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1.  Suppression of Pratylenchus penetrans Populations in Potato and Tomato using African Marigolds 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(2):130-134.
Current strategies for management of Pratylenchus penetrans in both white potato and tomato consist of the use of fumigant or non-fumigant nematicides or crop rotation. The objective of this study was to determine if double-cropping African marigolds (Tagetes erecta) with potatoes or tomatoes could reduce P. penetrans populations. Plots were 10 m × 3 m arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included marigolds, potatoes or tomatoes, and natural weedy fallow followed by either potatoes or tomatoes. Nematode populations were sampled before spring planting, between crops in August and after harvest in November. During the 3 years of the study, P. penetrans soil population density declined by an average of 93% from the pre-plant level when marigold was grown in rotation with potato and by 98% when marigold was grown.in rotation with tomato. Weedy fallow preceding potato resulted in an average decline in P. penetrans soil population density of 38%, and a similar decrease (37%) was seen when fallow preceded tomato. There was a significant reduction in the number of P. penetrans found in both potato and tomato roots when the crops followed marigolds. These results suggest that P. penetrans population density may be significantly reduced when marigolds are double-cropped with potatoes or tomatoes.
PMCID: PMC2620546  PMID: 19265920
biological control; double-cropped; lesion nematode; marigolds; potato early dying; Pratylenchus penetrans; thiophenes; tomato
2.  Problems Associated with Crop Rotation for Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Easter Lily 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(4S):581-589.
In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of California and Curry County, Oregon, Easter lilies (Lilium longiflotum) are grown commercially in a 3- to 6-year rotation with pasture for cattle and sheep. Bulbs are sold to greenhouse operations to produce flowering plants. The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a serious detriment to Easter lily production. Both soil and planting stock are often infested; typically, a dual nematicide application is used consisting of a preplant soil fumigation followed by an at-planting application of an organophosphate or carbamate. Nematicide usage has resulted in ground-water contamination. Several factors that could lead to an improved crop rotation program were examined in five field trials in Oregon. Examining the relative nematode host status of crops for feeding cattle and sheep indicated differences in host suitability among clovers and fescues that could prove useful in development of pasture mixes. Populations of P. penetrans under continuous fallow and pasture were monitored for 4 years following harvest of Easter lilies. Populations fluctuated in both situations but generally increased on pasture plants and decreased under fallow. Nematodes were still detectable at the end of 4 years of weed-free fallow. Populations of P. penetrans on Easter lilies were followed over two successive crops. Numbers in soil peaked in July and then decreased while numbers within roots continued to increase until harvest in October.
PMCID: PMC2620334  PMID: 19274250
crop rotation; Easter lily; lesion nematode; Lilium longiflorum; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans
3.  Effect of Initial Nematode Population Density on the Interaction of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae on 'Russet Burbank' Potato 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(1):100-107.
Four similar growth chamber experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the initial population density (Pi) of Pratylenchus penetrans influences the severity of interactive effects of P. penetrans and Verticillium dahliae on shoot growth, photosynthesis, and tuber yield of Russet Burbank potato. In each experiment, three population densities of P. penetrans with and without concomitant inoculation with V. dahliae were compared with nematode-free controls. The three specific Pi of JR penetrans tested varied from experiment to experiment but fell in the ranges 0.8-2.5, 1.8-3.9, 2.1-8.8, and 7.5-32.4 nematodes/cm³ soil. Inoculum of V. dahliaewas mixed into soil, and the assayed density was 5.4 propagules/gram dry soil. Plants were grown 60 to 80 days in a controlled environment. Plant growth parameters in two experiments indicated significant interactions between P. penetrans and V. dahliae. In the absence of V. dahliae, P. penetrans did not reduce plant growth and tuber yield below that of the nematode-free control or did so only at the highest one or two population densities tested. In the presence of K dahliae, the lowest population density significantly reduced shoot weight and photosynthesis in three and four experiments, respectively. Higher densities had no additional effect on shoot weight and caused additional reductions in photosynthesis in only one experiment. Population densities of 0.8 and 7.5 nematodes/cm³ soil reduced tuber yield by 51% and 45%, whereas higher densities had no effect or a 15% additional effect, respectively. These data indicate that interactive effects between P. penetrans and V. dahliae on Russet Burbank potato are manifested at P. penetrans population densities less than 1 nematode/cm³ soil and that the nematode population density must be substantially higher before additional effects are apparent.
