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1.  A Curriculum Review and Mapping Process Supported by an Electronic Database System 
Curriculum mapping and review is now an expected continuous quality improvement initiative of pharmacy professional programs. Effectively implementing and sustaining this expectation can be a challenge to institutions of higher education and requires dedicated faculty members, a systematic approach, creativity, and—perhaps most importantly—demonstrated leadership at all levels of the institution. To address its specific situation and needs, the University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy implemented a peer review process of ongoing curriculum mapping and evaluation. An electronic Pharmacy Curriculum Management System (PCMS) was developed to support faculty efforts to manage curricular data, monitor program outcomes, and improve communications to its stakeholders on 2 campuses and across the state.
PMCID: PMC2630156  PMID: 19214253
curriculum; curriculum mapping; assessment; evaluation; instructional technology
2.  A Model for Curricular Quality Assessment and Improvement 
The article describes a systematic assessment model and its potential application to a college's ongoing curricular assessment activities. Each component of the continuous quality improvement model is discussed, including (1) the definition of a competent practitioner, (2) development of the core curricular competencies and course objectives, (3) students’ baseline characteristics and educational attainment, (4) implementation of the curriculum, (5) data collection about the students’ actual performance on the curriculum, and (6) reassessment of the model and curricular outcomes. Over time, faculty members involved in curricular assessment should routinely reassess the rationale for selecting outcomes; continually explore reliable and valid methods of assessing whether students have reached their learning goals; get legitimate support for assessment activities from faculty members and administration; routinely review curricular content related to attitudinal, behavioral, and knowledge-learning outcomes; and determine what to do with the collected assessment data.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510196
PMCID: PMC3279014  PMID: 22345715
assessment; curricular assessment; continuing quality improvement; competency
3.  The philosophy of chiropractic: an action research model of curriculum review 
The philosophy of chiropractic has always been regarded as an integral and indispensable component of the curriculum at chiropractic colleges. This study describes a review process in which instruments were designed to survey students and faculty to obtain information concerning curricular aspects of philosophy at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Approximately one half of the student body (N = 292) and sixty percent of the full-time and part-time faculty members (N = 66) responded to the surveys. The students who were surveyed indicated that philosophy was a very important part of their chiropractic education and they felt that their needs in this regard were not being met by the present program. Further, they perceived most faculty as being unappreciative of philosophy. The results from the faculty survey were at odds with the students’ perceptions and indicated that the faculty members were favourably disposed towards philosophy and felt that it should be an integral part of the students’ educational experience. The information gained from these surveys was subsequently used as a catalyst to stimulate discussion in a series of student/faculty focus groups on philosophy. These discussions helped to clarify some curricular philosophical issues and resulted in specific modifications to the philosophy program in the areas of content, format, faculty, and evaluation methods.
PMCID: PMC2485449
chiropractic; philosophy; curriculum
4.  Colorectal Surgeons Teaching General Surgery Residents: Current Challenges and Opportunities 
Effective teaching for general surgery residents requires that faculty members with colorectal expertise actively engage in the education process and fully understand the current context for residency training. In this article, we review important national developments with respect to graduate medical education that impact resident supervision, curriculum implementation, resident assessment, and program evaluation. We argue that establishing a culture of respect and professionalism in today's teaching environment is one of the most important legacies that surgical educators can leave for the coming generation. Faculty role modeling and the process of socializing residents is highlighted. We review the American College of Surgeons' Code of Professional Conduct, summarize some of the current strategies for teaching and assessing professionalism, and reflect on principles of motivation that apply to resident training both for the trainee and the trainer.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1322526
PMCID: PMC3577580  PMID: 23997668
surgery residents; professionalism; graduate medical education; medical ethics; mentoring
5.  Faculty and Students’ Perceptions of Student Experiences in a Medical School Undergoing Curricular Transition in the United Arab Emirates 
Objectives:
In 2008, the Gulf Medical College in the United Arab Emirates underwent a curricular change from a discipline-based to an organ-system-based integrated curriculum. In this context, this study aimed to compare the faculty and students’ perceptions of the student experiences with the new curriculum.
Methods:
Data were collected from faculty and second-year students in the integrated curriculum using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Data collected were transferred to Predictive Analytics Software, Version 18. Global and domain scores were assessed with the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. Percentage agreement, disagreement and uncertainty were assessed by the z-test for proportion.
