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1.  Serum thyroglobulin, a biomarker for iodine deficiency, is not associated with increased risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in a large Chinese cohort 
Iodine concentrates in gastric tissue and may act as an antioxidant for the stomach. We previously showed that self-reported goiter was associated with significantly increased risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and non-significantly increased risks of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a prospective case-cohort study in a high-risk population in China. Negatively correlated with iodine levels, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a more sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency than goiter. This study aimed to determine whether baseline serum Tg was also associated with development of GNCA, GCA, and ESCC in the same cohort, the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. Sera from approximately 200 subjects of each case type and 400 non-cases were tested for serum Tg concentration using appropriate assays. Tg was modeled as sex- and assay-specific quartiles in Cox regression models adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, pepsinogens I/II ratio, family history, and commune of residence. In the final combined analysis, participants in the highest quartile of serum Tg, compared to those in the lowest quartile, had adjusted Hazard Ratios of 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.50–1.52), 1.14 (0.63–2.05), and 0.78 (0.47–1.31) for GNCA, GCA, and ESCC, respectively. Using serum Tg, a sensitive biomarker of iodine deficiency, we found no association between serum Tg concentrations and risk of these upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers in the study population. Our results do not support the hypothesis that iodine deficiency, as assessed by serum Tg, is associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25789
PMCID: PMC3075342  PMID: 21105043
iodine deficiency; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; thyroglobulin; China
2.  Gastroesophageal Reflux in Relation to Adenocarcinomas of the Esophagus: A Pooled Analysis from the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e103508.
Background
Previous studies have evidenced an association between gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). It is unknown to what extent these associations vary by population, age, sex, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, or whether duration and frequency of symptoms interact in predicting risk. The Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) allowed an in-depth assessment of these issues.
Methods
Detailed information on heartburn and regurgitation symptoms and covariates were available from five BEACON case-control studies of EA and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA). We conducted single-study multivariable logistic regressions followed by random-effects meta-analysis. Stratified analyses, meta-regressions, and sensitivity analyses were also conducted.
Results
Five studies provided 1,128 EA cases, 1,229 EGJA cases, and 4,057 controls for analysis. All summary estimates indicated positive, significant associations between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA. Increasing heartburn duration was associated with increasing EA risk; odds ratios were 2.80, 3.85, and 6.24 for symptom durations of <10 years, 10 to <20 years, and ≥20 years. Associations with EGJA were slighter weaker, but still statistically significant for those with the highest exposure. Both frequency and duration of heartburn/regurgitation symptoms were independently associated with higher risk. We observed similar strengths of associations when stratified by age, sex, cigarette smoking, and body mass index.
Conclusions
This analysis indicates that the association between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA is strong, increases with increased duration and/or frequency, and is consistent across major risk factors. Weaker associations for EGJA suggest that this cancer site has a dissimilar pathogenesis or represents a mixed population of patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103508
PMCID: PMC4116205  PMID: 25075959
3.  Alcohol intake and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a pooled analysis from the BEACON Consortium 
Gut  2011;60(8):1029-1037.
Background and aims
Alcohol intake is a strong and well-established risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the association with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) or adjacent tumors of the esophagogastric junction (EGJA), remains unclear. Therefore, we determined the association of alcohol intake with ESCC, EA, and EGJA in nine case-control studies and two cohort studies of the Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON).
Materials and methods
We collected information on alcohol intake, age, sex, education, body mass index, gastroesophageal reflux, and tobacco smoking from each study. Along with 10,854 controls, 1,821 EA, and 1,837 EGJA, seven studies also collected ESCC cases (n=1,016). Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models for alcohol intake in categories compared to non-drinkers. Summary risk estimates were obtained by random effects models.
Results
We observed no increase in risk of EA or EGJA for increasing levels of any of the alcohol intake measures examined. ORs for the highest frequency category (≥7 drinks per day) were 0.97 (95% CI = 0.68-1.36) for EA and 0.77 (95% CI = 0.54-1.10) for EGJA. Suggestive findings linked moderate intake (e.g. 0.5 to <1 drinks per day) to decreased risk of EA (OR = 0.63 95% CI = 0.41-0.99) and EGJA (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.62-0.99). In contrast, alcohol intake was strongly associated with increased risk of ESCC (OR for ≥7 drinks per day= 9.62, 95%CI=4.26-21.71).
Conclusions
In contrast to ESCC, higher alcohol consumption was not associated with increased risk of either EA or EGJA. The apparent inverse association observed with moderate alcohol intake should be evaluated in future prospective studies.
doi:10.1136/gut.2010.233866
PMCID: PMC3439838  PMID: 21406386
Alcohol Drinking; Esophageal Neoplasms; Stomach Neoplasms; Epidemiology
4.  Vitamin E intake and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study 
We investigated the association of dietary α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and supplemental vitamin E intake with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC; n = 158), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC; n = 382), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA; n = 320), and gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA; n = 327) in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a cohort of approximately 500,000 people. Data on dietary and supplemental vitamin E intake were collected using a validated questionnaire at baseline and were analyzed using Cox regression models. Intakes were analyzed as continuous variables and as quartiles.