PMCID: PMC2620278  PMID: 19274204
concomitant populations; disease complex; fungus; interaction; lesion nematode; nematode; potato; potato early dying; Pratylenchus penetrans; root-lesion nematode; Solanum tuberosum; Verticillium dahliae; Verticillium wilt
4.  Effects of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae on Vigor and Yield of Strawberry 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4):418-423.
Microplot and small field-plot experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Pratylenchus penetrans on strawberry yield over several seasons and to evaluate the effects of nematode control on strawberry vigor and yield. Pratylenchus penetrans alone or in combination with the black root rot pathogen, Rhizoctonia fragariae, reduced strawberry yield in microplots over time. There were no differences in effects on yield among R. fragariae anastomosis groups A, G, or I. The interaction of the two pathogens appeared to be additive rather than synergistic. In field plots infested with P. penetrans alone, plant vigor and yield were increased by the application of carbofuran and fenamiphos nematicides. Nematode control was transitory, as P. penetrans populations were initially suppressed but were not different in samples taken 10 months after treatment. These data highlight the error in associating causality between plant damage and nematode populations based on a correlation of root disease with nematode diagnostic assays from severely diseased plants. These findings may help to explain how nematode numbers can sometimes be higher in healthy plants than in severely diseased plants that lack sufficient roots to maintain nematode populations. Because nematode populations from up to a year before harvest are better correlated with berry yield, preplant nematode diagnostic assays taken a year in advance of harvest may be superior in predicting damage to perennial strawberry yield.
PMCID: PMC2620392  PMID: 19270914
black root rot; disease complex; Fragaria × ananassa; lesion nematode; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae
5.  Interactions Among Pratylenchus penetrans, P. scribneri, and Verticillium dahliae in the Potato Early Dying Disease Complex 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(2):228-234.
Microplots were infested with combinations of the fungus Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans and P. scribneri to test for individual and combined effects of these organisms on potato yield and nematode reproduction. Verticillium dahliae alone caused yield losses in all 3 years of the experiment, and the interaction between P. penetrans and V. dahliae was significant (P ≤ 0.05) in 2 years. Pratylenchus penetrans alone caused yield losses in 2 years and P. scribneri alone caused yield losses in 1 year. No two-way or three-way interaction was found involving P. scribneri. In 1987, reproduction for low densities of P. penetrans was 5 times higher when P. scribneri was also present than when it was absent, and 3.5 times higher in 1988. In nematode species mixtures, reproduction of P. scribneri was decreased by V. dahliae in 1987-88. The final population density of P. scribneri was negatively affected by V. dahliae and positively related to the initial proportion of P. scribneri to P. penetrans. In species mixtures with proportions of P. penetrans ranging from 0.1 to 0.5, reproduction of P. penetrans was negatively affected by V. dahliae and decreased linearly in relation to the increase in the initial proportion of P. penetrans in both years. The final population density of P. penetrans was affected only by V. dahliae.
PMCID: PMC2619486  PMID: 19279885
interaction; lesion nematode; nematode; potato early dying; Pratylenchus penetrans; P. scribneri; Verticillium dahliae
6.  The effects of Brassica green manures on plant parasitic and free living nematodes used in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(2):119-121.
Brassica plants once incorporated into soil as green manures have recently been shown to have biofumigant properties and have the potential of controlling plant-parasitic nematodes. In Washington State, plant-parasitic nematodes are successfully managed with synthetic nematicides. However, some of the synthetic nematicides became unavailable recently or their supply is limited leaving growers with few choices to control plant-parasitic nematodes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of Brassica green manures on their own and in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and free living nematodes. In a greenhouse experiment and field trials in three seasons, Brassica green manures in combination with half the recommended rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, Telone) reduced root knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi to below detection levels, and reduced lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans and stubby root nematodes, Paratrichodorus allius, to below economic thresholds. The combination treatments did not affect the beneficial free-living nematode populations and the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas. The total cost of growing and soil-incorporating Brassica crops as green manures in combination with reduced rates of 1,3-D was approximately 35% lower than the present commercial costs for application for the full rate of this fumigant. Integrating conventional management practices with novel techniques fosters sustainability of production systems and can increase economic benefit to producers while reducing chemical input.
