The replication and transcription activator (RTA) of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), K-RTA, is a lytic switch protein that moderates the reactivation process of KSHV latency. By mass spectrometric analysis of affinity purified K-RTA, we showed that Thr-513 or Thr-514 was the primary in vivo phosphorylation site. Thr-513 and Thr-514 are proximal to the nuclear localization signal (527KKRK530) and were previously hypothesized to be target sites of Ser/Thr kinase hKFC. However, substitutions of Thr with Ala at 513 and 514 had no effect on K-RTA subcellular localization or transactivation activity. By contrast, replacement of Ser with Ala at Ser-634 and Ser-636 located in a Ser/Pro-rich region of K-RTA, designated as S634A/S636A, produced a polypeptide with ∼10 kDa shorter in molecular weight and reduced transactivation in a luciferase reporter assay relative to the wild type. In contrast to prediction, the decrease in molecular weight was not due to lack of phosphorylation because the overall Ser and Thr phosphorylation state in K-RTA and S634A/S636A were similar, excluding that Ser-634 or Ser-636 motif served as docking sites for consecutive phosphorylation. Interestingly, S634A/S636A lost ∼30% immuno-reactivity to MPM2, an antibody specific to pSer/pThr-Pro motif, indicating that 634SPSP637 motif was in vivo phosphorylated. By in vitro kinase assay, we showed that K-RTA is a substrate of CDK9, a Pro-directed Ser/Thr kinase central to transcriptional regulation. Importantly, the capability of K-RTA in associating with endogenous CDK9 was reduced in S634A/S636A, which suggested that Ser-634 and Ser-636 may be involved in CDK9 recruitment. In agreement, S634A/S636A mutant exhibited ∼25% reduction in KSHV lytic cycle reactivation relative to that by the wild type K-RTA. Taken together, our data propose that Ser-634 and Ser-636 of K-RTA are phosphorylated by host transcriptional kinase CDK9 and such a process contributes to a full transcriptional potency of K-RTA.
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; replication and transcription activator; phosphorylation; negative elongation factor B; CDK9
The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein regulates the latent-lytic switch by transactivating a variety of KSHV lytic and cellular promoters. RTA is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of transcriptional repressor proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Herein, we show that RTA interacts with the cellular transcriptional repressor protein Hey1. We demonstrate that Hey1 is a target for RTA-mediated ubiquitination and is subsequently degraded by the proteasome. Moreover, a Cys-plus-His-rich region within RTA is important for RTA-mediated degradation of Hey1. We confirm that Hey1 represses the RTA promoter and, furthermore, show that Hey1 binds to the RTA promoter. An interaction was observed between Hey1 and the corepressor mSin3A, and this interaction was abolished in the presence of RTA. Additionally, mSin3A associated with the RTA promoter in nonreactivated, but not reactivated, BCBL1 cells. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Hey1 in HEK 293T cells latently infected with the recombinant virus rKSHV.219 led to increased levels of RTA expression upon reactivation but was insufficient to induce complete lytic reactivation. These results suggest that other additional transcriptional repressors are also important in maintenance of KSHV latency. Taken together, our results suggest that Hey1 has a contributory role in the maintenance of KSHV latency and that disruption of the Hey1 repressosome by RTA-targeted degradation may be one step in the mechanism to regulate lytic reactivation.
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) is necessary and sufficient for the switch from KSHV latency to lytic replication. RTA activates promoters by several mechanisms. RTA can bind to sequences in viral promoters and activate transcription. In addition, RTA interacts with the cellular recombination signal sequence-binding protein-J kappa (RBP-Jκ), a transcriptional repressor, converts the repressor into an activator, and activates viral promoters via RBP-Jκ. Because RBP-Jκ is required for RTA to activate lytic replication, it is important to understand how RTA cooperates with RBP-Jκ protein to activate KSHV lytic replication program. Previously, we identified an RTA mutant, RTA-K152E, which has a defect in its direct DNA binding activity. In this report, the effect of the mutant RTA on KSHV activation via RBP-Jκ protein is examined. We demonstrate that RTA-K152E interacts with RBP-Jκ physically, and the mutant RTA and RBP-Jκ complex binds to target DNA properly in vivo and in vitro. However, the complex of RTA-K152E and RBP-Jκ does not activate transcription. Furthermore, the RTA mutant (RTA-K12E) inhibits cellular Notch-mediated RBP-Jκ activation. These data collectively suggest that the complex between KSHV RTA and cellular RBP-Jκ and the subsequent DNA binding by the complex are not sufficient for the activation of RBP-Jκ protein. Other factor(s), whether additional cofactor(s) in the complex, or the intrinsic conformation of RTA, are predicted to be required for the activation of RBP-Jκ protein by RTA.
