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1.  Febuxostat: the evidence for its use in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout 
Core evidence  2010;4:25-36.
Introduction:
Gout is a common and disabling cause of arthritis in middle-aged and elderly populations, with its main predisposing factor being hyperuricemia (serum urate > 6.8 mg/dL). Options for treatment of chronic gout until 2008 were allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, and the group of drugs known as uricosurics that stimulate the renal excretion of uric acid. A proportion of patients, including some with chronic kidney disease and solid organ transplantations, could not be treated with the those therapies because of intolerance, drug interactions, or adverse events. Febuxostat is a nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, recently approved in Europe and the United States for the treatment of chronic gout.
Aim:
To review the clinical evidence (phase II and III studies) of the effectiveness and safety of febuxostat for treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
Evidence review:
Febuxostat, at doses ranging from 40 to 240 mg/day, is efficacious in reducing serum urate in patients with hyperuricemia and gout, comparing favorably with fixed doses of allopurinol in that respect. Early safety signals with respect to liver test abnormalities and cardiovascular outcomes have not been confirmed in recent large prospective trials but need to be further monitored.
Clinical potential:
Given its low cost and extensive clinical experience, allopurinol will likely remain the first-line drug for management of hyperuricemia and gout. Febuxostat may provide an important option in patients unable to use allopurinol, those with very high serum urate levels, or in the presence of refractory tophi.
PMCID: PMC2899777  PMID: 20694062
febuxostat; gout; hyperuricemia; evidence
2.  Febuxostat in the management of hyperuricemia and chronic gout: a review 
Febuxostat is a novel, potent, non-purine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, which in clinical trials demonstrated superior ability to lower and maintain serum urate levels below 6 mg/dL compared with conventionally used doses of allopurinol. Febuxostat was well tolerated in long term treatment in patients with hyperuricemia including those experiencing hypersensitity/intolerance to allopurinol. Dose adjustment appears unnecessary in patients with mild to moderate renal or liver insufficiency or advanced age. The most common adverse reactions reported were abnormal liver function tests, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms, which were usually mild and transient. However, whether hepatotoxicity becomes a limitation in the use of febuxostat needs to be determined in further studies. An increased frequency of gout flares occurs for a prolonged period after treatment initiation, as with any aggressive lowering of serum urate, and prolonged prophylaxis with colchicine or NSAIDs is usually required. Febuxostat has been granted marketing authorization by the European Commission in early 2008 for the treatment of chronic hyperuricemia and gout. Febuxostat is the first major treatment alternative for gout in more than 40 years and is a promising alternative to allopurinol, although continued long-term surveillance on safety and efficacy is required.
PMCID: PMC2643102  PMID: 19337428
febuxostat; TEI-6720; TMX-67; gout; hyperuricemia; xanthine oxidase inhibitor
3.  African American patients with gout: efficacy and safety of febuxostat vs allopurinol 
Background
African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasians to develop gout, but they are less likely to be treated with urate-lowering therapy (ULT). Furthermore, African Americans typically present with more comorbidities associated with gout, such as hypertension, obesity, and renal impairment. We determined the efficacy and safety of ULT with febuxostat or allopurinol in African American subjects with gout and associated comorbidities and in comparison to Caucasian gout subjects.
Methods
This is a secondary analysis of the 6-month Phase 3 CONFIRMS trial. Eligible gouty subjects with baseline serum urate (sUA) ≥ 8.0 mg/dL were randomized 1:1:1 to receive febuxostat 40 mg, febuxostat 80 mg, or allopurinol (300 mg or 200 mg depending on renal function) daily. All subjects received gout flare prophylaxis. Primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects in each treatment group with sUA < 6.0 mg/dL at the final visit. Additional endpoints included the proportion of subjects with mild or with moderate renal impairment who achieved a target sUA < 6.0 mg/dL at final visit. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study.
Results
Of the 2,269 subjects enrolled, 10.0% were African American and 82.1% were Caucasian. African American subjects were mostly male (89.5%), obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; 67.1%), with mean baseline sUA of 9.8 mg/dL and mean duration of gout of 10.4 years. The proportions of African American subjects with a baseline history of diabetes, renal impairment, or cardiovascular disease were significantly higher compared to Caucasians (p < 0.001). ULT with febuxostat 80 mg was superior to both febuxostat 40 mg (p < 0.001) and allopurinol (p = 0.004). Febuxostat 40 mg was comparable in efficacy to allopurinol. Significantly more African American subjects with mild or moderate renal impairment achieved sUA < 6.0 mg/dL in the febuxostat 80 group than in either the febuxostat 40 mg or allopurinol group (p < 0.05). Efficacy rates in all treatment groups regardless of renal function were comparable between African American and Caucasian subjects, as were AE rates.
Conclusions
In African American subjects with significant comorbidities, febuxostat 80 mg is significantly more efficacious than either febuxostat 40 mg or allopurinol 200/300 mg. Febuxostat was well tolerated in this African American population.
Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/15
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-15
PMCID: PMC3317813  PMID: 22316106
4.  The efficacy and safety of febuxostat for urate lowering in gout patients ≥65 years of age 
BMC Geriatrics  2012;12:11.