Results:
There were no significant differences between the total DREEM scores of faculty (139/200) and students (135/200). The faculty perceived that the students were experiencing significantly more positive learning as indicated by the domain score of “Students’ Perceptions of Learning”. Proportions of agreement between faculty and students showed that more faculty members than students perceived the need for increased feedback to students and a greater emphasis on long term learning.
Conclusion:
The study showed that the faculty and students had similar perceptions about the student experiences in the integrated curriculum. Areas necessitating remedial measures were the need for faculty to learn constructive feedback techniques and an emphasis on long term learning in the new curriculum.
PMCID: PMC3286721  PMID: 22375262
Curriculum; Undergraduate medical education; Medical students; Medical faculty; Perception
6.  Implementation of Integrated Learning Program in neurosciences during first year of traditional medical course: Perception of students and faculty 
Background
Our college introduced an integrated learning program (ILP) for first year undergraduates with an aim to develop, implement and evaluate a module for CNS in basic sciences and to assess the feasibility of an ILP in phase I of medical education in a college following traditional medical curriculum.
Methods
The idea of implementing ILP for Central Nervous System (CNS) in phase one was conceived by curriculum development committee drawn from faculty of all phases. After a series of meetings of curriculum development committee, inputs from basic science and clinical departments, a time table was constructed. Various teaching learning methods, themes for integrated didactic lectures, case based learning and clinical exposure were decided. Basic science faculty were made to participate actively in both case based learning and hospital visits along with clinical experts. The completed program was evaluated based on structured questionnaire.
Results
Sixty percent students rated the program good to excellent with reference to appreciation, understanding and application of basic science knowledge in health and disease. Seventy eight percent felt that this program will help them perform better in later days of clinical training. However sixty percent students felt that ILP will not help them perform better at the first professional examination. Seventy two per cent of faculty agreed that this program improved understanding and application of basic science knowledge of students. Ninety percent of faculty felt that this program will help them perform better in later days of clinical training.
Conclusion
The adoption of present integrated module for CNS and the use of multiple teaching learning methods have been proven to be useful in acquisition of knowledge from the student satisfaction point of view. Students and faculty expressed an overall satisfaction towards ILP for CNS. The study showed that it is possible to adopt an integrated learning module in the first year of medical course under a conventional curriculum.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-8-44
PMCID: PMC2569025  PMID: 18811978
7.  Competence, commitment and opportunity: an exploration of faculty views and perceptions on community- based education 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:167.
Background
Community-Based Education (CBE) is an instructional approach designed and carried out in a community context and environment in which not only students, but also faculty and Health Professionals’ Education (HPE) institutions must be actively engaged throughout the educational experience. Despite the growing evidence of CBE being an effective approach for contemporary HPE, doubts about its successful implementation still exist. This study has explored HPE structure, policies and curriculum from the point of view of faculty members to gain understanding about the prevailing practices and to propose recommendations that nurtures and promotes CBE.
Method
A purposive sample was drawn from three major cities of Pakistan- Karachi, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Out of twelve HPE institutions present in these cities we selected six, which provided a sound representation of medical and nursing colleges around the country. At each institution we had two Focus Group Discussions; in addition we interviewed registrars of medical and nursing councils and two CBE experts.
Results
The factors effecting implementation of CBE as perceived by study participants are categorized as: preparation of faculty members; institutional commitment and enthusiasm; curricular priorities and external milieu. Within each theme, participants recurrently described structural and curricular deficiencies, and lack of commitment and appreciation for community based teaching, service and research permeating at all levels: regulatory bodies, institutional heads and faculty members.
Conclusions
The factors highlighted by our study and many others suggest that CBE could not perpetuate effectively within HPE. To enhance the effectiveness of CBE approach in a way that mutually benefits local communities as well as HPE institutions and health professionals, it is important that reforms in HPE must be strategized in a holistic fashion i.e. restructuring and aligning its polices, curriculum and research priorities.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-167
