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1.  Intestinal Adaptation Following Small Bowel Resection in Human Infants 
Journal of pediatric surgery  2011;46(6):1045-1051.
In animal models, the small intestine responds to massive small bowel resection (SBR) through a compensatory process termed adaptation, characterized by increases in both villus height and crypt depth. This study seeks to determine whether similar morphologic alterations occur in humans following SBR.
Clinical data and pathologic specimens of infants who had both a SBR for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and an ostomy takedown from 1999–2009 were reviewed. Small intestine mucosal morphology was compared in the same patients at the time of SBR and the time of ostomy takedown.
For all samples, there was greater villus height (453.6±20.4 vs. 341.2±12.4 μm, p<0.0001) and crypt depth (178.6±7.2 vs. 152.6±6 μm, p<0.01) in the ostomy specimens compared to the SBR specimens. In infants with paired specimens, there was an increase of 31.7±8.3% and 22.1±10.0% in villus height and crypt depth, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the amount of intestine resected and the percent change in villus height (r=0.36, p<0.05).
Mucosal adaptation after SBR in human infants is similar to what is observed in animal models. These findings validate the use of animal models of SBR utilized to understand the molecular mechanisms of this important response.
PMCID: PMC3121576  PMID: 21683196
small intestine; adaptation; small bowel resection; adaptation in humans
2.  A study of laparoscopic extraperitoneal sigmoid colostomy after abdomino-perineal resection for rectal cancer 
Gastroenterology Report  2014;2(1):58-62.
Objective: To established a procedure for laparoscopic extraperitoneal ostomy after abdomino-perineal resection (APR) and study safety aspects and complications.
Method: From July 2011 to July 2012, 36 patients with low rectal cancer undergoing APR were included in the study and divided into extraperitoneal ostomy group (n = 18) and intraperitoneal ostomy group (n = 18). Short- and long-term complications were compared between the two groups. All patients were followed up and the median duration was 17 months (range: 12–24).
Results: The rates of short-term complication related to colostomies were comparable between the two groups, except the rate for stoma edema was higher in the extraperitoneal group (33.3% vs 0%; P = 0.008). In the intraperitoneal ostomy group, two patients developed stoma prolapse, one had stoma stenosis, and two had parastomal hernia. In contrast, no long-term complications related to colostomies occurred in the extraperitoneal ostomy group. The rate of long-term complication was lower in the extraperitoneal ostomy group (0% vs 22.2%; P = 0.036).
Conclusion: The laparoscopic extraperitoneal ostomy is a relatively simple and safe procedure, with fewer long-term complications related to colostomy. However the follow-up period was not too long and needs to be extended.
PMCID: PMC3920995
rectal cancer; abdomino-perineal resection (APR); laparoscopy; extraperitoneal ostomy; complication
3.  Triple-Tube-Ostomy: A Novel Technique for the Surgical Treatment of Iatrogenic Duodenal Perforation 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2011;5(3):672-679.
Although duodenal perforation is currently an infrequent complication of medical procedures, its incidence in the future predictably will increase as endoscopic treatment of duodenal neoplasms becomes more frequently used. In some cases, duodenal perforation is difficult to treat even surgically. We report here a novel technique called ‘triple-tube-ostomy’ for the treatment of iatrogenic duodenal perforation. Since November 2009, there have been three cases of iatrogenic perforation of the duodenum, due to various causes, which we have treated with our novel technique. The main principles of the technique are biliary diversion, decompression of the duodenum, and early enteral nutrition. All patients who underwent the triple-tube-ostomy procedure had good postoperative courses, with few complications. The novel surgical technique we describe in this report is safe, reliable, easy to learn and perform, and led to a good postoperative course in all cases where we performed it.
PMCID: PMC3254034  PMID: 22235196
Duodenal perforation; Endoscopy; Postoperative course
4.  The timing of ostomy closure in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review 
Pediatric Surgery International  2012;28(7):667-672.