For dietary α-tocopherol, we found some evidence of association with decreased ESCC and increased EAC risk in the continuous analyses, with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.90 (0.81 – 0.99) and 1.05 (1.00 – 1.11), respectively, per 1.17 mg (half the interquartile range) increased intake. However, in quartile analyses, the p-value for trend was non-significant for both of these cancers. There was no association between dietary α-tocopherol and GCA or GNCA. We observed no statistically significant associations with γ-tocopherol. For supplemental vitamin E, the results were mainly null, except for a significantly lower risk of GNCA with higher doses of supplemental vitamin E. An increase of 71 mg/day (half the interquartile range) in supplemental vitamin E had an HR (95% CI) of 0.92 (0.85–1.00) and the p-value for trend in the quartile analyses was 0.015.
doi:10.1002/ijc.24342
PMCID: PMC2686122  PMID: 19326432
5.  Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use Reduces Risk for Adenocarcinomas of the Esophagus and Esophagogastric Junction in a Pooled Analysis 
Gastroenterology  2011;142(3):442-e23.
Background & Aims
Regular use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) has been reported to reduce risks for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA). However, individual studies have been too small to accurately assess the effects of medication type, frequency, or duration of use. We performed a pooled analysis to investigate these associations.
Methods
We performed a pooled analysis of 6 population-based studies within the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium to evaluate the association between NSAID use and the risk of EAC and EGJA, using uniform exposure definitions. We collected information from 6 studies (5 case-control and 1 cohort), with a total of 1226 EAC and 1140 EGJA cases, on aspirin and/or NSAID use. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariate adjusted logistic regression models and then pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model.
Results
Compared to non-users, individuals who have used NSAIDs had a statistically significant, reduced risk of EAC (OR=0.68; 95% CI, 0.56–0.82); they also appeared to have a reduced risk of EGJA (OR=0.84; 95% CI, 0.68–1.03). Similar reductions in risk were observed among individuals who took aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs. The highest levels of frequency (≥daily) and duration (≥10 years) of NSAID use were associated with an approximately 40% reduction in risk for EAC: OR=0.56 (95% CI, 0.43–0.73; P-trend, <.001) and OR=0.63 (95% CI, 0.45–0.90; P-trend, 0.04), respectively.
Conclusions
Although reverse causation could, in part, explain the inverse association observed between NSAID use and EAC risk, pooled analysis indicates a role for NSAIDs in prevention of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.11.019
PMCID: PMC3488768  PMID: 22108196
BEACON; Esophageal Neoplasm; Stomach Cancer; Anti-Inflammatory Agent
6.  Serum ghrelin is inversely associated with risk of subsequent oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
Gut  2011;61(11):1533-1537.
Background
Oesophageal cancers rank as the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer death, worldwide. Gastric atrophy, as determined by a low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio, may be associated with an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ghrelin, a hormone which, like pepsinogen, is produced in the fundic glands of the stomach, may be a sensitive and specific marker of gastric atrophy, but its association with OSCC is not known.
Methods
To examine the relationship between baseline serum ghrelin concentration and subsequent risk of OSCC, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. 82 cases of OSCC were matched (1:1) by age and date of blood draw to controls from the ATBC study. Serum ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders.
Results
For those individuals in the lowest quartile of serum ghrelin, compared to those in the highest, the multivariate odds ratio of subsequent OSCC was 6.83 (95% CI: 1.46, 31.84). These associations were dose dependent (P for trend = 0.005 for both), and independent of the effects of low pepsinogen I/II ratio (a marker of gastric fundic atrophy) and Helicobacter pylori infection. The significance of these associations remained even for individuals developing OSCC up to 10 years after baseline ghrelin measurement, though they become attenuated after 10 years.
Conclusion
Lower baseline concentrations of serum ghrelin were associated with an increase in risk of OSCC. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in other populations and to explore the role of ghrelin in the aetiology of OSCC.
doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300653
PMCID: PMC3462270  PMID: 22180062
ghrelin; oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; atrophy
7.  Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Relation to Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in the NIH-AARP Cohort 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84805.
Introduction
Body mass index is known to be positively associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, yet there is there limited evidence on whether physical activity or sedentary behavior affects risk of histology- and site-specific upper gastrointestinal cancers. We used the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to assess these exposures in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA).