PMCID: PMC4029465  PMID: 24330679
8.  A collaborative institutional model for integrating computer applications in the medical curriculum. 
The introduction and promotion of information technology in an established medical curriculum with existing academic and technical support structures poses a number of challenges. The UNC School of Medicine has developed the Taskforce on Educational Applications in Medicine (TEAM), to coordinate this effort. TEAM works as a confederation of existing research and support units with interests in computers and education, along with a core of interested faculty with curricular responsibilities. Constituent units of the TEAM confederation include the medical center library, medical television studios, basic science teaching laboratories, educational development office, microcomputer and network support groups, academic affairs administration, and a subset of course directors and teaching faculty. Among our efforts have been the establishment of (1) a mini-grant program to support faculty initiated development and implementation of computer applications in the curriculum, (2) a symposium series with visiting speakers to acquaint faculty with current developments in medical informatics and related curricular efforts at other institution, (3) 20 computer workstations located in the multipurpose teaching labs where first and second year students do much of their academic work, (4) a demonstration center for evaluation of courseware and technologically advanced delivery systems. The student workstations provide convenient access to electronic mail, University schedules and calendars, the CoSy computer conferencing system, and several software applications integral to their courses in pathology, histology, microbiology, biochemistry, and neurobiology. The progress achieved toward the primary goal has modestly exceeded our initial expectations, while the collegiality and interest expressed toward TEAM activities in the local environment stand as empirical measures of the success of the concept.
PMCID: PMC2247631  PMID: 1807705
9.  Keys to Successful Implementation of Interprofessional Education: Learning Location, Faculty Development, and Curricular Themes 
Although there is evidence to support implementing interprofessional education (IPE) in the health sciences, widespread implementation in health professions education is not yet a reality. Challenges include the diversity in location and settings of schools and colleges, ie, many are not located within an academic health center. Faculty members may not have the necessary skill set for teaching in an IPE environment. Certain topics or themes in a pharmacy curriculum may be more appropriate than others for teaching in an IPE setting. This paper offers solutions to teaching IPE in diverse settings, the construct for implementing a faculty development program for IPE, and suggested curricular topics with their associated learning objectives, potential teaching methods, and timelines for implementation.
PMCID: PMC2720356  PMID: 19657493
interprofessional education; faculty development; curriculum
10.  Does curricular change improve faculty perceptions of student experiences with the educational environment? A preliminary study in an institution undergoing curricular change 
Purpose:
College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, United Arab Emirates, underwent a major curriculum change from a discipline-based to an organ system-based integrated curriculum. However, it was not known how the faculty perceived the changes in the educational environment as experienced by the students. In this context, we aimed to compare the faculty perceptions of the student experiences in the discipline-based curriculum with those in the organ system-based integrated curriculum.
Methods:
The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire was modified to assess faculty perceptions of the student experiences, pilot-tested, and administered to all faculty members (n=28) involved in the discipline-based curriculum (FDC) in January 2009. In the subsequent year, data were collected from the same faculty involved in the new integrated curriculum (FIC). Collected data were transferred to Predictive Analytics Software version 18. Total, domain, and individual statement scores were assessed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Percentage agreement, disagreement, and uncertainty were assessed by the McNemar’s test for proportion.
Results:
The mean total DREEM score was significantly higher (P<0.001) for FIC (139/200) as compared to FDC (119/200). The FIC perceived significantly more positive student experiences with the educational environment as indicated by the domain scores and statement scores. The differences in proportions of agreement between FIC and FDC also reinforced that the FIC perceived more positive student experiences with the educational environment.
Conclusion:
The study showed that the faculty perceived the organ system-based integrated curriculum as providing a better educational environment for the students than the discipline based curriculum.
doi:10.3352/jeehp.2014.11.7
PMCID: PMC4013721  PMID: 24781357
Curriculum; Educational environment; Medical faculty; Perceptions; Undergraduate medical education
11.  How Students and Faculty Interact With a Searchable Online Database of the Medical Curriculum 
Many medical schools currently provide electronic access to their medical curriculum. In order to better develop and evaluate online curricular databases, knowledge of the interaction of students and faculty with such systems is required. The KnowledeMap application provides a web interface for students, faculty and administrators to perform NLP-assisted searches for documents from the entire medical curriculum. The pilot implementation of KM in a first year anatomy course was evaluated. Data were collected from the web-server log files over two years, a paper survey at the end of the course, and structured interviews with students and faculty members. The data showed complete adoption of KM. Analysis of usage patterns showed that most of the students chose to browse for current course material rather than to search for related medical concepts in future courses. Analysis of the interviews identified key concepts relating to the students’ utilization of KM for their learning tasks. The impact of KM on medical pedagogy is discussed in light of our results.