The optimal timing of ostomy closure is a matter of debate. We performed a systematic review of outcomes of early ostomy closure (EC, within 8 weeks) and late ostomy closure (LC, after 8 weeks) in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis.
PubMed, EMbase, Web-of-Science, and Cinahl were searched for studies that detailed time to ostomy closure, and time to full enteral nutrition (FEN) or complications after ostomy closure. Patients with Hirschsprung’s disease or anorectal malformations were excluded. Analysis was performed using SPSS 17 and RevMan 5.
Of 778 retrieved articles, 5 met the inclusion criteria. The median score for study quality was 9 [range 8–14 on a scale of 0 to 32 points (Downs and Black, J Epidemiol Community Health 52:377–384, 1998)]. One study described mean time to FEN: 19.1 days after EC (n = 13) versus 7.2 days after LC (n = 24; P = 0.027). Four studies reported complication rates after ostomy closure, complications occurred in 27 % of the EC group versus 23 % of the LC group. The combined odds ratio (LC vs. EC) was 1.1 [95 % CI 0.5, 2.5].
Evidence that supports early or late closure is scarce and the published articles are of poor quality. There is no significant difference between EC versus LC in the complication rate. This systematic review supports neither early nor late ostomy closure.
PMCID: PMC3376257  PMID: 22526553
Ostomy closure; Complications; Infants; Necrotizing enterocolitis; Systematic review
5.  Combined laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ileostomy reversal: A method of delayed definitive management of postoperative gallstone pancreatitis 
Traditional management of gallstone pancreatitis (GP) has been to perform cholecystectomy during the same hospital admission after resolution. However, when GP develops in the immediate postoperative period from a major colorectal operation, cholecystectomy may be fraught with difficulty due to the inflammatory response that occurs. Thus, delaying cholecystectomy until the inflammatory response subsides may be worthwhile, and it maximizes the chances of completing the cholecystectomy laparoscopically. We have described our management of 2 patients with GP occurring after colorectal operations, which required proximal diverting ileostomy. In both cases, we deferred management of GP with either endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or medical conservative measures during the acute attack and performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy during ostomy reversal surgery utilizing the existing ostomy takedown site for port placement. Both patients tolerated this management well.
PMCID: PMC3902562  PMID: 24501512
Colorectal resection; gall stone pancreatitis; ileostomy; laparoscopic cholecystectomy
6.  Selected problems associated with the treatment and care for patients with colostomy – part 1 
Contemporary Oncology  2013;17(2):134-136.
The study presents a short historical background and practical application of intestinal ostomy as a treatment method of various intestinal disorders and injuries. Ostomy is a purposeful connection of the lumen of the intestine with abdominal integuments by surgery. After the surgical formation of the intestinal fistula, the patient must adjust to the new situation, gain basic knowledge and learn procedures of ostomy care. Thus, professional medical assistance is extremely important. The study aims to discuss basic notions concerning ostomy and ostomy equipment. Providing high-standard care and assistance for patients with ostomy requires both appropriate knowledge and practical skills.
PMCID: PMC3685365  PMID: 23788979
colostomy; historical background; the supply of ostomy equipment
7.  Development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program 
Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality of life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies.
PMCID: PMC3578127  PMID: 23104143
8.  Duhamel procedure: a comparative retrospective study between an open and a laparoscopic technique 
Surgical Endoscopy  2007;21(12):2163-2165.
Few studies are available comparing open with laparoscopic treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease. This study compares a laparoscopic series of 30 patients with a historical open series of 25 patients.
The charts of all patients having had a Duhamel procedure in the period from June 1987 through July 2003 were retrospectively reviewed. Open procedures were performed until March 1994. Patients with extended aganglionosis, pre-Duhamel ostomy, or syndrome were excluded from the study. End points were intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, time to first feeding, hospital stay, and outcome at follow-up such as stenosis, enterocolitis, constipation, fecal incontinence, and enuresis.
