blastocyst stage. Suitable blastocysts are biopsied on either day 5 or day 6 of embryo culture with the assistance of a near-infra-red laser, and the removed cells amplified in a whole genome amplification (WGA), fluorescently labelled, hybridized and scanned using the BlueGnome (Illumina) 24Sure CGH microarray system. Advances in aCGH means the total process from biopsy to result can be done overnight, allowing for a suitable embryo from a day 5 biopsy to have potential fresh embryo transfer on day 6 of culture. Alternatively, following biopsy, embryos can be frozen immediately and euploid embryos transferred in a subsequent frozen-thaw cycle. We retrospectively compared pregnancy outcomes of good quality blastocysts biopsied and analysed using aCGH following by fresh embryo transfer on day 6 (n=50) versus frozen embryo transfer of embryos biopsied and frozen on day 5 (n=61). The average age of patients having a fresh embryo transfer on day 6 is 32±3.2 and having frozen embryo transfer is 30±3.7 years old. The results showed that pregnancy rates were not significantly different between frozen embryo transfer and fresh embryo transfer (59% vs. 52% respectively, P value >0.05). Nevertheless, as well as indicating that not only is frozen embryo transfer as good as or better than fresh embryo transfer, frozen embryo transfer can also have advantages in in-vitro fertilization in allowing optimal embryo transfer planning for couples.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.AB095
PMCID: PMC4563383
Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH); in vitro fertilization, fresh blastocyst transfer; frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer
7.  Reduction of multiple pregnancies in the advanced maternal age population after implementation of an elective single embryo transfer policy coupled with enhanced embryo selection: pre- and post-intervention study 
Human Reproduction (Oxford, England)  2015;30(9):2097-2106.
STUDY QUESTION
Is an elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) policy an efficient approach for women aged >35 years when embryo selection is enhanced via blastocyst culture and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)?
SUMMARY ANSWER
Elective SET coupled with enhanced embryo selection using PGS in women older than 35 years reduced the multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining the cumulative success rate of the IVF programme.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY
Multiple pregnancies mean an increased risk of premature birth and perinatal death and occur mainly in older patients when multiple embryos are transferred to increase the chance of pregnancy. A SET policy is usually recommended in cases of good prognosis patients, but no general consensus has been reached for SET application in the advanced maternal age (AMA) population, defined as women older than 35 years. Our objective was to evaluate the results in terms of efficacy, efficiency and safety of an eSET policy coupled with increased application of blastocyst culture and PGS for this population of patients in our IVF programme.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION
In January 2013, a multidisciplinary intervention involving optimization of embryo selection procedure and introduction of an eSET policy in an AMA population of women was implemented. This is a retrospective 4-year (January 2010–December 2013) pre- and post-intervention analysis, including 1161 and 499 patients in the pre- and post-intervention period, respectively. The primary outcome measures were the cumulative delivery rate (DR) per oocyte retrieval cycle and multiple DR.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS
Surplus oocytes and/or embryos were vitrified during the entire study period. In the post-intervention period, all couples with good quality embryos and less than two previous implantation failures were offered eSET. Embryo selection was enhanced by blastocyst culture and PGS (blastocyst stage biopsy and 24-chromosomal screening). Elective SET was also applied in cryopreservation cycles.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
Patient and cycle characteristics were similar in the pre- and post-intervention groups [mean (SD) female age: 39.6 ± 2.1 and 39.4 ± 2.2 years; range 36–44] as assessed by logistic regression. A total of 1609 versus 574 oocyte retrievals, 937 versus 350 embryo warming and 138 versus 27 oocyte warming cycles were performed in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively, resulting in 1854 and 508 embryo transfers, respectively. In the post-intervention period, 289 cycles were blastocyst stage with (n = 182) or without PGS (n = 107). A mean (SD) number of 2.9 ± 1.1 (range 1–4) and 1.4 ± 0.8 (range 1–3) embryos were transferred pre- and post-intervention, respectively (P < 0.01) and similar cumulative clinical pregnancy rates per transfer and per cycle were obtained: 26.8, 30.9% and 29.7, 26.3%, respectively. The total DR per oocyte retrieval cycle (21.0 and 20.4% pre- and post-intervention, respectively) defined as efficacy was not affected by the intervention [odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7–1.1; P = 0.23]. However, a significantly increased live birth rate per transferred embryo (defined as efficiency) was observed in the post-intervention group 17.0 versus 10.6% (P < 0.01). Multiple DRs decreased from 21.0 in the preintervention to 6.8% in the post-intervention group (OR = 0.3. 95% CI = 0.1–0.7; P < 0.01).
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION
In this study, the suitability of SET was assessed in individual women on the basis of both clinical and embryological prognostic factors and was not standardized. For the described eSET strategy coupled with an enhanced embryo selection policy, an optimized culture system, cryopreservation and aneuploidy screening programme is necessary.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
Owing to the increased maternal morbidity and perinatal complications related to multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to extend the eSET policy to the AMA population. As shown in this study, enhanced embryo selection procedures might allow a reduction in the number of embryos transferred and the number of transfers to be performed without affecting the total efficacy of the treatment but increasing efficiency and safety.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)
None.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
None.
doi:10.1093/humrep/dev159
PMCID: PMC4542718  PMID: 26150408
elective single embryo transfer; advanced maternal age; comprehensive chromosome screening; vitrification; preimplantation genetic screening
8.  Two different microarray technologies for preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening, due to reciprocal translocation imbalances, demonstrate equivalent euploidy and clinical pregnancy rates 
Purpose
To compare single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) microarray platforms to evaluate embryos for parental translocation imbalances and aneuploidy.
Methods
A retrospective review of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS) results of 498 embryos from 63 couples undergoing 75 in vitro fertilization cycles due to parental carriers of a reciprocal translocation.