PMCID: PMC1560857  PMID: 16779149
12.  Library faculty role in problem-based learning: facilitating small groups. 
Since 1986, the library faculty of the McGoogan Library of Medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) has participated in small group activities during the week-long orientation for first-year medical students. This involvement paved the way for library faculty members to act as facilitators for small groups of medical students within the new problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum introduced in 1992 by the College of Medicine. The UNMC curriculum consists of traditional PBL groups as well as Integrated Clinical Experience (ICE) small groups. The ICE groups provide opportunities for discussion of the social and behavioral issues that arise in medicine, with the majority of the sessions designed to give students interviewing practice with simulated patients. The ICE small groups meet once a week with either one or two facilitators. Several library faculty members act as facilitators for ICE groups. As a result of this involvement, librarian contacts with College of Medicine faculty have grown in number and depth, there has been a corresponding increase in related activities with the first- and second-year medical students. Participation in ICE groups has caused some difficulties with respect to library work schedules, but it has been immensely rewarding and enriching in terms of professional growth. This paper describes the UNMC curriculum, the evolution and extent of the librarians' involvement, and the future involvement, ramifications, and challenges envisioned for McGoogan faculty and their medical library colleagues.
PMCID: PMC226066  PMID: 8547907
13.  Curriculum Mapping in Program Assessment and Evaluation 
Objectives
To demonstrate a curriculum mapping technique and its use in program evaluation and assessment, as well as to provide specific recommendations for potential uses in pharmacy education.
Methods
This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design based on a learning outcomes document and several existing student and curricular data sets.
Results
The population consisted of 209 PharmD students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy (UACOP) during the 2004-2005 academic year and mapped 31 of the 34 required didactic courses in the curriculum. There was concordance between student and faculty member ranking of domain coverage in their respective curricular maps.
Conclusions
The agreement between the student and faculty graphical curriculum maps on the order of the ranking of the relative emphasis of each domain suggests concordance between the intended/delivered and received curriculums. This study demonstrated a curriculum mapping methodology that can be used to both make sense and use of existing data in curricular evaluation.
PMCID: PMC1858603  PMID: 17533429
curriculum evaluation; curriculum mapping; assessment; curriculum
14.  Gastroenterology fellowship training: Approaches to curriculum assessment and evaluation 
BACKGROUND:
Medical education requires ongoing curriculum development and evaluation to incorporate new knowledge and competencies. The Kern model of curricular development is a generic model to guide curriculum design, whereas the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) has a specific model for curriculum development through its accreditation structure.
OBJECTIVE:
To apply the Kern model to an assessment of a residency program in gastroenterology.
METHODS:
A case study was used, which is a method of qualitative research designed to help researchers understand people and the societal contexts in which they live.
RESULTS:
The six steps involved in the Kern model of curricular development include problem identification; needs assessment; establishing objectives; establishing educational strategies; implementation; and evaluation. The steps of the RCPSC model of curriculum development include establishing an administrative structure for the program; objectives; structure and organization of the program; resources; clinical, academic and scholarly content of the program; and evaluation. Two differences between the models for curriculum development include the ability of the Kern model to conduct problem identification and learner needs assessment. Identifying problems that exist suggests a need for an educational program, such as the long wait times for gastroenterology referrals. Assessing learner needs allows for the development of a tailored curriculum for the trainee.
CONCLUSIONS:
The Kern model and RCPSC model for curriculum development are complementary. Consideration by the RCPSC should be provided to add the missing elements of curriculum design to the accreditation structure for completeness.
PMCID: PMC2660814  PMID: 18560634
Case study; Curriculum; Development; Gastroenterology
15.  Educational Innovations in Academic Medicine and Environmental Trends 
Fifteen educational innovations in academic medicine are described in relation to 5 environmental trends. The first trend, demands for increased clinical productivity, has diminished the learning environment, necessitating new organizational structures to support teaching, such as academies of medical educators, mission-based management, and faculty development. The second trend is multidisciplinary approaches to science and education. This is stimulating the growth of multidisciplinary curricular design and oversight along with integrated curricular structures. Third, the science of learning advocates the use of case-based, active learning methods; learning communities such as societies and colleges; and instructional technology. Fourth, shifting views of health and disease are encouraging the addition of new content in the curriculum. In response, theme committees are weaving content across the curriculum, new courses are being inserted into curricula, and community-based education is providing learning experiences outside of academic medical centers. Fifth, calls for accountability are leading to new forms of performance assessment using objective structured clinical exams, clinical examination exercises, simulators, and comprehensive assessment programs. These innovations are transforming medical education.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.21049.x
PMCID: PMC1494858  PMID: 12795736
educational innovations; environmental trends
16.  Implementation of the interdisciplinary curriculum Teaching and Assessing Communicative Competence in the fourth academic year of medical studies (CoMeD) 
Introduction: Implementation of a longitudinal curriculum for training in advanced communications skills represents an unmet need in most German medical faculties, especially in the 4rth and 5th years of medical studies. The CoMeD project (communication in medical education Düsseldorf) attempted to establish an interdisciplinary program to teach and to assess communicative competence in the 4th academic year. In this paper, we describe the development of the project and report results of its evaluation by medical students.
