Ocular adnexal lymphomas (OAL) involve the peri-global soft tissues like orbit, eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland. We describe a rare case of primary bilateral OAL, histomorphologically small lymphocytic lymphoma, B cell phenotype of lacrimal gland origin. Rapid intraoperative diagnosis can be suggested on imprint cytology; subsequent histology and immunohistochemistry are helpful for confirmation and further line of management. Since no preformed lymphoid structures are expected within the orbit or lacrimal gland, any lymphoid mass here should be critically evaluated as a lymphoproliferative lesion.
Lymphoma; Lacrimal; Ocular adnexal; B cell; Bilateral; Imprint cytology
Ocular lymphomas can be divided into intraocular lymphomas and ocular adnexal lymphomas. The vitreoretinal lymphoma—usually a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of high-grade malignancy—is the most common lymphoid malignancy arising in the eye, while the extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL), an indolent often recurrent tumour, occurs most frequently in the ocular adnexal tissue. The two lymphoma subtypes differ significantly in their clinical presentation, subsequent course and outcome as well as in their underlying morphological, immunophenotypical and genetic features. The molecular processes involved in DLBCL and EMZL development are complex, and include chromosomal translocations, mutations caused by aberrant somatic hypermutation, sporadic somatic mutations, and copy number alterations, characterized by deletions and amplifications. These lead to alterations in particular signalling pathways, which in turn activate transcription factors, such as nuclear factor NF-κB. This review provides an overview of the histological features of DLBCL and EMZL, and discusses the current insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these tumours, when they occur systemically and particularly when they arise in ocular tissues.
ocular adnexal lymphoma; extranodal marginal zone lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; ABC DLBCL; GCB DLBCL; vitreoretinal lymphoma
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common form of lymphoma in adulthood, comprises multiple biologically and clinically distinct subtypes including germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) DLBCL1. Gene expression profile studies have shown that its most aggressive subtype, ABC-DLBCL, is associated with constitutive activation of the NF-kB transcription complex2. However, except for a small fraction of cases3, it remains unclear whether NF-kB activation in these tumors represents an intrinsic program of the tumor cell of origin or a pathogenetic event. Here we show that >50% of ABC-DLBCL and a smaller fraction of GCB-DLBCL carry somatic mutations in multiple genes, including negative (TNFAIP3/A20) and positive (CARD11, TRAF2, TRAF5, MAP3K7/TAK1 and TNFRSF11A/RANK) regulators of NF-kB. Of these, the A20 gene, which encodes for a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme involved in termination of NF-kB responses, is most commonly affected, with ~30% of patients displaying biallelic inactivation by mutations and/or deletions. When reintroduced in cell lines carrying biallelic inactivation of the gene, A20 induced apoptosis and cell growth arrest, indicating a tumor suppressor role. Less frequently, missense mutations of TRAF2 and CARD11 produce molecules with significantly enhanced ability to activate NF-kB. Thus, our results demonstrate that NF-kB activation in DLBCL is caused by genetic lesions affecting multiple genes, whose loss or activation may promote lymphomagenesis by leading to abnormally prolonged NF-kB responses.
Elevations in systemic free fatty acids (FFA) contribute to insulin resistance. To determine the effects of an acute elevation in FFA on insulin action with aging, we infused saline or intralipid (IL) during a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp in three groups of rats: young ad libitum–fed (YAL), old ad libitum–fed (OAL), and old on lifelong calorie restriction (OCR). The OCR group was included to distinguish between aging per se and age-related changes in body fat distribution. IL induced marked insulin resistance in both YAL and OCR, but the onset of insulin resistance was approximately two to three times more rapid in OCR as compared with YAL. In response to IL infusion, plasminogen-activating inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was increased in subcutaneous fat from OAL animals. In visceral fat, a marked increase in PAI-1 and interleukin-6 expression was observed in OAL and OCR rats, but not YAL, in response to IL treatment. Thus, aging per se increases the inflammatory response to excess nutrients and vulnerability to FFA-induced insulin resistance with aging.