Methods
Self-administered questionnaires were used to elicit physical activity and sedentary behavior exposures at various age periods. Cohort members were followed via linkage to the US Postal Service National Change of Address database, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95%CI)
Results
During 4.8 million person years, there were a total of 215 incident ESCCs, 631 EAs, 453 GCAs, and 501 GNCAs for analysis. Strenuous physical activity in the last 12 months (HR>5 times/week vs. never=0.58, 95%CI: 0.39, 0.88) and typical physical activity and sports during ages 15–18 years (p for trend=0.01) were each inversely associated with GNCA risk. Increased sedentary behavior was inversely associated with EA (HR5–6 hrs/day vs. <1 hr=0.57, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.92). There was no evidence that BMI was a confounder or effect modifier of any relationship. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of these results were deemed to be statistically significant at p<0.05.
Conclusions
We find evidence for an inverse association between physical activity and GNCA risk. Associations between body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus do not appear to be related to physical activity and sedentary behavior.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084805
PMCID: PMC3868613  PMID: 24367697
8.  Genetic variants in Fas signaling pathway genes and risk of gastric cancer 
Populations in north central China are at high risk for gastric cancers (GC), and altered FAS-mediated cell signaling and/or apoptosis may contribute to this risk. We examined the association of 554 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 53 Fas signaling-related genes using a pathway-based approach in 1758 GC cases (1126 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA) and 632 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA)), and 2111 controls from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of GC in ethnic Chinese. SNP associations with risk of overall GC, GCA and GNCA were evaluated using unconditional logistic regressions controlling for age, sex and study. Gene- and pathway-based associations were tested using the adaptive rank-truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was evaluated empirically by permutation. Significant pathway-based associations were observed for Fas signaling with risk of overall GC (P = 5.5E-04) and GCA (P = 6.3E-03), but not GNCA (P = 8.1E-02). Among examined genes in the Fas signaling pathway, MAP2K4, FAF1, MAPK8, CASP10, CASP8, CFLAR, MAP2K1, CAP8AP2, PAK2 and IKBKB were associated with risk of GC (nominal P < 0.05), and FAF1 and MAPK8 were significantly associated with risk of both GCA and GNCA (nominal P < 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the Fas signaling pathway is consistent with an association of altered Fas signaling and/or apoptosis with risk of GC. As one of the first attempts to investigate a pathway-level association, our results suggest that these genes and the Fas signaling pathway warrant further evaluation in relation to GC risk in other populations.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28415
PMCID: PMC3858487  PMID: 23921907
Gastric cancer; gastric cardia; gastric noncardia; Fas signaling; genetic variants; GWAS; single nucleotide polymorphisms; pathway genes
9.  Serum Ghrelin; A New Surrogate Marker of Gastric Mucosal Alterations in Upper Gastrointestinal Carcinogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74440.
Background
A few studies have indicated inverse relationships between serum ghrelin and gastric and esophageal cancers but those associations have been restricted to specific populations, including smokers and overweight individuals. We examined the association between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers and atrophic gastritis in a population-based setting.
Methods
In total 220 gastroesophageal cancers, comprising non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and age and gender-matched controls were recruited. Serum ghrelin, pepsinogen I/II ratio (PGI/II) and anti-H.pylori IgG antibodies were measured. Relationships between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers, after adjustment for PGI/II ratio, H.pylori status and smoking, were tested using logistic regression. Furthermore, in 125 endoscopically normal volunteers, with and without histological atrophic gastritis, the relationship with ghrelin was compared.
Results
Serum ghrelin (lowest vs. highest quintile) was inversely associated with gastric cancer: OR (95% CI) 8.71 (1.70–44.59) for cardia and 6.58 (1.26–34.46) for non-cardia cancer. Lower serum ghrelin was also associated with esophageal SCC: OR (95% CI) 5.69 (1.36–23.78), but not with esophageal adenocarcinoma. A similar association was observed between gastric cancer (cardia and non-cardia) and esophageal SCC when serum ghrelin was analysed as a continuous scaled variable. In endoscopically-normal volunteers, extensive atrophic gastritis was associated with low serum ghrelin [OR (95% CI) 0.25 (0.10–0.64)].
Conclusion
Inverse associations between ghrelin and some gastroesophageal cancers suggest a potential role for serum ghrelin as a biomarker of upper gastrointestinal cancers and atrophic gastritis. In areas with a high incidence of gastric and/or esophageal cancer, screening might be more effectively targeted to individuals with low serum ghrelin in addition to the PGI/II ratio.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074440
PMCID: PMC3787044  PMID: 24098650
10.  Prospective study of self-reported diabetes and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers 
Background
While gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) incidence rates in the US have decreased, the rates of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) have increased. Obesity increases the risks of GCA and EADC, and the associations may be partially mediated by insulin resistance. A few case-control studies have shown an association between diabetes and an increased risk of EADC.
Methods
We prospectively examined the association between diabetes and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers in a cohort of 469,448 people in the US, ages 50-71 at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes and UGI cancers, controlling for multiple potential confounders, including body mass index (BMI).