Results
There was no significant difference between SNP and aCGH microarrays when comparing the prevalence of embryos that were euploid with no translocation imbalance, euploidy with a parental translocation imbalance or aneuploid with or without the parental chromosome imbalance. The clinical pregnancy rates were also equivalent for SNP (60 %) versus aCGH (65 %) microarrays. Of 498 diagnosed embryos, 45 % (226/498) were chromosomally normal without translocation errors or aneuploidy, 22 % (112/498) were euploid but had a parentally derived unbalanced chromosomal segregant, 8 % (42/498) harbored both a translocation imbalance and aneuploidy and 24 % (118/498) of embryos were genetically balanced for the parental reciprocal translocation but were aneuploid for other chromosomes. The overall clinical pregnancy rate per IVF cycle following SNP or aCGH microarray analysis was 61 % and was higher if the biopsy was done on blastocysts (65 %) versus cleavage stage embryos (59 %), although not statistically significant.
Conclusions
SNP or aCGH microarray technologies demonstrate equivalent clinical findings that maximize the pregnancy potential in patients with known parental reciprocal chromosomal translocations.
doi:10.1007/s10815-014-0230-3
PMCID: PMC4096875  PMID: 24771116
Translocation; PGD; PGS; Microarray; IVF; Reciprocal
9.  Assessment of clinical application of preimplantation genetic screening on cryopreserved human blastocysts 
Background
Recent advancement in both human embryology and preimplantation genetic screening has created a completely new situation for human assisted reproduction. Embryos, typically at blastocyst stage, are biopsied and screened by DNA microarray or next-generation sequencing before cryopreservation, and then euploid embryos are warmed for transfer. Increased embryo implantation rates have been reported after transfer of euploid embryos screened for all chromosomes. However, some patients may have frozen their embryos without doing embryo biopsy and screening, thus embryo biopsy and screening may be required after cryopreservation and warming. Such procedures have not been performed routinely in clinics and the efficiency is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated embryo implantation after blastocysts were cryopreserved/warmed, and then biopsied and screened by DNA microarray for all chromosomes.
Results
Two hundred and thirty four cryopreserved blastocysts from 35 women were warmed, and 224 (95.7 %) survived and were biopsied for aneuploidy screening. After analysis, 221 samples (98.7 %) had diagnostic results and 3 (1.3 %) samples did not have results due to DNA quality and quantity. Out of the samples with diagnostic results, 59.3 % were normal euploid and 40.7 % had abnormal chromosomes including aneuploidy, partial chromosome deletion and/or duplication. Most (65.6 %) samples had single chromosome anomalies, and 34.4 % of the samples had multiple chromosome anomalies. Chromosomal errors were observed in most chromosomes but chromosomes 21 and 22 had the most frequent chromosome anomalies. Transfer of 61 normal euploid blastocysts in 34 patients resulted in a 52.9 % clinical pregnancy rate and a 42.6 % implantation rate, and 41.2 % of the patients delivered normal babies or had ongoing pregnancy.
Conclusions
Frozen blastocysts can be warmed and biopsied for aneuploidy screening. These results may suggest that cryopreserved blastocysts can be warmed, biopsied and screened the day before embryo transfer, and such procedures may benefit patients who had previous implantation failures, or patients who did not have embryo screening before cryopreservation due to lack of embryo screening technology or other reasons.
doi:10.1186/s12958-016-0155-z
PMCID: PMC4826494  PMID: 27059821
Aneuploidy; Blastocyst; Cryopreservation; Implantation
10.  Increasing Live Birth Rate by Preimplantation Genetic Screening of Pooled Polar Bodies Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0128317.
Meiotic errors during oocyte maturation are considered the major contributors to embryonic aneuploidy and failures in human IVF treatment. Various technologies have been developed to screen polar bodies, blastomeres and trophectoderm cells for chromosomal aberrations. Array-CGH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays is widely applied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using single cells. Recently, an increase in the pregnancy rate has been demonstrated using array-CGH to evaluate trophectoderm cells. However, in some countries, the analysis of embryonic cells is restricted by law. Therefore, we used BAC array-CGH to assess the impact of polar body analysis on the live birth rate. A disadvantage of polar body aneuploidy screening is the necessity of the analysis of both the first and second polar bodies, resulting in increases in costs for the patient and complex data interpretation. Aneuploidy screening results may sometimes be ambiguous if the first and second polar bodies show reciprocal chromosomal aberrations. To overcome this disadvantage, we tested a strategy involving the pooling of DNA from both polar bodies before DNA amplification. We retrospectively studied 351 patients, of whom 111 underwent polar body array-CGH before embryo transfer. In the group receiving pooled polar body array-CGH (aCGH) analysis, 110 embryos were transferred, and 29 babies were born, corresponding to live birth rates of 26.4% per embryo and 35.7% per patient. In contrast, in the control group, the IVF treatment was performed without preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). For this group, 403 embryos were transferred, and 60 babies were born, resulting in live birth rates of 14.9% per embryo and 22.7% per patient. In conclusion, our data show that in the aCGH group, the use of aneuploidy screening resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate compared with the control group, supporting the benefit of PGS for IVF couples in addition to the suitability and effectiveness of our polar body pooling strategy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128317
PMCID: PMC4449032  PMID: 26024488
11.  Comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR-based aneuploidy screening of blastocyst biopsies 
Comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) methods are being extensively used to select chromosomally normal embryos in human assisted reproduction. Some concerns related to the stage of analysis and which aneuploidy screening method to use still remain. In this study, the reliability of blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening and the diagnostic performance of the two mostly used CCS methods (quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)) has been assessed. aCGH aneuploid blastocysts were rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by qPCR. Discordant cases were subsequently rebiopsied, blinded, and evaluated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based CCS. Although 81.7% of embryos showed the same diagnosis when comparing aCGH and qPCR-based CCS, 18.3% (22/120) of embryos gave a discordant result for at least one chromosome. SNP array reanalysis showed that a discordance was reported in ten blastocysts for aCGH, mostly due to false positives, and in four cases for qPCR. The discordant aneuploidy call rate per chromosome was significantly higher for aCGH (5.7%) compared with qPCR (0.6% P<0.01). To corroborate these findings, 39 embryos were simultaneously biopsied for aCGH and qPCR during blastocyst-stage aneuploidy screening cycles. 35 matched including all 21 euploid embryos. Blinded SNP analysis on rebiopsies of the four embryos matched qPCR. These findings demonstrate the high reliability of diagnosis performed at the blastocyst stage with the use of different CCS methods. However, the application of aCGH can be expected to result in a higher aneuploidy rate than other contemporary methods of CCS.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.222
PMCID: PMC4463508  PMID: 25351780
12.  Comparing thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates from cryopreserved zygotes, embryos and blastocysts 
CONTEXT:
Most in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs employ embryo cryopreservation to enhance pregnancies from a single ovarian stimulation. More embryos are created, some of which are not transferred to the uterus immediately, generating a need for improved cryopreservation protocols. One protocol may involve growing embryos to a further stage of development, allowing only embryos with proven developmental capabilities to be cryopreserved. Here we examined thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates of embryos cryopreserved at different stages.
