There are some reports in which a condition of zinc deficiency and its associated outcomes with a change in concentration of serum copper among the thalassemic patients has been highlighted. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the serum zinc and copper levels in children with beta-thalassemia major.
In this cross sectional study all children under 12 years affected by beta thalassemia major (40 patients) were evaluated for serum zinc and copper levels in Qazvin thalassemia center (Qazvin, Iran) in 2007. Serum measurements for zinc and copper were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
The mean concentrations of serum zinc and copper levels were 67.35±20.38 and 152.42±24.17 µg/dl respectively. Twenty-six (65%) of thalassemic patients had zinc concentration under 70 µg/dl (hypozincemia). None of the thalassemic children had copper deficiency. No significant correlation between serum zinc level with age, weight, height, body mass index, duration of blood transfusion, desferrioxamine dose and ferritin level was observed in thalassemic patients (P=0.3).
This study revealed that hypozincemia is common in thalassemic patients, but in contrast, there is no copper deficiency. Further evaluation in this regard is recommended.
Beta-thalassemia; Zinc; Copper; Children
The process of elimination of intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania, requires a Th1 type immune response, whereas a dominant Th2 response leads to exacerbated disease. Experimental human zinc deficiency decreases Th1 but not Th2 immune response. We investigated if zinc and copper levels differ in different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, and if these trace metals might be involved in the immune response towards the parasite.
Blood was collected from 31 patients with either localized cutaneous (LCL), mucosal (ML) or visceral (VL) leishmaniasis, as well as from 25 controls from endemic and non-endemic areas. Anti-Leishmania humoral and cellular immune response were evaluated by quantifying specific plasma IgG, lymphoproliferation and cytokine production, respectively. Plasma levels of Cu and Zn were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
A significant decrease in plasma Zn was observed in all three patient groups (p < 0.01 for LCL and ML, p < 0.001 for VL), as compared to controls, but only VL (7/10) and ML (1/7) patients displayed overt Zn deficiency. Plasma Cu was increased in LCL and VL (p < 0.001) but not in ML, and was strongly correlated to anti-Leishmania IgG (Spearman r = 0.65, p = 0.0028). Cu/Zn ratios were highest in patients with deficient cellular (VL<LCL>ML) immune response. Ex vivo production of parasite-induced IFN-γ was negatively correlated to plasma Cu levels in LCL (r = -0.57, p = 0.01). In vitro, increased Cu levels inhibited IFN-γ production.
1. Zn deficiency in VL and ML indicate possible therapeutic administration of Zn in these severe forms of leishmaniasis. 2. Plasma Cu positively correlates to humoral immune response across patient groups. 3. Environmentally or genetically determined increases in Cu levels might augment susceptibility to infection with intracellular pathogens, by causing a decrease in IFN-γ production.
To evaluate the correlations of the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese with lipid profile parameters of adult men in Mosul City, Iraq.
The study included 51 apparently healthy adult men as a control group aged 34-62 years (group 1), and 31 hyperlipidemic patients aged 37-60 years (group 2). Trace elements copper, zinc and manganese were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined using enzymatic method. Indirect serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were calculated via the Friedewald formula. Data were evaluated as mean and standard deviation by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test.
The results indicated that there is a significant lower level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic patients compared with the control group, while copper and manganese showed no significant differences between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was found between serum zinc and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; while a significant positive correlation was found between serum zinc and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, a significant positive correlation between copper and triglyceride existed in the patient group, while the control group showed no such correlation.
Hyperlipidemia may possibly be related to a decrease in the level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic adult men. The data also supports the concept that zinc supplementation might be useful in improving metabolic complications in subjects with hyperlipidemia.