Results
We observed no association of self-reported diabetes with risk of EADC, HR (95%CI) = 0.98 (0.73-1.31), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), HR (95%CI) = 1.02 (0.60-1.74), or GNCA, HR (95%CI) = 0.98 (0.70-1.37). However, diabetes was significantly associated with an increased risk of GCA, HR (95%CI) = 1.89 (1.43-2.50). The significant association between diabetes and risk of GCA remained after adjustment for BMI, HR (95%CI) = 1.70 (1.28-2.26) and did not differ by BMI strata (pinteraction =0.83). The significant association was unchanged when restricting to only overweight subjects (BMI 25 - ≤30), HR (95%CI) = 1.83 (1.18-2.85).
Conclusions
We found a significant association between self-reported diabetes and increased risk of GCA.
Impact
Our results suggest that the metabolic and hormonal changes related to diabetes may play a role in the etiology of GCA independently from BMI.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-1244
PMCID: PMC3089699  PMID: 21415356
Esophageal adenocarcinoma; gastric adenocarcinoma; diabetes; BMI
11.  Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in Shanxi Province, China: A case-control study 
Cancer epidemiology  2011;35(6):e91-e99.
Objective
Smoking and alcohol consumption explain little of the risk for upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer in China, where over half of all cases in the world occur.
Methods
We evaluated questionnaire-based risk factors for UGI cancers in a case-control study from Shanxi Province, China, including 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), 599 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA), 316 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA), and 1514 age- and gender-matched controls.
Results
Ever smoking and ever use of any alcohol were not associated with risk of UGI cancer; only modest associations were observed between ESCC risk and highest cumulative smoking exposure, as well as GNCA risk and beer drinking. While several associations were noted for socioeconomic and some dietary variables with one or two UGI cancers, the strongest and most consistent relations for all three individual UGI cancers were observed for consumption of scalding hot foods (risk increased 150% to 219% for daily vs never users) and fresh vegetables and fruits (risk decreased 48% to 70% for vegetables and 46% to 68% for fruits, respectively, for high vs low quartiles).
Conclusion
This study confirms the minor role of tobacco and alcohol in UGI cancers in this region, and highlights thermal damage as a leading etiologic factor.
doi:10.1016/j.canep.2011.06.006
PMCID: PMC3215853  PMID: 21846596
smoking; alcohol; socioeconomic status; diet
12.  Jasmine tea consumption and upper gastrointestinal cancer in China 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2009;20(10):1997-2007.
Epidemiological data on green/jasmine tea and esophageal as well as gastric cancer are limited and inconclusive. In order to study the effect of jasmine tea in upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers, we evaluated 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 598 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and 316 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) cases and 1514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression adjusted for matching factors and potential confounders. Among controls, 35% of males and 8% of females reported consumption of jasmine tea; other tea consumption was rare. Consumption of jasmine tea (ever vs. never) was not associated with risk of ESCC (OR=1.15, 95% CI 0.92–1.44), GCA (OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.88–1.37), or GNCA (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.64–1.15) in males and females combined. Among males, cumulative lifetime consumption showed a significant positive dose-response relation with ESCC risk, but not for GCA and GNCA. In exploratory analyses, occupation affected the relation between tea and ESCC such that consumption in males was associated with increased risk only in non-office workers. Overall, we found no evidence for a protective effect of tea in esophageal or gastric cancer. Further studies of the potential effects of thermal damage, tea quality, and water quality on UGI cancers are suggested.
doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9394-z
PMCID: PMC3236106  PMID: 19597950
jasmine tea; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer
13.  Ghrelin and gastrin in advanced gastric cancer before and after gastrectomy 
AIM: To investigate plasma ghrelin, gastrin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) expression in advanced gastric cancer (GC) before and after resection.
METHODS: Seventy subjects in whom endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract was performed in the Department of General Surgery at Cracow University during the past decade: (1) 25 patients with GC associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection; (2) 10 patients with GC 4-5 years after (total or subtotal) gastrectomy; (3) 25 healthy H. pylori-negative controls, matched by age and BMI to the above two groups; and (4) 10 GC patients 4-5 years after total gastrectomy. Ghrelin and gastrin plasma concentrations were measured by specific radioimmunoassay under fasting conditions and postprandially at 60 and 90 min after ingestion of a mixed meal. GHS-R expression was examined in biopsy samples from intact healthy mucosa and GC tissue using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: In healthy controls, fasting plasma ghrelin levels were significantly elevated and declined markedly at 60 and 90 min after a mixed meal. The concomitant enhanced ghrelin, GHS-R and gastrin expression in GC tissue over that recorded in intact mucosa, and the marked rise in plasma gastrin in these subjects under fasting conditions indicate the role of these hormonal factors in GC formation. Fasting plasma levels and postprandial response of ghrelin and gastrin appear to be inversely correlated in healthy subjects. Feeding in the controls resulted in a significant fall in plasma ghrelin with a subsequent rise in plasma gastrin, but in H. pylori-positive GC patients submitted to total or distal gastrectomy, feeding failed to affect significantly the fall in plasma ghrelin that was recorded in these patients before surgery. Fasting ghrelin concentrations were significantly lower in patients 4-5 years after total gastrectomy compared to those in healthy controls and to these in GC patients before surgery.
CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma gastrin and suppression of fasting ghrelin in patients with GC suggest the existence of a close relationship between these two hormones in gastric carcinogenesis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i4.449
PMCID: PMC3027011  PMID: 21274374
Ghrelin; Gastrin; Gastric cancer; Gastric resection
14.  Endocrine impact of Helicobacter pylori: Focus on ghrelin and ghrelin o-acyltransferase 
Ghrelin is predominantly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment and is octanoylated by the recently discovered ghrelin o-acyltransferase (GOAT) before secretion into the bloodstream. This octanoylation is essential for many of the biological properties of ghrelin including appetite stimulation and anti-inflammatory properties as only the acylated form of ghrelin binds to the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Given the gastric location of ghrelin production, it is perhaps not surprising that insult to the gastric mucosa affects circulating ghrelin levels in humans. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than fifty percent of the world’s population and once established within the gastric mucosa, can persist for life. Infection is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy and ulceration, reduced appetite and a lower body mass index (BMI). The large majority of studies investigating levels of circulating ghrelin and ghrelin expression in the stomach in patients with H. pylori infection indicate that the bacterium has a negative impact on ghrelin production and/or secretion. Eradication of infection restores ghrelin, improves appetite and increases BMI in some studies, however, a causative relationship between H. pylori-associated serum ghrelin decline and food intake and obesity has not been established. Most studies measure total ghrelin in the circulation although the measurement of the ratio of acyl/total ghrelin gives a clearer indication that the ghrelin acylation process is altered during infection and atrophy. GOAT is essential for the production of biologically-active, acyl ghrelin and the impact of H. pylori on GOAT expression and activity will be highly informative in the future.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i10.1249
PMCID: PMC3068259  PMID: 21455323
Appetite; Ghrelin; Ghrelin o-acyltransferase; Helicobacter pylori; Infection; Inflammation; Obesity
15.  The importance of delivery rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium 
Cancer epidemiology  2012;36(3):306-316.
Background
Cigarette smoking is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and alcohol consumption with ESCC. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio (OR) trends with total exposure, i.e., the impact on the OR for a fixed total exposure of high exposure rate for short duration compared with low exposure rate for long duration.
Methods
The authors pooled data from 12 case-control studies from the Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), including 1,242 (EAC), 1,263 (EGJA) and 954 (ESCC) cases and 7,053 controls, modeled joint ORs for cumulative exposure and exposure rate for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and evaluated effect modification by sex, body mass index (BMI), age and self-reported acid reflux.
Results
For smoking, all sites exhibited inverse delivery rate effects, whereby ORs with pack-years increased, but trends weakened with increasing cigarettes/day. None of the examined factors modified associations, except for ESCC where younger ages at diagnosis enhanced smoking effects (P<0.01). For EAC and EGJA, ORs with drink-years exhibited inverse associations in <5 drinks/day consumers and no association in heavier consumers. For ESCC, ORs with drink-years increased, with trends strengthening with greater drinks/day. There was no significant effect modification, except for EAC and EGJA where acid reflux mitigated the inverse associations (P=0.02). For ESCC, younger ages at diagnosis enhanced drinking-related ORs (P<0.01).
Conclusions
Patterns of ORs by pack-years and drink-years, delivery rate effects and effect modifiers revealed common as well as distinct etiologic elements for these diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.canep.2012.03.001
PMCID: PMC3489030  PMID: 22504051
alcohol drinking; risk model; smoking
16.  Correlations of circulating peptide YY and ghrelin with body weight, rate of weight gain, and time required to achieve the recommended daily intake in preterm infants 
The objective was to elucidate the relationships between serum concentrations of the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin and growth development in infants for potential application to the clinical observation index. Serum concentrations of PYY and ghrelin were measured using radioimmunoassay from samples collected at the clinic. For each patient, gestational age, birth weight, time required to return to birth weight, rate of weight gain, time required to achieve recommended daily intake (RDI) standards, time required for full-gastric feeding, duration of hospitalization, and time of administration of total parenteral nutrition were recorded. Serum PYY and ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in the preterm group (N = 20) than in the full-term group (N = 20; P < 0.01). Within the preterm infant group, the serum concentrations of PYY and ghrelin on postnatal day (PND) 7 (ghrelin = 1485.38 ± 409.24; PYY = 812.37 ± 153.77 ng/L) were significantly higher than on PND 1 (ghrelin = 956.85 ± 223.09; PYY = 545.27 ± 204.51 ng/L) or PND 3 (ghrelin = 1108.44 ± 351.36; PYY = 628.96 ± 235.63 ng/L; P < 0.01). Both serum PYY and ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with body weight, and the degree of correlation varied with age. Serum ghrelin concentration correlated negatively with birth weight and positively with the time required to achieve RDI (P < 0.05). In conclusion, serum PYY and ghrelin concentrations reflect a negative energy balance, predict postnatal growth, and enable compensation. Further studies are required to elucidate the precise concentration and roles of PYY and ghrelin in newborns and to determine the usefulness of measuring these hormones in clinical practice.
doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500062
PMCID: PMC3854269  PMID: 22527125
Peptide YY; Ghrelin; Preterm infants; Recommended daily intake
17.  Body Weight and Plasma Levels of Ghrelin and Leptin during Treatment with Olanzapine 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(4):685-690.
Although enhanced appetite and weight gain are potential side effects of treatment with antipsychotic agents, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, the mechanisms underlying these side effects are poorly understood. Leptin and ghrelin were recently identified as hormones that play crucial roles in the regulation of energy balance and glucose metabolism. To elucidate relationships between weight change and plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin, we investigated the circulating ghrelin and leptin levels and body weight during olanzapine treatment. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia were examined during 6-month administration of olanzapine. Ghrelin, leptin, weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured before and after 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks of olanzapine treatment. The concentration of glucose and various lipid metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and at 24 weeks. Significant increases in weight, BMI and leptin were observed at week 24. On the other hand, the serum levels of ghrelin decreased significantly after olanzapine treatment. In addition, the level of ghrelin was negatively correlated with the leptin level, BMI and weight. The leptin level was positively correlated with both BMI and weight. Ghrelin is associated with metabolic changes, in combination with leptin, during olanzapine treatment. However, further large-scale and longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate the metabolic changes involving ghrelin, leptin and insulin during treatment with antipsychotics.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.4.685
PMCID: PMC2526396  PMID: 18756058
Olanzapine; Weight Gain; Ghrelin; Leptin; Schizophrenia
18.  Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide Ghrelin Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Porcine Coronary Arteries and Human Endothelial Cells 
Objective
Ghrelin, a novel growth-hormone releasing peptide, is implicated to play a protective role in cardiovascular tissues. However, it is not clear whether ghrelin protects vascular tissues from injury secondary to risk factors such as homocysteine (Hcy). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of ghrelin on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction.
Methods
Porcine coronary artery rings were incubated for 24 hours with ghrelin (100 ng/mL), Hcy (50 μM), or ghrelin plus Hcy. Endothelial vasomotor function was evaluated using the myograph tension model. The response to thromboxane A2 analog U466419, bradykinin, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was analyzed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was determined using real time PCR and immunohistochemistry staining, and superoxide anion production by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence analysis. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with different concentrations of Hcy, ghrelin, and/or anti-ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) antibody for 24 hours, eNOS protein levels were determined by western blot analysis.
Results
Maximal contraction with U466419 and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation with SNP were not different among the four groups. However, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation with bradykinin (10-6M) was significantly reduced by 34% with Hcy compared with controls (P<0.05). Addition of ghrelin to Hcy had a protective effect, with 61.6% relaxation, similar to controls (64.7%). Hcy significantly reduced eNOS expression, while ghrelin co-treatment effectively restored eNOS expression to the control levels. Superoxide anion levels, which were increased by 100% with Hcy, returned to control levels with ghrelin co-treatment. Ghrelin also effectively blocked Hcy-induced decrease of eNOS protein levels in HCAECs in a concentration dependent manner. Anti-ghrelin receptor antibody effectively inhibited ghrelin’s effect.
Conclusions
Ghrelin has a protective effect in the porcine coronary artery by blocking Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction, improving eNOS expression, and reducing oxidative stress. Ghrelin also shows protective effect on HCACEs from Hcy-induced decrease in eNOS protein levels. Ghrelin’s effect is receptor-dependent. Thus, ghrelin administration may have beneficial effects in the treatment of vascular disease in hyperhomocysteinemic patients.
doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2008.08.065
PMCID: PMC2652132  PMID: 19028051
ghrelin; homocysteine; endothelial dysfunction; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; superoxide anion; oxidative stress; coronary artery
19.  Associations of Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin, Leptin, and Ghrelin With Gastroesophageal Reflux and Barrett's Esophagus 
Gastroenterology  2013;145(6):1237-44.e1-5.
Background & Aims
Insulin and leptin have proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects. Ghrelin promotes gastric emptying and secretion of growth hormone and inhibits inflammation. We assessed whether diabetes mellitus and serum levels of insulin, leptin, and ghrelin are associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus.
