Thyroid hormone regulates terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in part through modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been described as a stabilizer of β-catenin, and thyroid hormone is a known stimulator of IGF-1 receptor expression. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IGF-1 signaling is involved in the interaction between the thyroid hormone and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in regulating growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. The results show that IGF-1 and the IGF- receptor (IGF1R) stimulate Wnt-4 expression and β-catenin activation in growth plate chondrocytes. The positive effects of IGF-1/IGF1R on chondrocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation are partially inhibited by the Wnt antagonists sFRP3 and Dkk1. T3 activates IGF-1/IGF1R signaling and IGF-1-dependent PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling in growth plate chondrocytes undergoing proliferation and differentiation to prehypertrophy. T3-mediated Wnt-4 expression, β-catenin activation, cell proliferation, and terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes are partially prevented by the IGF1R inhibitor picropodophyllin as well as by the PI3K/Akt signaling inhibitors LY294002 and Akti1/2. These data indicate that the interactions between thyroid hormone and β-catenin signaling in regulating growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation are modulated by IGF-1/IGF1R signaling through both the Wnt and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. While chondrocyte proliferation may be triggered by the IGF-1/IGF1R-mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway, cell hypertrophy is likely due to activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is at least in part initiated by IGF-1 signaling or the IGF-1-activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
thyroid hormone; insulin-like growth factor 1; β-catenin; growth plate chondrocytes
By promoting cell proliferation, survival and maturation insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is essential to the normal growth and development of the central nervous system. It is clear that IGF-I actions are primarily mediated by the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R), and that phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-Akt kinases and MAP kinases signal many of IGF-I-IGF1R actions in neural cells, including oligodendrocyte lineage cells. The precise downstream targets of these signaling pathways, however, remain to be defined. We studied oligodendroglial cells to determine whether β-catenin, a molecule that is a downstream target of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and plays a key role in the Wnt canonical signaling pathway, mediates IGF-I actions. We found that IGF-I increases β-catenin protein abundance within an hour after IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Inhibiting the PI3-Akt pathway suppressed IGF-I-induced increases in β-catenin and cyclin D1 mRNA, while suppression of GSK3β activity simulated IGF-I actions. Knocking-down β-catenin mRNA by RNA interference suppressed IGF-I-stimulated increases in the abundance of cyclin D1 mRNA, cell proliferation, and cell survival. Our data suggest that β-catenin is an important downstream molecule in the PI3-Akt-GSK3β pathway, and as such it mediates IGF-I upregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA and promotion of cell proliferation and survival in oligodendroglial cells.
IGF-I; β-catenin; GSK3β; oligodendrocytes; signaling transduction
Thyroid hormone regulates terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in part through modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. IGF-1 has been described as a stabilizer of β-catenin, and thyroid hormone is a known stimulator of IGF-1 receptor expression. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IGF-1 signaling is involved in the interaction between the thyroid hormone and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in regulating growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.
The results show that IGF-1 and IGF1R stimulate Wnt-4 expression and β-catenin activation in growth plate chondrocytes. The positive effects of IGF-1/IGF1R on chondrocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation are partially inhibited by the Wnt antagonists sFRP3 and Dkk1. T3 activates IGF-1/IGF1R signaling and IGF-1-dependent PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling in growth plate chondrocytes undergoing proliferation and differentiation to prehypertrophy. T3-mediated Wnt-4 expression, β-catenin activation, cell proliferation and terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes are partially prevented by the IGF1R inhibitor picropodophyllin as well as the PI3K/Akt signaling inhibitors LY294002 and Akti1/2.
These data indicate that the interactions between thyroid hormone and β-catenin signaling in regulating growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and terminal differentiation are modulated by IGF-1/IGF1R signaling through both the Wnt and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. While chondrocyte proliferation may be triggered by the IGF-1/IGF1R mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway, cell hypertrophy is likely due to activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is at least in part initiated by IGF-1 signaling or the IGF-1-activated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
thyroid hormone; insulin-like growth factor-1; β-catenin; growth plate chondrocytes
Medulloblastoma is amongst the most common malignant brain tumors in childhood, arising from neoplastic transformation of granule neuron precursors (GNPs) of the cerebellum via deregulation of pathways involved in cerebellar development. Deregulation of the Sonic hedgehog/Patched1 (Shh/Ptc1) signaling pathway predisposes humans and mice to medulloblastoma. In the brain, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) plays a critical role during development as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor, and in tumorigenesis, as IGF-I receptor is often activated in medulloblastomas.