Lipid profile; Trace elements; Hyperlipidemic patient
A relationship has been reported between trace elements and diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the role of such a relationship in 83 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (40 men and 43 women), with a mean duration of diabetes of 3.9 +/- 3.6 years. Patients with nephropathy were excluded. Thirty healthy non-diabetic subjects were studied for comparative analysis. Subjects were subdivided into obese and non-obese. Diabetic subjects were also subdivided into controlled and uncontrolled groups; control was based on fasting blood glucose and serum fructosamine levels. Plasma copper, zinc and magnesium levels were analysed using a GBC 902 double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma zinc and magnesium levels were comparable between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, while copper levels were significantly elevated (p < 0.01) in diabetic patients. Age, sex, duration and control of diabetes did not influence copper, zinc, or magnesium concentrations. We conclude that zinc and magnesium levels are not altered in diabetes mellitus, but the increased copper levels found in diabetics in our study may merit further investigation of the relationship between copper and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Zinc and copper have important effects on T cell mediated immunity and on neutrophil function, but it is not known how the causes or effects, of low serum zinc and high serum copper relate to the clinical picture of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study serum zinc and copper determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and 30 other clinical, immunological, and laboratory parameters in 60 patients with RA were analysed by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Joint score index, rheumatoid factor titre, seropositivity, haemoglobin, and C reactive protein (CRP) were among the nine independent variables which together predicted 73% of the serum zinc variation. This suggests that there is an association between the immune-inflammatory rheumatoid process and the serum zinc concentration. CRP alone had only a 3% independent predicting value for serum zinc, however. This suggests that metallothionein mediated sequestration in the liver, induced by interleukin 1, is not an important explanatory factor in a cross sectional study of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, serum zinc did not have any predictive value at all for serum copper concentration. This does not support the hypothesis suggesting that serum zinc deficiency leads to high serum copper by inducing gastrointestinal metallothionein and high caeruloplasmin.
Serum copper and zinc concentrations and 24 hour urinary copper and zinc excretion were determined serially from the beginning of treatment with D-penicillamine in four children with Wilson's disease. The data show a progressive decrease in both serum copper and zinc concentrations in all. Urinary copper excretion gradually levelled off to approximately 50% of initial values, but zinc excretion increased. Urinary zinc:copper ratios therefore increased with the duration of treatment. Copper elimination was considered adequate as soon as challenge with a test dose of D-penicillamine did not result in an increase in copper excretion. Urinary zinc excretion was increased further by the test dose. Zinc depletion was suspected clinically in one patient on D-penicillamine maintenance treatment. Lowering the dose alleviated the symptoms, urinary zinc loss decreased from 64 to 34 mumol/24 hours, and copper excretion remained largely unchanged. Data obtained indicate that D-penicillamine alters the metabolism of both copper and zinc. The extent of this is not only dose dependent but is also related to the efficacy of copper elimination. Both copper and zinc concentrations must by monitored to assess the benefits of treatment and the risks of inducing manifest or subclinical zinc deficiency.
Use of illicit drugs induces multiple nutrient deficiencies. Drug habit, sexual practice and socioeconomic factors influence the nutrient profile of drug dependent subjects. The literature on this issue is still insufficient. This study has tested the hypothesis that illicit drug use and lifestyle impair mineral status. To test this hypothesis, 253 men multiple drug users of age 18–45 years were recruited to investigate their serum copper, zinc and iron levels. Influence of illicit drugs and their lifestyle on the mineral levels was also examined. The study subjects were drug dependent who had shared needles and had sexual activity with multiple partners. Serum concentrations of the minerals were estimated by atomic absorption flame spectrometry.
Results showed a significant increase in serum copper and zinc concentrations, and decrease in iron level in drug dependent subjects. The increase of copper level was found to be much higher than that of zinc. Period of drug abuse had made a significant positive influence on the copper and iron levels, but it was apparently reversed for zinc concentration. Multiple sexual partnerships had significant influence on zinc status. There also were significant relationships observed between body mass index (BMI) as well as certain socioeconomic factors, and mineral status of drug dependent subjects and non-drug dependent controls. A series of multiple linear regression analysis predicted mineral values for education, age and BMI. The group (drug dependent subject = 1, non-drug dependent control = 2) had a significant influence on these parameters. However, after controlling these factors, it was shown that illicit drug use significantly contributed to influence the serum mineral levels.
Illicit drug use impairs serum mineral value causing an increase in copper and zinc and a decrease in iron. Lifestyle and nutritional status of drug dependent subjects influence serum mineral concentrations.
Background: The deficiencies of folic acid, vitamin B12, and microelements during pregnancy may affect the health of newborns.
Objectives: To assess the serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc and copper in healthy women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran.
