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1.  Human Papillomavirus Infection in Women from Tlaxcala, Mexico 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2010;41(3):749-756.
Cervical cancer is an important health problem in women living in developing countries. Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Little information exists about HPV genotype distribution in rural and suburban regions of Mexico. Thus, we determined the prevalence of HPV genotypes in women from Tlaxcala, one of the poorest states in central Mexico, and we evaluated age infection prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical neoplasm. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 236 women seeking gynecological care at the Mexican Institute for Social Security in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical scrapings were diagnosed as normal, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL, HGSIL). Parallel samples were used to detect HPV genotypes by PCR assays using type-specific primers for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied. Prevalence of HPV infection was 31.3%. From the infected samples, prevalence of HPV 16 was 45.9%; HPV 18, 31.1%; HPV 31, 16.2%; HPV 6, 10.8%; HPV 11, 6.7%. With regard to age, the highest HPV prevalence (43.5%) was found in the 18- to 24-year-old group and the lowest (19%) in the 45- to 54-year-old group. None of the risk factors showed association with cervical neoplasia grade. HPV 16 was the most common in cervical lesions. HPV was present in 22% of normal samples and, of these, 82.6% represented high-risk HPVs. Tlaxcala showed HPV prevalence comparable to that of the largest cities in Mexico, with higher prevalence for HPV 31.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822010000300027
PMCID: PMC3768634  PMID: 24031552
Epidemiology; Human papillomavirus; Mexico; PCR; Squamous intraepithelial lesions
2.  Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distributions: Implications for Vaccination and Cancer Screening in the United States 
Background
Limited data are available describing human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distributions in cervical cancer in the United States. Such studies are needed to predict how HPV vaccination and HPV-based screening will influence cervical cancer prevention.
Methods
We used the New Mexico Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry to ascertain cases of in situ (n = 1213) and invasive (n = 808) cervical cancer diagnosed during 1985–1999 and 1980–1999, respectively, in the state of New Mexico. HPV genotyping was performed using two polymerase chain reaction–based methods on paraffin-embedded tissues from in situ and invasive cancers and on cervical Papanicolaou test specimen from control subjects (ie, women aged 18–40 years attending clinics for routine cervical screening [n = 4007]). Relative risks for cervical cancer were estimated, and factors associated with age at cancer diagnosis and the prevalence of HPV genotypes in cancers were examined.
Results
The most common HPV genotypes detected in invasive cancers were HPV type 16 (HPV16, 53.2%), HPV18 (13.1%), and HPV45 (6.1%) and those in in situ cancers were HPV16 (56.3%), HPV31 (12.6%), and HPV33 (8.0%). Invasive cancer case subjects who were positive for HPV16 or 18 were diagnosed at younger ages than those who were positive for other carcinogenic HPV genotypes (mean age at diagnosis: 48.1 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 46.6 to 49.6 years], 45.9 [95% CI = 42.9 to 49.0 years], and 52.3 years [95% CI = 50.0 to 54.6 years], respectively). The proportion of HPV16-positive in situ and invasive cancers, but not of HPV18-positive cancers, declined with more recent calendar year of diagnosis, whereas the proportion positive for carcinogenic HPV genotypes other than HPV18 increased.
Conclusions
HPV16 and 18 caused the majority of invasive cervical cancer in this population sample of US women, but the proportion attributable to HPV16 declined over the last 20 years. The age at diagnosis of HPV16- and HPV18-related cancers was 5 years earlier than that of cancers caused by carcinogenic HPV genotypes other than HPV16 and 18, suggesting that the age at initiation of cervical screening could be delayed in HPV-vaccinated populations.
doi:10.1093/jnci/djn510
PMCID: PMC2664090  PMID: 19318628
3.  Human papillomavirus infections in women seeking cervical Papanicolaou cytology of Durango, Mexico: prevalence and genotypes 
Background
HPV infection in women from developing countries is an important public health problem. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of HPV infection and HPV genotypes in a female population of Durango City, Mexico. Also to determine whether any socio-demographic characteristic from the women associated with HPV infection exists.
Methods
Four hundred and ninety eight women seeking cervical Papanicolaou examination in three public Health Centers were examined for HPV infection. All women were tested for HPV DNA PCR by using HPV universal primers. In addition, all positive HPV DNA PCR samples were further analyzed for genotyping of HPV genotype 16, 18 and 33. Socio-demographic characteristics from each participant were also obtained.