Aging; Calorie restriction; Lipids; Insulin resistance; Adipokines
AIMS—To correlate histological features of ocular adnexal lymphoma using the revised European American lymphoma classification (REAL), with stage of disease at presentation, treatment modalities, and patient outcome. MALT lymphoma defines an extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma as outlined in the REAL classification. Comparison groups of patients included those with primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma versus primary ocular adnexal lymphomas of other types, MALT lymphoma versus non-MALT lymphomas (primary and secondary), and primary ocular adnexal lymphoma (MALT lymphomas and other types) versus secondary ocular adnexal lymphomas.
METHODS—A retrospective review of the National Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory records identified 20 cases of ocular adnexal lymphoma over a 10 year period which were reclassified using appropriate immunohistochemical stains. Patients' medical records were examined for data including stage of the disease at presentation, mode of treatment, and patient outcome.
RESULTS—Among the 20 cases identified 14 had primary ocular adnexal lymphomas. 10 of the primary lymphomas had histological features of MALT lymphoma. One case was a primary ocular adnexal T cell lymphoma, one a follicular centre, follicular B cell lymphoma, and two were large cell B cell lymphomas. Six cases had systemic disease, four large B cell, one follicular centre, follicular B cell, and one mantle cell. A significantly higher proportion of patients with MALT lymphomas had early disease (p = 0.005), initially required local treatment (p = 0.005) and were alive at last follow up (p = 0.001) than those without. Two patients with MALT lymphoma had recurrence of lymphoma which responded to further treatment.
CONCLUSIONS—Patients with primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas present with localised disease requiring local treatment and have a better outcome compared with patients with other types. As a small percentage of these tumours recur, patients should be followed up indefinitely.
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays a central role in the activation and survival of lymphocytes. NF-κB, therefore, is pivotal for acquired immunity, but the dysregulation of NF-κB signaling leads to inflammatory diseases and lymphomagenesis. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma-related molecules, B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and MALT-lymphoma-translocation gene1 (MALT1), are essential signaling components for NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, mediated by the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled receptors involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. CARMA1 (also referred to as CARD11 and Bimp3) is a crucial regulator for ITAM-mediated signaling as it forms a complex with BCL10-MALT1 in lymphoid lineage cells such as T, B, natural killer (NK), and natural killer T (NKT) cells, known as the lymphoid CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (L-CBM) complex. In this review, recent understanding of the molecular and biological functions and the signal regulation mechanisms of the L-CBM complex are described and its role in disease development and potential as a therapeutic target is further discussed.
lymphocytes; inflammatory disease; immunity L-CBM complex
Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-κB signaling in cancer. NF-κB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-κB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IκB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-κB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-κB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-κB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IκB kinases to activate NF-κB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-κB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-κB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.
Mutations in upstream signaling molecules such as CARD11 activate NF-κB transcription factors in many lymphomas. NF-κB inhibitors cause apoptosis and are therefore promising anticancer drugs.
A negative regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, A20 (TNFAIP3), is inactivated in several types of lymphomas; particularly in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. These findings suggest that the NF-κB activation is related to A20 inactivation. Recently, A20 inactivation has also been observed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphomas; however, this occurrence has not been well investigated. Moreover, NF-κB is a key molecule in activated B-cell-like (ABC)-type DLBCL; EBV-associated DLBCL is of the ABC type. Therefore, we focused on A20 deletions in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders/lymphomas. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, A20 deletions were identified in 4 of 13 samples from patients with pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) (31%), 3 of 20 samples from nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas (NKTLs) (15%), 1 of 8 samples of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly (DLBCL-e) (13%), but not in any of the 11 samples from individuals with methotrexate-related lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) (0%). Among the samples with A20 deletions, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) expression was detected in all 4 of the PAL samples with A20 deletions and in the DLBCL-e sample with an A20 deletion, but not in any of the 3 NKTL samples. This finding indicated that A20 deletions were not directly related to the EBV latency pattern of lymphomas, although such deletions might be related to the diagnostic category. Immunohistologically, the A20 protein was absent in 2 (15%) of the13 PAL samples, 1 (9%) of 11 MTX-LPD samples, and in none of the 20 NKTL (0%) or 8 DLBCL-e samples. In conclusion, A20 deletion and/or dysfunctional expression are frequently associated with PALs, and A20 abnormalities may be related to the pathogenesis of PAL.