Methodology: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 women of childbearing ages in northern Iran during November 2007-March 2008. The serum levels of folate, vitamin B12, iron, copper and zinc were evaluated by laboratory tests.
Results: Iron, copper , folate, vitamin B12 deficiencies and folate with vitamin B12 deficiency were detected in 13%, 32% , 13% , 32% and 11% women of the childbearing ages, respectively .
According to the ethnicity, vitamin B12, folate and iron deficiencies in the Sistani group were observed in 38.3%, 12.9% and 12.9% of the women, respectively. In the native Fars group, the above mentioned deficiencies were found in 31.1%, 13.4% and 7.5% of the subjects.
Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were observed in the urban habitant in 32.7% and 11.5 % of the subjects as compared to those in the rural habitant (in 30.4% and 15.2%of the subjects respectively). The folate deficiencies in the under and above 18 years old subjects were 22.2% and 9.9%, respectively.
Conclusions: This study showed that the deficiency of the micronutrients was considerable in women of the childbearing ages in Gorgan, northern Iran.
Woman; Microelements; Folate; Vitamin B12; Iron; Childbearing age; Iran
The role of minerals on parasite persistency and the interaction between minerals and animal responses to the parasite infestation is not clear. For these reasons, the present research was aimed to compare copper, zinc and iron status in sheep with parasitic myocarditis and healthy ones in 2009.
Blood and heart tissue samples were collected from 145 slaughtered sheep and histopathological findings were confirmed as myocardial sarcocystosis in 27 cases. Serum and tissue mineral level were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Data were analyzed by Sigmastat program, using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at the level of P<0.05.
Myocardial sarcocystosis significantly increase myocardial concentration of Cu, Zn and Fe (P<0.05).
These findings may explain the role of copper, zinc and iron in parasite persistency and may discuss the pathogenesis of sarcocystosis, which relates to evocate mentioned micronutrient to cardiac muscle.
Sarcocystosis; Myocardium; Mineral; Sheep
Pemphigus vulgaris is a life threatening, blistering skin disease. It is an autoimmune abnormality. Due to involvement of oral cavity and pharynx, patients are at risk of nutrients deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of selenium, copper, and zinc in these patients.
In a case-control study, 43 newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris patients were compared with 58 healthy people from 2009 to 2010. The severity of the disease was estimated according to Harman’s scores. Serum selenium was measured with atomic absorption but serum zinc and copper concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically. Data were compared with independent t test. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson correlation test.
Both groups were the same based on sex, age, and weight and body mass index. The mean duration of disease was 5.6 month. The oral and skin severities were 1.79 and 2.3 respectively, based on Harman’s scores. Serum selenium of pemphigus patients was significantly less than that of healthy people (P<0.001). Serum copper was negatively correlated with duration of disease in males (P=0.02, r=−0.5).
Pemphigus vulgaris negatively affects on serum selenium, copper and zinc. It seems that serum selenium, copper and zinc decrease as the disease lasts longer.
Selenium; Zinc; Copper; Pemphigus vulgaris
Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human health. However, little is known about concentration of this mineral among Iranian population. This study was carried out to determine the current zinc status, evaluate the impact of certain factors like age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI), and to verify the prevalence of zinc deficiency among Iranian adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran.
Serum samples from 374 randomly selected healthy individuals living in Shiraz, Iran, aged 19-82 years (143 males, 231 females) were collected and the serum zinc concentration was measured by Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We considered the subjects with serum zinc concentration less than 100 μg/dl as zinc deficient.
The serum zinc levels in females were lower than those of males with no statistically significant difference. Serum zinc concentrations were unrelated to age and BMI. It also did not change among different ages and BMI intervals.
About 42.5% of our cases had serum zinc concentration below the cut off value of 100 μg/dl in the serum. Designing appropriate strategies for overcoming this public health problem is necessary.