AIMS:
We examined thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates of embryos cryopreserved at the zygote, day 3 (D3) embryos or blastocyst stage.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
This is a retrospective study from a single academic IVF program.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A retrospective study of all patients who had frozen embryos transferred to their uteri from year 2002 to 2008 at a single academic IVF program was conducted.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:
Analysis of variance followed by Fisher's Exact Test was performed to compare the survival after thaw, implantation and live birth rates between the three groups.
RESULTS:
One thousand nine hundred and ninety-one zygotes, 2880 D3 embryos and 503 blastocysts were frozen using a slow freeze technique, thawed and transferred. Significantly more D3 embryos and blastocysts survived the thawing process compared to zygotes and significantly higher implantation rate per number of thawed blastocysts was achieved than that for zygotes. Live birth rates were similar between the three groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Growing embryos to blastocyst stage prior to cryopreservation is associated with fewer frozen embryos but does not appear compromise patients’ chance of achieving pregnancy
doi:10.4103/0974-1208.82356
PMCID: PMC3136065  PMID: 21772736
Blastocyst; embryo cryopreservation; frozen embryo transfer; implantation; in vitro fertilization; slow-freeze; zygote
13.  Using SNP array to identify aneuploidy and segmental imbalance in translocation carriers 
Genomics Data  2014;2:92-95.
Translocation is one of the more common structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with a prevalence of 0.2%. The two most common types of chromosomal translocations, Robertsonian and reciprocal, usually result in no obvious phenotypic abnormalities when balanced. However, these are still associated with reproductive risks, such as infertility, spontaneous abortion and the delivery of babies with mental retardation or developmental delay.
In recent years, array-based whole-genome amplification (WGA) technologies, including microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH; aCGH) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) micro-arrays, have enabled the screening of every chromosome for whole-chromosome aneuploidy and segmental imbalance. These techniques have been shown to have clinical application for translocation carriers. Promising studies have indicated that array-based PGD of translocation carriers can lead to transfer pregnancy rates of 45–70% [2].
In addition to genetic testing techniques, the embryo biopsy stage (polar body, cleavage embryo or blastocyst) and the mode of embryo transfer (fresh or frozen embryos) can affect the outcome of PGD. It is now generally recommended that blastomere biopsy should be replaced by blastocyst biopsy to avoid a high mosaic rate and biopsy-related damage to cleavage-stage embryos, which might affect embryo development. However, more clinical data are required to confirm that the technique of SNP array-based PGD (SNP-PGD) combined with trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and frozen embryo transfer (FET) is superior to traditional FISH-PGD combined with Day 3 (D3) blastomere biopsy and fresh embryo transfer.
doi:10.1016/j.gdata.2014.05.007
PMCID: PMC4535754  PMID: 26484079
Single-nucleotide polymorphism array; Chromosomal translocation; Aneuploidy; Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
14.  Comparative Genomic Hybridization Selection of Blastocysts for Repeated Implantation Failure Treatment: A Pilot Study 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:457913.
The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good prognosis infertile couples with array CGH selected embryos (group NO RIF PGS). A single euploid blastocyst was transferred in groups RIF-PGS and NO RIF PGS. Array CGH was not performed in group RIF NO PGS in which 1-2 blastocysts were transferred. One monoembryonic sac with heartbeat was found in 28 patients of group RIF PGS and 31 patients of group NO RIF PGS showing similar clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (68.3% and 70.5%, resp.). In contrast, an embryonic sac with heartbeat was only detected in 7 (21.2%) patients of group RIF NO PGS. In conclusion, PGS by array CGH with single euploid blastocyst transfer appears to be a successful strategy for patients with multiple failed IVF attempts.
doi:10.1155/2014/457913
PMCID: PMC3980987  PMID: 24779011
15.  In Vitro Fertilization and Multiple Pregnancies 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IVF for infertility treatment, as well as the role of IVF in reducing the rate of multiple pregnancies.
Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition
Typically defined as a failure to conceive after a year of regular unprotected intercourse, infertility affects 8% to 16% of reproductive age couples. The condition can be caused by disruptions at various steps of the reproductive process. Major causes of infertility include abnormalities of sperm, tubal obstruction, endometriosis, ovulatory disorder, and idiopathic infertility. Depending on the cause and patient characteristics, management options range from pharmacologic treatment to more advanced techniques referred to as assisted reproductive technologies (ART). ART include IVF and IVF-related procedures such as intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and, according to some definitions, intra-uterine insemination (IUI), also known as artificial insemination. Almost invariably, an initial step in ART is controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), which leads to a significantly higher rate of multiple pregnancies after ART compared with that following natural conception. Multiple pregnancies are associated with a broad range of negative consequences for both mother and fetuses. Maternal complications include increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, gestational diabetes, fetal malpresentation requiring Caesarean section, postpartum haemorrhage, and postpartum depression. Babies from multiple pregnancies are at a significantly higher risk of early death, prematurity, and low birth weight, as well as mental and physical disabilities related to prematurity. Increased maternal and fetal morbidity leads to higher perinatal and neonatal costs of multiple pregnancies, as well as subsequent lifelong costs due to disabilities and an increased need for medical and social support.