Results
Twenty-four out of four hundred and ninety-eight (4.8%) women were found infected by HPV. HPV genotype 16 was found in 18 out of the 24 (75%) infected women. Two of them were also coinfected by HPV genotype 18 (8.3%). In the rest 6 PCR positive women, genotyping for HPV genotypes 16, 18 and 33 were negative.
Conclusion
The prevalence of HPV in women of Durango City is low; however, most infected women have high risk HPV genotype. The women who were studied showed low frequency of risk factors for HPV infection and this may explain the low prevalence of HPV infection. The high frequency of high risk HPV genotypes observed might explain the high rate of mortality for cervical cancer in our region.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-27
PMCID: PMC1388223  PMID: 16504014
4.  Type-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cervical cytology and age: Data from the health check-ups of 7,014 Korean women 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2013;56(2):110-120.
Objective
We investigated the type-specific high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and distribution according to cervical cytology and age in healthy Korean women.
Methods
A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 7,014 consecutive subjects undergoing both liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV genotyping test by DNA chip for cervical cancer screening. The type-specific prevalence and distribution of individual high-risk HPV types were assessed according to cervical cytology and age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥60 years old).
Results
In total, the most common HPV genotype was HPV58 (23.9% of all high-risk HPV-positive subjects), followed by HPV16 (21.8%), HPV52 (16.6%), and HPV18 (11.7%). Regarding cervical cytology and age groups, the proportion of HPV56 strongly increased with the increasing severity of cervical cytology (P for trend=0.041). An age-specific decline in the overall high-risk HPV prevalence was reaffirmed, and the proportion of HPV52 declined markedly with age (P for trend=0.014).
Conclusion
The type-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV types significantly varies according to cervical cytology and age. It may imply that these types have different to develop into precancerous lesions in normal cervix.
doi:10.5468/OGS.2013.56.2.110
PMCID: PMC3784093  PMID: 24327989
Age; Cervical cytology; HPV; Prevalence
5.  Pilot Study of Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Israeli Jewish Women Referred for Colposcopic Examination▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;46(5):1602-1605.
The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Israeli Jewish women referred for colposcopic examination. Scrape specimens were prospectively collected from 84 women referred for colposcopic examination. All the women underwent Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and colposcopies, and some also underwent cervical or loop electrosurgical excision procedure biopsy. HR HPV was detected in scrape specimens (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Molecular Systems), and the individual genotypes in these specimens were identified (HPV GenoArray test kit; Hybribio Ltd., Hong Kong). Forty-one (49%) specimens were positive by the Amplicor HPV test. Sixty-four samples (41 positive and 23 negative by the Amplicor HPV test) were also assayed by use of the HPV GenoArray kit. The overall level of agreement between the two assays was 93.8% (Cohen's kappa = 0.98). HR genotypes were found in 37/41 (90%) HPV-positive samples. The prevalences of the HR HPV genotypes in the 37 HPV-positive samples were 41% of patients for HPV type 16 (HPV-16), 22% for HPV-39, 19% for HPV-52, and 14% for HPV-18. Forty-one percent of these patients were infected with a single HR genotype, whereas 59% were infected with mixtures of HR genotypes. The presence of a relatively high percentage of HPV types 39 and 52 and the relatively high incidence of infections with mixtures of genotypes may be one of the reasons for the low rate of conversion from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive carcinoma in Israeli women. Larger and more comprehensive studies are warranted to investigate this issue in greater detail.
doi:10.1128/JCM.02483-07
PMCID: PMC2395108  PMID: 18322063
6.  Population-based study on the prevalence of and risk factors for human papillomavirus infection in Qujing of Yunnan province, Southwest China 
Virology Journal  2012;9:153.
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix. Prevalence of HPV infection and HPV genotypes vary among different regions. However there is no data on the prevalence of HPV infection and HPV genotypes from southwest China. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for HR-HPV infection in Qujing of Yunnan province, southwest China to provide comprehensive baseline data for future screening strategies.
Methods
A sample of 5936 women was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method with selection probabilities proportional to size (PPS). An epidemiological questionnaire was conducted via a face-to-face interview and cervical specimens were taken for HPV DNA testing by Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test. HPV Genotyping Reverse Hybridization Test was used for HPV genotyping. Proportions were compared by Chi-squared tests, and logistic regression was utilized to evaluate risk factors.
Results
The median age was 38 years and the inter-quartile range was from 31 years to 47 years. 97.3% of the study population was Han nationality. Overall prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 8.3% (494/5936) and bimodal age distribution of HPV infection was observed. The five most prevalent HR-HPV genotypes were HPV-16(3.4%), HPV-56(1.7%), HPV-58(1.4%), HPV-33(1.2%) and HPV-52(0.88%). Multiple HPV infections were identified in 50.5% (208/412) of the positive genotyping specimens. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated that parity (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.18-1.53, p < 0.0001) was a risk factor for HR-HPV infection, and age of 50–65 years (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45-0.80, p = 0.0005), being married or in stable relationship (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31-0.96, p = 0.035) were protective factors.