KSHV; RTA; RBP-Jκ; lytic replication; HHV8; PEL
The enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling couple the nutrient-dependent synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc to O-GlcNAc modification of Ser/Thr residues of key nuclear and cytoplasmic targets. This series of reactions culminating in O-GlcNAcylation of targets has been termed the Hexosamine Signaling Pathway (HSP). The evolutionarily ancient enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling have co-evolved with other signaling effecter molecules; they are recruited to their targets by many of the same mechanisms used to organize canonic kinase-dependent signaling pathways. This co-recruitment of the enzymes of O-GlcNAc cycling drives a binary switch impacting pathways of anabolism and growth (nutrient uptake) and catabolic pathways (nutrient sparing and salvage). The Hexosamine Signaling Pathway (HSP) has thus emerged as a versatile cellular regulator modulating numerous cellular signaling cascades influencing growth, metabolism, cellular stress, circadian rhythm, and host-pathogen interactions. In mammals, the nutrient-sensing HSP has been harnessed to regulate such cell-specific functions as neutrophil migration, and activation of B-cells and T-cells. This review summarizes the diverse approaches being used to examine O-GlcNAc cycling. It will emphasize the impact O-GlcNAcylation has upon signaling pathways that may be become deregulated in diseases of the immune system, diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) RTA is an important protein involved in the induction of KSHV lytic replication from latency through activation of the lytic cascade. A number of cellular and viral proteins, including K-RBP, have been found to repress RTA-mediated transactivation and KSHV lytic replication. However, it is unclear as to how RTA overcomes the suppression during lytic reactivation. In this study, we found that RTA can induce K-RBP degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that two regions in RTA are responsible. Moreover, we found that RTA can promote the degradation of several other RTA repressors. RTA mutants that are defective in inducing K-RBP degradation cannot activate RTA responsive promoter as efficiently as wild-type RTA. Interference of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway affected RTA-mediated transactivation and KSHV reactivation from latency. Our results suggest that KSHV RTA can stimulate the turnover of repressors to modulate viral reactivation. Since herpes simplex virus type 1 transactivator ICP0 and human cytomegalovirus transactivator pp71 also stimulate the degradation of cellular silencers, it is possible that the promotion of silencer degradation by viral transactivators may be a common mechanism for regulating the lytic replication of herpesviruses.
3T3-L1 adipocytes develop insulin-resistant glucose transport upon preincubation with high (25 mM) glucose, provided that insulin (0.6 nM) is included, Akt activation is impaired, and high glucose and insulin act synergistically. Considerable evidence suggests that increased glucose flux via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway enhances the O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of some critical protein(s) that may contribute to insulin resistance. However, whether enhanced protein O-GlcNAcylation is necessary for the development of insulin resistance is unknown. We used two strategies to test this hypothesis. The first strategy was the overexpression of O-GlcNAcase, which removes O-GlcNAc from Ser/Thr of proteins. Cells were infected with O-GlcNAcase-expressing adenovirus (or empty virus) 5 days before they were submitted to protocols that elicit (or not) insulin resistance. O-GlcNAcase was highly expressed and functional as assessed by Western blot, O-GlcNAcase assay, and marked reduction of O-GlcNAcylated proteins. The activity was mainly cytosolic. The second strategy was the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) being markedly reduced by transfection of OGT siRNA, resulting in an approximately 90% decrease of nuclear and cytosolic OGT protein expression and similar reduction in O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Non-targeting siRNA had no effect. Preincubation in high glucose with low-dose insulin decreased the acute insulin response of glucose transport by at least 50% and impaired Akt activation. None of these parameters were affected by overexpression of O-GlcNAcase or by OGT knockout. Excess O-GlcNAcylation is one of many factors that can cause insulin resistance. It does not seem to be required for the development of glucose/insulin-induced insulin resistance of glucose transport and Akt activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
glucose transport; Akt activation; O-linked N-acetylglucosamine
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The KSHV replication and transcription activator (RTA) and latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) play key roles in activating KSHV lytic replication and maintaining KSHV latency, respectively. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) are similar to short single-stranded DNA oligomers, but possess a modified backbone that confers highly specific binding and resistance to nucleases. In this study, RTA and LANA mRNA in PEL cells were targeted by antisense peptide-conjugated PMO (P-PMO) in an effort to suppress KSHV replication. Highly efficient P-PMO uptake by PEL cells was observed. Treatment of PEL cells with a RTA P-PMO (RP1) reduced RTA expression in a dose-dependent and sequence-specific manner. There was also a significant decrease in several KSHV early and late gene products, including vIL-6, vIRF-1, and ORF-K8.1A. KSHV viral DNA levels were reduced both in cells and culture supernatants of RP1 P-PMO-treated cells, which indicate that KSHV lytic replication was supressed. Treatment of BCBL-1 cells with P-PMO against LANA resulted in a reduction of LANA expression. Cell viability assays detected no cytotoxicity from P-PMO alone, within the concentration range used for the experiments in this study. These results suggest that RP1 P-PMO can specifically block KSHV replication, and further study is warranted.
