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1.  Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance 
Neurobiology of aging  2008;31(5):826-838.
This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.10.005
PMCID: PMC2871327  PMID: 19027195
Aging; healthy adults; sex differences; 18FDG PET; cingulate; prefrontal cortex
2.  Abnormalities of Cingulate Gyrus Neuroanatomy in Schizophrenia 
Schizophrenia research  2007;93(1-3):66-78.
Objective and Methods:
Abnormalities of the neuroanatomy of the gray matter of the cingulate gyrus, especially its anterior segment, have been suggested to be an important characteristic of schizophrenia. In this study, T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected in 53 individuals with schizophrenia and 68 comparison subjects matched for age, gender, race and parental socioeconomic status. We applied Labeled Cortical Mantle Distance Mapping to assess the volume, surface and thickness of the cortical mantle within the anterior (AC) and posterior (PC) segments of the cingulate gyrus, excluding the paracingulate gyrus, and related these anatomical measures to measures of psychopathology and illness duration.
Results:
After covarying for total cerebral volume, individuals with schizophrenia showed smaller AC gray matter volume (p=0.024), thickness (trend, p=0.081), but not surface area (p=0.16), than comparison subjects. Similar group differences were found for PC gray matter volume (p=0.0005) and thickness (trend, p=0.055), but not surface area (p=0.15). Across both groups, there was a significant L>R asymmetry in thickness of the AC, and a significant L>R asymmetry in the surface area of the PC. However, there were no significant group-by-hemisphere interactions. In the individuals with schizophrenia, thinning of the AC, but not the PC, was correlated with a longer duration of illness and a greater severity of psychotic symptoms.
Conclusions:
Individuals with schizophrenia showed smaller gray matter volumes across the entire cingulate gyrus, mostly due to a reduction in cortical mantle thickness. However, structural measures of the AC were more closely related to clinical features of the illness.
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2007.02.021
PMCID: PMC1976383  PMID: 17433626
Depth Map; Thickness; Surface Area; Cortex; Thinning
3.  Resilience after 9/11: Multimodal neuroimaging evidence for stress-related change in the healthy adult brain 
NeuroImage  2008;40(2):788-795.
Exposure to psychological trauma is common and predicts long-term physical and mental health problems, even in those who initially appear resilient. Here, we used multimodal neuroimaging in healthy adults who were at different distances from the World Trade Center on 9/11/01 to examine the neural mechanisms that may underlie this association. More than three years after 9/11/01, adults with closer proximity to the disaster had lower gray matter volume in amygdala, hippocampus, insula, anterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex, with control for age, gender, and total gray matter volume. Further analysis showed a nonlinear (first-order quadratic) association between total number of traumas in lifetime and amygdala gray matter volume and function in the whole group. Post hoc analysis of subgroups with higher versus lower levels of lifetime trauma exposure revealed systematic associations between amygdala gray matter volume, amygdala functional reactivity, and anxiety that suggest a nonlinear trajectory in the neural response to accumulated trauma in healthy adults
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.12.010
PMCID: PMC2405811  PMID: 18234524
4.  Voxel-based morphometry of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder: A matched control study 
Psychiatry research  2011;194(2):149-156.
Controlled trials provide critical tests of hypotheses generated by meta-analyses. Two recent meta-analyses have reported that gray matter volumes of schizophrenia and bipolar I patients differ in the amygdala, hippocampus, or perigenual anterior cingulate. The present magnetic resonance imaging study tested these hypotheses in a cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry (VBM) design of 17 chronic schizophrenia and 15 chronic bipolar patients and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and duration of illness. Whole brain gray matter volume of both the schizophrenia and bipolar groups was smaller than among healthy control subjects. Regional voxel-wise comparisons showed that gray matter volume was smallest within frontal and temporal regions of both patient groups. Region of interest analyses found moderately large to large differences between schizophrenia and healthy subjects in the amygdala and hippocampus. There were no group differences in the perigenual anterior cingulate. When schizophrenia and bipolar groups were directly compared, the schizophrenia group showed smaller GM volumes in right subcortical regions involving the right hippocampus, putamen, and amygdala. The hippocampal and amygdala findings confirm predictions derived from recent meta-analyses. These structural abnormalities may be important factors in the differential manifestations of these two functional psychotic disorders.