To investigate the mechanisms of genetic interactions between Shh and IGF signaling in the cerebellum, we crossed nestin/IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mice, in which transgene expression occurs in neuron precursors, with Ptc1+/- knockout mice, a model of medulloblastoma in which cancer develops in a multistage process. The IGF-I transgene produced a marked brain overgrowth, and significantly accelerated tumor development, increasing the frequency of pre-neoplastic lesions as well as full medulloblastomas in Ptc1+/-/IGF-I Tg mice. Mechanistically, tumor promotion by IGF-I mainly affected preneoplastic stages through de novo formation of lesions, while not influencing progression rate to full tumors. We also identified a marked increase in survival and proliferation, and a strong suppression of differentiation in neural precursors.
As a whole, our findings indicate that IGF-I overexpression in neural precursors leads to brain overgrowth and fosters external granular layer (EGL) proliferative lesions through a mechanism favoring proliferation over terminal differentiation, acting as a landscape for tumor growth. Understanding the molecular events responsible for cerebellum development and their alterations in tumorigenesis is critical for the identification of potential therapeutic targets.
The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) and its ligands (IGF1 and IGF2) have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes and in diseases such as cancer. In addition to IGF1R, IGF2 also activates the insulin receptor (IR) isoform A and therefore antibodies against IGF2 can inhibit cell proliferation mediated by the signaling through both IGF1R and IR triggered by IGF2. We identified a new human monoclonal antibody (mAb), m708.2, which bound to IGF1 and IGF2 but not to insulin. m708.2 potently inhibited signal transduction mediated by the interaction of IGF1 or IGF2 with the IGF1R and IGF2 with the IR. It also inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. An affinity-matured derivative of m708.2, m708.5, bound to IGF1 with equilibrium dissociation constant, KD = 200 pM and to IGF2 with KD = 60 pM. m708.5 inhibited signal transduction mediated by IGF1 and IGF2 and cancer cell growth more potently than m708.2. These results suggest that m708.5 could have potential as a candidate therapeutic for cancers driven by the IGF1,2 interactions with IGF1R and IR.
mAb; IGF1; IGF2; picomolar affinity; phage display; yeast display
Abundant experimental data have implicated an important role for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in protecting neuronal cells from injury, including hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) injury, a major cause of neuron death. While the specific interaction of IGFs with neuronal or glial type 1 IGF receptors (IGF1R) has been shown to be essential to IGF actions during development, the same has not been directly demonstrated following H/I injury. To directly examine the role of neuronal IGF1R following H/I injury, we utilized conditional mutant nes-igf1r-/Wt mice and determined the impact of IGF1R haplodeficiency specifically in nestin-expressing neuronal precursors and their progeny on H/I-induced neuronal damage and apoptosis in hippocampus.
H/I induced significant damage to the cerebral hemisphere and hippocampus ipsilateral to the ligated right common carotid artery both in control and nes-igf1r-/Wt mice at postnatal day 10. Blunting IGF1R expression, however, markedly exacerbated H/I-induced damage and appeared to increase mortality. In the ipsilateral hemisphere and hippocampus, nes-igf1r-/Wt mice had infarct areas double the size of those in controls. The size of the ipsilateral hemisphere and hippocampus in nes-igf1r-/Wt mice were 15% to 17% larger than those in controls, reflecting more severe edema. Consistent with its effects on infarct area, IGF1R haplodeficiency causes a greater decrease in neurons in the ipsilateral hippocampus of nes-igf1r-/Wt mice. The reduction in neurons was largely due to increases in neuronal apoptosis. Judged by pyknotic nuclei, TUNEL and caspase-3 labeling, nes-igf1r-/Wt mice had significantly more apoptotic cells than that in controls after injury. To determine possible mechanisms of IGF1R actions, the mRNA expression of the pro-survival proteins IAP-1 and XIAP was determined. Compared to controls, the abundance of cIAP-1 and XIAP mRNA was markedly suppressed in mice with blunted IGF1R or IGF-I expression, while was increased in the brain of IGF-I overexpressing transgenic mice.