PMCID: PMC3380464  PMID: 22791922
Plant parasitic nematodes; free living nematodes; Brassicaceae green manures; Telone
7.  Effects of Phenamiphos, Methyl Bromide, and Fallowing on Pratylenchus Penetrans, Yield of Medicago sativa, and Fusarium Infections 
Journal of Nematology  1979;11(3):265-269.
A field study was made of the effects of a residual nematicide (phenamiphos), a fumigant (methyl bromide), and fallowing on the number of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans), forage yields of alfalfa, and the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in plant roots and soil. Fallowing controlled nematodes initially, but by the end of the second growing season, nematode numbers were as high as in plots which had grown a nematode-susceptible crop. Forage yield was greater in fallowed plots only for the first cut in the year after seeding. Fusarium in alfalfa roots and soil was not reduced by fallowing. Phenamiphos reduced nematode numbers, increased forage yields in 2 of 4 years, and reduced Fusarium infections of taproots. Soil fumigation with methyl bromide gave the best control of nematodes and Fusarium and gave significantly higher forage yields for the 4 years of study following fumigation. The 34% increase in alfalfa yield from fumigated plots over the 4 years indicates that the yield of alfalfa is being reduced significantly by microorganisms. The study does not establish the relative contributions of the root lesion nematodes and Fusarium spp. to the reduction.
PMCID: PMC2617972  PMID: 19300645
alfalfa; root lesion nematode; population dynamics; control; nematode-fungus-host interaction
8.  Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4S):650-655.
Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut.
PMCID: PMC2620401  PMID: 19270931
black root rot; buckwheat; canola; crop rotation; Fragaria × ananassa; lesion nematode; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; oat; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae; sorgho-sudangrass; strawberry
9.  Mortality of Pratylenchus penetrans by Volatile Fatty Acids from Liquid Hog Manure 
Journal of nematology  2008;40(2):119-126.
As part of our research program assessing the use of liquid hog manure (LHM) to control root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans, a series of acute toxicity tests was conducted to: (i) examine if non-ionized forms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) are responsible for the mortality of P. penetrans exposed to LHM under acidic conditions, (ii) determine if Caenorhabditis elegans can be a surrogate for P. penetrans in screening tests by comparing their sensitivities to VFA, (iii) characterize the nematicidal effect of individual VFA in LHM to P. penetrans, and (iv) determine whether individual VFA in LHM interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans. LHM was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more toxic to P. penetrans than a mixture of its main VFA components at concentrations of 5% and 10% (vol. VFA or LHM /vol. in buffer). Pratylenchus penetrans was more sensitive to acetic acid than C. elegans, whereas the sensitivity of both nematode species to n-caproic acid was similar. Individual VFA vary in their lethality to P. penetrans. n-valeric acid was the most toxic (LC95= 6.8 mM), while isobutyric acid was the least toxic (LC95 = 45.7 mM). Individual VFA did not interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans, and their effects were considered additive. VFA account for the majority of the lethal effect of LHM to P. penetrans under acidic conditions. Caenorhabditis elegans cannot be used as a surrogate to P. penetrans in toxicity studies using VFA. The efficacy of LHM to control P. penetrans can be evaluated by assessing its VFA content prior to application, and this evaluation is facilitated by the fact that the interaction of individual VFA appears to be simply additive.
PMCID: PMC2586537  PMID: 19259528
bioassay; Caenorhabditis elegans; LHM; liquid hog manure; LSM; liquid swine manure; management; nematode; potato; Pratylenchus penetrans; root-lesion nematode; VFA; volatile fatty acids
10.  Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Trichoderma harzianum on the Strawberry Black Root Rot Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(4):351-357.
The effects of inundative releases of entomopathogenic Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae infective juveniles and applications of the biological control fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (RootShield) on Pratylenchus penetrans and strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia fragariae were determined in field microplots and small plots. Entomopathogenic nematodes were applied as a soil drench at rates of 7.4 or 14.8 billion per ha in May or August for 3 years. RootShield was applied as crown dips at planting or later as a soil drench. There were no differences in P. penetrans from plants drenched with water alone or with S. carpocapsae or S. feltiae nematodes, averaged over rates and timing. The nematode species applied and the rate or timing of application had no effect on lesion nematodes. Our results suggest that P. penetrans exposure to living or heat-killed S. feltiae and associated bacteria resulted in temporary lack of motility. A progressively increasing proportion of P. penetrans became active again and, after 8 days, had infected tomato roots in similar numbers to unexposed P. penetrans. In laboratory assays and field plots or microplots, S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae did not permanently affect P. penetrans in tomato or strawberry.