KSHV; RTA; LANA; Morpholino; antiviral; Antisense
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes an immediate early transcriptional activator, Rta, which mediates viral reactivation from latency and lytic viral replication. Here we report the purification and characterizations of HHV-8 Rta and its interaction with Rta-responsive DNA elements. The Rta response element (RtaRE) in the promoter of the KSHV/HHV-8 K8 open reading frame was mapped to a 47-bp sequence (RtaRE1) and a 60-bp sequence (RtaRE2) upstream of the TATA motif. A comparison of the K8 RtaREs with other viral RtaREs revealed a pattern of multiple A/T triplets spaced with a periodicity of 10 or 20 bp. Substitutions of the in-phase A/T trinucleotides of the RtaRE1 with G/C bases greatly diminished Rta responsiveness and Rta binding. By contrast, base substitutions in an out-of-phase A/T-trinucleotide sequence had no effect. Importantly, multimers of (A/T)3N7 and N5(A/T)5N6(A/T)4 motifs supported a strong Rta response in a copy number-dependent manner. No specific sequence motifs in the spacer regions could be discerned. Potent Rta response, however, was obtained with phased A/T trinucleotides with 7-bp spacers of arbitrary sequences with high G/C content. Lengthening of the phased A/T motifs or lowering of the G/C content of the spacers resulted in a reduction in Rta response. Finally, Escherichia coli-derived Rta is an oligomer of 440 kDa in molecular size and binds RtaRE as an oligomer. These results support a model of Rta transactivation wherein the subunits of the Rta oligomer make multiple contacts with a tandem array of phased A/T triplets in the configuration of (A/T)3(G/C)7 repeats.
An important step in the herpesvirus life cycle is the switch from latency to lytic reactivation. In order to study the life cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), we developed a gene expression system in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. This system uses Flp-mediated efficient recombination and tetracycline-inducible expression. The Rta transcriptional activator, which acts as a molecular switch for lytic reactivation of KSHV, was efficiently integrated downstream of the Flp recombination target site, and its expression was tightly controlled by tetracycline. Like stimulation with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), the ectopic expression of Rta efficiently induced a complete cycle of viral replication, including a well-ordered program of KSHV gene expression and production of infectious viral progeny. A striking feature of Rta-mediated lytic gene expression was that Rta induced KSHV gene expression in a more powerful and efficient manner than TPA stimulation, indicating that Rta plays a central, leading role in KSHV lytic gene expression. Thus, our streamlined gene expression system provides a novel means not only to study the effects of viral gene products on overall KSHV gene expression and replication, but also to understand the natural viral reactivation process.
An important step in the herpesvirus life cycle is the switch from latency to lytic reactivation. The RTA transcription activator of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) acts as a molecular switch for lytic reactivation. Here we demonstrate that KSHV RTA recruits CBP, the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, and the TRAP/Mediator coactivator into viral promoters through interactions with a short acidic sequence in the carboxyl region and that this recruitment is essential for RTA-dependent viral gene expression. The Brg1 subunit of SWI/SNF and the TRAP230 subunit of TRAP/Mediator were shown to interact directly with RTA. Consequently, genetic ablation of these interactions abolished KSHV lytic replication. These results demonstrate that the recruitment of CBP, SWI/SNF, and TRAP/Mediator complexes by RTA is the principal mechanism to direct well-controlled viral gene expression and thereby viral lytic reactivation.