IGF1R in neuronal cells is critically important for their survival following H/I injury, and IGF-upregulated expression of neuronal cIAP-1 and XIAP likely in part contributes to IGF-IGF1R protection against neuronal apoptosis following H/I injury.
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a peptide growth factor that is homologous to both insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin and plays an important role in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. IGF-II is believed to mediate its cellular signaling via the transmembrane tyrosine kinase type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-I-R), which is also the receptor for IGF-I. Earlier studies with both cultured cells and transgenic mice, however, have suggested that in the embryo the insulin receptor (IR) may also be a receptor for IGF-II. In most cells and tissues, IR binds IGF-II with relatively low affinity. The IR is expressed in two isoforms (IR-A and IR-B) differing by 12 amino acids due to the alternative splicing of exon 11. In the present study we found that IR-A but not IR-B bound IGF-II with an affinity close to that of insulin. Moreover, IGF-II bound to IR-A with an affinity equal to that of IGF-II binding to the IGF-I-R. Activation of IR-A by insulin led primarily to metabolic effects, whereas activation of IR-A by IGF-II led primarily to mitogenic effects. These differences in the biological effects of IR-A when activated by either IGF-II or insulin were associated with differential recruitment and activation of intracellular substrates. IR-A was preferentially expressed in fetal cells such as fetal fibroblasts, muscle, liver and kidney and had a relatively increased proportion of isoform A. IR-A expression was also increased in several tumors including those of the breast and colon. These data indicate, therefore, that there are two receptors for IGF-II, both IGF-I-R and IR-A. Further, they suggest that interaction of IGF-II with IR-A may play a role both in fetal growth and cancer biology.
Although the literature suggests a protective (anabolic) effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the musculoskeletal system during growth and aging, there is evidence that reductions in IGF-1 signaling are advantageous for promoting an increase in lifespan through reduction in oxidative stress-induced tissue damage. To better understand this paradox, we utilized the hepatocyte-specific IGF-1 transgenic (HIT) mice, which exhibit 3-fold increases in serum IGF-1, with normal IGF-1 expression in other tissues; and mice with an IGF-1 null background that exclusively express IGF-1 in the liver, which thereby delivers IGF-1 by the endocrine route only (KO-HIT mice). We found that in the total absence of tissue igf1 gene expression (KO-HIT), increases in serum IGF-1 levels were associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in serum, increased mortality rate at 18 months, of age in both genders. Surprisingly, however, we found that in female mice, tissue IGF-1 plays an important role in preserving trabecular bone architecture as KO-HIT mice show bone loss in the femoral distal metaphysis. Additionally, in male KO-HIT mice increases in serum IGF-1 levels were insufficient to protect against age-related muscle loss. Overall, we conclude that elevations in serum IGF-1 have beneficial role in the aging musculoskeletal system but may have deleterious effects that lead to earlier mortality.
IGF-1; Bone; aging; oxidative stress
Deregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-IR signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Agents that can suppress the mitogenic activity of the IGF/IGF-IR growth axis may be of preventive or therapeutic value. We have previously demonstrated that apigenin, a plant flavone, modulates IGF signaling through upregulation of IGFBP-3. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of apigenin action on the IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway. Exposure of human prostate cancer DU145 cells to apigenin markedly reduced IGF-I-stimulated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Apigenin inhibited IGF-I-induced activation of IGF-IR and Akt in DU145 cells. Similar growth inhibitory and apoptotic responses were observed in PC-3 cells, which constitutively over-express this pathway. This effect of apigenin appears to be due partially to reduced autophosphorylation of IGF-IR. Inhibition of p-Akt by apigenin resulted in decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β along with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of p27/kip1. In vivo administration of apigenin to PC-3 tumor xenografts inhibited tumor growth, resulted in IGF-IR inactivation and dephosphorylation of Akt and its downstream signaling. These results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by apigenin are mediated, at least in part, by its ability to inhibit IGF/IGF-IR signaling and the PI3K/Akt pathway.