PMCID: PMC2620591  PMID: 19265955
black root rot; entomopathogenic nematodes; Galleria mellonella; motility; Pratylenchus penetrans; repellence; Rhizoctonia fragariae; Rootsheild; Steinernema carpocapsae; S. feltiae; strawberry; Trichoderma harzianum
11.  Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):207-213.
Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil.
PMCID: PMC2620958  PMID: 19262862
forage production; host-parasite interaction; manure; nematode ecology; nematode suppression
12.  Nematicides Increase Grain Yields in Spring Wheat Cultivars and Suppress Plant-Parasitic and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(4):473-476.
Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P < 0.001) by an average of 0.56 (25.1%) and 1.17 (52.5%) tonnes/ha in comparison to untreated check plots when aldicarb at 2.24 kg or fosthiazate at 13.5 a.i./ha, respectively, were broadcast and incorporated into the soil to suppress nematodes. The planned F test using orthogonal coefficients indicated that the mean response of grain yields to nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P < 0.001). Root lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) in wheat roots and in root zone soil at harvest were reduced by the nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.
PMCID: PMC2620991  PMID: 19262893
aldicarb; bacterial-feeding nematodes; fosthiazate; root lesion nematodes; spring wheat
13.  Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):289-293.
A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels.
PMCID: PMC2620642  PMID: 19262763
bacterial-feeding nematodes; barley; beef manure; clover cyst nematode; compost; cull potato; Diplogaster lheritieri; Heterodera trifolii; potato; root-knot nematode; root-lesion nematode; sawdust
14.  Site Specific Nematode Management—Development and Success in Cotton Production in the United States 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(4):309-320.
Variability in edaphic factors such as clay content, organic matter, and nutrient availability within individual fields is a major obstacle confronting cotton producers. Adaptation of geospatial technologies such global positioning systems (GPS), yield monitors, autosteering, and the automated on-and-off technology required for site-specific nematicide application has provided growers with additional tools for managing nematodes. Multiple trials in several states were conducted to evaluate this technology in cotton. In a field infested with Meloidogyne spp., both shallow (0 to 0.3 m) and deep (0 to 0.91 m) apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) readings were highly correlated with sand content. Populations of Meloidogyne spp. were present when shallow and deep EC values were less than 30 and 90 mS/m, respectively. Across three years of trials in production fields in which verification strips (adjacent nematicide treated and untreated rows across all soil zones) were established to evaluate crop response to nematicide application, deep EC values from 27.4-m wide transects of verification strips were more predictive of yield response to application of 1,3-dichloropropene than were shallow EC values in one location and both ECa values equally effective at predicting responses at the second location. In 2006, yields from entire verification strips across three soil zones in four production fields showed that nematicide response was greatest in areas with the lowest EC values indicating highest content of sand. In 2008 in Ashley and Mississippi Counties, AR, nematicide treatment by soil zone resulted in 36% and 42% reductions in the amount of nematicide applied relative to whole-field application. In 2007 in Bamberg County, SC, there was a strong positive correlation between increasing population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and increasing sand content. Trials conducted during 2007 and 2009 in South Carolina against Hoplolaimus columbus showed a stepwise response to increasing rates of aldicarb in zone 1 but not in zones 2 and 3. Site-specific application of nematicides has been shown to be a viable option for producers as a potential management tool against several nematode pathogens of cotton.
PMCID: PMC4284082  PMID: 25580023
cotton; Hoplolaimus columbus; Gossypium hirsutum; management; Meloidogyne incognita; Rotylenchulus reniformis; site-specific; soil texture
15.  Effects of Fumigants and Systemic Pesticides on Pratylenchus penetrans and Potato Yield 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(4):424-430.