Methods: Teaching objectives and lesson formats were developed in a multistage process. A teaching program for simulated patients (SP) was built up and continuous lecturer trainings were estabilshed. Several clinical disciplines co-operated for the purpose of integrating the communication training into the pre-existing clinical teaching curriculum. The CoMeD project was evaluated using feedback-forms after each course.
Results: Until now, six training units for especially challenging communication tasks like “dealing with aggression” or “breaking bad news” were implemented, each unit connected with a preliminary tutorial or e-learning course. An OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) with 4 stations was introduced. The students’ evaluation of the six CoMeD training units showed the top or second-best rating in more than 80% of the answers.
Discussion: Introducing an interdisciplinary communication training and a corresponding OSCE into the 4th year medical curriculum is feasible. Embedding communication teaching in a clinical context and involvement of clinicians as lecturers seem to be important factors for ensuring practical relevance and achieving high acceptance by medical students.
doi:10.3205/zma000776
PMCID: PMC3296104  PMID: 22403591
medical education; communication; curriculum development; simulated patients; medical interview
17.  Instrumentation for Comparing Student and Faculty Perceptions of Competency-based Assessment 
Objectives
To compare student and faculty perceptions of the delivery and achievement of professional competencies in a doctor of pharmacy program in order to provide data for both accountability and curricular improvement purposes.
Design
A survey instrument was designed based on current learning theory, and 76 specific competency statements generated from mission and goal statements of The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy and the Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education. This instrument was administered to PharmD program students and faculty.
Assessment
The number of competencies by program year that are delivered in the curriculum, the percent of students and faculty reporting individual competency delivery and achievement, and differences between student and faculty perceptions of competency delivery and achievement are reported.
Conclusion
The faculty and student opinions provided an in-depth view of curricular outcomes. Gathering perception data from faculty and students about the delivery and achievement of competencies in a PharmD program can be used to both meet accreditation requirements (accountability) and to improve the curriculum (improvement).
PMCID: PMC1803706  PMID: 17332860
outcomes assessment; assessment; survey research; curriculum reform; competency
18.  A Ten-Month Program in Curriculum Development for Medical Educators: 16 Years of Experience 
BACKGROUND
Despite increased demand for new curricula in medical education, most academic medical centers have few faculty with training in curriculum development.
OBJECTIVE
To describe and evaluate a longitudinal mentored faculty development program in curriculum development.
DESIGN
A 10-month curriculum development program operating one half-day per week of each academic year from 1987 through 2003. The program was designed to provide participants with the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and experience to design, implement, evaluate, and disseminate curricula in medical education using a 6-step model.
PARTICIPANTS
One-hundred thirty-eight faculty and fellows from Johns Hopkins and other institutions and 63 matched nonparticipants.
MEASUREMENTS
Pre- and post-surveys from participants and nonparticipants assessed skills in curriculum development, implementation, and evaluation, as well as enjoyment in curriculum development and evaluation. Participants rated program quality, educational methods, and facilitation in a post-program survey.
RESULTS
Sixty-four curricula were produced addressing gaps in undergraduate, graduate, or postgraduate medical education. At least 54 curricula (84%) were implemented. Participant self-reported skills in curricular development, implementation, and evaluation improved from baseline (p < .0001), whereas no improvement occurred in the comparison group. In multivariable analyses, participants rated their skills and enjoyment at the end of the program significantly higher than nonparticipants (all p < .05). Eighty percent of participants felt that they would use the 6-step model again, and 80% would recommend the program highly to others.
CONCLUSIONS
This model for training in curriculum development has long-term sustainability and is associated with participant satisfaction, improvement in self-rated skills, and implementation of curricula on important topics.
doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0103-x
PMCID: PMC1852913  PMID: 17443374
curriculum development; faculty development
19.  A Ten-Month Program in Curriculum Development for Medical Educators: 16 Years of Experience 
BACKGROUND
Despite increased demand for new curricula in medical education, most academic medical centers have few faculty with training in curriculum development.