Serum zinc; Deficiency; Prevalence; Adolescent; Iran
Repeated blood transfusion in beta thalassemia major patients may lead to peroxidative tissue injury by secondary iron overload. In the present study, 72 children with beta thalassemia major were included. Serum levels of total lipid peroxides, Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, Copper, Zinc, Vitamin E, plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity, activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase, were measured. The findings were compared with 72 age matched healthy controls irrespective of sex. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide and Iron (p<0.001), whereas, significant decrease in the levels of vitamin-E, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Iron Binding Capacity (p<0.001) was observed. Serum Zinc was significantly increased (p<0.001) with significant decrease in the levels of copper (p<0.001). Non Significant increase in the activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase (p>0.05) was found in the patients when compared with controls. This suggest that oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense mechanism play an important role in pathogenesis of beta thalassemia major.
Beta thalassemia major; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants
Total plasma zinc levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on different therapeutic treatments were determined in conjunction with total serum proteins, serum albumin and globulin, and articular index of joint tenderness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, serum copper, and serum iron. There were significantly lower zinc levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs than in patients on levamisole and penicillamine. Zinc levels correlated positively with serum albumin, and there was an inverse correlation between zinc levels and both ESR and globulin concentration in all rheumatoid patients. However, the correlation coefficient varied in the different treatment groups. The results of this study support the hypothesis that low plasma zinc level in rheumatoid arthritis is one of the nonspecific features of inflammation.
Disseminated leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease, mostly due to L. braziliensis, which has clinical and histopathological features distinct from cutaneous leishmaniasis.
In the current study we evaluated the in vitro production of the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 15 disseminated leishmaniasis and 24 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients upon stimulation with L. braziliensis antigens genotyped as disseminated leishmaniasis or cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates.
Regardless of the source of L. braziliensis antigens, PBMC from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients produced significantly higher IFN-γ than PBMC from disseminated leishmaniasis patients. Levels of TNF-α by PBMC from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients were significantly higher than disseminated leishmaniasis patients only when stimulated by genotyped cutaneous leishmaniasis antigens. The levels of IL-5 and IL-10 production by PBMC were very low and similar in PBMCs from both disseminated leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. The immune response of each patient evaluated by the two L. braziliensis antigens was assessed in a paired analysis in which we showed that L. braziliensis genotyped as disseminated leishmaniasis isolate was more potent than L. braziliensis genotyped as cutaneous leishmaniasis isolate in triggering IFN-γ and TNF-α production in both diseases and IL-5 only in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.
This study provides evidence that antigens prepared from genotypically distinct strains of L. braziliensis induce different degrees of immune response. It also indicates that both parasite and host play a role in the outcome of L. braziliensis infection.
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with zinc deficiency; zinc supplementation may ameliorate some of its clinical manifestations including the relief of painful crisis.
Subjects and Methods. Serum zinc levels were determined in 71 children with SCA and painful crisis and in equal numbers in steady state. Seventy-one children with AA genotype acted as controls. Qualitative assessment of zinc content of 24-hour dietary recall and the last meal consumed before blood was drawn was taken. Serum zinc was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined using standard methods.
Results. The mean serum zinc concentration in the study was less than international reference range. The controls had significantly higher serum zinc concentrations than the SCA group (42.7 ± 13.6 versus 32.3 ± 14.0 μg/dL, P < .000); this difference was due to the significantly lower values of serum zinc in SCA with painful crisis compared with the remaining two groups F = 30.9, P<.000. There was a positive correlation between serum zinc and haemoglobin concentration only in the control group (r = 0.4; P = .001).
Conclusion. The serum zinc levels in this study were low. Painful crisis in SCA may exert greater demand for zinc utilization in children with SCA thereby resulting in lower serum levels.
The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc–lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed.
Lead poisoning; Trace elements; Acute-phase proteins; Haptoglobin; Caeruloplasmin; Transferrin
We investigated the trace element status in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients receiving enteral nutrition, and evaluated the effects of trace element-rich supplementation. Thirty-one patients with CD were enrolled in this study. All patients were placed on an enteral nutrition regimen with Elental® (Ajinomoto pharmaceutical. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Serum selenium, zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum selenoprotein P levels were determined by an ELISA system. Average serum levels of albumin, selenium, zinc and copper were 4.1 ± 0.4 g/dl, 11.2 ± 2.8 µg/dl, 71.0 ± 14.8 µg/dl, and 112.0 ± 25.6 µg/dl, respectively. In 9 patients of 31 CD patients, serum albumin levels were lower than the lower limit of the normal range. Serum selenium, zinc and copper levels were lower than lower limits in 12 patients, 9 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Serum selenium levels significantly correlated with both serum selenoprotein P levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplementation of selenium (100 µg/day) and zinc (10 mg/day) for 2 months significantly improved the trace element status in CD patients. In conclusion, serum selenium and zinc levels are lower in many CD patients on long-term enteral nutrition. In these patients, supplementation of selenium and zinc was effective in improving the trace element status.