The Technology Being Reviewed
IVF was first developed as a method to overcome bilateral Fallopian tube obstruction. The procedure includes several steps: (1) the woman’s egg is retrieved from the ovaries; (2) exposed to sperm outside the body and fertilized; (3) the embryo(s) is cultured for 3 to 5 days; and (4) is transferred back to the uterus. IFV is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for infertility today. According to data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry, the average live birth rate after IVF in Canada is around 30%, but there is considerable variation in the age of the mother and primary cause of infertility.
An important advantage of IVF is that it allows for the control of the number of embryos transferred. An elective single embryo transfer in IVF cycles adopted in many European countries was shown to significantly reduce the risk of multiple pregnancies while maintaining acceptable birth rates. However, when number of embryos transferred is not limited, the rate of IVF-associated multiple pregnancies is similar to that of other treatments involving ovarian stimulation. The practice of multiple embryo transfer in IVF is often the result of pressures to increase success rates due to the high costs of the procedure. The average rate of multiple pregnancies resulting from IVF in Canada is currently around 30%.
An alternative to IVF is IUI. In spite of reported lower success rates of IUI (pregnancy rates per cycle range from 8.7% to 17.1%) it is generally attempted before IVF due to its lower invasiveness and cost.
Two major drawbacks of IUI are that it cannot be used in cases of bilateral tubal obstruction and it does not allow much control over the risk of multiple pregnancies compared with IVF. The rate of multiple pregnancies after IUI with COS is estimated to be about 21% to 29%.
Ontario Health Insurance Plan Coverage
Currently, the Ontario Health Insurance Plan covers the cost of IVF for women with bilaterally blocked Fallopian tubes only, in which case it is funded for 3 cycles, excluding the cost of drugs. The cost of IUI is covered except for preparation of the sperm and drugs used for COS.
Diffusion of Technology
According to Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry data, in 2004 there were 25 infertility clinics across Canada offering IVF and 7,619 IVF cycles performed. In Ontario, there are 13 infertility clinics with about 4,300 IVF cycles performed annually.
Literature Review
Royal Commission Report on Reproductive Technologies
The 1993 release of the Royal Commission report on reproductive technologies, Proceed With Care, resulted in the withdrawal of most IVF funding in Ontario, where prior to 1994 IVF was fully funded. Recommendations of the Commission to withdraw IVF funding were largely based on findings of the systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before 1990. The review showed IVF effectiveness only in cases of bilateral tubal obstruction. As for nontubal causes of infertility, there was not enough evidence to establish whether IVF was effective or not.
Since the field of reproductive technology is constantly evolving, there have been several changes since the publication of the Royal Commission report. These changes include: increased success rates of IVF; introduction of ICSI in the early 1990’s as a treatment for male factor infertility; and improved embryo implantation rates allowing for the transfer of a single embryo to avoid multiple pregnancies after IVF.
Studies After the Royal Commission Report: Review Strategy
Three separate literature reviews were conducted in the following areas: clinical effectiveness of IVF, cost-effectiveness of IVF, and outcomes of single embryo transfer (SET) in IVF cycles.
Clinical effectiveness of IVF: RCTs or meta-analyses of RCTs that compared live birth rates after IVF versus alternative treatments, where the cause of infertility was clearly stated or it was possible to stratify the outcome by the cause of infertility.
Cost effectiveness of IVF: All relevant economic studies comparing IVF to alternative methods of treatment were reviewed
Outcomes of IVF with SET: RCTs or meta-analyses of RCTs that compared live birth rates and multiple birth rates associated with transfer of single versus double embryos.
OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment database, and websites of other health technology assessment agencies were searched using specific subject headings and keywords to identify relevant studies.
Summary of Findings
Comparative Clinical Effectiveness of IVF
Overall, there is a lack of well composed RCTs in this area and considerable diversity in both definition and measurement of outcomes exists between trials. Many studies used fertility or pregnancy rates instead of live birth rates. Moreover, the denominator for rate calculation varied from study to study (e.g. rates were calculated per cycle started, per cycle completed, per couple, etc...).
Nevertheless, few studies of sufficient quality were identified and categorized by the cause of infertility and existing alternatives to IVF. The following are the key findings:
A 2005 meta-analysis demonstrated that, in patients with idiopathic infertility, IVF was clearly superior to expectant management, but there were no statistically significant differences in live birth rates between IVF and IUI, nor between IVF and gamete-intra-Fallopian transfer.
A subset of data from a 2000 study showed no significant differences in pregnancy rates between IVF and IUI for moderate male factor infertility.
In patients with moderate male factor infertility, standard IVF was also compared with ICSI in a 2002 meta-analysis. All studies included in the meta-analysis showed superior fertilization rates with ICSI, and the pooled risk ratio for oocyte fertilization was 1.9 (95% Confidence Interval 1.4-2.5) in favour of ICSI. Two other RCTs in this area published after the 2002 meta-analysis had similar results and further confirmed these findings. There were no RCTs comparing IVF with ICSI in patients with severe male factor infertility, mainly because based on the expert opinion, ICSI might only be an effective treatment for severe male factor infertility.