Conclusions
This study provided baseline data on HR-HPV prevalence in the general female population in Qujing of Yunnan province, southwest China. The finding of multiple HPV infections and bimodal age distribution revealed that HPV screening is necessary for perimenopausal women in future.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-153
PMCID: PMC3507833  PMID: 22873487
Human papillomavirus; Genotype; Cervix; Epidemiology; China
7.  Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Associated With Cervical Cytologic Abnormalities and HIV Infection in Ugandan Women 
Journal of medical virology  2007;79(6):758-765.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer, and cervical cancer is a common malignancy in women living in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HPV infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and cervical cytologic abnormalities in women presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Kampala, Uganda. In June and July, 2002, 135 women underwent complete physical exams including Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. HIV status was evaluated by serology. Cervical and vaginal swabs were obtained by clinicians and tested for HPV genotypes by PCR/reverse blot strip assay. Of the 106 women with cervical swabs adequate for HPV testing, the HPV prevalence was 46.2% (49/106). HIV prevalence was 34.9% (37/106). High risk genotypes 52, 58, and 16 were the genotypes detected most commonly. Eighteen percent (9/49) of women infected with HPV were found to have genotypes 16 and/or 18. Seventy-three percent (27/37) of HIV-positive women versus 16% (10/63) of HIV-negative women had abnormal Pap smears (P <0.0001). Among HIV-positive women, abnormal Pap smears were associated with the presence of high risk HPV genotypes (P <0.001). The majority of women infected with HPV attending this sexually transmitted infections clinic in Uganda were infected with high risk HPV genotypes other than 16 and 18. Future studies should focus on whether current HPV vaccine formulations, that are limited to high risk genotypes 16 and 18, would be effective at decreasing the burden of cervical cancer in this population.
doi:10.1002/jmv.20817
PMCID: PMC2846524  PMID: 17457908
human papillomavirus (HPV); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); HPV genotypes; cervical cytologic abnormalities; cervical cancer
8.  Prevalence of human papillomavirus in university young women 
Oncology Letters  2011;2(4):701-706.
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent female cancer worldwide. The majority of cases appear between the age of 30 and 50. Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a central role in cervical cancer with 99.7% of HPV DNA identified in invasive cervical carcinomas. The prevalence of the HPV infection varies substantially among countries and according to age and lifestyle. HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection among males and females with a 70% higher incidence in sexually active females. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus in young university women by analyzing the correlation between Papanicolaou (PAP)-stained cervical tests and HPV detection by genotyping, as well as other risk factors. A total of 200 women aged between 18 and 25 years were enrolled in this study, which took place between September 2008 and May 2009 at the Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile. Results of the PAP smears showed that 97.5% of cells had normal characteristics, although an inflammatory pattern was noted. The prevalence of generic HPV infection was 3.5% when testing for HPV DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. An analysis of the genotype of infected female individuals indicated that high-risk HPV types, such as HPV 16 and 31 were present in 42.84 and 14.29% of females, respectively, and low-risk types such as HPV 6, in 14.29%. Only one sample with differentiated non-HPV (14.29%) was found. A 95% correlation between PAP-stained cervical tests and the method of testing for HPV was observed. Using the PCR method, it was found that of the 195 negative PAP smears, 5 were positive for HPV and two of the samples that were positive for ASC-US were also positive. A significantly increased (P<0.05) HPV infection risk was observed in the 18–21 age group with a higher prevalence (71.40%) when compared to the 22–25 age group (28.6%). A significant (P<0.042) difference was found between smoking and HPV infection. In conclusion, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between PAP and PCR methods for HPV testing in young university women. A significant correlation between smoking and HPV was detected, whereas no difference was noted with other parameters.
doi:10.3892/ol.2011.290
PMCID: PMC3406457  PMID: 22848252
human papillomavirus; prevalence
9.  Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution among high-risk Korean women for prospecting the strategy of vaccine development 
Virology Journal  2010;7:201.