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.05.005
PMCID: PMC3196272  PMID: 21924872
Gray matter volume; magnetic resonance imaging; amygdala; hippocampus
5.  A comprehensive assessment of gray and white matter volumes and their relationship to outcome and severity in schizophrenia 
NeuroImage  2007;37(2):449-462.
Preliminary data suggest an association of posterior cortical gray matter reduction with poor outcome in schizophrenia. We made a systematic MRI assessment of regional gray and white matter volumes, parcellated into 40 Brodmann’s areas, in 104 patients with schizophrenia (51 with good outcomes, 53 with poor outcomes) and 41 normal comparison subjects, and investigated correlations of regional morphometry with outcome and severity of the illness. Schizophrenia patients displayed differential reductions in frontal and to a lesser degree temporal gray matter volumes in both hemispheres, most pronounced in the frontal pole and lateral temporal cortex. White matter volumes in schizophrenia patients were bilaterally increased, primarily in the frontal, parietal, and isolated temporal regions, with volume reductions confined to anterior cingulate gyrus. In patients with schizophrenia as a group, higher illness severity was associated with reduced temporal gray matter volumes and expanded frontal white matter volumes in both hemispheres. In comparison to good-outcome group, patients with poor outcomes had lower temporal, occipital, and to a lesser degree parietal gray matter volumes in both hemispheres and temporal, parietal, occipital, and posterior cingulate white matter volumes in the right hemisphere. While gray matter deficits in the granular cortex were observed in all schizophrenia patients, agranular cortical deficits in the left hemisphere were peculiar to patients with poor outcomes. These results provide support for frontotemporal gray matter reduction and frontoparietal white matter expansion in schizophrenia. Poor outcome is associated with more posterior distribution (posteriorization) of both gray and white matter changes, and with preferential impairment in the unimodal visual and paralimbic cortical regions.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.04.070
PMCID: PMC1994089  PMID: 17587598
Schizophrenia; Poor outcome; Gray matter; White matter; Illness severity; MRI
6.  Gray Matter Changes in Subjects at High Risk for Developing Psychosis and First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Structural MRI Study 
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to use a voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging method to investigate the neuroanatomical characteristics in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis compared with those of healthy controls and first-episode schizophrenia patients.
Methods: This study included 14 subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS), 34 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and 51 healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry with the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tools to investigate the whole-brain difference in gray matter volume among the three groups.
Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the schizophrenia patients showed significant gray matter reduction in the left anterior cingulate gyrus. There was no significant difference in the gray matter volume between the ARMS and other groups.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that alteration of the anterior cingulate gyrus may be associated with development of frank psychosis. Further studies with a larger ARMS subjects would be required to examine the potential role of neuroimaging methods in the prediction of future transition into psychosis.
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00016
PMCID: PMC3600601  PMID: 23508623
schizophrenia; psychosis; high risk; MRI; cingulate gyrus
7.  Changes in cortical morphology resulting from long-term amygdala damage 
The amygdala's contribution to emotion, cognition and behavior depends on its interactions with subcortical and cortical regions. Amygdala lesions result in altered functional activity in connected regions, but it is not known whether there might be long-term structural sequelae as well. We hypothesized that developmental bilateral amygdala lesions would be associated with specific gray matter morphometric abnormalities in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the ventral visual stream. We conducted regions of interest and vertex-based analyses of structural MRI data acquired in two patients with long-standing focal bilateral amygdala lesions (S.M. and A.P.), compared to gender- and age-matched healthy comparison subjects. Both patients showed significant proportional increases in gray matter volume of the vmPFC. Cortical thickness was increased in the vmPFC and ACC and decreased in the ventral visual stream. There were no morphometric changes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or dorsal visual stream cortices. These findings support the hypothesis that cortical regions strongly connected with the amygdala undergo morphometric changes with long-standing amygdala damage. This is the first evidence in humans of the remote alteration of brain morphology in association with amygdala lesions, and will help in interpreting the structural and functional consequences of amygdala pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders.
doi:10.1093/scan/nsr047
PMCID: PMC3375891  PMID: 21896493
amygdala; lesions; morphometry; plasticity; prefrontal cortex; ventromedial
8.  Structural and Functional Cerebral Correlates of Hypnotic Suggestibility 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e93187.