Cost-Effectiveness of IVF
Five economic evaluations of IVF were found, including one comprehensive systematic review of 57 health economic studies. The studies compared cost-effectiveness of IVF with a number of alternatives such as observation, ovarian stimulation, IUI, tubal surgery, varicocelectomy, etc... The cost-effectiveness of IVF was analyzed separately for different types of infertility. Most of the reviewed studies concluded that due to the high cost, IVF has a less favourable cost-effectiveness profile compared with alternative treatment options. Therefore, IVF was not recommended as the first line of treatment in the majority of cases. The only two exceptions were bilateral tubal obstruction and severe male factor infertility, where an immediate offer of IVF/ICSI might the most cost-effective option.
Clinical Outcomes After Single Versus Double Embryo Transfer Strategies of IVF
Since the SET strategy has been more widely adopted in Europe, all RCT outcomes of SET were conducted in European countries. The major study in this area was a large 2005 meta-analysis, followed by two other published RCTs.
All of these studies reached similar conclusions:
Although a single SET cycle results in lower birth rates than a single double embryo transfer (DET) cycle, the cumulative birth rate after 2 cycles of SET (fresh + frozen-thawed embryos) was comparable to the birth rate after a single DET cycle (~40%).
SET was associated with a significant reduction in multiple births compared with DET (0.8% vs. 33.1% respectively in the largest RCT).
Most trials on SET included women younger than 36 years old with a sufficient number of embryos available for transfer that allowed for selection of the top quality embryo(s). A 2006 RCT, however, compared SET and DET strategies in an unselected group of patients without restrictions on the woman’s age or embryo quality. This study demonstrated that SET could be applied to older women.
Estimate of the Target Population
Based on results of the literature review and consultations with experts, four categories of infertile patients who may benefit from increased access to IVF/ICSI were identified:
Patients with severe male factor infertility, where IVF should be offered in conjunction with ICSI;
Infertile women with serious medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy, who should be offered IVF-SET;
Infertile patients who want to avoid the risk of multiple pregnancy and thus opt for IVF-SET; and
Patients who failed treatment with IUI and wish to try IVF.
Since, however, the latter indication does not reflect any new advances in IVF technology that would alter existing policy, it was not considered in this analysis.
Economic Analysis
Economic Review: Cost–Effectiveness of SET Versus DET
Conclusions of published studies on cost-effectiveness of SET versus DET were not consistent. While some studies found that SET strategy is more cost-effective due to avoidance of multiple pregnancies, other studies either did not find any significant differences in cost per birth between SET and DET, or favoured DET as a more cost-effective option.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
An Ontario-based economic analysis compared cost per birth using three treatment strategies: IUI, IVF-SET, and IVF-DET. A decision-tree model assumed three cycles for each treatment option. Two separate models were considered; the first included only fresh cycles of IVF, while the second had a combination of fresh and frozen cycles. Even after accounting for cost-savings due to avoidance of multiple pregnancies (only short-term complications), IVF-SET was still associated with a highest cost per birth. The approximate budget impact to cover the first three indications for IVF listed above (severe male factor infertility, women with medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy, and couples who wish to avoid the risk of multiple pregnancy) is estimated at $9.8 to $12.8 million (Cdn). Coverage of only first two indications, namely, ICSI in patients with severe male factor infertility and infertile women with serious medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy, is estimated at $3.8 to $5.5 million Cdn.
Other Considerations
International data shows that both IVF utilization and the average number of embryos transferred in IVF cycles are influenced by IVF funding policy. The success of the SET strategy in European countries is largely due to the fact that IVF treatment is subsidized by governments.
Surveys of patients with infertility demonstrated that a significant proportion (~40%) of patients not only do not mind having multiple babies, but consider twins being an ideal outcome of infertility treatment.
A women’s age may impose some restrictions on the implementation of a SET strategy.
Conclusions and Recommendations
A review of published studies has demonstrated that IVF-SET is an effective treatment for infertility that avoids multiple pregnancies.
However, results of an Ontario-based economic analysis shows that cost savings associated with a reduction in multiple pregnancies after IVF-SET does not justify the cost of universal IVF-SET coverage by the province. Moreover, the province currently funds IUI, which has been shown to be as effective as IVF for certain types of infertility and is significantly less expensive.
In patients with severe male factor infertility, IVF in conjunction with ICSI may be the only effective treatment.
Thus, 2 indications where additional IVF access should be considered include:
IVF/ICSI for patients with severe male factor infertility
IVF-SET in infertile women with serious medical contraindications to multiple pregnancy
PMCID: PMC3379537  PMID: 23074488
16.  Aneuploidy rates and blastocyst formation after biopsy of morulae and early blastocysts on day 5 
Purpose
Studies have demonstrated high implantation rates after trophectoderm biopsy of day 5 expanded blastocysts. However, biopsy of cleavage stage embryos may adversely affect embryo development and implantation. No studies have assessed the utility of day 5 morulae and early blastocyst biopsy. This study sought to better understand these slower embryos’ aneuploidy rates and implantation potential.
Methods
This was a retrospective review of all autologous IVF cycles utilizing PGS at a single academic infertility center.
Results
The biopsy of day 5 morulae and early blastocysts provided 22 % additional euploid blastocysts available for fresh day 6 transfer compared to day 5 biopsy of only expanded blastocysts. Aneuploidy did correlate with embryo stage on day 5, even after controlling for maternal age, with 16 % of morulae and 35 % of blastocysts being euploid. The majority (83 %) of euploid morulae progressed to the blastocyst stage by day 6. Experience transferring slower developing embryos is limited, but preliminary pregnancy and implantation rates appear similar to euploid embryos biopsied as expanded blastocysts.
Conclusions
The biopsy of all non-arrested embryos on day 5 provides genetic information for all blastocysts on day 6, increasing the pool of euploid blastocysts available for fresh transfer and avoiding the need to cryopreserve developmentally competent embryos without genetic information.
doi:10.1007/s10815-015-0475-5
PMCID: PMC4491071  PMID: 25921084
PGD; Fresh Transfer; Blastocyst; Aneuploidy; Implantation
17.  Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis 
CONTEXT:
A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases.