Background
The incidence of gout rises with increasing age. Management of elderly (≥65 years) gout patients can be challenging due to high rates of comorbidities, such as renal impairment and cardiovascular disease, and concomitant medication use. However, there is little data specifically addressing the efficacy and safety of available urate-lowering therapies (ULT) in the elderly. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of ULT with febuxostat or allopurinol in a subset of elderly subjects enrolled in the CONFIRMS trial.
Methods
Hyperuricemic (serum urate [sUA] levels ≥ 8.0 mg/dL) gout subjects were enrolled in the 6-month, double-blind, randomized, comparative CONFIRMS trial and randomized, 1:1:1, to receive febuxostat, 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol (200 mg or 300 mg based on renal function) once daily. Flare prophylaxis was provided throughout the study duration.
Study endpoints were the percent of elderly subjects with sUA <6.0 mg/dL at the final visit, overall and by renal function status, percent change in sUA from baseline to final visit, flare rates, and rates of adverse events (AEs).
Results
Of 2,269 subjects enrolled, 374 were elderly. Febuxostat 80 mg was significantly more efficacious (82.0%) than febuxostat 40 mg (61.7%; p < 0.001) or allopurinol (47.3%; p < 0.001) for achieving the primary efficacy endpoint. Febuxostat 40 mg was also superior to allopurinol in this population (p = 0.029). In subjects with mild-to-moderate renal impairment, significantly greater ULT efficacy was observed with febuxostat 40 mg (61.6%; p = 0.028) and febuxostat 80 mg (82.5%; p < 0.001) compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg (46.9%). Compared to allopurinol 200/300 mg, the mean percent change in sUA from baseline was significantly greater for both febuxostat 80 mg (p < 0.001) and febuxostat 40 mg (p = 0.011) groups. Flare rates declined steadily in all treatment groups. Rates of AEs were low and comparable across treatments.
Conclusions
These data suggest that either dose of febuxostat is superior to commonly prescribed fixed doses of allopurinol (200/300 mg) in subjects ≥65 years of age with high rates of renal dysfunction. In addition, in this high-risk population, ULT with either drug was well tolerated.
Trial registration
clinicaltrials.gov NCT#00430248
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-11
PMCID: PMC3368715  PMID: 22436129
5.  Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in the treatment of hyperuricemia in stable kidney transplant recipients 
Background
Post-transplant hyperuricemia (PTHU), defined as serum uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL or need for treatment with allopurinol or benzbromarone, reduces long-term allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. Febuxostat, a new nonpurine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is well tolerated in patients with moderate renal impairment. However, its efficacy and safety in kidney recipients with PTHU is unclear. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in stable kidney transplant recipients with PTHU.
Methods
Of 93 stable adult kidney transplant recipients, 51 were diagnosed with PTHU (PTHU group) and 42 were not (NPTHU group). Of the 51 patients with PTHU, 26 were treated with febuxostat (FX group) and 25 were not (NFX group), at the discretion of each attending physician. One-year changes in serum uric acid concentrations, rates of achievement of target uric acid (<6.0 mg/dL), estimated glomerular filtration rates in allografts, and adverse events were retrospectively analyzed in the FX, NFX, and NPTHU groups.
Results
The FX group showed significantly greater decreases in serum uric acid (−2.0±1.1 mg/dL versus 0.0±0.8 mg/dL per year, P<0.01) and tended to show a higher rate of achieving target uric acid levels (50% versus 24%; odds ratio 3.17 [95% confidence interval 0.96–10.5], P=0.08) than the NFX group. Although baseline allograft estimated glomerular filtration rates tended to be lower in the FX group than in the NFX group (40±14 mL/min/1.73 m2 versus 47±19 mL/min/1.73 m2), changes in allograft estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar (+1.0±4.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 versus −0.2±6.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, P=0.50). None of the patients in the FX group experienced any severe adverse effects, such as pancytopenia or attacks of gout, throughout the entire study period. Nephrologists were more likely than urologists to start febuxostat in kidney transplant recipients with PTHU (69% versus 8%).
Conclusion
Treatment with febuxostat sufficiently lowered uric acid levels without severe adverse effects in stable kidney transplant recipients with PTHU.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S56597
PMCID: PMC3933431  PMID: 24600205
post-transplant hyperuricemia; febuxostat; uric acid; chronic kidney disease
6.  Management of hyperuricemia in gout: focus on febuxostat 
Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in an elderly population, and can be diagnosed with absolute certainty by polarization microscopy. However, diagnosis may be challenging because atypical presentations are more common in the elderly. Management of hyperuricemia in the elderly with gout requires special consideration because of co-medication, contra-indications, and risk of adverse reactions. Urate-lowering agents include allopurinol and uricosuric agents. These also must be used sensibly in the elderly, especially when renal function impairment is present. However, if used at the lowest dose that maintains the serum urate level below 5.0 to 6.0 mg/dL (0.30 to 0.36 mmol/L), the excess urate in the body will eventually be eliminated, acute flares will no longer occur, and tophi will resolve. Febuxostat, a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is welcomed, as few alternatives for allopurinol are available. Its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are not significantly altered in patients with moderate renal function or hepatic impairment. Its antihyperuricemic efficacy at 80 to 120 mg/day is better than “standard dosage” allopurinol (300 mg/day). Long-term safety data and efficacy data on tophus diminishment and reduction of gout flares have recently become available. Febuxostat may provide an important option in patients unable to use allopurinol, or refractory to allopurinol.