We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the distribution of high-risk HPV genotypes among 2,308 high-risk Korean women to predict how much the current prophylactic HPV vaccines might affect the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. HPV DNA was detected in 939 women (40.7%) but only one-third of women were positive for HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, the genotypes used for developing the HPV vaccines. Thus, the development of area-specific HPV vaccines based on dominant HPV genotypes in our country is needed for preventing HPV infection and the development of premalignant lesions in the cervix of Korean women.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-201
PMCID: PMC2936902  PMID: 20738861
10.  Evaluation of an Array-Based Method for Human Papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping in Comparison with Conventional Methods Used in Cervical Cancer Screening▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(7):2165-2169.
Cervical cancer is the second-most prevalent cancer in young women around the world. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), especially high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV), is necessary for the development of this cancer. HPV-DNA detection is increasingly being used in cervical cancer screening programs, together with the Papanicolau smear test. We evaluated the usefulness of introducing this new array-based HPV genotyping method (i.e., Clinical Arrays Papillomavirus Humano) in the cervical cancer screening algorithm in our center. The results obtained using this method were compared to those obtained by the hybrid capture II high-risk HPV DNA test (HC-II) and Papanicolau in a selected group of 408 women. The array-based assay was performed in women that were HC-II positive or presented cytological alterations. Among 246 array-positive patients, 123 (50%) presented infection with ≥2 types, and HR-HPV types were detected in 206 (83.7%), mainly HPV-16 (24.0%). Up to 132 (33.2%) specimens were classified as ASCUS (for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), and only 48 (36.4%) of them were HPV-DNA positive by either assay; however, 78.7% of these cases were caused by HR-HPV types. The agreement between both HPV-DNA detection techniques was fairly good (n = 367). Screening with Papanicolau smear and HC-II tests, followed by HPV detection and genotyping, provided an optimal identification of women at risk for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, with the identification of specific genotypes, either in single or multiple infections, a better prediction of disease progression was achieved. The array method also made allowed us to determine the possible contribution of the available vaccines in our setting.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00402-09
PMCID: PMC2708533  PMID: 19439534
11.  Significance of HPV-58 Infection in Women Who Are HPV-Positive, Cytology-Negative and Living in a Country with a High Prevalence of HPV-58 Infection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58678.
Purpose
Cervical cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA co-testing is recommended as a screening method for detecting cervical lesions. However, for women who are HPV-positive but cytology-negative, the appropriate management and significance of HPV-58 infection remain unknown.
Methods
This study of prevalent HPV detected at baseline with a median follow-up of 3.2 years evaluated the risk factors associated with cervical abnormalities and assessed the significance of HPV-58 infection. A total of 265 women were enrolled. All high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) that were detected by cytology were confirmed by histology. Histological diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 were classified as HSIL. Women were classified into four groups according to the HPV genotype that was detected at their first visit: HPV-58 (n = 27), HPV-16 (n = 52; 3 women had HPV-58 co-infection), ten other high risk (HR) types (n = 79), or low/undetermined risk types (n = 107).
Results
Of 265 women, 20 (7.5%) had HSIL on their follow-up examinations. There were significant differences in the cumulative incidence of HSIL between the four groups (p<0.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of HSIL were 34.0% (95% CI: 17.3–59.8%) in HPV-58 positive cases, 28.0% (95% CI: 13.8–51.6) in HPV-16 positive cases, 5.5% (95% CI: 2.1–14.0%) in one of the ten other types of HR-HPV positive cases, and 0% in women with low/undetermined risk HPV. When seen in women with HR-HPV (n = 158), persistent HPV infection was a significant factor associated with the development of HSIL (hazard ratio = 15.459, 95% CI: 2.042–117.045). Women with HPV-58 had a higher risk (hazard ratio = 5.260, 95% CI: 1.538–17.987) for the development of HSIL than women with HPV-16 (hazard ratio = 3.822, 95% CI: 1.176–12.424) in comparison with women with other types of HR-HPV.
Conclusion
HPV-58 has a high association with the development of HSIL in women who are HPV-positive and cytology-negative.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058678
PMCID: PMC3591398  PMID: 23505548
12.  Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in women in Benin, West Africa 
Virology Journal  2011;8:514.
Background
Cervical cancer ranks as the first most frequent cancer among women in Benin. The major cause of cervical cancer now recognized is persistent infection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV). In Benin there is a lack of screening programs for prevention of cervical cancer and little information exists regarding HPV genotype distribution.
Methods
Cervical cells from 725 women were examined for the presence of viral DNA by means of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex-based assay with the amplification of a fragment of L1 region and of E6/E7 region of the HPV genome, and of abnormal cytology by Papanicolaou method. The association between HPV status and Pap test reports was evaluated. Socio-demographic and reproductive characteristics were also related.