selenium; zinc; selenoprotein P; supplementation
To determine the impact of socioeconomic status on plasma trace element status and pregnancy outcomes, 349 pregnant women, aged 15-40 years (mean 27.04 ±2.75 years), recruited at ≤25 weeks (mean 21.76±3.12 weeks) gestational age, were followed up till delivery during which maternal and foetal outcomes were recorded. Plasma copper, iron, and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer while maternal sociodemographic data were obtained using a questionnaire. Except for copper, lower plasma iron and zinc were significantly (p<0.05) higher in women from socioeconomically-disadvantaged groups. Both adverse maternal health and foetal outcomes also seemed to be more prevalent in socioeconomically-disadvantaged women, although without a definite trend. This study has shown that, in economically-disadvantaged setting of developing countries, maternal socioeconomic status impacts on maternal trace element (copper, iron, and zinc) status and health and foetal outcomes.
Maternal nutrition; Morbidity; Pregnancy outcomes; Socioeconomic status; Trace elements; Nigeria
The aim of the study was to evaluate zinc levels in three biological compartments (serum, erythrocytes and hair) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as compared to healthy individuals. Zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes and hair (in 74 patients with RA and 30 healthy individuals) were assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean hair zinc content was significantly lower in RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.001). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed in the RA patient group between the erythrocyte zinc levels and the prednisone dose (rs = 0.48, p < 0.05), and a negative correlation was found in this population between the serum zinc levels and disease duration (rs = −0.42, p < 0.0006). In conclusion, it seems that hair may be a useful complementary study material for evaluating “zinc status” in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Zinc; Serum; Erythrocytes; Hair
Aim: In the present study, we aimed to assess serum concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), vitamins A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) and E (α-tocopherol) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to compare with healthy controls.
Methods: A total of 30 CAD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (UNICAM-929) was used to measure heavy metal and trace element concentrations. Serum α-tocopherol, retinol and cholecalciferol were measured simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Results: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were not statistically different between the groups. Serum concentrations of retinol (0.3521±0.1319 vs. 0.4313±0.0465 mmol/I, p=0.013), tocopherol (3.8630±1.3117 vs. 6.9124±1.0577 mmol/I, p<0.001), cholecalciferol (0.0209±0.0089 vs. 0.0304±0.0059 mmol/I, p<0.001) and Fe (0.5664±0.2360 vs. 1.0689±0,4452 µg/dI, p<0.001) were significantly lower in CAD patients. In addition, while not statistically significant serum Cu (1.0164±0.2672 vs. 1.1934±0.4164 µg/dI, p=0.073) concentrations were tended to be lower in patients with CAD, whereas serum lead (0.1449±0.0886 vs. 0.1019±0.0644 µg/dI, p=0.069) concentrations tended to be higher.
Conclusions: Serum level of trace elements and vitamins may be changed in patients with CAD. In this relatively small study we found that serum levels of retinol, tocopherol, cholecalciferol, iron and copper may be lower whereas serum lead concentrations may be increased in patients with CAD.
coronary artery disease; trace element; heavy metal; vitamin
The association of serum trace elements like selenium, zinc and copper has been found in different types of cancer. This study was conducted to see the serum level of these three trace elements in cancer esophagus patients. Biopsy confirmed cancer esophagus, 24 patients (12 males, 12 females, mean age 54.5±11.65 year with 23 healthy subjects (16 males, 7 females, mean age 44 ±13.82 years) were included in this study. Both control and study group patients were of same socio-economic status and dietary habits. Serum zinc and copper level were estimated using standard absorption spectrometer technique and serum selenium by Hydride generation method.
We observed significant low serum levels of zinc and selenium while high level of serum copper in carcinoma esophagus patients, as compared with normal healthy controls. This shows an association of serum selenium zinc and copper with cancer esophagus.