PMCID: PMC2817937  PMID: 20169038
aging; febuxostat; hyperuricemia; gout; pharmacotherapy; xanthine oxidase
7.  New and improved strategies for the treatment of gout 
The Western world appears to be in the midst of the third great gout epidemic of all time. In this century, gout is increasing in prevalence despite an increased understanding of its risk factors and pathophysiology, and the availability of reasonably effective treatment. The main cultural factors responsible for this appear to be diet, obesity, ethanol use and medications. Excess fructose consumption is a newly recognized modifiable risk factor. The debate has been renewed concerning hyperuricemia as an independent risk factor for renal insufficiency and cardiovascular disease. Prevention is still rooted in lifestyle choices. Existing treatments have proven to be unsatisfactory in many patients with comorbidities. New treatments are available today and on the horizon for tomorrow, which offer a better quality of life for gout sufferers. These include febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase with a potentially better combination of efficacy and safety than allopurinol, and investigational inhibitors of URAT-1, an anion exchanger in the proximal tubule that is critical for uric acid homeostasis. New abortive treatments include interleukin-1 antagonists that can cut short the acute attack in 1 to 2 days in persons who cannot take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine or corticosteroids. Lastly, newer formulations of uricase have the ability to dissolve destructive tophi over weeks or months in patients who cannot use currently available hypouricemic agents. Diagnostically, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging offer advanced ways to diagnose gout noninvasively, and just as importantly, a way to follow the progress of tophus dissolution. The close association of hyperuricemia with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and renal insufficiency ensures that nephrologists will see increasing numbers of gout-afflicted patients.
doi:10.2147/IJNRD.S6048
PMCID: PMC3108771  PMID: 21694941
hyperuricemia; metabolic syndrome; tophi; colchicine; febuxostat; allopurinol
8.  The urate-lowering efficacy and safety of febuxostat in the treatment of the hyperuricemia of gout: the CONFIRMS trial 
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to compare urate-lowering (UL) efficacy and safety of daily febuxostat and allopurinol in subjects with gout and serum urate (sUA) ≥ 8.0 mg/dL in a six-month trial.
Methods
Subjects (n = 2,269) were randomized to febuxostat 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol 300 mg (200 mg in moderate renal impairment). Endpoints included the proportion of all subjects with sUA <6.0 mg/dL and the proportion of subjects with mild/moderate renal impairment and sUA <6.0 mg/dL. Safety assessments included blinded adjudication of each cardiovascular (CV) adverse event (AE) and death.
Results
Comorbidities included: renal impairment (65%); obesity (64%); hyperlipidemia (42%); and hypertension (53%). In febuxostat 40 mg, febuxostat 80 mg, and allopurinol groups, primary endpoint was achieved in 45%, 67%, and 42%, respectively. Febuxostat 40 mg UL was statistically non-inferior to allopurinol, but febuxostat 80 mg was superior to both (P < 0.001). Achievement of target sUA in subjects with renal impairment was also superior with febuxostat 80 mg (72%; P < 0.001) compared with febuxostat 40 mg (50%) or allopurinol (42%), but febuxostat 40 mg showed greater efficacy than allopurinol (P = 0.021). Rates of AEs did not differ across treatment groups. Adjudicated (APTC) CV event rates were 0.0% for febuxostat 40 mg and 0.4% for both febuxostat 80 mg and allopurinol. One death occurred in each febuxostat group and three in the allopurinol group.
Conclusions
Urate-lowering efficacy of febuxostat 80 mg exceeded that of febuxostat 40 mg and allopurinol (300/200 mg), which were comparable. In subjects with mild/moderate renal impairment, both febuxostat doses were more efficacious than allopurinol and equally safe. At the doses tested, safety of febuxostat and allopurinol was comparable.
Clinical Trial Registration
NCT00430248
doi:10.1186/ar2978
PMCID: PMC2888216  PMID: 20370912
9.  Diabetes and gout: efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol 
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism  2013;15(11):1049-1055.
Aim Assess influences of demographics and co-morbidities of gout patients with or without diabetes on safety and efficacy of urate-lowering agents.
Methods Post-hoc analysis of 312 diabetic and 1957 non-diabetic gout patients [baseline serum urate levels (sUA) ≥8.0 mg/dl] enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comparing urate-lowering efficacy (ULE) and safety of daily xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs) febuxostat (40 mg or 80 mg) and allopurinol (200 mg or 300 mg). We compared baseline demographic, gout and co-morbid characteristics, ULE, and safety of XOI treatment in diabetic and non-diabetic gout patients. ULE was measured by the proportion of diabetic and non-diabetic patients in each treatment group achieving final visit sUA < 6.0 mg/dl. Safety was monitored throughout the trial.