Little is known about the neural bases of hypnotic suggestibility, a cognitive trait referring to the tendency to respond to hypnotic suggestions. In the present magnetic resonance imaging study, we performed regression analyses to assess hypnotic suggestibility-related differences in local gray matter volume, using voxel-based morphometry, and in waking resting state functional connectivity of 10 resting state networks, in 37 healthy women. Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with gray matter volume in portions of the left superior and medial frontal gyri, roughly overlapping with the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area, and negatively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior temporal gyrus and insula. In the functional connectivity analysis, hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with functional connectivity between medial posterior areas, including bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and both the lateral visual network and the left fronto-parietal network; a positive correlation was also found with functional connectivity between the executive-control network and a right postcentral/parietal area. In contrast, hypnotic suggestibility was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the right fronto-parietal network and the right lateral thalamus. These findings demonstrate for the first time a correlation between hypnotic suggestibility, the structural features of specific cortical regions, and the functional connectivity during the normal resting state of brain structures involved in imagery and self-monitoring activity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093187
PMCID: PMC3966870  PMID: 24671130
9.  Absence of changes in cortical thickness in patients with migraine 
Objective
Previous studies have reported gray matter alterations in patients with migraine, particularly thinning of the cingulate gyrus, and thickening of the somatosensory cortex (SSC) and visual motion processing areas (V3A/MT+). We attempted to replicate these findings in a larger patient population.
Methods
Brain anatomy was collected with 3T MRI. Surface-based morphometry was used to segment each brain volume, reconstruct and inflate the cortical sheet, and estimate gray matter thickness.
Results
Eighty-four age and sex-matched participants (28 migraine with aura, 28 migraine without aura, and 28 controls) were studied. No significant differences in somatosensory, cingulate gyrus, or V3A/MT+ cortical thickness were found between the groups, including analysis of specific subregions previously reported to be affected. Whole brain analysis found no regions of differential gray matter thickness between groups. A highly significant inverse correlation between age and whole brain and regional cortical thickness was identified. Power analyses indicate that even a small difference (~0.07 to 0.14 mm) in cortical thickness could have been detected between groups given the sample size.
Interpretation
Using highly sensitive surface-based morphometry, no differences in cortical thickness between patients with migraine and controls could be identified.
doi:10.1177/0333102411421025
PMCID: PMC3512201  PMID: 21911412
Migraine; morphometry; cortical thickness; brain structure
10.  Cortical Thickness Reduction in Individuals at Ultra-High-Risk for Psychosis 
Schizophrenia Bulletin  2009;37(4):839-849.
Although schizophrenia is characterized by gray matter (GM) abnormalities, particularly in the prefrontal and temporal cortices, it is unclear whether cerebral cortical GM is abnormal in individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. We addressed this issue by studying cortical thickness in this group with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We measured cortical thickness of 29 individuals with no family history of psychosis at UHR, 31 patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy matched control subjects using automated surface-based analysis of structural MRI data. Hemispheric mean and regional cortical thickness were significantly different according to the stage of the disease. Significant cortical differences across these 3 groups were found in the distributed area of cerebral cortices. UHR group showed significant cortical thinning in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, and superior temporal gyrus compared with healthy control subjects. Significant cortical thinning in schizophrenia group relative to UHR group was found in all the regions described above in addition with posterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, and precentral cortex. These changes were more pronounced in the schizophrenia group compared with the control subjects. These findings suggest that UHR is associated with cortical thinning in regions that correspond to the structural abnormalities found in schizophrenia. These structural abnormalities might reflect functional decline at the prodromal stage of schizophrenia, and there may be progressive thinning of GM cortex over time.
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp151
PMCID: PMC3122277  PMID: 20026559
MRI; gray matter; cortical thinning; surface-based analysis
11.  Regional cortical gray matter thickness differences associated with type 2 diabetes and major depression 
Psychiatry research  2010;184(2):63-70.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of type 2 diabetes with major depression on cortical gray matter using magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques. We hypothesized that diabetic subjects and depressed diabetic subjects would demonstrate decreased cortical gray matter thickness in prefrontal areas as compared to healthy control subjects.