Results
A total of 18 different HPV types were identified, with a prevalence of 33.2% overall, and 52% and 26.7% among women with and without cervical lesions, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were observed in 40.2% of HPV-infected women. In the HPV-testing group, the odds ratio for the detection of abnormal cytology was 2.98 (95% CI, 1.83-4.84) for HPV positive in comparison to HPV negative women. High risk types were involved in 88% of infections, most notably HPV-59, HPV-35, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-58 and HPV-45. In multiple infections of women with cytological abnormalities HPV-45 predominated.
Conclusions
This study provides the first estimates of the prevalence of HPV and type-specific distribution among women from Benin and demonstrates that the epidemiology of HPV infection in Benin is different from that of other world regions. Specific area vaccinations may be needed to prevent cervical cancer and the other HPV-related diseases.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-514
PMCID: PMC3231975  PMID: 22074103
human papillomavirus; cervical cancer; Benin; Pap test; prevention
13.  Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;98(10):1704-1709.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24 510 women (age range: 20–64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604324
PMCID: PMC2391119  PMID: 18392052
cervical screening; HPV typing; HPV vaccination
14.  Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus in women screened for cervical cancer in Labrador, Canada 
International Journal of Circumpolar Health  2013;72:10.3402/ijch.v72i0.19743.
Background
A higher incidence of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported in northern Canada and in First Nation, Métis and Inuit women, with some evidence to suggest that the HPV type distribution in these populations may be different from the rest of Canada.
Objective
The objective of this study was to measure the HPV type prevalence in Labrador women to determine if significant differences in HPV types could reduce the effectiveness of HPV vaccination.
Design
The prevalence of HPV types was determined in 1,370 women presenting for routine pap screening in Labrador between February and November 2010. Cervical cytology and HPV genotyping were performed on the same liquid-based cytology specimens.
Results
The overall prevalence of HPV was 21.4%; cytological abnormalities were found in 8.8% of the participants. HPV 16 and 18 were the most common high-risk HPV types. These two types were found in 52.4% of high-grade lesions. The prevalence in HPV infections was comparable across the Labrador regions.
Conclusions
The present results support the potential effectiveness of the HPV immunization program in Labrador.
doi:10.3402/ijch.v72i0.19743
PMCID: PMC3579953  PMID: 23440347
human papillomavirus; cervical cancer; aboriginal populations; prevalence
15.  Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in HIV-1-infected women in Seattle, USA and Nairobi, Kenya: results from the Women’s HIV Interdisciplinary Network (WHIN) 
Summary
Background
HIV-infected women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and are more likely to be infected with HPV genotypes that are considered high-risk and have the potential for progressing to cervical cancer. The currently available HPV vaccines protect against specific HPV genotypes that may not be the most important causes of dysplasia and potentially of cervical cancer in HIV-1-infected women. African women have been underrepresented in the studies of global prevalence of HPV genotypes.
Methods
We compared the HPV genotype distribution in HIV-1-infected women from Seattle, Washington, USA and Nairobi, Kenya. The reverse line blot assay and DNA sequencing on cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens were carried out.
Results
The most commonly detected HPV types among the women from Seattle were HPV 56, 66, MM8, and 81; in contrast HPV 53, 33, and 58 were the most common HPV genotypes detected in the CVL specimens from the women in the Nairobi cohort. The HPV types associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) were HPV 53 and HPV 56. HPV types 58, 52, and 16 were associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).
Conclusions
A better understanding of HPV genotype distribution in the most affected regions of the world is essential to planning effective vaccine strategies if we are unable to demonstrate cross-protection between HPV genotypes included in the present vaccines and those prevalent in the different populations.
doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2010.03.016
PMCID: PMC2951008  PMID: 20655263
HPV genotypes; HIV-infected women; Cervical dysplasia
16.  Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in a Population of Women Living in Port-au-Prince and Leogane, Haiti 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76110.
Background
There have been no published studies of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)--the necessary cause of cervical cancer--in Haiti, a nation that has one of the greatest burdens of cervical cancer globally.
Objective
Characterize prevalence of carcinogenic HPV and the prevalence of individual carcinogenic HPV genotypes in women with cervical precancer or cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+).
Methods
Women (n=9,769; aged 25-60 years) were screened for carcinogenic HPV by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD). Carcinogenic HPV positives underwent colposcopy and visible lesions were biopsied. A subset of carcinogenic HPV positives was tested for individual HPV genotypes using a GP5+/6+ assay.