The TNFAIP3 gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme (A20) involved in the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling, is frequently inactivated by gene deletions/mutations in a variety of B-cell malignancies. However, the detection of this in primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) specimens is hampered by the scarcity of Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HR-S) cells even after enrichment by micro-dissection.
We used anti-CD30 immunofluorescence with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate the relative number of TNFAIP3/CEP6 double-positive signals in CD30-positive cells.
From a total of 47 primary classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) specimens, 44 were evaluable. We found that the relative numbers of TNFAIP3/CD30 cells were distributed among three groups, corresponding to those having homozygous (11%), heterozygous (32%), and no (57%) deletions in TNFAIP3. This shows that TNFAIP3 deletions could be sensitively detected using our chosen methods.
Comparing the results with mutation analysis, TNFAIP3 inactivation was shown to have escaped detection in many samples with homozygous deletions. This suggests that TNFAIP3 inactivation in primary cHL specimens might be more frequent than previously reported.
FICTION analysis; Hodgkin lymphoma; TNFAIP3 gene; Homozygous deletion
Proliferation and survival of Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells, the malignant cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), are dependent on constitutive activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). NF-κB activation through various stimuli is negatively regulated by the zinc finger protein A20. To determine whether A20 contributes to the pathogenesis of cHL, we sequenced TNFAIP3, encoding A20, in HL cell lines and laser-microdissected HRS cells from cHL biopsies. We detected somatic mutations in 16 out of 36 cHLs (44%), including missense mutations in 2 out of 16 Epstein-Barr virus–positive (EBV+) cHLs and a missense mutation, nonsense mutations, and frameshift-causing insertions or deletions in 14 out of 20 EBV− cHLs. In most mutated cases, both TNFAIP3 alleles were inactivated, including frequent chromosomal deletions of TNFAIP3. Reconstitution of wild-type TNFAIP3 in A20-deficient cHL cell lines revealed a significant decrease in transcripts of selected NF-κB target genes and caused cytotoxicity. Extending the mutation analysis to primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL), another lymphoma with constitutive NF-κB activity, revealed destructive mutations in 5 out of 14 PMBLs (36%). This report identifies TNFAIP3 (A20), a key regulator of NF-κB activity, as a novel tumor suppressor gene in cHL and PMBL. The significantly higher frequency of TNFAIP3 mutations in EBV− than EBV+ cHL suggests complementing functions of TNFAIP3 inactivation and EBV infection in cHL pathogenesis.
The most frequent ocular adnexal tumors and simulating lesions are lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), including malignant lymphomas and orbital inflammation with lymphoid hyperplasia or infiltration. IgG4-related orbital inflammation (IgG4-ROI) often involves lacrimal glands and other orbital tissues and is an important differential diagnosis. The present study evaluated clinical aspects of IgG4-ROI in a case series of orbital LPD. Sixty-two consecutive cases of orbital LPD, pathologically diagnosed from November, 2004, through March, 2011, were investigated. Histological types were 22 cases with MALT lymphoma, 11 cases with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 3 cases with other malignant lymphomas, 16 cases with IgG4-ROI, and 10 cases with non-IgG4-ROI. Ages of the IgG4-ROI group (56 ± 10 yrs) were significantly lower than the MALT lymphoma (71 ± 12 yrs) and DLBCL (75 ± 14 yrs) groups. Orbital lesions other than lacrimal glands were present in six cases including extraocular muscle swelling, mass lesions surrounding the optic nerve, and supraorbital and infraorbital nerves enlargements. Although none of the malignant lymphomas were related to IgG4, previous evidence suggested that malignant lymphomas can arise from IgG4-ROI. Based on this study (26%) and another report (33%), it is likely that nearly a quarter of orbital LPD are IgG4-ROI.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin and rifaximin based quadruple regimen as first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. A prospectively randomized, double-blinded, parallel group, comparative study was performed. Three hundred consecutive H. pylori positive patients were randomized to receive: omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin (OAC); omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin (OAL); and omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, rifaximin (OAL-R). The eradication rates in the intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses were: OAC, 77.8% and 85.6%; OAL, 65.3% and 73.6%; and OAL-R, 74.5% and 80.2%. The eradication rate achieved with OAC was higher than with OAL on the ITT (P = 0.05) and PP analysis (P = 0.04). OAL-R regimen was not inferior to OAC. The frequency of moderate to severe adverse effects was significantly higher in OAC treatment group. Especially, diarrhea was most common complaint, and there was a significantly low rate of moderate to severe diarrhea with the rifaximin containing regimen. In conclusion, the levofloxacin and rifaximin based regimen comes up to the standard triple therapy, but has a limited efficacy in a Korean cohort. The rifaximin containing regimen has a very high safety profile for H. pylori eradication therapy.