Methods
Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=26) and patients diabetes and major depression (n=26) were compared with healthy controls (n=20). Gray matter thickness across the entire cortex was measured using cortical pattern matching methods.
Results
All subjects with diabetes demonstrated decreased cortical gray matter thickness in the left anterior cingulate region. Additionally, depressed diabetic subjects showed significant cortical gray matter decreases in bilateral prefrontal areas compared with healthy controls. Correlations between clinical variables and cortical gray matter thickness revealed a significant negative relationship with cerebrovascular risk factors across all three groups, most consistently in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. A significant positive relationship between performance on attention and executive function tasks and cortical gray matter thickness predominately in left hemisphere regions was also seen across all subjects.
Conclusion
Depression and diabetes are associated with significant cortical gray matter thinning in medial prefrontal areas.
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.07.003
PMCID: PMC2963701  PMID: 20832254
MRI; neurocogntion; neuroanatomy; mood; diabetes
12.  Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults 
Current Biology  2011;21(8):677-680.
Summary
Substantial differences exist in the cognitive styles of liberals and conservatives on psychological measures [1]. Variability in political attitudes reflects genetic influences and their interaction with environmental factors [2, 3]. Recent work has shown a correlation between liberalism and conflict-related activity measured by event-related potentials originating in the anterior cingulate cortex [4]. Here we show that this functional correlate of political attitudes has a counterpart in brain structure. In a large sample of young adults, we related self-reported political attitudes to gray matter volume using structural MRI. We found that greater liberalism was associated with increased gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas greater conservatism was associated with increased volume of the right amygdala. These results were replicated in an independent sample of additional participants. Our findings extend previous observations that political attitudes reflect differences in self-regulatory conflict monitoring [4] and recognition of emotional faces [5] by showing that such attitudes are reflected in human brain structure. Although our data do not determine whether these regions play a causal role in the formation of political attitudes, they converge with previous work [4, 6] to suggest a possible link between brain structure and psychological mechanisms that mediate political attitudes.
Highlights
► Political liberalism and conservatism were correlated with brain structure ► Liberalism was associated with the gray matter volume of anterior cingulate cortex ► Conservatism was associated with increased right amygdala size ► Results offer possible accounts for cognitive styles of liberals and conservatives
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.017
PMCID: PMC3092984  PMID: 21474316
13.  Reduced Caudate Gray Matter Volume in Women with Major Depressive Disorder 
Psychiatry research  2008;164(2):114-122.
Previous brain imaging studies have reported that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by decreased volumes of several cortical and subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and caudate nucleus. The purpose of the present study was to identify structural volumetric differences between MDD and healthy participants using a method that allows a comparison of gray and white matter volume across the whole brain. In addition, we explored the relation between symptom severity and brain regions with decreased volumes in MDD participants. Twenty-two women diagnosed with MDD and 25 healthy women with no history of major psychiatric disorders participated in this study. Magnetic resonance brain images were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine group differences in regional gray and white matter volume. Compared with healthy controls, MDD participants were found to have decreased gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate nucleus and the thalamus. No group differences were found for white matter volume, nor were there significant correlations between gray matter volumes and symptom severity within the MDD group. The present results suggest that smaller volume of caudate nucleus may be related to the pathophysiology of MDD and may account for abnormalities of the cortico-striatal-pallido-thalamic loop in MDD.
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.12.020
PMCID: PMC2600594  PMID: 18930633
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); voxel-based morphometry (VBM); caudate; depression; brain
14.  The Influence of Sex Steroids on Structural Brain Maturation in Adolescence 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e83929.
Puberty reflects a period of hormonal changes, physical maturation and structural brain reorganization. However, little attention has been paid to what extent sex steroids and pituitary hormones are associated with the refinement of brain maturation across adolescent development. Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8–25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (sub)cortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner. These hormonal and morphological differences may explain in part differences in brain development between boys and girls.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083929
PMCID: PMC3885531  PMID: 24416184
15.  Morphologic and Functional Connectivity Alterations of Corticostriatal and Default Mode Network in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83931.
Background
Previous studies have demonstrated that structural deficits and functional connectivity imbalances might underlie the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate gray matter deficits and abnormal resting-state networks in patients with OCD and further investigate the association between the anatomic and functional alterations and clinical symptoms.