Methods
We conducted a case-control study in 822 men undergoing colorectal cancer screening who were recruited to also undergo upper endoscopy. We identified 70 with Barrett's esophagus; 80 additional men with Barrett's esophagus were recruited shortly after their clinical diagnoses. Serum levels of insulin, leptin, and ghrelin were assayed in all 104 fasting men with Barrett's esophagus without diabetes and 271 without diabetes or Barrett's esophagus. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of diabetes and levels of insulin, leptin, and ghrelin on GERD and Barrett's esophagus.
Results
Among men with GERD, diabetes was inversely associated with Barrett's esophagus (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.383; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.179–0.821). Among nondiabetics, hyperinsulinemia was positively associated with Barrett's esophagus, but the association was attenuated by adjustment for leptin and ghrelin. Leptin was positively associated with Barrett's esophagus, adjusting for obesity, GERD, and levels of insulin and ghrelin (OR for 3rd vs 1st tertile = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.29–8.17); this association was stronger in men with GERD (P = .01 for OR heterogeneity). Ghrelin was positively associated with Barrett's esophagus (OR for an increment of 400 pg/mL = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.09–1.76), but inversely associated with GERD (OR for 3rd vs 1st tertile = 0.364; 95% CI: 0.195–0.680).
Conclusions
Based on a case-control study, leptin was associated with Barrett's esophagus, particularly in men with GERD. Serum insulin level was associated with Barrett's esophagus, but might be mediated by leptin. Serum ghrelin was inversely associated with GERD, as hypothesized, but positively associated with Barrett's esophagus, contrary to our hypothesis. Additional studies are needed in men and women to replicate these findings.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.08.052
PMCID: PMC3914630  PMID: 23999171
Insulin; Leptin; Ghrelin; Gastroesophageal Reflux
20.  Role of the duodenum in regulation of plasma ghrelin levels and body mass index after subtotal gastrectomy 
AIM: To investigate the role of the duodenum in the regulation of plasma ghrelin levels and body mass index (BMI), and the correlation between them after subtotal gastrectomy.
METHODS: Forty-two patients with T0-1N0-1M0 gastric cancer were divided into two groups after gastrectomy according to digestive reconstruction pattern, Billroth I group (n = 23) and Billroth II group (n = 19). Ghrelin levels were determined with radioimmunoassay (RIA) before and on d 1, 7, 30 and 360 after gastrectomy, and BMI was also measured.
RESULTS: The two groups had identical postoperative trends in ghrelin alterations during the early stage, both decreasing sharply to a nadir on d 1 (36.7% vs 35.7%), then markedly increasing on d 7 (51.0% vs 51.1%). On d 30, ghrelin levels in the Billroth I group were slightly higher than those in the Billroth II group. However, those of the Billroth I group recovered to 93.6% on d 360, which approached, although lower than, the preoperative levels, and no statistically significant difference was observed. Those of the Billroth II group recovered to only 81.6% and manifested significant discrepancy with preoperative levels (P = 0.033). Compared with preoperative levels, ghrelin levels of the two groups decreased by 6.9% and 18.4% and BMI fell by 3.3% and 6.4%, respectively. The linear regression correlations were revealed in both groups between decrease of ghrelin level and BMI (R12 = 0.297, P = 0.007; R22 = 0.559, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Anatomically and physiologically, the duodenum compensatively promotes ghrelin recovery and accordingly enhances BMI after gastrectomy. Regarding patients with insufficient ghrelin secretion, ghrelin is positively associated with BMI.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.2425
PMCID: PMC2705102  PMID: 18416474
Duodenum; Ghrelin; Body mass index; Subtotal gastrectomy; Digestive reconstruction
21.  Association of ghrelin and leptin with reproductive hormones in constitutional delay of growth and puberty 
Background
Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is a variation of the onset and timing of pubertal development without a defined endocrine abnormality. Recently published studies indicate that leptin and ghrelin play a role in puberty initiation and progress. They have been implicated in regulation of GnRH secretion, with ghrelin having inhibitory and leptin, facilitatory effects. We hypothesized that elevated ghrelin and reduced leptin concentrations could be implicated in altering the tempo of puberty in adolescents with CDGP. So in the current study we evaluate variations in leptin and ghrelin levels in adolescent boys with CDGP, the relationships between both hormones and reproductive hormones including LH, FSH and testosterone were also evaluated.
Methods
The study enrolled 23 adolescent boys with CDGP and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Weight, height, BMI, testicular volume, bone age, bone age delay, serum FSH, LH, testosterone, leptin and ghrelin were assessed.
Results
Adolescent boys with CDGP had significantly lower leptin and higher ghrelin than normal controls. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone and negatively correlated with delayed bone age and ghrelin. Ghrelin was negatively correlated with BMI, bone age, testicular volume, FSH, LH and testosterone. With multiple regression analysis BMI, FSH, LH, testosterone and ghrelin remained independently correlated with leptin while BMI, LH and testosterone remained independently correlated with ghrelin.