prostate cancer; apigenin; IGF-I; IGF-IR; PI3K-Akt; glycogen synthase kinase-3
The Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-IR) and the human polyomavirus JCV protein, T-Antigen cooperate in the transformation of neuronal precursors in the cerebellum, which may be a contributing factor in the development of brain tumors. Since it is not clear why T-Antigen requires IGF-IR for transformation, we investigated this process in neural progenitors from IGF-IR knockout embryos (ko-IGF-IR) and from their wild type non-transgenic littermates (wt-IGF-IR). In contrast to wt-IGF-IR, the brain and dorsal root ganglia of ko-IGF-IR embryos showed low levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Survivin, accompanied by elevated numbers of apoptotic neurons and an earlier differentiation phenotype. In wt-IGF-IR neural progenitors in vitro, induction of T-Antigen expression tripled the expression of Survivin, and accelerated cell proliferation. In ko-IGF-IR progenitors induction of T-Antigen failed to increase Survivin, resulting in massive apoptosis. Importantly, ectopic expression of Survivin protected ko-IGF-IR progenitor cells from apoptosis and siRNA inhibition of Survivin activated apoptosis in wt-IGF-IR progenitors expressing T-Antigen. Our results indicate that reactivation of the anti-apoptotic Survivin may be a critical step in JCV T-Antigen induced transformation, which in neural progenitors requires IGF-IR.
Survivin; IGF-IR; JCV T-Antigen; Neurospheres; Apoptosis; Differentiation
The receptor for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-IR) controls normal and pathological growth of cells. DNA repair pathways represent an unexplored target through which the IGF-IR signaling system might support pathological growth leading to cellular transformation. However, this study demonstrates that IGF-I stimulation supports homologous recombination-directed DNA repair (HRR). This effect involves an interaction between Rad51 and the major IGF-IR signaling molecule, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). The binding occurs within the cytoplasm, engages the N-terminal domain of IRS-1, and is attenuated by IGF-I-mediated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. In the absence of IGF-I stimulation, or if mutated IGF-IR fails to phosphorylate IRS-1, localization of Rad51 to the sites of damaged DNA is diminished. These results point to a direct role of IRS-1 in HRR and suggest a novel role for the IGF-IR/IRS-1 axis in supporting the stability of the genome.
The insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR), activated by its ligands IGF-I and IGF-II, can initiate several signal transduction pathways that mediate suppression of apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Here we investigated the regulation of IGF-IR activation and function by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B). Coexpression of PTP-1B with a β-chain construct of the IGF-IR (βWT) inhibited IGF-IR kinase activity in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in COS cells, and in IGF-IR-deficient fibroblasts. In both spontaneously immortalized and simian virus 40 T antigen-transformed embryonic fibroblast cell lines derived from PTP-1B knockout mice, IGF-I induced higher levels of IGF-IR autophosphorylation and kinase activity than were induced in PTP-1B-expressing control cells. PTP-1B-deficient cells exhibited enhanced IGF-I-mediated protection from apoptosis in response to serum withdrawal or etoposide killing, as well as enhanced plating efficiency and IGF-I-mediated motility. Reexpression of PTP-1B in spontaneously immortalized fibroblasts resulted in decreased IGF-IR and AKT activation, as well as decreased protection from apoptosis and decreased motility. These findings demonstrate that PTP-1B can regulate IGF-IR kinase activity and function and that loss of PTP-1B can enhance IGF-I-mediated cell survival, growth, and motility in transformed cells.
Insulin and the insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II are closely related peptides important for regulation of metabolism, growth, differentiation, and development. The IGFs exert their main effects through the IGF-I receptor. Although the insulin receptor is the main physiological receptor for insulin, this peptide hormone can also bind at higher concentrations to the IGF-I receptor and exert effects through it. We used microarray gene expression profiling to investigate the gene expression regulated by IGF-I, IGF-II, and insulin after stimulation of the IGF-I receptor. Fibroblasts from mice, knockout for IGF-II and the IGF-II/cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and expressing functional IGF-I but no insulin receptors, were stimulated for 4 h with equipotent saturating concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II. Each ligand specifically regulated a group of transcripts that was not regulated by the other two ligands. Many of the functions and pathways these regulated genes were involved in, were consistent with the known biological effects of these ligands. The differences in gene expression might therefore account for some of the different biological effects of insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II. This work adds to the evidence that not only the affinity of a ligand determines its biological response, but also its nature, even through the same receptor.