Replicated trials were conducted near Alliston, Ontario, in 1983 and 1984 to evaluate the efficacy of five chemical treatments in controlling the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans on potato, Solanum tuberosum cv. Russet Burbank. The fumigants Vorlex, at 55 liters product/ha, and Telone II B, at 75 liters product/ha, were more effective in suppressing high initial population densities of 18,320 and 50,880 P. penetrans/kg soil in 1983 and 1984, respectively, than single applications of the systemic pesticides Temik 10 G at 22 kg product/ha, Vydate L at 18 and 9 liters product/ha, and Furadan 10 G at 33 kg product/ha. The combination of Vorlex + Temik resulted in greatest nematode suppression and lowest populations at harvest. In 1983, marketable tuber yield (> 7 cm) in the Vorlex + Temik plots was 20.7 t/ha, compared to 4.7 t for the untreated check. Vorlex alone and Telone II B plots yielded 17.3 and 15.9 t/ha, respectively; Temik with 7.5 t also yielded better than the check. Vydate and Furadan did not influence yields significantly. Total yields differed from the check in all treatments except with Furadan. In 1984, marketable yields ranged from 15.5 t/ha for the Vorlex + Temik treatment to 11.2 for the untreated check, but the differences were not statistically significant. Total yields, however, were significantly increased by the fumigants. The difference in response to chemical treatment in the 2 years was attributed to greater heat stress and lack of supplementary irrigation in 1983.
PMCID: PMC2618668  PMID: 19290166
root lesion nematode; chemical control; Vorlex; Telone; aldicarb; oxamyl; carbofuran; cost; population dynamics; Solanum tuberosum; potato
16.  Evaluation of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Biocontrol Agent of Meloidogyne javanica on Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(4):578-584.
The efficacy of the nematode parasite Paecilomyces lilacinus, alone and in combination with phenamiphos and ethoprop, for controlling the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tobacco and the ability of this fungus to colonize in soil under field conditions were evaluated for 2 years in microplots. Combinations and individual treatments of the fungus grown on autoclaved wheat seed, M. javanica eggs (76,000 per plot), and nematicides were applied to specified microplots at the time of transplanting tobacco the first year. Vetch was planted as a winter cover crop, and the fungus and nematicides were applied again the second year to specified plots at transplanting time. The fungus did not control the nematode in either year of these experiments. The average root-gall index (0 = no visible galls and 5 = > 100 galls per root system) ranged from 2.7 to 3.9 the first year and from 4.3 to 5.0 the second in nematode-infested plots treated with nematicides. Plants with M. javanica alone or in combination with P. lilacinus had galling indices of 5.0 both years; the latter produced lower yields than all other treatments during both years of the study. Nevertheless, the average soil population densities of P. lilacinus remained high, ranging from 1.2 to 1.3 × 106 propagules/g soil 1 week after the initial inoculation and from 1.6 to 2.3 × 104 propagules/g soil at harvest the second year. At harvest the second year the density of fungal propagules was greatest at the depth of inoculation, 15 cm, and rapidly decreased below this level.
PMCID: PMC2618854  PMID: 19290257
biocontrol; ethoprop; 1,3-dichloropropene; fenamiphos; fungal egg parasite; Meloidogyne javanica; nematicide; Nicotiana tabacum; Paecilomyces lilacinus; root-knot nematode; tobacco; vetch; Vicia vilIosa
17.  Competition between Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita or Pratylenchus penetrans: Independent Infection Rate Measurements 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(1):1-6.
Competition on soybean between Heterodera glycines (race 3) and Meloidogyne incognita or H. glycines and Pratylenchus penetrans were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Each pair of nematode species was mixed in 3-ml suspensions at ratios of 1,000:0, 750:250, 500:500, 250:750, and 0:1,000 second-stage juveniles or mixed stages for P. penetrans. Nematodes from a whole root system were counted and infection rates standardized per 1,000 nematodes (per replication) prior to testing the null hypothesis through a lack-of-fit F-test. Although the effect of increasing H. glycines proportions on the infection rate of M. incognita was generally adverse, the rate deviated significantly from a trend of linear decline at the 75% H. glycines level in one of two experiments. All lack-of-fit F-tests for the H. glycines and P. penetrans mix were significant, indicating that infection rates for both nematodes varied considerably across inocula. The infection rate of H. glycines decreased with increasing P. penetrans proportions. The rate of P. penetrans infection increased with increasing H. glycines proportions up to the 50% level, but declined at the 75% level. Competition had no effect on nematode development. The general adverse relationships between M. incognita and H. glycines and those between P. penetrans and H. glycines showed a linear trend. The relationship between H. glycines and P. penetrans indicates that the former may be competitive when present at higher proportions than the latter. In this study we have evaluated nematode competition under controlled conditions and provide results that can form a basis for understanding the physical and physiological trends of multiple nematode interactions. Methods critical to data analyses also are outlined.