Helicobacter pylori; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Rifaximin
B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) comprises biologically and clinically distinct diseases whose pathogenesis is associated with genetic lesions affecting oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. We report here that the two most common types, follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), harbor frequent structural alterations inactivating CREBBP and, more rarely, EP300, two highly related histone and non-histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that act as transcriptional co-activators in multiple signaling pathways. Overall, ~39% of DLBCL and 41% of FL cases display genomic deletions and/or somatic mutations that remove or inactivate the HAT coding domain of these two genes. These lesions commonly affect one allele, suggesting that reduction in HAT dosage is important for lymphomagenesis. We demonstrate specific defects in acetylation-mediated inactivation of the BCL6 onco-protein and activation of the p53 tumor-suppressor. These results identify CREBBP/EP300 mutations as a major pathogenetic mechanism shared by common forms of B-NHL, and have direct implications for the use of drugs targeting acetylation/deacetylation mechanisms.
Activated B-Cell Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) is an aggressive, poorly chemoresponsive lymphoid malignancy characterized by constitutive canonical NF-κB activity that promotes lymphomagenesis and chemotherapy resistance via over-expression of anti-apoptotic NF-κB target genes. Inhibition of the canonical NF-κB pathway may therefore have therapeutic relevance in ABC-DLBCL. Here we set out to determine whether dogs with spontaneous DLBCL have comparative aberrant constitutive NF-κB activity and to determine the therapeutic relevance of NF-κB inhibition in dogs with relapsed, resistant DLBCL.
Canonical NF-κB activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and immunoblot analyses, and NF-κB target gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Primary malignant canine B lymphocytes were treated with the selective IKK complex inhibitor Nemo Binding Domain (NBD) peptide, and evaluated for NF-κB activity and apoptosis. NBD peptide was administered intra-nodally to dogs with relapsed B-cell lymphoma and NF-κB target gene expression and tumor burden were evaluated pre and post treatment.
Constitutive canonical NF-κB activity and increased NF-κB target gene expression was detected in primary DLBCL tissue. NBD peptide inhibited this activity and induced apoptosis of primary malignant B cells in vitro. Intra-tumoral injections of NBD peptide to dogs with relapsed DLBCL inhibited NF-κB target gene expression and reduced tumor burden.
This work shows that dogs with spontaneous DLBCL represent a clinically relevant, spontaneous, large animal model for human ABC-DLBCL and demonstrates the therapeutic relevance of NF-κB inhibition in the treatment of ABC-DLBCL. These results have important translational relevance for ABC-DLBCL treatment in human patients.
Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; NF-κB; canine; animal model; pre-clinical
The mutation status of genes involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway in splenic marginal zone lymphoma was examined. DNA sequence analysis of four genes was performed: CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, and MYD88 that are activated through BCR signaling or Toll-like and interleukin signaling. A single point mutation was detected in the CD79B gene (Y196H) in one of ten SMZL cases. Additionally, one point mutation was identified in the MYD88 gene (L265P) in another SMZL case. No mutations were revealed in CD79A or CARD11 genes in these SMZL cases. Neither were mutations detected in these four genes studied in 13 control MZL samples. Interestingly, the two cases with mutations of CD79B and MYD88 showed increased numbers of immunoblasts spread among the smaller and typical marginal zone lymphoma cells. Although SMZL shows few mutations of NF-κB signaling genes, our results indicate that the presence of these mutations is associated with a higher histological grade.
Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphomas) develop from acquired reactive infiltrates directed against external or auto-antigens. Although some European cases of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma have been associated with Chlamydia psittaci infections, C. psittaci has not been detected in large studies of U.S. based cases. To evaluate whether the growth of U.S. based ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas may be promoted by a similar antigen, the expressed immunoglobulin VH genes were identified and analyzed in 10 cases. Interestingly, the VH genes in 2 cases used the same VH1 family V1-2 gene segment, and 3 cases used the same VH4 family V4-34 gene segment. The other five cases all used different gene segments V4-31, V5-51, V3-23, V3-30, and V3-7. All of the VH genes were mutated from germline, with percent homologies ranging between 96.9% to 89.0%. The distribution of replacement and silent mutations within the VH genes was non-random consistent with the maintenance of immunoglobulin function and also strongly suggestive of antigen selection in the 6 VH genes with highest mutation loads. The CDR3 sequences in 2 of 3 VH-34 cases were the same size (15 amino acids), and had similar sizes in the 2 VH1-2 cases (18 & 16 amino acids). In conclusion, U.S. based MALT lymphomas of the ocular adnexa preferentially express a limited set of VH gene segments not frequently used by other MALT lymphomas and consistent with some recognizing similar antigens. Analysis of somatic mutations present within the VH genes is also consistent with antigen binding stimulating the growth of these lymphomas.
MALT lymphoma; ocular adnexa; immunoglobulin VH gene
Antigen receptors activate pathways that control cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Two important targets of antigen receptors, NF-κB and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), are activated downstream of CARMA1, a scaffolding protein that nucleates a complex including BCL10, MALT1, and other IκB kinase (IKK)-signalosome components. Somatic mutations that constitutively activate CARMA1 occur frequently in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mediate essential survival signals. Mechanisms that downregulate this pathway might thus yield important therapeutic targets. Stimulation of antigen receptors induces not only BCL10 activation but also its degradation downstream of CARMA1, thereby ultimately limiting signals to its downstream targets. Here, using lymphocyte cell models, we identify a kinase-independent requirement for TAK1 and its adaptor, TAB1, in antigen receptor-induced BCL10 degradation. We show that TAK1 acts as an adaptor for E3 ubiquitin ligases that target BCL10 for degradation. Functionally, TAK1 overexpression restrains CARMA1-dependent activation of NF-κB by reducing BCL10 levels. TAK1 also promotes counterselection of NF-κB-addicted DLBCL lines by a dual mechanism involving kinase-independent degradation of BCL10 and kinase-dependent activation of JNK. Thus, by directly promoting BCL10 degradation, TAK1 counterbalances NF-κB and JNK signals essential for the activation and survival of lymphocytes and CARMA1-addicted lymphoma types.
The B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), act in concert to control adaptive B cell responses. However, little is known about the signaling pathways that integrate BCR activation with intrinsic TLR4 stimulation. Antigen receptors initialize activation of the inducible transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via recruitment of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase caspase recruitment domain protein 11 (CARD11), the adapter molecule B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), and the "paracaspase" mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) into lipid rafts. Upon BCR triggering, this activation strictly depends on BCL10, but not on MALT1, leading to the hypothesis that a MALT1-independent NF-κB activation pathway contributes to BCR-induced NF-κB activation downstream of BCL10. The identity of this pathway has remained elusive.
Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that the IRAK4- and IRAK1-dependent TLR signaling branch is activated upon BCR triggering to induce partial NF-κB activation. BCR-induced MALT1-independent IκB degradation and B cell proliferation were inhibited in MALT1/IRAK4 double knockout B cells. Moreover, IRAK1 was recruited into lipid rafts upon BCR stimulation and activated following transient recruitment of IRAK4.