Results
The prevalence of carcinogenic HPV was 19.0% (95% confidence interval: 18.4%-19.9%) and decreased with increasing age (ptrend < 0.001). Women with 3 or more sexual partners and who started sex before the age of 18 years had twice the age-adjusted prevalence of carcinogenic HPV of women with one partner and who started sex after the age of 21 (24.3% vs. 12.9%, respectively). HPV16 and HPV35 were the most common HPV genotypes detected in CIN2+ and more common in women with CIN2+ than those without CIN2+. HPV16 and/or HPV18 were detected in 21.0% of CIN2 (n = 42), 46.2% of CIN3 (n = 52), and 80% of cancers (n = 5).
Conclusions
The prevalence of carcinogenic HPV in Haiti was much greater than the prevalence in other Latin American countries. High carcinogenic HPV prevalence and a lack of cervical cancer screening may explain the high burden of cervical cancer in Haiti.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076110
PMCID: PMC3789741  PMID: 24098429
17.  Next-generation sequencing of cervical DNA detects human papillomavirus types not detected by commercial kits 
Virology Journal  2012;9:164.
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the aetiological agent for cervical cancer and genital warts. Concurrent HPV and HIV infection in the South African population is high. HIV positive (+) women are often infected with multiple, rare and undetermined HPV types. Data on HPV incidence and genotype distribution are based on commercial HPV detection kits, but these kits may not detect all HPV types in HIV + women. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify the HPV types not detected by commercial genotyping kits present in a cervical specimen from an HIV positive South African woman using next generation sequencing, and (ii) determine if these types were prevalent in a cohort of HIV-infected South African women.
Methods
Total DNA was isolated from 109 cervical specimens from South African HIV + women. A specimen within this cohort representing a complex multiple HPV infection, with 12 HPV genotypes detected by the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping (LA) kit, was selected for next generation sequencing analysis. All HPV types present in this cervical specimen were identified by Illumina sequencing of the extracted DNA following rolling circle amplification. The prevalence of the HPV types identified by sequencing, but not included in the Roche LA, was then determined in the 109 HIV positive South African women by type-specific PCR.
Results
Illumina sequencing identified a total of 16 HPV genotypes in the selected specimen, with four genotypes (HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90) not included in the commercial kit. The prevalence’s of HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90 in 109 HIV positive South African women were found to be 14.6%, 12.8%, 4.6% and 8.3% respectively.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that there are HPV types, with substantial prevalence, in HIV positive women not being detected in molecular epidemiology studies using commercial kits. The significance of these types in relation to cervical disease remains to be investigated.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-164
PMCID: PMC3493284  PMID: 22897914
Human papillomavirus; Human immunodeficiency virus; Next generation sequencing; Rolling circle amplification
18.  Human Papillomavirus Type Distribution and Correlation with Cyto-Histological Patterns in Women from the South of Italy 
Human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific distribution was evaluated in genital samples collected from 654 women from the South of Italy undergoing voluntary screening and correlated with cyto-histological abnormalities. HPV DNA was detected in 45.9% of the samples, 41.7% of which had multiple infection and 89.0% had high-risk HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV infection and the rate of multiple infections decreased with age, suggesting natural selection of HPV types with better fitness. In line with other Italian studies, the most common HPV types were HPV-6 and HPV-16, followed by HPV-51, HPV-31, HPV-53, and HPV-66, in women with both normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or 3 were associated with high-risk HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-51 infection. These data indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the burden of HPV-related cervical lesions in this population, but also suggest the potential utility of new vaccines with larger type coverage.
doi:10.1155/2009/198425
PMCID: PMC2817385  PMID: 20145716
19.  A Population-based Study of HPV Genotype Prevalence in the United States: Baseline Measures Prior to Mass HPV Vaccination 
Currently, two prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines targeting HPV 16 and 18 have been shown to be highly efficacious for preventing precursor lesions, although the effectiveness of these vaccines in real world clinical settings must still be determined. Toward this end, an ongoing statewide surveillance program was established in New Mexico to assess all aspects of cervical cancer preventive care. Given that the reduction in cervical cancer incidence is expected to take several decades to manifest, a systematic population-based measurement of HPV type-specific prevalence employing an age- and cytology-stratified sample of 47,617 women attending for cervical screening was conducted prior to widespread HPV vaccination. A well-validated PCR method for 37 HPV genotypes was used to test liquid-based cytology specimens. The prevalence for any of the 37 HPV types was 27.3% overall with a maximum of 52% at age 20 years followed by a rapid decline at older ages. The HPV 16 prevalence in women aged ≤ 20 years, 21-29 years, or ≥ 30 years was 9.6%, 6.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. The combined prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 in these age groups was 12.0%, 8.3% and 2.4%, respectively. HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 were detected in 54.5% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial (cytologic) lesions (HSIL) and in 25.0% of those with low-grade SIL (LSIL). These baseline data enable estimates of maximum HPV vaccine impact across time and provide critical reference measurements important to assessing clinical benefits and potential harms of HPV vaccination including increases in non-vaccine HPV types (i.e., type replacement).
doi:10.1002/ijc.27608
PMCID: PMC3852415  PMID: 22532127
population-based HPV prevalence; HPV vaccine impact
20.  Human Papillomavirus Types Distribution in Organised Cervical Cancer Screening in France 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79372.