AIM:
To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred.
RESULTS:
The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group.
CONCLUSIONS:
In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis.
doi:10.4103/0974-1208.183512
PMCID: PMC4915293  PMID: 27382234
Array comparative genomic hybridization; clinical outcomes; embryo selection; in vitro fertilization; preimplantation genetic screening
18.  Selection of competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening: a prospective study with sibling oocytes 
BMC Medical Genomics  2014;7:38.
Background
Recent advances in time-lapse monitoring in IVF treatment have provided new morphokinetic markers for embryonic competence. However, there is still very limited information about the relationship between morphokinetic parameters, chromosomal compositions and implantation potential. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effects of selecting competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing on pregnancy and implantation outcomes for patients undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS).
Methods
A total of 1163 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were retrieved from 138 PGS patients at a mean age of 36.6 ± 2.4 years. These sibling MII oocytes were then randomized into two groups after ICSI: 1) Group A, oocytes (n = 582) were cultured in the time-lapse system and 2) Group B, oocytes (n = 581) were cultured in the conventional incubator. For both groups, whole genomic amplification and array CGH testing were performed after trophectoderm biopsy on day 5. One to two euploid blastocysts within the most predictive morphokinetic parameters (Group A) or with the best morphological grade available (Group B) were selected for transfer to individual patients on day 6. Ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were compared between the two groups.
Results
There were significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates between Group A and Group B (71.1% vs. 45.9%, respectively, p = 0.037). The observed implantation rate per embryo transfer significantly increased in Group A compared to Group B (66.2% vs. 42.4%, respectively, p = 0.011). Moreover, a significant increase in ongoing pregnancy rates was also observed in Group A compared to Group B (68.9% vs. 40.5%. respectively, p = 0.019). However, there was no significant difference in miscarriage rate between the time-lapse system and the conventional incubator (3.1% vs. 11.8%, respectively, p = 0.273).
Conclusions
This is the first prospective investigation using sibling oocytes to evaluate the efficiency of selecting competent blastocysts for transfer by combining time-lapse monitoring and array CGH testing for PGS patients. Our data clearly demonstrate that the combination of these two advanced technologies to select competent blastocysts for transfer results in improved implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates for PGS patients.
doi:10.1186/1755-8794-7-38
PMCID: PMC4077552  PMID: 24954518
Time-lapse monitoring; Array CGH; PGS; Ploidy; Implantation; Miscarriage
19.  An update of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in gene diseases, chromosomal translocation, and aneuploidy screening 
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is gradually widely used in prevention of gene diseases and chromosomal abnormalities. Much improvement has been achieved in biopsy technique and molecular diagnosis. Blastocyst biopsy can increase diagnostic accuracy and reduce allele dropout. It is cost-effective and currently plays an important role. Whole genome amplification permits subsequent individual detection of multiple gene loci and screening all 23 pairs of chromosomes. For PGD of chromosomal translocation, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) is traditionally used, but with technical difficulty. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) can detect translocation and 23 pairs of chromosomes that may replace FISH. Single nucleotide polymorphisms array with haplotyping can further distinguish between normal chromosomes and balanced translocation. PGD may shorten time to conceive and reduce miscarriage for patients with chromosomal translocation. PGD has a potential value for mitochondrial diseases. Preimplantation genetic haplotyping has been applied for unknown mutation sites of single gene disease. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) using limited FISH probes in the cleavage-stage embryo did not increase live birth rates for patients with advanced maternal age, unexplained recurrent abortions, and repeated implantation failure. Polar body and blastocyst biopsy may circumvent the problem of mosaicism. PGS using blastocyst biopsy and array CGH is encouraging and merit further studies. Cryopreservation of biopsied blastocysts instead of fresh transfer permits sufficient time for transportation and genetic analysis. Cryopreservation of embryos may avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and possible suboptimal endometrium.
doi:10.5653/cerm.2011.38.3.126
PMCID: PMC3283069  PMID: 22384431
Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization; Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis; Preimplantation Genetic Screening; Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Array; Vitrification; Whole Genome Amplification; Human
20.  Consistent and reproducible outcomes of blastocyst biopsy and aneuploidy screening across different biopsy practitioners: a multicentre study involving 2586 embryo biopsies 
STUDY QUESTION
Is blastocyst biopsy and quantitative real-time PCR based comprehensive chromosome screening a consistent and reproducible approach across different biopsy practitioners?
SUMMARY ANSWER
The blastocyst biopsy approach provides highly consistent and reproducible laboratory and clinical outcomes across multiple practitioners from different IVF centres when all of the embryologists received identical training and use similar equipment.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY
Recently there has been a trend towards trophectoderm (TE) biopsy in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)/preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) programmes. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the reproducibility that can be obtained from multiple biopsy practitioners in different IVF centres in relation also to blastocysts of different morphology. Although it has been demonstrated that biopsy at the blastocyst stage has no impact on embryo viability, it remains a possibility that less experienced individual biopsy practitioners or laboratories performing TE biopsy may affect certain outcomes. We investigated whether TE biopsy practitioners can have an impact on the quality of the genetic test and the subsequent clinical outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION
This longitudinal cohort study, between April 2013 and December 2014, involved 2586 consecutive blastocyst biopsies performed at three different IVF centres and the analysis of 494 single frozen euploid embryo transfer cycles (FEET).