IGF-I receptor; microarray gene expression; insulin; IGF; differential signaling
Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) plays a pivotal role in fetal and cancer development by signaling through the IGF-I and insulin receptors and activating the estrogen signaling cascade. We previously showed that precursor IGF-II (proIGF-II, the predominant form expressed in cancer) and not mature IGF-II (mIGF-II) blocks resveratrol (RSV) (a phytoalexin/anticancer agent)-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. We hypothesize that proIGF-II regulates antiapoptotic proteins and/or the mitochondria to inhibit RSV actions and promote cell survival. This study examines the effect of mIGF-II and proIGF-II on survivin expression and mitochondrial polarization in response to RSV. RSV inhibits survivin expression and stimulates mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 7 activation and cell death. These effects were completely blocked by the addition of proIGF-II. RSV treatment had no effect on transfected MCF-7 cells constitutively expressing proIGF-II, while IGF-II siRNA transfection decreased survivin levels. Our results provide new insights for the potential use of proIGF-II as target for new anticancer therapies.
Insulin-like growth factor II; survivin; resveratrol; MCF-7; breast cancer; mitochondria
In recent years, the activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in cancer has emerged as a key factor for tumour progression and resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, a variety of strategies have been developed to block the type I IGF receptor (IGF-I-R), which is thought to mediate the biological effects of both IGF-I and IGF-II. However, recent data suggest that the IGF signalling system is complex and that other receptors are involved. To unravel the complexity of the IGF system in thyroid cancer, IGF-I and IGF-II production, and the expression and function of their cognate receptors were studied. Both IGFs were found to be locally produced in thyroid cancer: IGF-I by stromal cells and IGF-II by malignant thyrocytes. Values were significantly higher in malignant tissue than in normal tissue. IGF-I-Rs were overexpressed in differentiated papillary carcinomas but not in poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumours, whereas insulin receptors (IRs) were greatly overexpressed in all tumour hystotypes, with a trend for higher values in dedifferentiated tumours. As a consequence of IR overexpression, high amounts of IR/IGF-I-R hybrids (which bind IGF-I with high affinity) were present in all thyroid cancer histotypes. Because of recent evidence that isoform A of IR (IR-A) is a physiological receptor for IGF-II in fetal life, the relative abundance of IR-A in thyroid cancer was measured. Preliminary data indicate that overexpressed IRs mainly occur as IR-A in thyroid cancer. These data indicate that both IR/IGF-I-R hybrids and IR-A play an important role in the overactivation of the IGF system in thyroid cancer and in IGF-I mitogenic signalling in these tumours. J Clin Pathol: Mol Pathol
insulin-like growth factor system; insulin receptor; insulin-like growth factor I receptor
Peptide growth factors control diverse cellular functions by regulating distinct signal transduction pathways. In cultured myoblasts, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate differentiation and promote hypertrophy. IGFs also maintain muscle cell viability. We previously described C2 skeletal muscle lines lacking expression of IGF-II. These cells did not differentiate, but underwent progressive apoptotic death when incubated in differentiation medium. Viability could be sustained and differentiation enabled by IGF analogues that activated the IGF-I receptor; survival was dependent on stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). We now find that IGF action promotes myoblast survival through two distinguishable PI3-kinase–regulated pathways that culminate in expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Incubation with IGF-I or transfection with active PI3-kinase led to rapid induction of MyoD and p21, and forced expression of either protein maintained viability in the absence of growth factors. Ectopic expression of MyoD induced p21, and inhibition of p21 blocked MyoD-mediated survival, thus defining one PI3-kinase–dependent pathway as leading first to MyoD, and then to p21 and survival. Unexpectedly, loss of MyoD expression did not impede IGF-mediated survival, revealing a second pathway involving activation by PI3-kinase of Akt, and subsequent induction of p21. Since inhibition of p21 caused death even in the presence of IGF-I, these results establish a central role for p21 as a survival factor for muscle cells. Our observations also define a MyoD-independent pathway for regulating p21 in muscle, and demonstrate that distinct mechanisms help ensure appropriate expression of this key protein during differentiation.