Results Diabetic gout patients were older, more frequently female, and had longer gout duration. Co-morbidities were more frequent among diabetic patients: cardiovascular disease; impaired renal function; hyperlipidemia; and obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Febuxostat 80 mg ULE exceeded that of febuxostat 40 mg or allopurinol (p < 0.050) at all levels of renal function, achieving sUA goal range in the majority of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetics and non-diabetics reported self-limiting diarrhoea and URIs as the most common adverse events.
Conclusions Despite higher co-morbidity rates in diabetic patients, febuxostat and allopurinol were safe in both groups at the doses tested. Febuxostat 80 mg achieved sUA <6.0 mg/dl more often than febuxostat 40 mg or allopurinol at commonly prescribed doses.
doi:10.1111/dom.12135
PMCID: PMC3902994  PMID: 23683134
clinical trial; diabetes mellitus; drug utilisation
10.  Hypouricemic effect and safety of febuxostat used for prevention of tumor lysis syndrome 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:501.
Purpose
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of febuxostat, a non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, used for prevention of hyperuricemia associated with tumor lysis syndrome (TLS).
Methods
Records of adult patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed hematologic malignancies who received febuxostat within 7 days before initiation of chemotherapy were retrieved retrospectively at a single institute. The changes in serum uric acid levels from before and 7 days after initiation of febuxostat were evaluated and compared with the historical control group of patients who received allopurinol. We also evaluated non-hematological adverse events during the study period.
Results
A total of 78 patients’ records were analyzed, 38 in the febuxostat group and 39 in the allopurinol group. There were no significant differences in the incidence of treatment failure, defined as development of clinical TLS or receiving rasburicase, between the febuxostat and allopurinol group (5.2% vs 5.1%, P>0.99). The mean serum uric acid levels were significantly decreased, compared to the baseline (5.6 ± 2.1 mg/dL), at 7 days after initiation of febuxostat (3.1 ± 1.5 mg/dL, last observation carried forward, P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the percent change in the serum uric acid levels between the 40 mg/day febuxostat and the 300 mg/day allopurinol groups (P = 0.57). Grade 3–4 liver dysfunctions were observed in both the febuxostat and allopurinol groups, without significant differences in incidence between the two groups (2.6% vs 5.1%, P>0.99). Neither gout flare nor skin rash occurred in any patients.
Conclusions
Febuxostat is feasible for prevention of hyperuricemia associated with TLS.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-501
PMCID: PMC4164671  PMID: 25279293
Febuxostat; Allopurinol; Hyperuricemia; Tumor lysis syndrome; Cancer chemotherapy
11.  Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients 
Background
Maintenance of low serum urate levels is important for the management of gout. Achieving the recommended serum urate levels of less than 6.0 mg/dL is difficult in elderly (65 years of age or older) patients with renal impairment. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat are used for this purpose. Although febuxostat had been shown to be efficacious in elderly patients, its safety and efficacy in elderly female patients with hyperuricemia remain unclear.
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients.
Methods
We studied a retrospective cohort study. The study included elderly Japanese patients (65 years of age or older) who were treated with febuxostat at Fujita Health University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The treatment goal was defined as achievement of serum urate levels of 6.0 mg/dL or lower within 16 weeks; this was the primary endpoint in the present study. Adverse events of febuxostat were defined as more than twofold increases in Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events scores from baseline.
Results
We evaluated 82 patients treated with febuxostat during the observation period and classified them into male (n=53) and female (n=29) groups. The mean time to achievement of the treatment goal was significantly shorter in the female group (53 days) than in the male group (71 days). There were no significant differences in adverse events between the 2 groups.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that the efficacy of febuxostat in elderly female patients is superior to that in elderly male patients and that the safety is equivalent.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S70855
PMCID: PMC4158997  PMID: 25214776
febuxostat; elderly female patients; hyperuricemia
12.  Urate Lowering Therapy with Febuxostat in Daily Practice—A Multicentre, Open-Label, Prospective Observational Study 
Introduction. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of symptomatic hyperuricemia, showed superiority over allopurinol in the reduction of serum uric acid levels in pivotal studies. Whether this holds true the FORTE (febuxostat in the oral urate lowering treatment: effectiveness and safety) study was conducted to evaluate treatment with febuxostat under daily practice conditions. Materials/Methods. The multicentre, open-label, and prospective observational study was conducted in 1,690 German medical practices from 9/2010 to 5/2011. Safety and efficacy data were assessed at baseline and week 4. Results. Data from 5,592 gout patients (72.6% male, mean age 63.7 years) were collected. Under urate lowering treatment with febuxostat mean serum uric acid levels decreased significantly from 8.9 ± 1.9 mg/dL (534.0 ± 114.6 μmol/L) at baseline to 6.2 ± 2.5 mg/dL (372.0 ± 150.0 μmol/L) at week 4. 67% which reached the mean uric acid target (6.1 ± 1.0 mg/dL [366.0 ± 59.4 μmol/L]). Only 43.1% of patients received concomitant flare prophylaxis. A total of 178 adverse events (mostly gout flares) were reported in 152 patients (2.6%). Conclusion. Febuxostat lowers serum uric acid levels effectively in routine clinical practice. Overall, treatment with febuxostat in both available dosages (80 mg/120 mg) was safe and well tolerated.