Background
Knowledge of prevalence rates and distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes prior high HPV vaccine coverage is necessary to assess its expected impact on HPV ecology and on cervical lesions and cancers.
Methods
Residual specimens of cervical cytology (N = 6,538) were obtained from 16 sites participating in organised cervical cancer screening pilot programs throughout France, anonymised and tested for HPV DNA using the PapilloCheck® genotyping test. Samples were stratified according to age of women and cytological grades.
Results
The age-standardised prevalence rates of HPV 16 and/or 18 (with or without other high-risk types) was 47.2% (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42.4–52.1) in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 20.2% in low-grade SIL (95% CI: 16.7–23.7) and 3.9% (95% CI: 2.8–5.1) in normal cytology. Overall HR HPV were detected in 13.7% (95%I CI: 11.7–15.6) of normal cytology. In women below 30 years of age, 64% of HSILs were associated with HPV16 and/or 18. In our study population, HPV16 was the most commonly detected type in all cervical grades with prevalence rates ranking from 3.0% in normal cytology to 50.9% in HSILs. HPV16 was also detected in 54% (27/50) of invasive cervical cancers including 5 adenocarcinomas.
Conclusion
HPV16 was strongly associated with cervical precancer and cancer. The high prevalence rates of HPV16/18 infection among women below 30 years of age with HSILs suggests that the impact of vaccination would be primarily observed among young women.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079372
PMCID: PMC3828354  PMID: 24244490
21.  Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection in women from North Sardinia, Italy 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:785.
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin and oropharynx. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection in women between 15 and 54 years of age in North Sardinia, Italy, to identify the prevalence of High Risk - Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) genotypes and to establish a correlation between molecular and cytological results.
Methods
From 2007 to 2009 we consecutively enrolled women aged 15-54 years admitted to public and private outpatient settings. All the participants filled in a questionnaire about the socio-cultural state, sexual activity and awareness about HPV. 323 cervical specimens were tested for HPV-DNA and HPV genotypes with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping CE Amp kit. Samples showing positivity to some HPV genotypes were re-tested using "in house" quantitative Real-Time PCR assays.
Results
Overall HPV-DNA positivity was detected in 35.9% of the women. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection among HPV positive samples was 93.1% with a specific prevalence of HPV 16, 51, 31, 53 and 18 of 54.3%, 37.9%, 10.3%, 6.9% and 5.2%, respectively. Co-infection with any HPV, HR-HPV, LR-HPV and HR/LR-HPV type was 18.3%, 14.9%, 0.9% and 2.5%, respectively; HPV 16/51 co-infection was detected in 64.6% of the HR-HPV co-infection group. The most frequent HPV-genotypes detected were 16 (32.5%) and 51 (22.7%). Among the 57 patients harboring mono-infection the most prevalent HPV genotypes were 16 (38.6%) and 31(10.5%). A multivariate analysis identified a statistical significant association between HPV infection and age and between HPV infection and previous sexual transmitted diseases. A statistically significant association between cytological cervical lesions and generic HPV exposure was identified.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first survey evaluating the prevalence of HPV infection in Northern Sardinia and drawing attention to the unusual high proportion of genotype HPV 51. Given the recent implementation of a widespread immunization program with vaccines not containing HPV 51, it has been relevant to prove the high prevalence of this HPV genotype from the start of the vaccination campaign, in order to avoid in the future attributing to the vaccination program a possible selection effect (HPV replacement).
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-785
PMCID: PMC3208589  PMID: 21989375
22.  High-risk and multiple human papillomavirus infections among married women in Can Tho, Viet Nam 
Introduction
The two currently licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are highly efficacious in preventing cervical pre-cancers related to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Before implementing a large-scale HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, information about the prevalence of infection with the HPV vaccine types is required. This study was done in Can Tho, the province with the highest prevalence of cervical cancer in the south of Viet Nam, to explore the distribution of other high-risk types of HPV among married women in this province.
Method
The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. A total of 1000 participants were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status and HPV genotyping test were completed for all participants.