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) represents a key regulatory post-translational modification (PTM) that is reversible and often reciprocal with phosphorylation of serine and threonine at the same or nearby residues. Although recent technical advances in O-GlcNAc site-mapping methods combined with mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have facilitated study of the fundamental roles of O-GlcNAcylation in cellular processes, an efficient technique for examining the dynamic, reciprocal relationships between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation is needed to provide greater insights into the regulatory functions of O-GlcNAcylation. Here, we describe a strategy for selectively identifying both O-GlcNAc- and phospho-modified sites. This strategy involves metal affinity separation of O-GlcNAcylated and phosphorylated peptides, β-elimination of O-GlcNAcyl or phosphoryl functional groups from the separated peptides followed by dithiothreitol (DTT) conjugation (BEMAD), affinity purification of DTT-conjugated peptides using thiol affinity chromatography, and identification of formerly O-GlcNAcylated or phosphorylated peptides by MS. The combined metal affinity separation and BEMAD approach allows selective enrichment of O-GlcNAcylated peptides over phosphorylated counterparts. Using this approach with mouse brain synaptosomes, we identified the serine residue at 605 of the synapsin-1 peptide, 603QASQAGPGPR612, and the serine residue at 692 of the tau peptide, 688SPVVSGDTSPR698, which were found to be potential reciprocal O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation sites. These results demonstrate that our strategy enables mapping of the reciprocal site occupancy of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of proteins, which permits the assessment of cross-talk between these two PTMs and their regulatory roles.
BEMAD; O-GlcNAcylation; phosphorylation; synapsin-1; synaptosome; tau
The viral immediate-early transactivator Rta/Orf50 is necessary and sufficient to initiate Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) reactivation from latently infected cells. Since Rta/Orf50 is conserved among all known gamma-2-herpesviruses, we investigated whether the murine gamma-68-herpesvirus (MHV-68) and rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) homologs can functionally substitute for KSHV Rta/Orf50. (i) Our comparison of 12 KSHV promoters showed that most responded to all three Rta/Orf50proteins, but three promoters (vGPCR, K8, and gB) responded only to the KSHV Rta/Orf50 transactivator. Overall, the activation of KSHV promoters was higher with KSHV Rta than with the RRV and MHV-68 Rta. (ii) Only the primate Rta/Orf50 homologs were able to interfere with human p53-depedent transcriptional activation. (iii) Transcriptional profiling showed that the KSHV Rta/Orf50 was more efficient than it's homologs in inducing KSHV lytic transcription from the latent state. These results suggest that the core functionality of Rta/Orf50 is conserved and independent of its host, but the human protein has evolved additional, human-specific capabilities.
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an inducible, dynamically cycling and reversible post-translational modification of Ser/Thr residues of nucleocytoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins. We recently discovered that O-GlcNAcylation confers cytoprotection in the heart via attenuating the formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and the subsequent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Because Ca2+ overload and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation are prominent features of post-ischemic injury and favor mPTP formation, we ascertained whether O-GlcNAcylation mitigates mPTP formation via its effects on Ca2+ overload and ROS generation. Subjecting neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs, n>/=6/group) to hypoxia, or mice (n>/=4/group) to myocardial ischemia reduced O-GlcNAcylation, which later increased during reoxygenation/reperfusion. NRCMs (n>/=4/group) infected with an adenovirus carrying nothing (control), adenoviral O-GlcNAc transferase (adds O-GlcNAc to proteins, AdOGT), adenoviral O-GlcNAcase (removes O-GlcNAc to proteins, AdOGA), Vehicle, or PUGNAc (blocks OGA; increases O-GlcNAc levels), were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation or H2O2 and changes in Ca2+ levels (via Fluo-4AM and Rhod-2AM), ROS (via DCF), and mPTP formation (via calcein-MitoTracker Red colocalization) were assessed using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Both OGT and OGA overexpression did not significantly (p>0.05) alter baseline Ca2+ or ROS levels. However, AdOGT significantly (p<0.05) attenuated both hypoxia and oxidative stress-induced Ca2+ overload and ROS generation. Additionally, OGA inhibition mitigated both H2O2-induced Ca2+ overload and ROS generation. Although AdOGA exacerbated both hypoxia and H2O2-induced ROS generation, it had no effect on H2O2-induced Ca2+ overload. We conclude that inhibition of Ca2+ overload and ROS generation (inducers of mPTP) might be one mechanism through which O-GlcNAcylation reduces ischemia/hypoxia-mediated mPTP formation.