doi:10.1155/2014/123105
PMCID: PMC4167949  PMID: 25276138
13.  Febuxostat: A Novel Agent for Management of Hyperuricemia in Gout 
Gout is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated uric acid levels in the body, associated with painful arthritis, tophi and nephropathy. The most frequently used pharmacologic urate lowering strategies involve reducing urate production with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and enhancing urinary excretion of uric acid with a uricosuric agent. Urate lowering agents are limited in number, availability and effectiveness. The emergence of a new medication, febuxostat, to lower serum urate levels is welcome as no new drug have been approved since the introduction of allopurinol, in 1964, and the drugs that are available have limitations owing to inefficacy or toxicity. Febuxostat is a novel, nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, is a potential alternative to allopurinol for patients with hyperuricemia and gout.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.100231
PMCID: PMC3480742  PMID: 23112391
Gout; hyperuricemia; xanthine oxidase inhibitor
14.  Clinical and health care use characteristics of patients newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat and colchicine for gout 
Arthritis care & research  2013;65(12):2008-2014.
Background
Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis with the increasing prevalence in the developed countries. It is well-known that many patients with gout have significant comorbidities and high health care utilization.
Methods
Using US insurance claims data (2009–2011), a population-based cohort study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics and health care utilization patterns in patients with gout newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat or colchicine.
Results
There were 25,051 allopurinol, 4,288 febuxostat and 6,238 colchicine initiators. Mean age was 53 years and 83%–87% were male. More than half of patients had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, 20% had diabetes and 10% cardiovascular disease. The mean uric acid level (mg/dl) was similar at baseline ranging from 8.1 to 8.5 across the groups. Compared to allopurinol or colchicine initiators, febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater health care uses including outpatient, inpatient or emergency room visits, both at baseline and during the follow-up. Use of gout related drugs, such as opioids, steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, was most common in febuxostat and least common in colchicine initiators. The median daily dose at both start and end of treatment was 300mg for allopurinol, 40mg for febuxostat, and 1.2mg for colchicine. The dosage of allopurinol and febuxostat was rarely increased during the follow-up.
Conclusion
Patients who started allopurinol, febuxostat or colchicine for gout generally had hyperuricemia and multiple comorbidities. Febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater use of health care resources and gout-related drugs than other groups. Overall, the dosages of allopurinol or febuxostat remained unchanged over time.
doi:10.1002/acr.22067
PMCID: PMC4096791  PMID: 23861232
gout; allopurinol; febuxostat; colchicine
15.  Linking uric acid metabolism to diabetic complications 
World Journal of Diabetes  2014;5(6):787-795.
Hyperuricemia have been thought to be caused by the ingestion of large amounts of purines, and prevention or treatment of hyperuricemia has intended to prevent gout. Xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) is rate-limiting enzyme of uric acid generation, and allopurinol was developed as a uric acid (UA) generation inhibitor in the 1950s and has been routinely used for gout prevention since then. Serum UA levels are an important risk factor of disease progression for various diseases, including those related to lifestyle. Recently, other UA generation inhibitors such as febuxostat and topiroxostat were launched. The emergence of these novel medications has promoted new research in the field. Lifestyle-related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus, often have a common pathological foundation. As such, hyperuricemia is often present among these patients. Many in vitro and animal studies have implicated inflammation and oxidative stress in UA metabolism and vascular injury because XDH/XO act as one of the major source of reactive oxygen species Many studies on UA levels and associated diseases implicate involvement of UA generation in disease onset and/or progression. Interventional studies for UA generation, not UA excretion revealed XDH/XO can be the therapeutic target for vascular injury and renal dysfunction. In this review, the relationship between UA metabolism and diabetic complications is highlighted.
doi:10.4239/wjd.v5.i6.787
PMCID: PMC4265865  PMID: 25512781
Uric acid; Xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase; Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic complications; Xanthine oxidase inhibitor; Metabolism
16.  Xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of Indian Muscodor species 
3 Biotech  2016;6(2):248.
Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme responsible for hyperuricemia, a pre-disposing factor for Gout and oxidative stress-related diseases. Only two clinically approved xanthine oxidase inhibitors Allopurinol and Febuxostat are currently used for treatment of hyperuricemia. However, owing to their side effects there is a need for new non-purine-based selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. In the process of exploring novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors and anti-oxidants, we screened the culture filtrate of 07 novel species of Muscodor, a sterile endophytic fungi isolated from Cinnamomum and Aegle marmelos. Chloroform extract of M. darjeelingensis exhibited the maximum xanthine oxidase inhibition in the qualitative and quantitative assays. The IC50 of chloroform extract of M. darjeelingensis was 0.54 µg/ml which was much lower to Allopurinol but higher when compared to Febuxostat. 88% reduction in uric acid production was recorded by M. darjeelingensis chloroform extract which was similar to allopurinol. The maximum anti-oxidant activity was exhibited by M. indica against the gallic acid standard in the DPPH-free radical assay. Anti-oxidant activity index of M. indica was 7.7, which was followed by M. kashayum with 5.4. M. darjeelingensis exhibited a moderate anti-oxidant activity with anti-oxidant activity index of 1.63 in the DPPH assay. The present study is the very first report of Muscodor species exhibiting xanthine oxidase inhibitory and anti-oxidant activity together. Chloroform extract of M. darjeelingensis and M. indica stand out as potential candidates for isolation and characterization of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor and anti-oxidant compound, respectively.