Results
A broad spectrum of HPV types was reported in this study. The prevalence of cases infected with HPV 16 and/or 18 was 7%; the prevalence of cases infected with other high-risk HPV types was 6%. The highest prevalence for single and multiple infections, as well as for high-risk infections, was reported for the youngest age group (less than 30 years).
Discussion
While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam due to the high prevalence of infection with HPV 16 and/or 18, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protect against all types of high-risk HPV. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines.
doi:10.5365/WPSAR.2012.3.1.007
PMCID: PMC3731010  PMID: 23908925
23.  Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in 5,072 Consecutive Cervical SurePath Samples Evaluated with the Roche Cobas HPV Real-Time PCR Assay 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e59765.
New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas) is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23–65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2) and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23–29 years and 10% in women aged 60–65 years. HC2 assay was positive in 20% of samples, and cytology was abnormal (≥ atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) for 7% samples. When only samples without recent abnormalities were taken into account, 24% tested positive on cobas, 19% on HC2, and 5% had abnormal cytology. The proportion of positive cobas samples was higher than in the ATHENA trial. The age-standardized cobas positivity vs. cytology abnormality was 3.9 in our study and 1.7 in ATHENA. If in Copenhagen the presently used cytology would be replaced by cobas in women above age 30 years, an extra 11% of women would based on historical data be expected to have a positive cobas test without an underlying cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 3 or worse. Countries with a high prevalence of HPV infections should therefore proceed to primary HPV-based cervical screening with caution.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059765
PMCID: PMC3606112  PMID: 23533648
24.  Human papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix in women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:275.
Background
Cervical cancer and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both important public health problems in South Africa (SA). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV viral load and HPV genotypes in HIV positive women initiating anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment clinic in Cape Town, SA in 2007. Cervical specimens were taken for cytological analysis and HPV testing. The Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test was used to detect HR-HPV. Relative light units (RLU) were used as a measure of HPV viral load. HPV types were determined using the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Crude associations with abnormal cytology were tested and multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors for abnormal cytology.
Results
The median age of the 109 participants was 31 years, the median CD4 count was 125/mm3, 66.3% had an abnormal Pap smear, the HR-HPV prevalence was 78.9% (Digene), the median HPV viral load was 181.1 RLU (HC2 positive samples only) and 78.4% had multiple genotypes. Among women with abnormal smears the most prevalent HR-HPV types were HPV types 16, 58 and 51, all with a prevalence of 28.5%. On univariate analysis HR-HPV, multiple HPV types and HPV viral load were significantly associated with the presence of low and high-grade SILs (LSIL/HSIL). The multivariate logistic regression showed that HPV viral load was associated with an increased odds of LSIL/HSIL, odds ratio of 10.7 (95% CI 2.0 – 57.7) for those that were HC2 positive and had a viral load of ≤ 181.1 RLU (the median HPV viral load), and 33.8 (95% CI 6.4 – 178.9) for those that were HC2 positive with a HPV viral load > 181.1 RLU.
Conclusion
Women initiating ARVs have a high prevalence of abnormal Pap smears and HR-HPV. Our results underscore the need for locally relevant, rigorous screening protocols for the increasing numbers of women accessing ARV therapy so that the benefits of ARVs are not partially offset by an excess risk in cervical cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-275
PMCID: PMC2739859  PMID: 19664216
25.  Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Urine Specimens from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Women 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(9):3155-3161.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women may represent one of the fastest-growing populations at risk for acquiring cervical cancer and thus require frequent screening. The purpose of the present studies was to validate a PCR-based urine assay by comparing detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urine samples and matching cervical swab specimens of HIV-positive women. Despite a difference in amplifiability, the prevalence of any HPV genotype (58% for the cervical swab specimens and 48% for the urine specimens) was not significantly different in this population. The levels of concordance were 70, 71, and 78% for detection of any HPV type, any high-risk HPV type, or any low-risk HPV type in the two specimen types, respectively. While instances of discordant detection were greater for the cervical swab specimens than for the urine specimens, this was not statistically significant. The distributions of HPV genotypes were similar in the cervix and the urine for the majority of types examined. Importantly, detection of HPV DNA in urine was associated with an abnormal Papanicolaou smear to the same extent that detection of HPV DNA in a cervical swab specimen was. These data provide preliminary support for the proposal to use urine testing as a primary or secondary screening tool for cervical cancer in HIV-positive women or as an epidemiological tool. Additional studies with larger sample sizes must be conducted in order to further verify these findings.
doi:10.1128/JCM.40.9.3155-3161.2002
PMCID: PMC130806  PMID: 12202546

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