Protein O-GlcNAcylation (or O-GlcNAc-ylation) is an O-linked glycosylation involving the transfer of β-N-acetylglucosamine to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues of proteins. Growing evidences suggest that protein O-GlcNAcylation is common and is analogous to phosphorylation in modulating broad ranges of biological processes. However, compared to phosphorylation, the amount of protein O-GlcNAcylation data is relatively limited and its annotation in databases is scarce. Furthermore, a bioinformatics resource for O-GlcNAcylation is lacking, and an O-GlcNAcylation site prediction tool is much needed.
We developed a database of O-GlcNAcylated proteins and sites, dbOGAP, primarily based on literature published since O-GlcNAcylation was first described in 1984. The database currently contains ~800 proteins with experimental O-GlcNAcylation information, of which ~61% are of humans, and 172 proteins have a total of ~400 O-GlcNAcylation sites identified. The O-GlcNAcylated proteins are primarily nucleocytoplasmic, including membrane- and non-membrane bounded organelle-associated proteins. The known O-GlcNAcylated proteins exert a broad range of functions including transcriptional regulation, macromolecular complex assembly, intracellular transport, translation, and regulation of cell growth or death. The database also contains ~365 potential O-GlcNAcylated proteins inferred from known O-GlcNAcylated orthologs. Additional annotations, including other protein posttranslational modifications, biological pathways and disease information are integrated into the database. We developed an O-GlcNAcylation site prediction system, OGlcNAcScan, based on Support Vector Machine and trained using protein sequences with known O-GlcNAcylation sites from dbOGAP. The site prediction system achieved an area under ROC curve of 74.3% in five-fold cross-validation. The dbOGAP website was developed to allow for performing search and query on O-GlcNAcylated proteins and associated literature, as well as for browsing by gene names, organisms or pathways, and downloading of the database. Also available from the website, the OGlcNAcScan tool presents a list of predicted O-GlcNAcylation sites for given protein sequences.
dbOGAP is the first public bioinformatics resource to allow systematic access to the O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and related functional information and bibliography, as well as to an O-GlcNAcylation site prediction tool. The resource will facilitate research on O-GlcNAcylation and its proteomic identification.
The majority of AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are latently infected with both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). PELs harboring two viruses have higher oncogenic potential, suggesting functional interactions between EBV and KSHV. The KSHV replication and transcription activator (K-RTA) is necessary and sufficient for induction of KSHV lytic replication. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is essential for EBV transformation and establishment of latency in vitro. We show EBV inhibits chemically induced KSHV lytic replication, in part because of a regulatory loop in which K-RTA induces EBV LMP-1 and LMP-1 in turn inhibits K-RTA expression and furthermore the lytic gene expression of KSHV. Suppression of LMP-1 expression in dually infected PEL cells enhances the expression of K-RTA and lytic replication of KSHV upon chemical induction. Because LMP-1 is known to inhibit EBV lytic replication, KSHV-mediated induction of LMP-1 would potentiate EBV latency. Moreover, KSHV infection of EBV latency cells induces LMP-1, and K-RTA is involved in the induction. Both LMP-1 and K-RTA are expressed during primary infection by EBV of KSHV latency cells. Our findings provide evidence that an interaction between EBV and KSHV at molecular levels promotes the maintenance and possibly establishment of viral latency, which may contribute to pathogenesis of PELs.