doi:10.1007/s13205-016-0569-5
PMCID: PMC5114212
Endophytic fungi; DPPH assay; Enzyme inhibitor; Muscodor; Hyperuricemia
17.  Protocol of the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST): a large prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint study comparing the cardiovascular safety of allopurinol and febuxostat in the management of symptomatic hyperuricaemia 
BMJ Open  2014;4(7):e005354.
Introduction
Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST).
Methods and analysis
FAST is a cardiovascular safety study using the prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint design. FAST is recruiting in the UK and Denmark. Recruited patients are aged over 60 years, prescribed allopurinol for symptomatic hyperuricaemia and have at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. After an allopurinol lead-in phase where the dose of allopurinol is optimised to achieve European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) urate targets (serum urate <357 µmol/L), patients are randomised to either continue optimal dose allopurinol or to use febuxostat. Patients are followed-up for an average of 3 years. The primary endpoint is first occurrence of the Anti-Platelet Trialists’ Collaboration (APTC) cardiovascular endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are all cause mortality and hospitalisations for heart failure, unstable, new or worsening angina, coronary or cerebral revascularisation, transient ischaemic attack, non-fatal cardiac arrest, venous and peripheral arterial vascular thrombotic event and arrhythmia with no evidence of ischaemia. The primary analysis is a non-inferiority analysis with a non-inferiority upper limit for the HR for the primary outcome of 1.3.
Ethics and dissemination
FAST (ISRCTN72443728) has ethical approval in the UK and Denmark, and results will be published in a peer reviewed journal.
Trial Registration number
FAST is registered in the EU Clinical Trials Register (EUDRACT No: 2011-001883-23) and International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN No: ISRCTN72443728).
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005354
PMCID: PMC4120410  PMID: 25011991
Cardiovascular Safety; Clinical Trial; Allopurinol; Febuxostat
18.  Effect of food or antacid on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of febuxostat in healthy subjects 
Aims
To evaluate the effects of food or antacid on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of febuxostat.
Methods
Four Phase I, two-period, crossover studies were performed in healthy male and female subjects. Subjects either received single 40-mg (n = 24), multiple 80-mg (n = 24) and single 120-mg (n = 20) doses of febuxostat in fasting and nonfasting conditions, or received single 80-mg (n = 24) doses alone or with antacid.
Results
Food caused a decrease in Cmax (38–49%) and AUC (16–19%) of febuxostat at different dose levels following single or multiple oral dosing with febuxostat. However, a slightly greater percent decrease in serum uric acid concentrations (58% vs. 51%) after multiple dosing with 80 mg of febuxostat under nonfasting conditions was observed, which was statistically (P < 0.05) but not clinically significant. Antacid caused a decrease in Cmax (32%), but had no effect on AUC of febuxostat. Febuxostat was safe and well tolerated in all studies.
Conclusions
Even though food caused a decrease in the rate and extent of absorption of febuxostat, this decrease was not associated with a clinically significant change in febuxostat pharmacodynamic effect. Despite a decrease in the absorption rate of febuxostat, antacid had no effect on the extent of febuxostat absorption. Therefore, febuxostat can be administered regardless of food or antacid intake.
What is already known about this subject Febuxostat is a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase.
What this study adds This is the first manuscript to address the effect of food and antacid on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of febuxostat.The study will determine whether the drug can be administered regardless of food or antacid.It will therefore influence how the drug should be administered.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03016.x
PMCID: PMC2291255  PMID: 17953718
antacid; febuxostat; food; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; uric acid
19.  The effect of febuxostat to prevent a further reduction in renal function of patients with hyperuricemia who have never had gout and are complicated by chronic kidney disease stage 3: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled study 
Trials  2014;15:26.
Background
Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is significantly associated with the progression of CKD. However, there is no sufficient evidence by interventional research supporting a cause-effect relationship. Hyperuricemic patients without gouty arthritis, whose serum urate (SUA) concentration is ≥8.0 mg/dL and who have a complication, are treated by pharmacotherapy in addition to lifestyle guidance. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that rationalizes pharmacotherapy for patients with hyperuricemia who have no complication and whose SUA concentration is below 9.0 mg/dL.