We propose that the observed crosstalk between BCR and TLR signaling components may contribute to the discrimination of signals that emanate from single and dual receptor engagement to control adaptive B cell responses.
The majority of lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type arise in the stomach, but extragastric locations are also frequently encountered. Due to previous results indicating that somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expression distinguishes between gastric and extragastric MALT-type lymphoma, we have initiated a study to evaluate the role of SSTR-scintigraphy for staging and follow-up of patients with extragastric manifestations of MALT-type lymphoma. A total of 30 consecutive patients, including 24 with primary extragastric MALT-type lymphoma, 5 patients with dissemination to extragastric sites (including colon, lung, parotid, ocular adnexa and breast) following an initial gastric MALT-lymphoma and one patient with spread to stomach, lung and lymph nodes following parotid lymphoma were prospectively studied. All patients had histologically verified MALT-type lymphoma: 2 patients had lymphoma presenting in the lung, 9 in the ocular adnexa, 7 had lymphomas in the parotid, 2 patients had disease located in the breast, 3 patients had lymph-node relapse following MALT-type lymphoma of the parotid, the lacrimal gland and the thyroid, and 1 had primary MALT-lymphoma of the liver. All patients underwent SSTR-scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-Octreotide (111In-OCT) before initiation of therapy, while 13 also had a second scan after treatment. The results of gamma camera imaging were compared to conventional staging. No positive scans could be obtained in patients with dissemination following gastric lymphoma, while all patients with primary extragastric lymphoma had positive scans at the site of histologically documented involvement before initiation of therapy. In addition, also the patient with secondary spread to stomach, lung and lymph nodes was positive in all documented lymphoma sites. In one patient, focal tracer uptake in projection to the maxillary sinus was documented, which was bioptically verified as inflammation. In the scans performed after therapy, focal tracer accumulation in the left orbit indicated persistance of disease following irradiation in one patient with otherwise negative work-up, which was verified by MRI and biopsy 6 months later. In another patient, a positive scan indicated disease relapse in the lacrimal gland 9 months before clinical verification by means of ultrasound. In one patient, a focus not present in the pretherapeutic scan was found in the ethmoidal sinus, corresponding to a hyperplastic polyp. Both SST-scan as well as CT indicated disease persistance in one case, while negative scans corresponding to complete remission as judged by conventional staging were obtained following therapy in the remaining patients, and absence of relapse has been confirmed for a median follow-up of 2 years. These results indicate that 111In-OCT is an excellent tool for staging and non-invasive therapy-monitoring in extragastric MALT-type lymphomas. These data further confirm our initial finding that gastric MALT-type lymphomas do not express relevant amounts of respective SSTR, and that SSTR-scanning is able to distinguish between gastric vs extragastric origin of MALT-type lymphoma irrespective of the site of presentation.© 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
somatostatin; extraintestinal MALT-lymphoma; scintigraphy
Myc is a well known driver of lymphomagenesis, and Myc-activating chromosomal translocation is the recognized hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma, an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We developed a model that mimics this translocation event by inserting a mouse Myc cDNA gene into the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, just upstream of the intronic Eμ enhancer. These mice, designated iMycEμ, readily develop B-cell lymphoma. To study the mechanism of Myc-induced lymphoma, we analyzed signaling pathways in lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas (LBLs) from iMycEμ mice, and an LBL-derived cell line, iMycEμ-1.
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were constitutively activated in iMycEμ mice, not only in LBLs but also in the splenic B-lymphocytes of young animals months before tumors developed. Moreover, inhibition of either transcription factor in iMycEμ-1 cells suppressed growth and caused apoptosis, and the abrogation of NF-κB activity reduced DNA binding by both STAT3 and Myc, as well as Myc expression. Inhibition of STAT3 signaling eliminated the activity of both NF-κB and Myc, and resulted in a corresponding decrease in the level of Myc. Thus, in iMycEμ-1 cells NF-κB and STAT3 are co-dependent and can both regulate Myc. Consistent with this, NF-κB and phosphorylated STAT3 were physically associated with one another. In addition, LBLs and iMycEμ-1 cells also showed constitutive AKT phosphorylation. Blocking AKT activation by inhibiting PI3K reduced iMycEμ-1 cell proliferation and caused apoptosis, via downregulation of NF-κB and STAT3 activity and a reduction of Myc levels. Co-treatment with NF-κB, STAT3 or/and PI3K inhibitors led to additive inhibition of iMycEμ-1 cell proliferation, suggesting that these signaling pathways converge.