Twenty-five patients had an open Duhamel (OD) and 30 had a laparoscopic one (LD). There were no differences in patient characteristics and there were no intraoperative complications in either group. Time to first oral feeds was significantly longer in the OD group as was the duration of hospital stay. No significant differences at follow-up were observed but there was a tendency for a higher enterocolitis rate in the LD group. In contrast, the adhesive obstruction and enuresis rates were higher in the OD group. Cosmetic results were superior in the LD group.
Except for a significantly shorter hospital stay and shorter time to first oral feeds in favor of LD, no significant differences could be observed. The cosmetic result was not an end point but there was no doubt that it was better in the LD group. Although not statistically significant different, there were no adhesive bowel obstructions in the LD group compared with 3 of 25 in the OD group. Fecal incontinence was not encountered in either group.
PMCID: PMC2077356  PMID: 17483999
Aganglionosis; Hirschsprung; Duhamel; Laparoscopy; Child
9.  Struggles, strengths, and strategies: an ethnographic study exploring the experiences of adolescents living with an ostomy 
Adolescents with IBD requiring ostomy surgery experience perioperative needs that may exceed those of patients experiencing other major abdominal surgery [1]. This procedure requires ongoing and vigilant daily care and management. Gastrointestinal symptoms and complications impose psychological and social stresses on young patients [2], and the procedure results in body image changes and daily regimens of self-care. This study aimed to explore adolescents' experiences and quality of life following ostomy surgery.
Ethnographic interviews and a subsequent focus group were conducted with 20 adolescents with an ostomy or j-pouch being treated at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to theme generation.
Findings suggest that adolescents are profoundly affected by their ostomy. Adolescents convey strength as well as adjustment struggles. Identified impacts include body intrusion and body image changes, decreased independence, secrecy about the ostomy, adjustment over time, challenges for the family, and strategies for constructively moving forward.
Implications address the importance of ensuring meaningful opportunities to understand and reframe the stresses of illness. An ongoing clinical challenge involves the promotion of a healthy self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment for these adolescents and their families. Finding effective ways to minimize stress and embarrassment and reframe personal shame, constitute important clinical priorities. Opportunities for peer support and family dialogue may assist in clarifying worries and easing the burden carried by these young persons. Flexible and adequately funded resources are advocated in fostering quality of life.
PMCID: PMC2626588  PMID: 19091104
10.  Complications and mortality following stoma formation. 
INTRODUCTION: As stoma formation is thought to be declining, we performed a study to evaluate the rate of stoma formation and the impact on stoma complication rates, together with risk factors for complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Stoma incidence, individual complications and mortality rates were retrieved from a stoma nurse database of 345 stomas created over an 8-year period. RESULTS: Stoma formation increased over the study period, although the incidence of complications declined. Stoma complications were more frequently seen in emergency surgery. A significant association between stoma complications and mortality was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Age of patient, urgency of surgery and diagnosis were associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stomas are often formed in frail patients unsuitable for anastomosis formation, which may explain the high mortality in ostomy patients.
PMCID: PMC1964139  PMID: 16263009
11.  Figuring Out Sex in a Reconfigured Body: Experiences of Female Colorectal Cancer Survivors with Ostomies 
Women & health  2009;49(8):608-624.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with ostomies can face complex concerns regarding sexuality. We used an anthropological perspective to examine the experiences of 30 female CRC survivors with ostomies to shed light on the sexual challenges and adaptations made in the wake of cancer surgery and treatment. Participants fell into four categories with regard to their sexual experience post surgery; however, not all women found their altered sexuality to be particularly problematic. This type of phenomenological examination can inform a more patient centered, less biomedically focused paradigm for assessing and improving the sexual health of cancer survivors.