OBJECTIVE
To describe and evaluate a longitudinal mentored faculty development program in curriculum development.
DESIGN
A 10-month curriculum development program operating one half-day per week of each academic year from 1987 through 2003. The program was designed to provide participants with the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and experience to design, implement, evaluate, and disseminate curricula in medical education using a 6-step model.
PARTICIPANTS
One-hundred thirty-eight faculty and fellows from Johns Hopkins and other institutions and 63 matched nonparticipants.
MEASUREMENTS
Pre- and post-surveys from participants and nonparticipants assessed skills in curriculum development, implementation, and evaluation, as well as enjoyment in curriculum development and evaluation. Participants rated program quality, educational methods, and facilitation in a post-program survey.
RESULTS
Sixty-four curricula were produced addressing gaps in undergraduate, graduate, or postgraduate medical education. At least 54 curricula (84%) were implemented. Participant self-reported skills in curricular development, implementation, and evaluation improved from baseline (p < .0001), whereas no improvement occurred in the comparison group. In multivariable analyses, participants rated their skills and enjoyment at the end of the program significantly higher than nonparticipants (all p < .05). Eighty percent of participants felt that they would use the 6-step model again, and 80% would recommend the program highly to others.
CONCLUSIONS
This model for training in curriculum development has long-term sustainability and is associated with participant satisfaction, improvement in self-rated skills, and implementation of curricula on important topics.
doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0103-x
PMCID: PMC1852913  PMID: 17443374
curriculum development; faculty development
20.  A problem-based learning curriculum in transition: the emerging role of the library. 
This case study describes library education programs that serve the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, known for its innovative problem-based learning (PBL) curricular track. The paper outlines the specific library instruction techniques that are integrated into the curriculum. The adaptation of library instruction to a PBL mode of medical education, including the use of case studies, is discussed in detail. Also addressed are the planning processes for the new PBL curriculum scheduled for implementation in 1993, including the activities of library faculty and staff and the probable new role of the library in the new curriculum.
PMCID: PMC225796  PMID: 8374588
21.  Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework: Perceptions of stakeholders 
Background
In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees.
Methods
Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged.
Results
Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context.
Conclusion
This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting processes in the contexts of resource-poor settings. However, the full implementation of Accountability for Reasonableness would require a proper capacity-building plan, involving all relevant stakeholders, particularly members of the community since public accountability is the ultimate aim, and it is the community that will live with the consequences of priority-setting decisions.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-322
PMCID: PMC3009977  PMID: 21122123
22.  The Value of Partnerships in Science Education: A Win-Win Situation 
An editorial in Science (Alberts, 2012) has expressed the need to teach “real science,” firmly based on hands-on and inquiry methodology. Also in a recent article, Stevens (2011) highlighted the contrast between the emphasis that federal agencies and professional associations place on science outreach, and the scarcity of support for such activities at the classroom level. To bridge this gap, we have developed a way to redefine science education by involving college students and faculty in “real science” outreach. Incorporating outreach activities into a college science curriculum is an efficient means to affect not only future scientists but also the world at large with which scientists need to communicate.
In this paper we describe a Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) project. The project has been implemented in a minority setting, at a small college of allied health located in one of the most underserved areas of Los Angeles. Some of its outcomes were presented at two Society for Neuroscience meetings (Gizerian et al., 2009; Ayers and de Lacalle, 2010), before being also discussed as an example of outreach program during the FUN summer workshop in Pomona (California) in 2011. This project entails the development of a working partnership between K-12 institutions and college science students and faculty. Participation was voluntary (but college students could request community service credit) and most importantly built on student interests and connections with the community. The three components are described in terms of efficacy (i.e., impact on college students’ communication skills) and community value (i.e., impact on educational outcomes for the partner K-12 institution).
PMCID: PMC3592742  PMID: 23493678
science outreach; neuroscience education; minorities in science; public policy
23.  Evaluation of a Transition to Practice Program for Neurosurgery Residents: Creating a Safe Transition From Resident to Independent Practitioner 
Background
In 2004, the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Florida implemented a major curriculum innovation called the Transition to Practice program. This program was established to prepare residents to more safely transition to the role of independent practitioner.