PMCID: PMC2620598  PMID: 19265967
competition; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; lesion nematode; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; replacement; root-knot nematode; soybean cyst nematode
18.  Influence of Meloidogyne incognita on the Water Relations of Cotton Grown in Microplots 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4):465-471.
The effects of Meloidogyne incognita on the growth and water relations of cotton were evaluated in a 2-year field study. Microplots containing methyl bromide-fumigated fine sandy loam soil were infested with the nematode and planted to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Treatments included addition of nematodes alone, addition of nematodes plus the insecticide-nematicide aldicarb (1.7 kg/ha), and an untreated control. Meloidogyne incognita population densities reached high levels in both treatments where nematodes were included. Root galling, plant height at harvest, and seed cotton yield were decreased by nematode infection. In older plants (89 days after planting [DAP]), leaf transpiration rates and stomatal conductance were reduced, and leaf temperature was increased by nematode infection. Nematode infection did not affect (P = 0.05) leaf water potential in either young or older plants but lowered the osmotic potential. The maximum rate and cumulative amount of water flowing through intact plants during a 24-hour period were lower, on both a whole-plant and per-unit-leaf-area basis, in infected plants than in control plants. Application of aldicarb moderated some of the nematode effects but did not eliminate them.
PMCID: PMC2619637  PMID: 19277313
aldicarb; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; nematode; plant water relations; root-knot nematode; stomatal resistance; transpiration; water flux; water potential
19.  The multi-year effects of repeatedly growing cotton with moderate resistance to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):140-145.
Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine Land DP458 B/R (susceptible standard, 0% suppression). Cotton was grown in fumigated and non-fumigated plots to measure yield loss. Each genotype and nematicide combination was planted in the same place for three years at two sites to document cumulative effects. In 2006, following three years of the different genotypes, all plots at one site were planted with susceptible cotton to document residual effects of planting resistant genotypes. Root galling and nematode population densities in the soil were significantly lower, and percentage yield suppression was numerically lower, when moderately resistant cotton was grown compared to the susceptible standard in both fields in all three years. Differences between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes are established quickly (after only one season) and then either maintained at similar levels or slightly increased in subsequent years depending on initial nematode levels. However, when susceptible cotton was grown following three years of the moderately resistant genotypes, the nematode suppression provided by moderate resistance was undetectable by the end of the first season. Moderately resistant cotton genotypes are more beneficial than previously reported and should be pursued for nematode management. Rotation of moderately resistant and susceptible cotton could be used along with nematicides to manage root-knot nematodes in a continuous cotton cropping system and reduce selection pressure on the nematodes.
PMCID: PMC3365309  PMID: 22661787
Cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; host-plant resistance; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode management; southern root-knot nematode
20.  Response of Meloidogyne spp. to Pasteuria penetrans, Fungi, and Cultural Practices in Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):620-625.
The response of a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica to three cultural practices, tobacco cultivars (two cultivars, differing in resistance to M. incognita), cover treatments (three treatments), and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (two treatments), Pasteuria penetrans, and soil-borne fungi was investigated in a tobacco field in 1991. On all sampling dates, higher densities of root-knot nematodes were observed on tobacco cv. Coker 371 Gold than on K-326. Initially, forage sorghum decreased the number of Meloidogyne spp. on tobacco, compared with weeds and hairy indigo, but had little effect on the density of second-stage juveniles (J2) in soil at mid-season or final harvest. The density of P. penetrans endospores also decreased in soil in forage sorghum plots. On one of four sampling dates, high levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer increased the number of P. penetrans endospores produced per nematode female, and decreased the density of Meloidogyne spp. on tobacco. The density of P. penetrans endospores increased in these high-N plots after harvest, especially in the plots planted with K-326. The density of J2 in soil was negatively correlated with both the numbers of endospores attached per J2 and the proportion of J2 with attached endospores in midseason soil samples. No correlation was observed between the nematode density and frequency of fungi colonizing the egg masses of Meloidogyne spp.