Cancer esophagus; Serum Zinc; Copper and Selenium; Atomic absorption spectrophotometer; Hydride generation; A.A.S.
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease cause by Leishmania genus. Anthroponotic and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis by mini-exon gene in five regions of Khuzestan Province, southwest of Iran.
From 2007 to 2008 in this cross-sectional study, cutaneous samples were collected from patients referred to Health Centers and Hospitals of the Khuzestan Province for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis and cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) and RPMI 1640. The propagated promastigotes were harvested and Leishmania species of cutaneous leishmaniasis were identified by RFLP and DNA sequencing of the PCR generated fragments.
L. major and L. tropica were the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis by predominantly of L. major species. The alignment of the mini-exon sequencing isolates with reported sequencing of L. major and L. tropica revealed 92%-99% identity.
Our study showed that mini-exon PCR-RFLP was useful method to identify the causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Mmini-exon; RFLP; Sequencing; Iran
Objectives: Gutkha packets contain trace elements like copper, zinc, iron and magnesium. This study compared the levels of the trace elements in patients with gutkha eating habits with or without oral submucous fibrosis and in healthy patients.
Study Design: A total of 75 patients were included in this study and they were divided into three groups; the individuals with a history of gutkha intake with OSMF, the individuals with a history of gutkha intake without OSMF and apparently healthy individuals without OSMF and without any habits.
Blood and saliva was collected and they were subjected for analysis by using atomic absorption spectrometry and a differential pulse anodic stripping voltmeter.
Results: The results were tabulated and they were subjected to a statistical analysis.
Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the serum Mg and Fe levels between the patients with habits and the normal healthy individuals. A significant difference was observed in the serum zinc levels in the patients with habits with and without OSMF. Altered serum trace element levels are documented in malignant cases and they are considered to be good biomarkers for malignancies. The serum copper and Zn levels and the Cu/Zn ratio in OSMF patients can be considered as the markers which show a susceptibility towards cancer.
OSMF; Gutkha; Copper; Zinc; Iron; Magnesium
The serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron and of nitric oxide, retinol, and β-carotene were determined in Sakiz ewes that had experienced an abortion and in healthy controls. Ten healthy and 25 aborted Sakiz sheep were selected from Afyon zone in western Turkey. Their ages ranged between 2 and 4 years weighing between 40 and 60 kg at the time of experiment. All of the abortions occurred in October. The concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, phosphorus, and zinc were significantly lower and those of calcium and nitric oxide were increased in aborted ewes relative to healthy controls. The serum levels of iron, copper, and magnesium were not significantly different among the two groups. In conclusion, abortion is an important problem in commercially important species of ruminants in many regions in the tropics including of western Turkey. Deficiencies of retinol, β-carotene, phosphorus and zinc, and the increase of calcium and nitric oxide concentration may play an important role in the etiology of abortion in ewes. Prophylactic measures such as vitamin and mineral supplementation may be of help to prevent or reduce the incidence of abortion in sheep.
Sheep; Abortion; Nitric oxide; Trace elements; Retinol; Β-carotene
In the present study, blood serum level of metals were determined in malarial patients and compared with those in the normal subjects without complication using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer.
For the determination of these metals twelve intravenous blood samples each from referred malarial patients and a group of normal subjects were collected and immediately centrifuged to obtain the supernatant liquid, serum of both the groups for analysis.
The blood serum levels of copper in malarial patients determined to be 2.6917 ppm, which is higher as compared to that found 2.045 in normal subjects. Whereas the blood serum levels of iron, magnesium, and zinc found 2.0708 ppm, 12.2467 ppm and 4.9017 ppm respectively in malarial patients, who are lower than those, are determined in the blood serum of normal subjects. Blood serum levels of iron, magnesium, and zinc in normal subjects found 3.950 ppm, 19.4892 ppm, and 5.242 ppm respectively.
In this study the metal content of copper, iron, magnesium and zinc in vary in malarial patients as compared those in the normal subjects. It may suggest that the decreased levels of iron, magnesium, and zinc can be maintained by giving as supplement of these metals in therapy.
Malaria; Serum; Trace Metals; Atomic Absorption Spectrometer