Methods
A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the program was conducted after its fifth year using online surveys and interviews. Study participants included Transition to Practice graduates, faculty, and current residents.
Results
Of the 26 respondents, 89% of faculty and all graduates were very satisfied with the program. Strengths identified included an independent yet mentored broad operative experience, the development of self-confidence, and a real sense of responsibility for patients. Medical billing and coding instruction and career mentoring were areas of the program that required additional attention.
Conclusion
Overall, this program is meeting the stated objectives and is well received by the graduates and faculty. Based on the results of this evaluation, curricular changes such as instructions in practice management and implementation of a career-mentoring program have occurred. The Transition to Practice program is a unique curricular response to change that other surgical specialties may find useful in addressing the current-day stresses on graduate medical education.
doi:10.4300/JGME-D-10-00078.1
PMCID: PMC2951776  PMID: 21976085
24.  DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED ORGAN/SYSTEM CURRICULUM WITH COMMUNITY-ORIENTATION FOR A NEW MEDICAL COLLEGE IN JAZAN, SAUDI ARABIA 
Background:
Jazan province is located in the south-west of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The province is offlicted with a wide spectrum of diseases and therefore have a special need for more health services. The Faculty of Medicine at Jazan has been following the traditional curriculum since its inception in 2001. The traditional curriculum has been criticized because of the students inability to relate what they learned in the basic sciences to medicine, thus stifling their motivation. It was felt that much of what was presented in preclinical courses was irrelevant to what the doctor really needed to know for his practice. The College therefore, decided to change to an integrated curriculum.
Design:
The study was conducted in 2004-2005 in the Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University. It began with a literature survey/search for relevant information and a series of meetings with experts from various institutions. A Curriculum Committee was formed and a set of guiding principles was prepared to help develop the new curriculum. A standard curriculum writing format was adopted for each module. It was decided that an independent evaluation of the new curriculum was to be done by experts in medical education before submission for official approval. There were several difficulties in the course of designing the curriculum, such as: provision of vertical integration, the lack of preparedness of faculty to teach an integrated curriculum, and difficulties inherent in setting a truly integrated examination.
Curriculum:
The program designed is for 6 years and in 3 phases; pre-med (year 1), organ/system (years 2 and 3), and clinical clerkship (years 4, 5, and 6). This is to be followed by a year of Internship. The pre-med phase aims at improving the students’ English language and prepare them for the succeeding phases. The organ/ system phase includes the integrated systems and the introductory modules. The curriculum includes elective modules, early clinical training, behavioral sciences, medical ethics, biostatistics, computer practice, and research methods. The curriculum provides active methods of instruction that include: small group discussion/ tutorials, problem-based learning (PBL), case-study/ clinical presentations, seminars, skills practice (clinical skill lab), practical, demonstration, and student independent learning. Methods of evaluating students include continuous and summative assessment.
Conclusion:
The new curriculum adopted by the Jazan Faculty of Medicine is an integrated, organ/ system based, community-oriented, with early clinical skills, elective modules, and innovative methods of instructions.
PMCID: PMC3410155  PMID: 23012158
Community oriented education; Curriculum development/evaluation; Interdisciplinary medical education; Problem-based learning
25.  Best Practices Assessment to Guide Curricular Change in a Bachelor of Pharmacy Program 
Objectives
To identify best practices in global pharmacy education and curriculum design as the basis for decisions about major curriculum change in an existing 4-year bachelor of pharmacy curriculum.
Design
We investigated international best-practice standards, conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty members, and used standardized instruments to investigate student perceptions of the existing curriculum and how they approached their learning.
Assessment
Faculty recommendations included horizontal and vertical integration of curriculum content to replace the previous discipline-based approach; and a theme-based structure underpinned by a detailed statement of learning outcomes that describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudinal milestones to be achieved each year and by the time of graduation. The triangulation of student survey data highlighted issues that needed to be addressed at the individual course unit level, with a particular focus on feedback, assessment, and workload.
Conclusions
The results of the curriculum review provided clear guidance for decisions relating to major curriculum change. An ongoing program of staff development will address the wide range of learning and teaching issues identified by both staff members and students. The results of our investigation of students' approaches to learning will also be used to guide staff development workshops, focusing on strategies to promote “meaningful learning.”
PMCID: PMC2690863  PMID: 19513149
curriculum review; curriculum; bachelor of pharmacy degree; best practices

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