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS
Seven biopsy practitioners performed the blastocyst biopsies in the study period and quantitative PCR was used for comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS). The same practitioner performed both the biopsy and tubing procedures for each blastocyst they biopsied. To investigate the quality of the biopsied samples, the diagnostic rate, sample-specific concurrence and the cell number retrieved in the biopsy were evaluated for each biopsy operator. Clinical outcomes following FEET cycles were stratified by biopsy operator and compared. Cellularity of the biopsy sample was also correlated with clinical outcomes.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
The seven practitioners performed 2586 biopsies, five in centre IVF-1 and one in each of the other two IVF centres (IVF-2 and IVF-3). Overall, 2437 out of 2586 (94.2%) blastocyst biopsies resulted in a conclusive diagnosis, 119 (4.6%) showed a nonconcurrent result and 30 (1.2%) failed to amplify, suggesting the absence of TE cells in the test tube or presence of degenerated/lysed cells only. Among the samples producing a conclusive diagnosis, a mean concurrence value of 0.253 (95% CI = 0.250–0.257) was observed. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors showed no differences in the diagnosis rate and in the concurrence of the genetic analysis between different biopsy practitioners. An overall mean number of 7.32 cells (95% CI = 6.82–7.81; range 2–15) were predicted from all biopsies. Higher cellularity was significantly associated with a better quality of the CCS diagnosis (P < 0.01) and with the conclusive diagnosis rate, with nonconcurrent samples showing significantly lower numbers of cells (2.1; 95% CI=1.5–2.7) compared with samples resulting in a conclusive diagnosis (mean cells number 7.5; 95% CI = 7.1–7.9, P < 0.01). However, no differences were recorded between different biopsy practitioners regarding cellularity of the biopsy. Finally, logistic analysis showed no impact of the biopsy practitioners on the observed ongoing rates of implantation, biochemical pregnancy loss and miscarriage after the FEET cycles.
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION
These data come from a restricted set of laboratories where all of the embryologists received identical training and use identical equipment. A single TE biopsy method and CCS technology was used and these data particularly apply to PGS programmes using blastocyst biopsy without zona opening at the cleavage stage and using qPCR-based CCS. To make firm conclusions on the potential impact of biopsy on biochemical pregnancy loss and miscarriages according to practitioner and biopsy cellularity, a larger sample size is needed.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
We reported a very high consistency and reproducibility of the blastocyst biopsy approach coupled with qPCR-based CSS for both genetic and clinical outcomes across different practitioners working in different IVF centres when appropriate training is provided and when the same laboratory setting is used. These data are important considering the trend towards the use of blastocyst biopsy worldwide for PGD/PGS applications.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)
None.
doi:10.1093/humrep/dev294
PMCID: PMC4677968  PMID: 26637492
blastocyst biopsy; preimplantation genetic screening; aneuploidies; embryo selection; blastocyst evaluation
21.  Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and prophylactic human embryo cryopreservation: analysis of reproductive outcome following thawed embryo transfer 
Objective
To review utilisation of elective embryo cryopreservation in the expectant management of patients at risk for developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), and report on reproductive outcome following transfer of thawed embryos.
Materials and methods
Medical records were reviewed for patients undergoing IVF from 2000–2008 to identify cases at risk for OHSS where cryopreservation was electively performed on all embryos at the 2 pn stage. Patient age, total number of oocytes retrieved, number of 2 pn embryos cryopreserved, interval between retrieval and thaw/transfer, number (and developmental stage) of embryos transferred (ET), and delivery rate after IVF were recorded for all patients.
Results
From a total of 2892 IVF cycles undertaken during the study period, 51 IVF cases (1.8%) were noted where follicle number exceeded 20 and pelvic fluid collection was present. Elective embryo freeze was performed as OHSS prophylaxis in each instance. Mean (± SD) age of these patients was 32 ± 3.8 yrs. Average number of oocytes retrieved in this group was 23 ± 8.7, which after fertilisation yielded an average of 14 ± 5.7 embryos cryopreserved per patient. Thaw and ET was performed an average of 115 ± 65 d (range 30–377 d) after oocyte retrieval with a mean of 2 ± 0.6 embryos transferred. Grow-out to blastocyst stage was achieved in 88.2% of cases. Delivery/livebirth rate was 33.3% per initiated cycle and 43.6% per transfer. Non-transferred blastocysts remained in cryostorage for 24 of 51 patients (46.1%) after ET, with an average of 3 ± 3 blastocysts refrozen per patient.
Conclusion
OHSS prophylaxis was used in 1.8% of IVF cycles at this institution; no serious OHSS complications were encountered during the study period. Management based on elective 2 pn embryo cryopreservation with subsequent thaw and grow-out to blastocyst stage for transfer did not appear to compromise embryo viability or overall reproductive outcome. For these patients, immediate elective embryo cryopreservation and delay of ET by as little as 30 d allowed for satisfactory conclusion of the IVF sequence, yielding a livebirth-delivery rate (per ET) >40%.
doi:10.1186/1757-2215-1-7
PMCID: PMC2585559  PMID: 19014420
22.  Assessment of aneuploidy formation in human blastocysts resulting from cryopreserved donor eggs 
Background
Increased embryo implantation rates were reported after transfer of euploid embryos selected by preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). Egg cryopreservation by vitrification has become one of the most important assisted human reproduction technologies. Although reports indicate that development and implantation of human embryos derived from frozen donor eggs are comparative to fresh eggs, it is still unknown whether egg vitrification increases chromosomal abnormalities in eggs, which in turn causes formation of embryonic aneuploidy. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the aneuploidy formation in the blastocysts derived from frozen donor eggs and also evaluated the efficiency of egg vitrification as an advanced technology for egg cryopreservation.
Results
In this study, donated human eggs from young women were cryopreserved by vitrification and PGS was performed in the resulted blastocysts by DNA microarray. A total of 764 frozen eggs from 75 egg thawing cycles were warmed and 38 blastocysts were biopsied for PGS before embryo transfer. A 97.1% of egg survival rate was obtained and 59.1% of embryos developed to blastocyst stage. After biopsy and PGS, it was found that 84.2% of blastocysts were euploid and 15.8% were aneuploid. Aneuploidy rates varied among donors. Transfers of blastocysts without PGS resulted in higher clinical pregnancy and implantation rates as compared with transfer of blastocysts with PGS.