The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) Mta protein, encoded by open reading frame 57, is a transactivator of gene expression that is essential for productive viral replication. Previous studies have suggested both transcriptional and posttranscriptional roles for Mta, but little is known regarding Mta's transcriptional function. In this study, we demonstrate that Mta cooperates with the KSHV lytic switch protein, Rta, to reactivate KSHV from latency, but Mta has little effect on reactivation when expressed alone. We demonstrate that the Mta and Rta proteins are expressed with similar but distinct kinetics during KSHV reactivation. In single-cell analyses, Mta expression coincides tightly with progression to full viral reactivation. We demonstrate with promoter reporter assays that while Rta activates transcription in all cell lines tested, Mta's ability to transactivate promoters, either alone or synergistically with Rta, is cell and promoter specific. In particular, Mta robustly transactivates the nut-1/PAN promoter independently of Rta in 293 and Akata-31 cells. Using nuclear run-on assays, we demonstrate that Mta stimulates transcriptional initiation in 293 cells. Rta and Mta physically interact in infected cell extracts, and this interaction requires the intact leucine repeat and central region of Rta in vitro. We demonstrate that Mta also binds to the nut-1/PAN promoter DNA in vitro and in infected cells. An Mta mutant with a lesion in a putative A/T hook domain is altered in DNA binding and debilitated in transactivation. We propose that one molecular mechanism of Mta-mediated transactivation is a direct effect on transcription by direct and indirect promoter association.
Like other herpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also designated human herpesvirus 8) can establish a latent infection in the infected host. During latency a small number of genes are expressed. One of those genes encodes latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which is constitutively expressed in cells during latent as well as lytic infection. LANA has previously been shown to be important for the establishment of latent episome maintenance through tethering of the viral genome to the host chromosomes. Under specific conditions, KSHV can undergo lytic replication, with the production of viral progeny. The immediate-early Rta, encoded by open reading frame 50 of KSHV, has been shown to play a critical role in switching from viral latent replication to lytic replication. Overexpression of Rta from a heterologous promoter is sufficient for driving KSHV lytic replication and the production of viral progeny. In the present study, we show that LANA down-modulates Rta's promoter activity in transient reporter assays, thus repressing Rta-mediated transactivation. This results in a decrease in the production of KSHV progeny virions. We also found that LANA interacts physically with Rta both in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LANA can inhibit viral lytic replication by inhibiting expression as well as antagonizing the function of Rta. This suggests that LANA may play a critical role in maintaining latency by controlling the switch between viral latency and lytic replication.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common neoplasm among human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV is able to establish a predominantly latent, life-long infection in its host. The KSHV lytic cycle can be triggered by a number of stimuli that induce the expression of the key lytic switch protein, the replication and transcription activator (RTA) encoded by Orf50. The expression of Rta is necessary and sufficient to trigger the full lytic program resulting in the ordered expression of viral proteins, release of viral progeny, and host cell death. We have characterized an unknown open reading frame, Orf49, which lies adjacent and in the opposite orientation to Orf50. Orf49 is expressed during the KSHV lytic cycle and shows early transcription kinetics. We have mapped the 5′ and 3′ ends of the unspliced Orf49 transcript, which encodes a 30-kDa protein that is localized to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Interestingly, we found that Orf49 was able to cooperate with Rta to activate several KSHV lytic promoters containing AP-1 sites. The Orf49-encoded protein was also able to induce transcriptional activation through c-Jun but not the ATF1, ATF2, or CREB transcription factor. We found that Orf49 could induce phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor c-Jun, the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Our data suggest that Orf49 functions to activate the JNK and p38 pathways during the KSHV lytic cycle.
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) is well established as a key transcriptional activator that regulates the KSHV life cycle from latency to lytic replication. It is expressed immediately after infection and activates a number of viral genes leading to virus replication. The RTA-responsive element (RRE) in the RTA target gene promoters is critical for RTA to mediate this transactivation. A number of non-conserved RREs have been identified in various RTA-responsive promoters, and AT-rich sequences have been proposed to serve as RTA targets, but no consensus RRE sequence has been identified so far. Two nonconserved RREs (RRE1 and RRE2) containing AT-rich sequences have been identified previously in the promoter of one of the KSHV lytic genes, ORF57, which can be strongly activated by RTA. Based on homology with the consensus sequence of the Epstein–Barr virus Rta RRE, this study identified a third RTA-responsive element (RRE3) in the ORF57 promoter. This RRE comprised a GC-rich sequence that could bind RTA both in vitro and in vivo, and plays a role in RTA-mediated transactivation of the ORF57 promoter. The presence of two of the three RREs in close proximity to each other was required for optimal RTA-mediated transactivation of the ORF57 promoter, even though the presence of only one RRE is needed for RTA binding. These results suggest that the ability of RTA to mediate transcriptional activation is distinct from its ability to bind to its target elements.