PMCID: PMC2836795  PMID: 20183104
cancer; sexuality; lifecourse; quality of life
12.  Preoperative Considerations and Creation of Normal Ostomies 
Stomas provide fecal diversion in emergent and elective settings. Preoperative planning and counseling are extremely important to the creation of an acceptable and functional ostomy for the surgeon and patient. Proper site selection will help decrease the incidence of postoperative complications. Ileostomy, colostomy, and cecostomy indications and techniques are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2780193  PMID: 20011391
Stoma; ileostomy; colostomy; cecostomy
13.  Imagining life with an ostomy: Does a video intervention improve quality-of-life predictions for a medical condition that may elicit disgust?☆ 
Patient education and counseling  2012;91(1):113-119.
To test a video intervention as a way to improve predictions of mood and quality-of-life with an emotionally evocative medical condition. Such predictions are typically inaccurate, which can be consequential for decision making.
In Part 1, people presently or formerly living with ostomies predicted how watching a video depicting a person changing his ostomy pouch would affect mood and quality-of-life forecasts for life with an ostomy. In Part 2, participants from the general public read a description about life with an ostomy; half also watched a video depicting a person changing his ostomy pouch. Participants’ quality-of-life and mood forecasts for life with an ostomy were assessed.
Contrary to our expectations, and the expectations of people presently or formerly living with ostomies, the video did not reduce mood or quality-of-life estimates, even among participants high in trait disgust sensitivity. Among low-disgust participants, watching the video increased quality-of-life predictions for ostomy.
Video interventions may improve mood and quality-of-life forecasts for medical conditions, including those that may elicit disgust, such as ostomy.
Practice implications
Video interventions focusing on patients’ experience of illness continue to show promise as components of decision aids, even for emotionally charged health states such as ostomy.
PMCID: PMC3942785  PMID: 23177398
Ostomy; Video; Quality-of-life; Judgment
14.  Bone loss in patients with the ileostomy and ileal pouch for inflammatory bowel disease 
Gastroenterology Report  2013;1(3):159-165.
Low bone mineral density (BMD) or low bone mass is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that low BMD is also common in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) even after colectomy and ileal pouch–anal anastomosis (IPAA). The reported frequency of osteopenia ranged from 26–55% and that of osteoporosis ranged from 13–32% in patients with IPAA. Increasing age, low body mass index, lack of calcium supplementation and high inflammatory activity with villous atrophy in the ileo-anal pouch are risk factors for low bone mass in pouch patients. Bone loss is also common in patients with IBD and ostomy. Current professional society guidelines do not specifically address the need for surveillance in patients with ileal pouches or ostomy. A growing body of evidence suggests that patients with ileal pouch or ostomy are at an increased risk of bone loss. Pending prospective studies, screening and surveillance using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) along with calcium/vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial in those patients.
PMCID: PMC3937994
Bone loss; Crohn’s disease; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis
15.  Contemporary Fontan Operation: Association between Early Outcome and Type of Cavopulmonary Connection 
The Annals of thoracic surgery  2012;93(4):1254-1261.
Extra-cardiac conduit (ECC) and Lateral atrial tunnel (LAT) total cavopulmonary connection are both widely used in management of functionally univentricular hearts. The impact of the type of connection on early outcomes after Fontan operation remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of Fontan type on early outcome in a large clinical database.
Patients in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database undergoing the Fontan operation (2000–2009) were included. In multivariable analysis, we evaluated the impact of Fontan type (ECC vs. LAT) on in-hospital mortality, Fontan takedown/revision, Fontan failure (in-hospital mortality or Fontan takedown/revision), post-operative length of stay (LOS), and complications, adjusting for patient, procedural, and center factors.
A total of 2747 patients from 68 centers were included: 61% were male and 45% had a right dominant ventricle. ECC Fontan (vs. LAT) was performed in 63%; in all 65% were fenestrated. In multivariable analysis with adjustment for patient, procedural (including fenestration), and center factors (including Fontan volume), ECC Fontan was associated with significantly higher Fontan takedown/revision (OR 2.73, 95%CI 1.09–6.87) and Fontan failure (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.13–4.59), and longer post-operative length of stay (adjusted estimated difference in LOS: +1.4 days).