Our findings support the notion that constitutive activation of NF-κB and STAT3 depends on upstream signaling through PI3K, and that this activation is important for cell survival and proliferation, as well as for maintaining the level of Myc. Together, these data implicate crosstalk among NF-κB, STAT3 and PI3K in the development of iMycEμ B-cell lymphomas.
In sarcoma, the activity of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) reduces the abundance of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-29. The tumor suppressor A20 [also known as TNFAIP3 (tumor necrosis factor–α–induced protein 3)] inhibits an upstream activator of NF-κB and is often mutated in lymphomas. In a panel of human sarcoma cell lines, we found that the activation of NF-κB was increased and, although the abundance of A20 protein and mRNA was decreased, the gene encoding A20 was rarely mutated. The 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of A20 mRNA has conserved binding sites for both of the miRNAs miR-29 and miR-125. Whereas the expression of miR-125 was increased in human sarcoma tissue, that of miR-29 was decreased in most samples. Overexpression of miR-125 decreased the abundance of A20 mRNA, whereas reconstituting miR-29 in sarcoma cell lines increased the abundance of A20 mRNA and protein. By interacting directly with the RNA binding protein HuR (human antigen R; also known as ELAVL1), miR-29 prevented HuR from binding to the A20 3′UTR and recruiting the RNA degradation complex RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex), suggesting that miR-29 can act as a decoy for HuR, thus protecting A20 transcripts. Decreased miR-29 and A20 abundance in sarcomas correlated with increased activity of NF-κB and decreased expression of genes associated with differentiation. Together, the findings reveal a unique role of miR-29 and suggest that its absence may contribute to sarcoma tumorigenesis.
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of lymphoma in humans. The aggressive activated B cell–like (ABC) subtype of DLBCL is characterized by constitutive NF-κB activity and requires signals from CARD11, BCL10, and the paracaspase MALT1 for survival. CARD11, BCL10, and MALT1 are scaffold proteins that normally associate upon antigen receptor ligation. Signal-induced CARD11–BCL10–MALT1 (CBM) complexes couple upstream events to IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB activation. MALT1 also possesses a recently recognized proteolytic activity that cleaves and inactivates the negative NF-κB regulator A20 and BCL10 upon antigen receptor ligation. Yet, the relevance of MALT1 proteolytic activity for malignant cell growth is unknown. Here, we demonstrate preassembled CBM complexes and constitutive proteolysis of the two known MALT1 substrates in ABC-DLBCL, but not in germinal center B cell–like (GCB) DLBCL. ABC-DLBCL cell treatment with a MALT1 protease inhibitor blocks A20 and BCL10 cleavage, reduces NF-κB activity, and decreases the expression of NF-κB targets genes. Finally, MALT1 paracaspase inhibition results in death and growth retardation selectively in ABC-DLBCL cells. Thus, our results indicate a growth-promoting role for MALT1 paracaspase activity in ABC-DLBCL and suggest that a pharmacological MALT1 protease inhibition could be a promising approach for lymphoma treatment.
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is still a major long‐term complication of modern cataract surgery. We evaluated the impact of sharp‐edged intraocular lenses (IOLs) with different haptic designs made from the same hydrophobic acrylic material on posterior and anterior lens capsule opacification.
Eye clinic of Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania. Prospective randomised clinical study.