Conclusions
Although the overall aneuploidy rate was low in the blastocysts derived from frozen donor eggs, high aneuploidy rates were observed in the embryos resulting from some donated eggs. Clinical pregnancy rate was not improved by PGS of embryos resulting from donor eggs, indicating that PGS may not be necessary for embryos derived from donor eggs in most cases.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13039-015-0117-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13039-015-0117-8
PMCID: PMC4339107  PMID: 25713597
Aneuploidy; Egg freezing; Donor eggs; Implantation
23.  Live birth following serial vitrification of embryos and PGD for fragile X syndrome in a patient with the premutation and decreased ovarian reserve 
Purpose
To present a live birth resulting from serial vitrification of embryos and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).
Methods
A 31-year-old with primary infertility, fragile-X premutation, and decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) (baseline FSH level 33 IU/L), presented after failing to stimulate to follicle diameters >10 mm with three cycles of invitro fertilization (IVF). After counseling, the couple opted for serial in-vitro maturation (IVM), embryo vitrification, and genetic testing using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and PGD. Embryos were vitrified 2 days after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Thawed embryos were biopsied on day-three and transferred on day-five.
Results
The couple underwent 20 cycles of assisted reproductive technology. A total of 23 in-vivo mature and five immature oocytes were retrieved, of which one matured in-vitro. Of 24 embryos, 17/24 (71 %) developed to day two and 11/24 (46 %) survived to blastocyst stage with a biopsy result available. Four blastocysts had normal PGD and aCGH results. Both single embryo transfers resulted in a successful implantation, one a blighted ovum and the other in a live birth.
Conclusions
Young patients with DOR have potential for live birth as long as oocytes can be obtained and embryos created. Serial vitrification may be the mechanism of choice in these patients when PGD is needed.
doi:10.1007/s10815-013-0079-x
PMCID: PMC3879937  PMID: 24062195
In-vitro maturation (IVM); Embryo vitrification; Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR); Fragile X Syndrome (FXS); Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD); Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH)
24.  A greater number of euploid blastocysts in a given cohort predicts excellent outcomes in single embryo transfer cycles 
Purpose
This multicentered retrospective study analyzed whether the quantity of euploid blastocysts in a given cohort after comprehensive chromosomal screening can be used to identify candidates for single embryo transfer.
Methods
Blastocysts from 437 patients underwent trophectoderm biopsy followed by array comparative genomic hybridization. Embryos were then selected for single or double embryo transfer. The number of euploid blastocysts produced and transferred for each patient was recorded, as was clinical pregnancy rate and multiple gestation rate.
Results
In patients with ≤3 euploid blastocysts, clinical pregnancy rate was higher in double, compared to single embryo transfers. However, in patients with ≥4 euploid blastocysts, clinical pregnancy rate was not reduced with single embryo transfer was performed, whereas the multiple gestation rate was greatly reduced.
Conclusions
Size of the euploid embryo cohort is a marker for success in single embryo transfer cycles. Patients who produce at least four euploid blastocysts are outstanding candidates for single embryo transer.
doi:10.1007/s10815-014-0217-0
PMCID: PMC4048376  PMID: 24659020
Single embryo transfer (SET); Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS); Trophectoderm biopsy; Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH); Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
25.  AB094. Efficacy of combined preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles—early results 
Annals of Translational Medicine  2015;3(Suppl 2):AB094.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) using PCR allows couples where one or both carry a hereditary single gene disorder to avoid having a child with that disorder. It can also be an effective therapeutic tool in curing an existing affected sibling through tissue matched cord blood stem cell transplant. However early preimplantation embryos have significant levels of chromosomal aneuploidy increasing with maternal age. Recent PGS technologies such as comparative genome hybridization (CGH) allow screening of all 24 chromosomes in the early embryo, allowing selective single embryo transfer (eSET) with significantly increased IVF implantation rates and significantly decreased miscarriage rates. We discuss early results on the efficacy of using PGD-PCR in combination with PGS-CGH (combined cycle) in couples who present for PGD for hereditary single gene disorders. PGD-PCR patients have a family specific test established, with the test components multiplexed and checked for reliability on single maternal cumulus cells. Patients having combined cycle had the individual test components checked on existing whole genome amplification (WGA) products and, if unreliable, reverted back to a standard PGD-PCR test/cycle only. Couples had an ovarian stimulation cycle, harvested eggs were fertilized using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and resultant normally fertilized embryos cultured to day 5 and day 6 blastocyst stage. Suitable blastocysts were biopsied with assistance of a near-infra-red laser. The 1-6 cells obtained had their DNA extracted and either PCR amplified using the established multiplexed PGD-PCR test (PGD-PCR cycle) or WGA amplified (combined cycle). From 2007-2014, 109 couples presented for PGD-PCR for 16 different familial single gene disorders, predominantly beta-thalassemia (61/109) or alpha-thalassemia (25/109). In 2012 we introduced PGS-CGH for 24 chromosome screening of infertility couples, and soon after offered PGD-PCR patients the option of a combined PGS-CGH and PGD-PCR cycle; to date 19 patients had requested the combined cycle. For PGD-PCR only, 97 patients had 154 cycles with 85 embryo transfers (114 embryos). 57/85 (67%) were clinically pregnant with an implantation rate of 50%. For requested combined cycles, 5/19 patients (all alpha-thalassemia) failed the WGA check and reverted to PGD-PCR test/cycle only. 11/14 had 14 cycles with 8/14 cycles freeze-all (with no transfers to date) and 4 embryo transfers (5 embryos). 4/4 (100%) were clinically pregnant with an implantation rate of 80%. Early results, while low numbers, indicate offering patients presenting with a hereditary single gene disorder the option of having all 24 chromosomes screened prior to implantation may significantly increase their chance of a healthy pregnancy.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.AB094
PMCID: PMC4563550
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD); preimplantation genetic screening (PGS); array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH)

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