These multicenter data suggest that of the two prevalent forms of Fontan connection in current use, the LAT Fontan may be associated with superior early outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3427600  PMID: 22450074
Congenital Heart Disease; Outcomes; Fontan
16.  Gastrointestinal ostomies and sexual outcomes: a comparison of colorectal cancer patients by ostomy status 
Research examining effects of ostomy use on sexual outcomes is limited. Patients with colorectal cancer were compared on sexual outcomes and body image based on ostomy status (never, past, and current ostomy). Differences in depression were also examined.
Patients were prospectively recruited during clinic visits and by tumor registry mailings. Patients with colorectal cancer (N = 141; 18 past ostomy; 25 current ostomy; and 98 no ostomy history) completed surveys assessing sexual outcomes (medical impact on sexual function, Female Sexual Function Index, International Index of Erectile Function), body image distress (Body Image Scale), and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale—Short Form). Clinical information was obtained through patient validated self-report measures and medical records.
Most participants reported sexual function in the dysfunctional range using established cut-off scores. In analyses adjusting for demographic and medical covariates and depression, significant group differences were found for ostomy status on impact on sexual function (p <.001), female sexual function (p =.01), and body image (p <.001). The current and past ostomy groups reported worse impact on sexual function than those who never had an ostomy (p <.001); similar differences were found for female sexual function. The current ostomy group reported worse body image distress than those who never had an ostomy (p <.001). No differences were found across the groups for depressive symptoms (p =.33) or male sexual or erectile function (p values≥.59).
Colorectal cancer treatment puts patients at risk for sexual difficulties and some difficulties may be more pronounced for patients with ostomies as part of their treatment. Clinical information and support should be offered.
PMCID: PMC3967444  PMID: 24091721
Colorectal cancer; Oncology; Gastrointestinal ostomies; Sexual function; Body image
17.  Stoma-Related Variceal Bleeding: An Under-Recognized Complication of Biliary Atresia 
Journal of pediatric surgery  1988;23(3):243-245.
The medical records of 52 children with biliary atresia treated by portoenterostomy and evaluated for liver transplantation were reviewed to determine the frequency of stoma variceal bleeding and the optimal strategies for prevention and treatment. Eighteen patients had had prior stoma closure, four by preperitoneal closure without takedown from the abdominal wall. Three of the four developed occult variceal bleeding from the stoma closure site. Twenty-two patients had a stoma present at evaluation. All 22 patients with stomas (100%) had at least one bleeding episode requiring transfusion. Treatment included transfusion and local pressure (9), suture ligation of the bleeding site (5), and stoma closure and / or takedown (11). Local treatment led to recurrences in eight of 14 (57%) of the cases. To reduce the high mortality in patients with biliary atresia awaiting liver transplantation, multiple variceal bleeding episodes should be prevented. To eliminate one source, stoma variceal bleeding, the stoma, whether functioning or nonfunctioning should be taken down and closed. Preperitoneal closure alone does not prevent stoma bleeding.
PMCID: PMC2976621  PMID: 3357142
Biliary atresia; portal hypertension; stoma varices; liver transplantation; portoenterostomy
18.  Low Zinc Status and Absorption Exist in Infants with Jejunostomies or Ileostomies Which Persists after Intestinal Repair 
Nutrients  2012;4(9):1273-1281.
There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique at two different time points when possible. The first study was conducted when the subject was receiving maximal tolerated feeds enterally while the ostomy remained in place. A second study was performed as soon as feasible after full feeds were achieved after intestinal repair. We found biochemical evidence of deficiencies of both zinc and copper in infants with small intestinal ostomies at both time points. Fractional zinc absorption with an ostomy in place was 10.9% ± 5.3%. After reanastamosis, fractional zinc absorption was 9.4% ± 5.7%. Net zinc balance was negative prior to reanastamosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that infants with a jejunostomy or ileostomy are at high risk for zinc and copper deficiency before and after intestinal reanastamosis. Additional supplementation, especially of zinc, should be considered during this time period.