Methods/Design
The FEATHER (FEbuxostat versus placebo rAndomized controlled Trial regarding reduced renal function in patients with Hyperuricemia complicated by chRonic kidney disease stage 3) study is a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of febuxostat—a novel, nonpurine, selective, xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The present study will enroll, at 64 medical institutions in Japan, 400 Japanese patients aged 20 years or older who have hyperuricemia without gouty arthritis, who present CKD stage 3, and whose SUA concentration is 7.1-10.0 mg/dL. Patients are randomly assigned to either the febuxostat or the control group, in which febuxostat tablets and placebo are administered orally, respectively. The dosage of the study drugs should be one 10-mg tablet/day at weeks 1 to 4 after study initiation, increased to one 20-mg tablet/day at weeks 5 to 8, and elevated to one 40-mg tablet/day at week 9 and then maintained until week 108. The primary endpoint is estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. The secondary endpoints include the amount and percent rate of change in eGFR from baseline to week 108, the amount and percent rate of change in SUA concentration from baseline to week 108, the proportion of patients who achieved an SUA concentration ≤6.0 mg/dL, and the incidence of renal function deterioration.
Discussion
The present study aims to examine whether febuxostat prevents a further reduction in renal function as assessed with eGFR in subjects and will (1) provide evidence to indicate the inverse association between a reduction in SUA concentration and an improvement in renal function and (2) rationalize pharmacotherapy for subjects and clarify its clinical relevance.
Trial registration
UMIN Identifier: UMIN000008343
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-26
PMCID: PMC3899617  PMID: 24433285
Xanthine oxidase inhibitor; Urate-lowering therapy; Reduced renal function; Hyperuricemia; Chronic kidney disease; Randomized controlled study; Placebo
20.  Comparative efficacy and safety of urate-lowering therapy for the treatment of hyperuricemia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:33082.
The prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout has been increasing, but the comparative effectiveness and safety of different treatments remain uncertain. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of different treatments for hyperuricemia using network meta-analysis methodology. We systematically reviewed fifteen randomized controlled trials (involving 7,246 patients through January 2016) that compared the effects of different urate-lowering drugs (allopurinol, benzbromarone, febuxostat, pegloticase and probenecid) on hyperuricemia. Drug efficacy and safety, as outcomes, were measured by whether the target level of serum urate acid was achieved and whether any adverse events occurred, respectively. We derived pooled effect sizes expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The efficacy and safety of the drugs were ranked by cumulative ranking probabilities. Our findings show that febuxostat, benzbromarone, probenecid, pegloticase, and allopurinol were all highly effective at reducing the risk of hyperuricemia compared to placebo. Febuxostat had the best efficacy and safety compared to the other drugs. Furthermore, febuxostat 120 mg QD was more effective at achieving urate-lowering targets (OR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.12–0.24) and safer (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56–0.91) than allopurinol.
doi:10.1038/srep33082
PMCID: PMC5015109  PMID: 27605442
21.  Safety and efficacy of oral febuxostat for treatment of HLA-B*5801-negative gout: a randomized, open-label, multicentre, allopurinol-controlled study 
Objectives: This phase IIIB study compared the efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in gout patients with or without tophi who were HLA-B*5801 negative.
Method: Eligible patients were randomized to a febuxostat group (80 mg QD) or an allopurinol group (300 mg QD). Following an initial 2-week washout period, over the next 12 weeks we made five measurements of serum urate levels along with assessments of adverse events (AEs).
Results: Forty-three out of 152 screened subjects (28.3%) were ineligible either because of the presence of the HLA-B*5801 allele or for various other reasons. The febuxostat group (n = 54) and the allopurinol group (n = 55) had no significant differences in demographic or baseline characteristics. From week 2 to week 12, the febuxostat group had a significantly lower serum urate level than the allopurinol group (p ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons) and significantly more patients with serum urate levels less than 6.0 mg/dL. The serum urate levels of the febuxostat group declined by more than 40% from week 2 to week 12 and this decrease was greater than that in the allopurinol group (~30%). The two groups were similar in terms of AEs.
Conclusions: Febuxostat was more effective than allopurinol in reducing the serum urate levels of Han Chinese patients with gout or tophaceous gout who were HLA-B*5801 negative, without causing any serious skin reactions. Febuxostat should be considered for treatment of Han Chinese patients with gout who are HLA-B*5801 negative.
doi:10.3109/03009742.2015.1099729
PMCID: PMC4898137  PMID: 26771445
22.  Comparative effectiveness of urate lowering with febuxostat versus allopurinol in gout: analyses from large U.S. managed care cohort 
Introduction
To assess the comparative effectiveness of febuxostat and allopurinol in reducing serum urate (sUA) levels in a real-world U.S. managed care setting.
Methods
This retrospective study utilized 2009 to 2012 medical and pharmacy claims and laboratory data from a large U.S. commercial and Medicare Advantage health plan. Study patients had at least one medical claim with a diagnosis of gout, at least one filled prescription for febuxostat or allopurinol and at least one sUA measurement post-index prescription. Reduction in sUA was examined using propensity score-matched cohorts, matched on patient demographics (gender, age), baseline sUA, comorbidities, geographic region and insurance type.