Methods
Participants were 33 treatment-naïve OCD patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormalities and resting-state functional connectivity analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain.
Results
Compared with healthy controls, patients with OCD showed significantly increased gray matter volume in the left caudate, left thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex, as well as decreased gray matter volume in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal gyrus. By using the above morphologic deficits areas as seed regions, functional connectivity analysis found abnormal functional integration in the cortical-striatum-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits and default mode network. Subsequent correlation analyses revealed that morphologic deficits in the left thalamus and increased functional connectivity within the CSTC circuits positively correlated with the total Y-BOCS score.
Conclusion
This study provides evidence that morphologic and functional alterations are seen in CSTC circuits and default mode network in treatment-naïve OCD patients. The association between symptom severity and the CSTC circuits suggests that anatomic and functional alterations in CSTC circuits are especially important in the pathophysiology of OCD.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083931
PMCID: PMC3865285  PMID: 24358320
16.  Age-related gray matter volume changes in the brain during non-elderly adulthood 
Neurobiology of Aging  2011;32(2-6):354-368.
Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies described consistent age-related gray matter (GM) reductions in the fronto-parietal neocortex, insula and cerebellum in elderly subjects, but not as frequently in limbic/paralimbic structures. However, it is unclear whether such features are already present during earlier stages of adulthood, and if age-related GM changes may follow non-linear patterns at such age range. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the relationship between GM volumes and age specifically during non-elderly life (18–50 years) in 89 healthy individuals (48 males and 41 females). Voxelwise analyses showed significant (p < 0.05, corrected) negative correlations in the right prefrontal cortex and left cerebellum, and positive correlations (indicating lack of GM loss) in the medial temporal region, cingulate gyrus, insula and temporal neocortex. Analyses using ROI masks showed that age-related dorsolateral prefrontal volume decrements followed non-linear patterns, and were less prominent in females compared to males at this age range. These findings further support for the notion of a heterogeneous and asynchronous pattern of age-related brain morphometric changes, with region-specific non-linear features.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.02.008
PMCID: PMC3004040  PMID: 19282066
Prefrontal cortex; Insula; Limbic system; Gray matter; Aging; Gender; Voxel-based morphometry; Magnetic resonance imaging
17.  Changes in grey matter development in autism spectrum disorder 
Brain Structure & Function  2012;218(4):929-942.
Results on grey matter (GM) structural alterations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are inconclusive. Moreover, little is known about age effects on brain-structure abnormalities in ASD beyond childhood. Here, we aimed to examine regional GM volumes in a large sample of children, adolescents, and adults with ASD. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained in 47 male ASD subjects and 51 matched healthy controls aged 8–50 years. We used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry to first assess group differences in regional GM volume across age. Moreover, taking a cross-sectional approach, group differences in age effects on regional GM volume were investigated. Compared to controls, ASD subjects showed reduced GM volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and middle temporal gyrus. Investigation of group differences in age effects on regional GM volume revealed complex, region-specific alterations in ASD. While GM volumes in the amygdala, temporoparietal junction, septal nucleus and middle cingulate cortex increased in a negative quadratic fashion in both groups, data indicated that GM volume curves in ASD subjects were shifted to the left along the age axis. Moreover, while GM volume in the right precentral gyrus decreased linearly with age in ASD individuals, GM volume development in controls followed a U-shaped pattern. Based on a large sample, our voxel-based morphometry results on group differences in regional GM volumes help to resolve inconclusive findings from previous studies in ASD. Results on age-related changes of regional GM volumes suggest that ASD is characterized by complex alterations in lifetime trajectories of several brain regions that underpin social-cognitive and motor functions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00429-012-0439-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00429-012-0439-9
PMCID: PMC3695319  PMID: 22777602
Brain development; MRI; Voxel-based morphometry; Grey matter; Autism spectrum disorder
18.  Multispectral brain morphometry in Tourette syndrome persisting into adulthood 
Brain  2010;133(12):3661-3675.
Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-morbidities. Structural changes have been found in frontal cortex and striatum in children and adolescents. A limited number of morphometric studies in Tourette syndrome persisting into adulthood suggest ongoing structural alterations affecting frontostriatal circuits. Using cortical thickness estimation and voxel-based analysis of T1- and diffusion-weighted structural magnetic resonance images, we examined 40 adults with Tourette syndrome in comparison with 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients with Tourette syndrome showed relative grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices bilaterally. Cortical thinning extended into the limbic mesial temporal lobe. The grey matter changes were modulated additionally by the presence of co-morbidities and symptom severity. Prefrontal cortical thickness reduction correlated negatively with tic severity, while volume increase in primary somatosensory cortex depended on the intensity of premonitory sensations. Orbitofrontal cortex volume changes were further associated with abnormal water diffusivity within grey matter. White matter analysis revealed changes in fibre coherence in patients with Tourette syndrome within anterior parts of the corpus callosum. The severity of motor tics and premonitory urges had an impact on the integrity of tracts corresponding to cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections. Our results provide empirical support for a patho-aetiological model of Tourette syndrome based on developmental abnormalities, with perturbation of compensatory systems marking persistence of symptoms into adulthood. We interpret the symptom severity related grey matter volume increase in distinct functional brain areas as evidence of ongoing structural plasticity. The convergence of evidence from volume and water diffusivity imaging strengthens the validity of our findings and attests to the value of a novel multimodal combination of volume and cortical thickness estimations that provides unique and complementary information by exploiting their differential sensitivity to structural change.
doi:10.1093/brain/awq300
PMCID: PMC2995885  PMID: 21071387
Tourette syndrome; voxel-based cortical thickness; voxel-based morphometry; mean diffusivity; fractional anisotropy
19.  Increased Subgenual Cingulate Cortex Volume in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Associated with Mood Stabilizer Exposure 
Abstract
Objective
The subgenual cingulate (SGC) cortex has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We sought to study morphometric characteristics of the SGC in pediatric subjects with familial bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy controls.
Method
Twenty children and adolescents with BD (mean age = 14.6 years, 4 females) and 20 healthy age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched controls underwent high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were primarily euthymic and most were taking medications. SGC cortex volumes were determined by manual tracings from a reliable rater, blinded to diagnosis. Analyses of covariance were performed with total cerebral gray matter and age as covariates.
Results
No differences were found in SGC volumes between BD subjects and healthy controls. Further analysis revealed that BD subjects with past mood stabilizer exposure had significantly increased SGC volumes compared with BD subjects without mood stabilizer exposure, and compared with controls. The increase was driven by larger bilateral posterior SGC volumes.
Conclusions
Youth with familial BD do not appear to have abnormalities in SGC volume. Mood stabilizer exposure, however, may be correlated with increases in SGC volume.
doi:10.1089/cap.2010.0094
PMCID: PMC3080755  PMID: 21486168
20.  Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans☆ 
NeuroImage : Clinical  2013;2:670-674.
Objective
Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach.
Method
Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis.
Results
As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes.
Conclusions
In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma.
Highlights
•Childhood and combat trauma may interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex.•These findings partially replicate findings in amygdala.•Formally similar relations are found in endocrinological and psychometric data.
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.04.016
PMCID: PMC3777676  PMID: 24179818
Posttraumatic stress disorder; Cingulate cortex; Stress, psychological; Combat disorders
21.  Focal structural changes and cognitive dysfunction in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 
Neurology  2011;76(1):34-40.
Objective:
The aim of this study was to determine if there were focal cortical abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) using neuropsychological investigations and MRI.
Methods:
Twenty-eight patients with JME and a large sample of healthy controls were assessed using a series of neuropsychological tests as well as structural and diffusion tensor MRI (DTI). DTI measures assessed fractional anisotropy (FA) within a white matter skeleton.
Results:
Neuropsychological testing indicated subtle dysfunctions in verbal fluency, comprehension, and expression, as well as nonverbal memory and mental flexibility. Utilizing whole-brain voxel-based morphometry for gray matter MRI data and tract-based spatial statistics for white matter diffusion MRI data, we found reductions in gray matter volume (GMV) in the supplementary motor area and posterior cingulate cortex and reductions in FA in underlying white matter of the corpus callosum. Supplementary motor area FA predicted scores in word naming tasks and expression scores. Posterior cingulate cortex GMV and FA predicted cognitive inhibition scores on the mental flexibility task.