Seventy‐four eyes of 74 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were included in a prospective randomised clinical study. Thirty‐seven eyes of 37 patients received a three‐piece acrylic hydrophobic (AcrySof, MA3OBA, Alcon) IOL; and thirty‐seven eyes of 37 patients received a one‐piece acrylic hydrophobic (AcrySof, SA3OAL, Alcon) IOL. Visual acuity, anterior capsule opacification (ACO), capsular folds, capsulorrhexis/optic overlapping and posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were evaluated. ACO was assessed subjectively. PCO values in the entire IOL optic area and in the central 3 mm optic zone were assessed using a photographic image‐analysis system (EPCO2000). Follow‐ups were performed postoperatively at 1 day, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years.
There were no significant differences in best corrected visual acuity, grade of ACO and capsulorrhexis/optic overlapping between IOL types during the follow‐up period. Patients in the one‐piece acrylic hydrophobic IOL group more frequently presented with capsular folds behind the IOL optic area than those in the three‐piece IOL group. In the three‐piece acrylic hydrophobic IOL group, PCO values (mean (SD)) of the entire IOL optic area were significantly lower six months postoperative (three‐piece: 0.002 (0.009); one‐piece: 0.007 (0.017); p = 0.04), one year postoperative (three‐piece: 0.004 (0.016); one‐piece: 0.026 (0.041); p = 0.001) as well as one year postoperative in the central 3 mm optic zone (three‐piece: 0.000 (0.0002); one‐piece: 0.019 (0.049); p = 0.001). However, two years postoperative, the PCO values of the groups did not show significant differences (entire IOL optic area: three‐piece, 0.136 (0.223); one‐piece, 0.154 (0.190); p = 0.18; central zone: three‐piece, 0.023 (0.065); one‐piece: 0.020 (0.039); p = 0.44).
The 2 year follow‐up after cataract surgery showed no significant difference in ACO and PCO development between three‐piece and one‐piece acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses.
posterior capsule opacification; intraocular lens; hydrophobic acrylic; single‐piece; three‐piece
The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) is the most frequent chromosomal aberration associated with MALT lymphoma and results in constitutive NF-κB activity via the expression of an API2-MALT1 fusion protein. The properties of the reciprocal MALT1-API2 were never investigated as it was reported to be rarely transcribed.
Our data indicate the presence of MALT1-API2 transcripts in the majority of t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphomas. Based on the breakpoints in the MALT1 and API2 gene, the MALT1-API2 protein contains the death domain and one or both immunoglobulin-like domains of MALT1 (∼90% of cases) - mediating the possible interaction with BCL10 - fused to the RING domain of API2. Here we show that this RING domain enables MALT1-API2 to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for BCL10, inducing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation in vitro. Expression of MALT1-API2 transcripts in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphomas was however not associated with a reduction of BCL10 protein levels.
As we observed MALT1-API2 to be an efficient target of its own E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, our data suggest that this inherent instability of MALT1-API2 prevents its accumulation and renders a potential effect on MALT lymphoma development via destabilization of BCL10 unlikely.
The pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) remains largely unknown. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations in key pathways, most notably NOTCH2 mutations in >25% of patients. These studies are based on small, heterogeneous discovery cohorts, and therefore only captured a fraction of the lesions present in the SMZL genome. To identify further novel pathogenic mutations within related biochemical pathways, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number (CN) analysis to a biologically and clinically homogeneous cohort of seven SMZL patients with 7q abnormalities and IGHV1-2*04 gene usage. We identified 173 somatic non-silent variants, affecting 160 distinct genes. In additional to providing independent validation of the presence of mutation in several previously reported genes (NOTCH2, TNFAIP3, MAP3K14, MLL2 and SPEN), our study defined eight additional recurrently mutated genes in SMZL; these genes are CREBBP, CBFA2T3, AMOTL1, FAT4, FBXO11, PLA2G4D, TRRAP and USH2A. By integrating our WES and CN data we identified three mutated putative candidate genes targeted by 7q deletions (CUL1, EZH2 and FLNC), with FLNC positioned within the well-characterized 7q minimally deleted region. Taken together, this work expands the reported directory of recurrently mutated cancer genes in this disease, thereby expanding our understanding of SMZL pathogenesis. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a stratified approach to care including the possibility of targeted therapy.