insulin-like growth factors; p21; MyoD; phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase; Akt
Systemic derangements and perinatal death of generalized insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) knockout mice preclude definitive assessment of IGF-1R actions in growth-plate (GP) chondrocytes. We generated cartilage-specific Igf1r knockout (CartIgf1r−/−) mice to investigate local control of chondrocyte differentiation in the GP by this receptor. These mice died shortly after birth and showed disorganized chondrocyte columns, delayed ossification and vascular invasion, decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and increased expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (Pthrp) RNA and protein in their GPs. The increased Pthrp expression in the knockout GPs likely was due to an increase in gene transcription, as determined by the increased activity of a LacZ reporter that was inserted downstream of the endogenous PTHrP promoter and bred into the knockout mice. To circumvent the early death of CartIgf1r−/− mice and investigate the role of IGF-1R during postnatal growth, we made tamoxifen (Tam)–inducible, cartilage-specific Igf1r knockout (TamCartIgf1r−/−) mice. At 2 weeks of age and 7 to 8 days after Tam injection, the TamCartIgf1r−/− mice showed growth retardation with a disorganized GP, reduced chondrocyte proliferation, decreased type 2 collagen and Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) expression, but increased expression of PTHrP. Consistent with in vivo observations, in vitro knockout of the Igf1r gene by adenoviral expression of Cre recombinase suppressed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and increased Pthrp expression. Our data indicate that the IGF-1R in chondrocytes controls cell growth, survival, and differentiation in embryonic and postnatal GPs in part by suppression of Pthrp expression.
IGF-1 RECEPTOR; CHONDROCYTE; GROWTH PLATE DEVELOPMENT; IHH; PTHRP
The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays numerous crucial roles in cancer biology. The majority of knowledge on IGF-1R signaling is concerned with its role in the activation of the canonical phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways. However, the role of IGF-1R ubiquitination in modulating IGF-1R function is an area of current research. In light of this we sought to determine the relationship between IGF-1R phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and modulation of growth signals.
Wild type and mutant constructs of IGF-1R were transfected into IGF-1R null fibroblasts. IGF-1R autophosphorylation and ubiquitination were determined by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. IGF-1R degradation and stability was determined by cyclohexamide-chase assay in combination with lysosome and proteasome inhibitors.
IGF-1R autophosphorylation was found to be an absolute requirement for receptor ubiquitination. Deletion of C-terminal domain had minimal effect on IGF-1 induced receptor autophosphorylation, however, ubiquitination and ERK activation were completely abolished. Cells expressing kinase impaired IGF-1R, exhibited both receptor ubiquitination and ERK phosphorylation, however failed to activate Akt. While IGF-1R mutants with impaired PI3K/Akt signaling were degraded mainly by the proteasomes, the C-terminal truncated one was exclusively degraded through the lysosomal pathway.
Our data suggest important roles of ubiquitination in mediating IGF-1R signaling and degradation. Ubiquitination of IGF-1R requires receptor tyrosine kinase activity, but is not involved in Akt activation. In addition we show that the C-terminal domain of IGF-1R is a necessary requisite for ubiquitination and ERK phosphorylation as well as for proteasomal degradation of the receptor.