Conclusions:
The neuropsychological, structural, and tractography results implicate mesial frontal cortex, especially the supplementary motor area, and posterior cingulate cortex in JME.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318203e93d
PMCID: PMC3030222  PMID: 21205693
22.  Smaller Regional Gray Matter Volume in Homeless African American Cocaine-Dependent Men: A Preliminary Report 
Models of addiction include abnormalities in parts of the brain involving executive function/inhibitory control. Although previous studies have reported evidence of structural abnormalities in cocaine-dependent individuals, none have specifically targeted the homeless. The present preliminary study investigated brain structure in such an understudied group, homeless, crack-cocaine-dependent African American men (n = 9), comparing it to that in healthy controls (n = 8). Structural data were analyzed using voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a regions of interest (ROI) analysis. Homeless cocaine-dependent individuals had smaller gray matter volume in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, the cerebellum, insula, and superior temporal gyrus. Most of these areas subserve executive function or inhibitory control. These results are similar to those found in most previous studies of non-homeless cocaine-dependent individuals. Reduced gray matter in executive function/inhibitory control regions of the brain in cocaine-dependent individuals may be a preexisting risk factor for the development of addiction and/or a consequence of drug abuse.
doi:10.2174/1874440001105010057
PMCID: PMC3227861  PMID: 22135719
Addiction; VBM; executive function; inhibitory control.
23.  Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia 
Neurology  2013;80(9):814-823.
Objective:
We aimed to investigate whether cognitive deficits and structural and functional connectivity changes can be detected before symptom onset in a large cohort of carriers of microtubule-associated protein tau and progranulin mutations.
Methods:
In this case-control study, 75 healthy individuals (aged 20–70 years) with 50% risk for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) underwent DNA screening, neuropsychological assessment, and structural and functional MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics for voxelwise analyses of gray matter volume and diffusion tensor imaging measures. Using resting-state fMRI scans, we assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to frontoinsula, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), and posterior cingulate cortex.
Results:
Although carriers (n = 37) and noncarriers (n = 38) had similar neuropsychological performance, worse performance on Stroop III, Ekman faces, and Happé cartoons correlated with higher age in carriers, but not controls. Reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity throughout frontotemporal white matter tracts were found in carriers and correlated with higher age. Reductions in functional aMCC connectivity were found in carriers compared with controls, and connectivity between frontoinsula and aMCC seeds and several brain regions significantly decreased with higher age in carriers but not controls. We found no significant differences or age correlations in posterior cingulate cortex connectivity. No differences in regional gray matter volume were found.
Conclusions:
This study convincingly demonstrates that alterations in structural and functional connectivity develop before the first symptoms of FTD arise. These findings suggest that diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI may have the potential to become sensitive biomarkers for early FTD in future clinical trials.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828407bc
PMCID: PMC3598452  PMID: 23390180
24.  Default network connectivity reflects the level of consciousness in non-communicative brain-damaged patients 
Brain  2009;133(1):161-171.
The ‘default network’ is defined as a set of areas, encompassing posterior-cingulate/precuneus, anterior cingulate/mesiofrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junctions, that show more activity at rest than during attention-demanding tasks. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to reliably identify this network in the absence of any task, by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity analyses in healthy volunteers. However, the functional significance of these spontaneous brain activity fluctuations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test if the integrity of this resting-state connectivity pattern in the default network would differ in different pathological alterations of consciousness. Fourteen non-communicative brain-damaged patients and 14 healthy controls participated in the study. Connectivity was investigated using probabilistic independent component analysis, and an automated template-matching component selection approach. Connectivity in all default network areas was found to be negatively correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative then coma patients. Furthermore, precuneus connectivity was found to be significantly stronger in minimally conscious patients as compared with unconscious patients. Locked-in syndrome patient’s default network connectivity was not significantly different from controls. Our results show that default network connectivity is decreased in severely brain-damaged patients, in proportion to their degree of consciousness impairment. Future prospective studies in a larger patient population are needed in order to evaluate the prognostic value of the presented methodology.
doi:10.1093/brain/awp313
PMCID: PMC2801329  PMID: 20034928
Default mode; fMRI; coma; vegetative state; minimally conscious state
25.  Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e64065.
There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064065
PMCID: PMC3679112  PMID: 23776438

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