PMCID: PMC3475237  PMID: 23112915
zinc; copper; ostomy; jejunostomy; ileostomy; nutrient absorption
19.  Quality of life in ostomy patients: a qualitative study 
Therapeutic procedures may not only treat disease but also affect patient quality of life. Therefore, quality of life should be measured in order to assess the impact of disease and therapeutic procedures. To identify clients’ problems, it is necessary to assess several dimensions of quality of life, including physical, spiritual, economic, and social aspects. In this regard, we conducted a qualitative study to explore quality of life and its dimensions in ostomy patients referred to the Iranian Ostomy Association.
Fourteen patients were interviewed about their quality of life dimensions by purposeful sampling. Data were gathered by semistructured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method.
Nine main themes emerged using this approach, including physical problems related to colostomy, impact of colostomy on psychological functioning, social and family relationships, travel, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual function, as well as religious and economic issues.
The findings of the study identified a number of challenges in quality of life for patients with ostomy. The results can be used by health care providers to create a supportive environment that promotes better quality of life for their ostomy patients.
PMCID: PMC3034300  PMID: 21311696
ostomy; colostomy; qualitative study; quality of life
20.  Laparoscopic-assisted Primary Repair of a Complicated Ventral Incisional Hernia 
Postoperative wound dehiscence is a difficult problem for the general surgeon. Often, patients are too sick, or the wound environment is too hostile, to undergo primary repair. When an eventual repair is performed, a variety of methods are available, but most are associated with unacceptably high morbidity rates, specifically high incidences of recurrences and poor cosmetic outcome. We present here a case of postoperative wound dehiscence following a colostomy takedown repaired in a previously undescribed way—a laparoscopically assisted ventral incisional hernia repair. The method of repair is described, and the current literature regarding alternatives is reviewed.
PMCID: PMC3015589  PMID: 15984722
Buttressing; Dehiscence; Ventral hernia
21.  Proteomic Analysis Reveals Innate Immune Activity in Intestinal Transplant Dysfunction 
Transplantation  2011;92(1):112-119.
Many patients with intestinal failure require intestinal transplantation (ITx) to survive. Acute cellular rejection poses a challenge in ITx because its biologic components are incompletely understood. New methodologies for its integrative and longitudinal analysis are needed.
In this study, we characterized episodes of acute cellular rejection in ITx recipients using a noninvasive proteomic analysis. Ostomy effluent was obtained from all patients undergoing ITx at University of California, Los Angeles from July 2008 to September 2009 during surveillance endoscopies in the first 8 weeks post-ITx. Effluent was analyzed using 17-plex Luminex technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization proteomics.
Of 56 ostomy effluent samples from 17 ITx recipients, 14% developed biopsy-proven rejection at a median of 25 days post-ITx. Six had mild rejection, two were indeterminate for rejection, and no graft loss was seen in the first 3 months posttransplantation. Effluent levels of five innate immune cytokines were elevated in the posttransplantation phase: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-8, tissue necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Proteomic analysis revealed 17 protein features differentially seen in rejection, two identified as human neutrophil peptide 1 and 2. This was confirmed by the presence of human neutrophil peptide-positive lamina propria neutrophils in biopsy tissue samples.
Proteomic and cytokine analysis of ostomy effluents suggests an early and unappreciated role of innate immune activation during rejection.
PMCID: PMC3461584  PMID: 21527871
Intestinal transplantation; Rejection; Proteomics; Innate immunity
22.  Risk of infection following penetrating abdominal trauma: a selective review. 
Post-operative infectious complications following penetrating abdominal trauma are a major cause of morbidity and contribute significantly to increased length of hospitalization and costs of patient care. Our recent study suggests the individual patient's probability of major infection following traumatic intestinal perforation is high and can be predicted from risk factors identified at the time of surgery. The determinant of primary importance for development of infection confirmed by this study is peritoneal contamination by intestinal contents. Other significant risk factors (p less than 0.05) were number of organs injured, number of units of blood administered, ostomy formation for left colon injury, and the patient's age. Risk of infection can be calculated from these data and could potentially be used to guide post-operative decisions. Areas of trauma care in which alteration of therapy might result in significant savings include choice of antibiotics, duration of antibiotic administration, and wound management. This study supports the use of standardized operative procedures and parenteral antibiotics effective against endogenous aerobic and anaerobic organisms. If such observations continue to be supported by further randomized prospective studies, there is tremendous potential to further tailor surgical management for the individual patient in a more cost-effective manner.