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa), since it plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The IGF-I actions are mediated mainly via its binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR), however IGF-I signaling via insulin receptor (IR) and hybrid IGF-I/IR is also evident. Different IGF-I mRNA splice variants, namely IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb, and IGF-IEc, are expressed in human cells and tissues. These transcripts encode several IGF-I precursor proteins which contain the same bioactive product (mature IGF-I), however, they differ by the length of their signal peptides on the amino-terminal end and the structure of the extension peptides (E-peptides) on the carboxy-terminal end. There is an increasing interest in the possible different role of the IGF-I transcripts and their respective non-(mature)IGF-I products in the regulation of distinct biological activities. Moreover, there is strong evidence of a differential expression profile of the IGF-I splice variants in normal versus PCa tissues and PCa cells, implying that the expression pattern of the various IGF-I transcripts and their respective protein products may possess different functions in cancer biology. Herein, the evidence that the IGF-IEc transcript regulates PCa growth via Ec peptide specific and IGF-IR/IR-independent signaling is discussed.
apoptosis; cancer progression; cell survival; human IGF-I isoforms; IGF-I bioactivity; IGF-I peptides; IGF-I receptors; IGF-I signaling
The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR) is known to regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, cell differentiation, and cell transformation. IRS-1 and Shc, substrates of the IGF-IR, are known to mediate IGF-IR signaling pathways such as those of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which are believed to play important roles in some of the IGF-IR-dependent biological functions. We used the cytoplasmic domain of IGF-IR in a yeast two-hybrid interaction trap to identify IGF-IR-interacting molecules that may potentially mediate IGF-IR-regulated functions. We identified RACK1, a WD repeat family member and a Gβ homologue, and demonstrated that RACK1 interacts with the IGF-IR but not with the closely related insulin receptor (IR). In several types of mammalian cells, RACK1 interacted with IGF-IR, protein kinase C, and β1 integrin in response to IGF-I and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation. Whereas most of RACK1 resides in the cytoskeletal compartment of the cytoplasm, transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by v-Src, oncogenic IR or oncogenic IGF-IR, but not by Ros or Ras, resulted in a significantly increased association of RACK1 with the membrane. We examined the role of RACK1 in IGF-IR-mediated functions by stably overexpressing RACK1 in NIH 3T3 cells that expressed an elevated level of IGF-IR. RACK1 overexpression resulted in reduced IGF-I-induced cell growth in both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent conditions. Overexpression of RACK1 also led to enhanced cell spreading, increased stress fibers, and increased focal adhesions, which were accompanied by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin. While IGF-I-induced activation of IRS-1, Shc, PI3K, and MAPK pathways was unaffected, IGF-I-inducible β1 integrin-associated kinase activity and association of Crk with p130CAS were significantly inhibited by RACK1 overexpression. In RACK1-overexpressing cells, delayed cell cycle progression in G1 or G1/S was correlated with retinoblastoma protein hypophophorylation, increased levels of p21Cip1/WAF1 and p27Kip1, and reduced IGF-I-inducible Cdk2 activity. Reduction of RACK1 protein expression by antisense oligonucleotides prevented cell spreading and suppressed IGF-I-dependent monolayer growth. Our data suggest that RACK1 is a novel IGF-IR signaling molecule that functions as a positive mediator of cell spreading and contact with extracellular matrix, possibly through a novel IGF-IR signaling pathway involving integrin and focal adhesion signaling molecules.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) is phosphorylated in all breast cancer subtypes. Past findings have shown that IGF-1R mediates antiestrogen resistance through cross-talk with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and via its action upstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Yet, the direct role of IGF-1R signaling itself in antiestrogen resistance remains obscure. In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether antiestrogen resistance is induced directly by IGF-1R signaling in response to its ligand IGF-1 stimulation.
A breast cancer cell line ectopically expressing human wild-type IGF-1R, MCF7/IGF-1R, was established by retroviral transduction and colony selection. Cellular antiestrogen sensitivity was evaluated under estrogen-depleted two-dimensional (2D) and 3D culture conditions. Functional activities of the key IGF-1R signaling components in antiestrogen resistance were assessed by specific kinase inhibitor compounds and small interfering RNA.
Ectopic expression of IGF-1R in ER-positive MCF7 human breast cancer cells enhanced IGF-1R tyrosine kinase signaling in response to IGF-1 ligand stimulation. The elevated IGF-1R signaling rendered MCF7/IGF-1R cells highly resistant to the antiestrogens tamoxifen and fulvestrant. This antiestrogen-resistant phenotype involved mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways downstream of the IGF-1R signaling hub and was independent of ER signaling. Intriguingly, a MAPK/ERK-dependent agonistic behavior of tamoxifen at low doses was triggered in the presence of IGF-1, showing a mild promitogenic effect and increasing ER transcriptional activity.