Both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are members of the human gamma herpesvirus family: each is associated with various human cancers. The majority of AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are co-infected with both KSHV and EBV. Dually-infected PELs selectively switch from latency to lytic replication of either KSHV or EBV in response to chemical stimuli. KSHV replication and transcription activator (K-RTA) is necessary and sufficient for the switch from KSHV latency to lytic replication, while EBV BZLF1 gene product (EBV-Z) is a critical initiator for induction of EBV lytic replication.
We show K-RTA and EBV-Z are co-localized and physically interact with each other in dually-infected PELs. K-RTA inhibits the EBV lytic replication by nullifying EBV-Z-mediated EBV lytic gene activation. EBV-Z inhibits KSHV lytic gene expression by blocking K-RTA-mediated transactivations. The physical interaction between K-RTA and EBV-Z are required for the mutual inhibition of the two molecules. The leucine heptapeptide repeat (LR) region in K-RTA and leucine zipper region in EBV-Z are involved in the physical interactions of the two molecules. Finally, initiation of KSHV lytic gene expression is correlated with the reduction of EBV lytic gene expression in the same PEL cells.
In this report, how the two viruses interact with each other in dually infected PELs is addressed. Our data may provide a possible mechanism for maintaining viral latency and for selective lytic replication in dually infected PELs, i.e., through mutual inhibition of two critical lytic replication initiators. Our data about putative interactions between EBV and KSHV would be applicable to the majority of AIDS-associated PELs and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of PELs.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and B-lymphocyte disorders, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV usually exists in a latent form in which the viral genome is circularized into an extrachormosomal episome. However, induction of lytic replication by environmental stimuli or chemical agents is important for the spread of KSHV. The switch between latency and lytic replication is regulated by epigenetic factors. Hypomethylation of the promother of replication and transcription activator (RTA), which is essential for the lytic switch, leads to KSHV reactivation. Histone acetylation induces KSHV replication by influencing protein-protein-associations and transcription factor binding. Histone modifications also determine chromatin structure and nucleosome positioning, which are important for KSHV DNA replication during latency. The association of KSHV proteins with chromatin remodeling complexes promotes the open chromatin structure needed for transcription factor binding and DNA replication. Additionally, post-translational modification of KSHV proteins is important for the regulation of RTA activity and KSHV replication. KSHV may also cause epigenetic modification of the host genome, contributing to promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in KSHV-associated neoplasias.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; epigenetics; histone acetylation; chromatin structure; DNA methylation
Since its discovery in the early 1980s, O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a single sugar modification on the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues, has changed our views of protein glycosylation. While other forms of protein glycosylation modify proteins on the cell surface or within luminal compartments of the secretory machinery, O-GlcNAc modifies myriad nucleocytoplasmic proteins. GlcNAcylated proteins are involved in transcription, ubiquitination, cell cycle, and stress responses. GlcNAcylation is similar to protein phosphorylation in terms of stoichiometry, localization and cycling. To date, only two enzymes are known to regulate GlcNAcylation in mammals: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc, and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase), a neutral hexosaminidase responsible for O-GlcNAc removal. OGT and O-GlcNAcase are regulated by RNA splicing, by nutrients, and by post-translational modifications. Their specificities are controlled by many transiently associated targeting subunits. As methods for detecting O-GlcNAc have improved our understanding of O-GlcNAc's functions has grown rapidly.
Scope of Review
In this review, the functions of GlcNAcylation in regulating cellular processes, its extensive crosstalk with protein phosphorylation, and regulation of OGT and O-GlcNAcase will be explored.
GlcNAcylation rivals phosphorylation in terms of its abundance, protein distribution and its cycling on and off of proteins. GlcNAcylation has extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation to regulate signaling, transcription and the cytoskeleton in response to nutrients and stress.
Abnormal crosstalk between GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation underlies dysregulation in diabetes, including glucose toxicity, and defective GlcNAcylation is involved in neurodegenerative disease and cancer and most recently in AIDS.