PMCID: PMC2590081  PMID: 3532576
23.  Resolution of Tracheostomy Complications by Decanulation and Conversion to Noninvasive Management for a Patient With High-Level Tetraplegia 
To report conversion from tracheostomy (TIV) to noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) for a continuously ventilator-dependent patient with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) with no measurable vital capacity (VC = 0 mL) to resolve tracheostomy-associated complications.
A case report of a 38-year-old female in a chronic care facility in Japan with a 10-year history of ventilator-dependent tetraplegia (C1 ASIA-A) presented for increasing difficulty vocalizing. She had been using a fenestrated cuffed tracheostomy tube to produce speech with the cuff deflated. Speech was increasingly hypophonic, because of tracheostoma enlargement, tube migration, and tracheal granulation.
The NIV was provided via nasal and oral interfaces, the ostomy was surgically closed, and vocalization resumed. Airway secretions were expulsed using manually assisted coughing. The patient returned to the community.
Conversion to NIV should be considered for ventilator-dependent patients with SCI who have adequate bulbar-innervated muscle function to permit effective speech and assisted coughing.
PMCID: PMC3584771  PMID: 23459005
cough; mechanical ventilation; respiratory paralysis; spinal cord injury; tetraplegia
24.  Surviving Colorectal Cancer: Long-Term, Persistent Ostomy-Specific Concerns and Adaptations 
The purpose of this paper is to describe persistent ostomy-specific concerns and adaptations in long-term (> 5 years) colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies.
Subjects and Settings
Thirty three colorectal cancer survivors who participated in eight gender- and health related Quality of life (HRQOL) stratified focus groups and 130 colorectal cancer survivors who provided written comments to two open-ended questions on ostomy location and pouch problems participated in the study. Data were collected on health maintenance organization members in Oregon, southwestern Washington and northern California.
Qualitative data were analyzed for the 8 focus groups and written comments from 2 open-ended survey questions. Discussions from the focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Written content from the open-ended questions was derived from a mailed questionnaire on health related quality of life in survivors with ostomies and analyzed using content analysis.
Discussions related to persistent ostomy-related issues more than 5 years after formation were common. Persistent ostomy-related issues were focused on clothing restrictions and adaptations, dietary concerns, issues related to ostomy equipment and self-care, and the constant need to find solutions to adjust and re-adjust to living with an ostomy.
Ostomy-specific concerns persist 5 years and more for long-term colorectal cancer survivors after initial ostomy formation. Adaptations tend to be individualized and based on trial and error. Findings underscore the need to develop long-term support mechanisms that survivors can access to promote better coping and adjustment to living with an ostomy.
PMCID: PMC3536890  PMID: 23222968
25.  Selected problems associated with the treatment and care for patients with colostomy – part 2 
Contemporary Oncology  2013;17(3):246-249.
Generally, ostomy is a purposeful connection of the lumen of the intestine with abdominal integuments by surgery. The study presents practical solutions related to care for the colostomy patient, i.e. an ostomy on the large intestine. The following issues will be discussed: regulating the defecation cycle, risk connected with improper selection of ostomy equipment, instruction on colostomy irrigation with practical advice and irrigation equipment supply. The knowledge of these rules and mastering them in practice is to provide ostomy patients not only with highest-standard care and help but also to prepare them for dealing with problems independently, i.e. for self-care.
PMCID: PMC3934070  PMID: 24596509
the rules of changing the equipment; irrigation

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