Our data provide evidence that the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling axis may play a causal role in antiestrogen resistance of breast cancer cells, despite continuous suppression of ER transcriptional function by antiestrogens.
The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a multifunctional receptor that mediates signals for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Genetic experiments showed that IGF-1R inactivation in skin results in a disrupted epidermis. However, because IGF-1R-null mice die at birth, it is difficult to study the effects of IGF-1R on skin. By using a combined approach of conditional gene ablation and a three-dimensional organotypic model, we demonstrate that IGF-1R-deficient skin cocultures show abnormal maturation and differentiation patterns. Furthermore, IGF-1R-null keratinocytes exhibit accelerated differentiation and decreased proliferation. Investigating the signaling pathway downstream of IGF-1R reveals that insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) overexpression compensates for the lack of IGF-1R, whereas IRS-1 overexpression does not. We also demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 are involved in the regulation of skin keratinocyte differentiation and take some part in mediating the inhibitory signal of IGF-1R on differentiation. In addition, we show that mammalian target of rapamycin plays a specific role in mediating IGF-1R impedance of action on keratinocyte differentiation. In conclusion, these results reveal that IGF-1R plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of skin development and differentiation.
The injured mammalian heart is particularly susceptible to tissue deterioration, scarring, and loss of contractile function in response to trauma or sustained disease. We tested the ability of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 isoform (mIGF-1) to recover heart functionality, expressing the transgene in the mouse myocardium to exclude endocrine effects on other tissues. supplemental mIGF-1 expression did not perturb normal cardiac growth and physiology. Restoration of cardiac function in post-infarct mIGF-1 transgenic mice was facilitated by modulation of the inflammatory response and increased antiapoptotic signaling. mIGF-1 ventricular tissue exhibited increased proliferative activity several weeks after injury. The canonical signaling pathway involving Akt, mTOR, and p70S6 kinase was not induced in mIGF-1 hearts, which instead activated alternate PDK1 and SGK1 signaling intermediates. The robust response achieved with the mIGF-1 isoform provides a mechanistic basis for clinically feasible therapeutic strategies for improving the outcome of heart disease.
cardiac muscle; insulin-like growth factor-1; regeneration; wound healing
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) signalling is highly implicated in cancer. In this signalling the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is unquestionable, the predominating single factor. IGF-1R is crucial for tumour transformation and survival of malignant cell, but is only partially involved in normal cell growth. This is in part due to the interactions with oncogenes. Recent findings suggest a close interplay with the p53/MDM2 pathway. Disturbances in components in the p53/MDM2/IGF-1R network may cause IGF-1R upregulation and growth advantage for the cancer cell. Targeting of IGF-1R is more and more seen as a promising option for future cancer therapy. Single chain antibodies and small molecules with selective effects on IGF-1R dependent malignant growth are of particular interest. Forthcoming clinical trials are welcome and will indeed be the only way to evaluate the impact of IGF-1R targeting in human cancer.
IGF-1; IGF-1 receptor; p53; MDM2; cancer
The insulin-like growth factors, IGF-I and IGF-II, have endocrine as well as autocrine-paracrine actions on tissue growth. Both IGF ligands are expressed within developing mammary tissue throughout postnatal stages with specific sites of expression in the epithelial and stromal compartments. The elucidation of circulating versus local actions and of epithelial versus stromal actions of IGFs in stimulating mammary epithelial development has been the focus of several laboratories. The recent studies addressing IGF ligand function provide support for the hypotheses that 1) the diverse sites of IGF expression may mediate different cellular outcomes, and 2) IGF-I and IGF-II are distinctly regulated and have diverse functions in mammary development. The mechanisms for IGF function likely are mediated, in part, through diverse IGF signaling receptors. The local actions of the IGF ligands and receptors as revealed through recent publications are the focus of this review.
IGF-I; IGF-II; IGF-IR; insulin receptor; epithelial-stromal interactions; autocrine-paracrine; stem/progenitor cells