Conclusion
Elevated serum ghrelin and decreased leptin concentrations and their associations with reproductive hormones may explain the sexual immaturity in adolescent boys with CDGP.
doi:10.1186/1477-7827-8-153
PMCID: PMC3022842  PMID: 21176234
22.  Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function 
Background and Purpose
Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements.
Methods
Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points.
Results
Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function.
Conclusions
Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2015.11.1.48
PMCID: PMC4302179  PMID: 25628737
obesity; bariatric surgery; cognitive function; leptin; ghrelin
23.  Ghrelin and adipokines as circulating markers of disease activity in patients with Takayasu arteritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(6):R272.
Introduction
The current markers of disease activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA) are insufficient for proper assessment. We investigated circulating levels of unacylated and acylated ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin and their relationships with disease activity in patients with TA.
Methods
This study included 31 patients with TA and 32 sex-, age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed in TA patients using various tools, including Kerr's criteria, disease extent index-Takayasu, physician's global assessment, radiological parameters, and laboratory markers. Plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin, and serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels were found to be significantly lower in TA patients than that in healthy controls. Patients with active disease had lower unacylated ghrelin levels than those with inactive disease and had lower acylated ghrelin levels than healthy controls. Ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with various parameters of disease activity. The leptin/ghrelin ratio was significantly higher in TA patients than controls. It was positively correlated with disease activity. There was a positive correlation between unacylated and acylated ghrelin and a negative correlation between leptin and ghrelin. There was no statistical difference in adiponectin levels between TA patients and controls. The radiological activity markers were positively correlated with other parameters of disease activity.
Conclusions
This study suggests that plasma unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels may be useful in monitoring disease activity and planning treatment strategies for patients with TA. The serum leptin level and leptin/ghrelin ratio may also be used to help assess the disease activity.
doi:10.1186/ar4120
PMCID: PMC3674588  PMID: 23259466
24.  Association of serum leptin and ghrelin with depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Psychiatry  2014;14(1):203.
Background
Leptin and ghrelin have been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depression. However, evidence is lacking among apparently healthy people. This study examined the relationship of these appetite hormones to depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among 497 Japanese employees (287 men and 210 women) aged 20–68 years. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin levels were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for depressive symptoms with adjustment for potential confounders.
Results
The prevalence of depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥16) was 26.5% and 33.3% among men and women, respectively. Women in the middle and highest tertiles of leptin levels showed lower odds for depressive symptoms compared with those in the lowest level, although the trend association was not statistically significant (Ptrend = 0.14). Higher ghrelin levels were associated with increased odds for depressive symptoms in women (Ptrend = 0.02). The multivariable adjusted OR (95% CI) of having depressive symptoms for the lowest through highest tertiles of ghrelin levels were 1.00 (reference), 1.71 (0.76 - 3.86), and 2.69 (1.16 - 6.28), respectively. Neither leptin nor ghrelin was associated with depressive symptoms in men.
Conclusions
Results suggest that lower leptin and higher ghrelin levels may be related to higher prevalence of depressive status among Japanese women.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-203
PMCID: PMC4261564  PMID: 25079305
Depressive symptoms; Serum leptin; Serum ghrelin; Japanese
25.  Assessment of ghrelin and leptin receptor levels in postmenopausal women who received oral or transdermal menopausal hormonal therapy*  
Objective: In postmenopausal women, an increased leptin concentration and reduced levels of ghrelin and adiponectin were observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of the active form of ghrelin, total ghrelin, leptin receptor, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in postmenopausal women who received oral or transdermal menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT). Methods: The study involved 76 healthy women: 46 women aged from 44 to 58 years who received oral (26) or transdermal (20) MHT; the control group consisted of 30 women aged from 44 to 54 years who did not receive MHT. The plasma concentrations of total ghrelin, the active form of ghrelin, Lp(a), and PAI-1:Ag were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of the leptin receptor was measured by enzyme immunometric assay (EIA). Results: We observed a significantly higher concentration of total ghrelin and the active form of ghrelin in women who received transdermal MHT in comparison with those who took oral MHT. We also found a significantly lower concentration of total ghrelin in women who received oral MHT compared with the control group. A higher concentration of PAI-1:Ag was found in the group of women who took transdermal MHT in comparison with those who took oral MHT and with the control group. The differences were statistically significant. Additionally, we found a significant negative correlation between the concentrations of total ghrelin and PAI-1:Ag and a positive correlation between the concentrations of total ghrelin and leptin receptor in women who received transdermal MHT. Conclusions: The study showed that women who used transdermal MHT had higher levels of total ghrelin than women who took oral MHT. This indicates a beneficial effect of the transdermal route of MHT. However, transdermal therapy was associated with adverse effects with regard to the observed higher levels of PAI-1:Ag, which in turn, can lead to a reduction in fibrinolytic activity.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1100276
PMCID: PMC3251750  PMID: 22205618
Menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT); Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1); Leptin receptor; Ghrelin; Menopause

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