Results
The study sample included 2,015 patients taking febuxostat and 14,025 taking allopurinol. At baseline, febuxostat users had a higher Quan-Charlson comorbidity score (0.78 vs. 0.53; P <0.001), but similar age and gender distribution. Mean (standard deviation (SD)) sUA level following propensity score matching among treatment-naïve febuxostat vs. allopurinol users (n = 873 each) were: pre-index sUA, 8.86 (SD, 1.79) vs. 8.72 (SD, 1.63; P = 0.20); and post-index sUA, 6.53 (SD, 2.01) vs. 6.71 (SD, 1.70; P = 0.04), respectively. A higher proportion of febuxostat users attained sUA goals of <6.0 mg/dl (56.9% vs. 44.8%; P <0.001) and <5.0 mg/dl (35.5% vs. 19.2%; P <0.001), respectively. Time to achieve sUA goals of <6.0 mg/dl (346 vs. 397 days; P <0.001) and <5.0 mg/dl was shorter in febuxostat vs. allopurinol users (431 vs. 478 days; P <0.001), respectively. Similar observations were made for overall propensity score-matched cohorts that included both treatment-naïve and current users (n = 1,932 each).
Conclusions
Febuxostat was more effective than allopurinol at the currently used doses (40 mg/day for febuxostat in 83% users and 300 mg/day or lower for allopurinol in 97% users) in lowering sUA in gout patients as demonstrated by post-index mean sUA level, the likelihood of and the time to achieving sUA goals.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0624-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0624-3
PMCID: PMC4427980  PMID: 25963969
Gout; Comparative effectiveness; Serum urate; Febuxostat; Allopurinol
23.  Switching from allopurinol to febuxostat for the treatment of hyperuricemia and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease 
Clinical Rheumatology  2014;33(11):1643-1648.
Hyperuricemia is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Febuxostat is a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor that is metabolized by many metabolic pathways in the kidney and the liver. We performed a 1-year cohort study of 73 hyperuricemic patients who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 45 ml/min and were being treated with urate-lowering therapy. In 51 patients, treatment was changed from allopurinol to febuxostat, and the other 22 patients were continued on allopurinol. The serum levels of uric acid (UA) level, creatinine, and other biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment. The serum UA levels significantly decreased from 6.1 ± 1.0 to 5.7 ± 1.2 mg/dl in the febuxostat group and significantly increased from 6.2 ± 1.1 to 6.6 ± 1.1 mg/dl in the allopurinol group. The eGFR decreased 27.3 to 25.7 ml/min in the febuxostat group and from 26.1 to 19.9 ml/min in the allopurinol group. The switch from allopurinol to febuxostat was significantly associated with the changes in eGFR according to a multiple regression analysis (β = −0.22145, P < 0.05). Febuxostat reduced the serum UA levels and slowed the progression of renal disease in our CKD cohort in comparison with allopurinol.
doi:10.1007/s10067-014-2745-5
PMCID: PMC4192559  PMID: 25048744
Allopurinol; Chronic kidney disease; eGFR; Febuxostat; Hyperuricemia; Uric acid
24.  Chronic Hyperuricemia, Uric Acid Deposit and Cardiovascular Risk 
Current Pharmaceutical Design  2013;19(13):2432-2438.
Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure reduction, increment in flow-mediated dilation, and improved cardiovascular prognosis in various patient settings. The vast majority of these studies have been conducted with either allopurinol or its active metabolite oxypurinol, i.e. two purine-like non-selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. More recently, the role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the possible protective role exerted by reduction of hyperuricemia to normal level have been evaluated by the use of febuxostat, a selective, non purine-like xanthine oxidase inhibitor. In this review, we will report current evidence on hyperuricemia in cardiovascular disease. The value of uric acid as a biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target for tailored old and novel “cardiometabolic” treatments will be also discussed.
doi:10.2174/1381612811319130011
PMCID: PMC3606968  PMID: 23173592
Uric acid; allopurinol; febuxostat; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular risk.
25.  Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of LC350189, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in healthy subjects 
Introduction
LC350189 is a novel selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor under clinical development for the management of hyperuricemia in gout patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of the drug in healthy subjects.
Methods
A dose-block randomized, double-blind, active and placebo-controlled, single- and multiple-dosing study was conducted. A single ascending dose (SAD) study (10–600 mg) and a multiple ascending dose (MAD) study with once-daily doses (100–800 mg) for 7 days were conducted. Serial samples of blood and urine for pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics analysis were collected, and tolerability and adverse events were assessed throughout the study.
Results
Sixty-seven and 58 subjects were enrolled in the SAD and MAD studies, respectively. The mean Cmax and AUClast values increased with increasing doses, and exposure to LC350189 was dose proportional. The 24-hour mean serum uric acid (Cmean,24) decreased by 8.7%–31.7% (day 1) and 53.5%–91.2% (day 7) from baseline in the SAD and MAD studies, respectively, and the percentage decrease in Cmean,24 increased with higher doses.
Conclusion
LC350189 was well tolerated in the dose range of 10–800 mg. It lowered the serum and urine uric acid levels substantially in this dose range; the extent of the decrease in the serum uric acid level in the 200 mg dose group was similar or higher compared to that of febuxostat 80 mg group in the MAD study. It is expected that LC350189 could be safely administered once daily to patients with hyperuricemia or gout, leading to a sufficient decrease in uric acid levels.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S86884
PMCID: PMC4560520  PMID: 26357467
gout; xanthine oxidase inhibitor; pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics; LC350189

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