O-GlcNAc; GlcNAcylation; Phosphorylation; OGT; OGA; Stress; glucosamine; Alzheimer's Disease; signaling; diabetes; O-GlcNAcase; O-GlcNAc transferase
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) is well established as a key transcriptional activator that regulates the KSHV life cycle from latency to lytic replication. It is expressed immediately after infection and activates a number of viral genes leading to virus replication. The RTA-responsive element (RRE) in the RTA target gene promoters is critical for RTA to mediate this transactivation. A number of non-conserved RREs have been identified in various RTA-responsive promoters, and AT-rich sequences have been proposed to serve as RTA targets, but no consensus RRE sequence has been identified so far. Two non-conserved RREs (RRE1 and RRE2) containing AT-rich sequences have been identified previously in the promoter of one of the KSHV lytic genes, ORF57, which can be strongly activated by RTA. Based on homology with the consensus sequence of the Epstein–Barr virus Rta RRE, this study identified a third RTA-responsive element (RRE3) in the ORF57 promoter. This RRE comprised a GC-rich sequence that could bind RTA both in vitro and in vivo, and plays a role in RTA-mediated transactivation of the ORF57 promoter. The presence of two of the three RREs in close proximity to each other was required for optimal RTA-mediated transactivation of the ORF57 promoter, even though the presence of only one RRE is needed for RTA binding. These results suggest that the ability of RTA to mediate transcriptional activation is distinct from its ability to bind to its target elements.
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication and transcription activator (RTA) encoded by ORF50 is a lytic switch protein for viral reactivation from latency. The expression of RTA activates the expression of downstream viral genes, and is necessary for triggering the full viral lytic program. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay coupled with a KSHV whole-genome tiling microarray (ChIP-on-chip) approach, we identified a set of 19 RTA binding sites in the KSHV genome in a KSHV-infected cell line BCBL-1. These binding sites are located in the regions of promoters, introns, or exons of KSHV genes including ORF8, ORFK4.1, ORFK5, PAN, ORF16, ORF29, ORF45, ORF50, ORFK8, ORFK10.1, ORF59, ORFK12, ORF71/72, ORFK14/ORF74, and ORFK15, the two origins of lytic replication OriLyt-L and OriLyt-R, and the microRNA cluster. We confirmed these RTA binding sites by ChIP and quantitative real-time PCR. We further mapped the RTA binding site in the first intron of the ORFK15 gene, and determined that it is RTA-responsive. The ORFK15 RTA binding sequence TTCCAGGAA TTCCTGGAA consists of a palindromic structure of two tandem repeats, of which each itself is also an imperfect inverted repeat. Reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the binding of the RTA protein to this sequence in vitro. Sequence alignment with other RTA binding sites identified the RTA consensus binding motif as TTCCAGGAT(N)0–16TTCCTGGGA. Interestingly, most of the identified RTA binding sites contain only half or part of this RTA binding motif. These results suggest the complexity of RTA binding in vivo, and the involvements of other cellular or viral transcription factors during RTA transactivation of target genes.
Lytic reactivation from latency is critical for the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). We previously demonstrated that the 691-amino-acid (aa) KSHV Rta transcriptional transactivator is necessary and sufficient to reactivate the virus from latency. Viral lytic cycle genes, including those expressing additional transactivators and putative oncogenes, are induced in a cascade fashion following Rta expression. In this study, we sought to define Rta's direct targets during reactivation by generating a conditionally nuclear variant of Rta. Wild-type Rta protein is constitutively localized to cell nuclei and contains two putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Only one NLS (NLS2; aa 516 to 530) was required for the nuclear localization of Rta, and it relocalized enhanced green fluorescent protein exclusively to cell nuclei. The results of analyses of Rta NLS mutants demonstrated that proper nuclear localization of Rta was required for transactivation and the stimulation of viral reactivation. RTA with NLS1 and NLS2 deleted was fused to the hormone-binding domain of the murine estrogen receptor to generate an Rta variant whose nuclear localization and ability to transactivate and induce reactivation were tightly controlled posttranslationally by the synthetic hormone tamoxifen. We used this strategy in KSHV-infected cells treated with protein synthesis inhibitors to identify direct transcriptional targets of Rta. Rta activated only eight KSHV genes in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These direct transcriptional targets of Rta were transactivated to different levels and included the genes nut-1/PAN, ORF57/Mta, ORF56/Primase, K2/viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), ORF37/SOX, K14/vOX, K9/vIRF1, and ORF52. Our data suggest that the induction of most of the KSHV lytic cycle genes requires additional protein expression after the expression of Rta.