PMCID: PMC2619576  PMID: 19279937
biological control; fungi; Meloidogyne incognita; M. javanica; nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; nitrogen fertilizer; Paecilomyces lilacinus; Pasteuria penetrans; population; root-knot nematode; tobacco; tobacco cultivar
21.  Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Cherry Rootstocks in Michigan 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):767-772.
In two field trials, 10-year-old sweet and tart cherry rooted on 'Mazzard', 'Mahaleb', 'MXM 2', 'MXM 14', 'MXM 39', 'MXM 60', 'MXM 97', and 'Colt' showed 10-203 Pratylenchus penetrans per g fresh root from all tart rootstocks, and up to 46 Pratylenchus, Criconemella, and Xiphinema spp. per 100 cm³ soil. Infestation of soil containing 1-year-old Mazzard, Mahaleb, MXM 60, 'GI148-1', and 'G1148-8' with 625/100 cm³ soil of either P. penetrans or C. xenoplax resulting in final nematode population densities of 123-486 and 451-2,496/g fresh root plus 100 cm³ soil, respectively, and had little effect on plant height or dry weight after 157 days in a greenhouse. Population densities of neither nematode differed among the five rootstocks. In a second greenhouse experiment, soil containing the same rootstocks was infested with P. penetrans (1,250/100 cm³ soil), maintained for 8 months in a greenhouse, 4 months in a cold room (2-4 C), and 3 additional months in a greenhouse. The number of P. penetrans recovered at the end of 475 days was approximately 10% of those recovered in the first experiment, probably due to the cold treatment. The ability of P. penetrans and C. xenoplax to infect the cherry rootstocks may be of concern in cherry management programs.
PMCID: PMC2619551  PMID: 19279962
cherry; Criconemella xenoplax; Helicotylenchus; lesion nematode; management; Meloidogyne; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Prunus avium; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; spiral nematode; rootstock; Xiphinema americanum
22.  Decomposers and root feeders interactively affect plant defence in Sinapis alba 
Oecologia  2009;160(2):289-298.
Aboveground herbivory is well known to change plant growth and defence. In contrast, effects of soil organisms, acting alone or in concert, on allocation patterns are less well understood. We investigated separate and combined effects of the endogeic earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and the root feeding nematode species Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita on plant responses including growth and defence metabolite concentrations in leaves of white mustard, Sinapis alba. Soil biota had a strong impact on plant traits, with the intensity varying due to species combinations. Nematode infestation reduced shoot biomass and nitrogen concentration but only in the absence of earthworms. Earthworms likely counteracted the negative effects of nematodes. Infestation with the migratory lesion-nematode P. penetrans combined with earthworms led to increased root length. Earthworm biomass increased in the presence of this species, indicating that these nematodes increased the food resources of earthworms—presumably dead and decaying roots. Nitrogen-based defence compounds, i.e. glucosinolates, did not correlate with nitrogen levels. In the presence of earthworms, concentrations of aromatic glucosinolates in leaves were significantly increased. In contrast, infection with P. penetrans strongly decreased concentrations of glucosinolates (up to 81%). Infestation with the sedentary nematode M. incognita induced aromatic glucosinolates by more than 50% but only when earthworms were also present. Myrosinase activities, glucosinolate-hydrolysing enzymes, were unaffected by nematodes but reduced in the presence of earthworms. Our results document that root-feeding nematodes elicit systemic plant responses in defence metabolites, with the responses varying drastically with nematode species of different functional groups. Furthermore, systemic plant responses are also altered by decomposer animals, such as earthworms, challenging the assumption that induction of plant responses including defence traits is restricted to herbivores. Soil animals even interact and modulate the individual effects on plant growth and plant defence, thereby likely also influencing shoot herbivore attack.
doi:10.1007/s00442-009-1306-0
PMCID: PMC3085730  PMID: 19252930
Multitrophic interactions; Brassicaceae; Glucosinolate; Myrosinase; Induction
23.  Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Populations as Influenced by Microorganisms and Soil Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  1969;1(3):260-264.
Numbers of Pratylenchus penetrans in sterilized soil decreased significantly 2 weeks after the addition of 1% w/w (700 ppm N) nonsterile soybean meal (SBM), or sterilized SBM in combination with selected microorganisms. Sterilized SBM had no effect on nematode populations in steamed soil. Bacteria and fungi in the presence of SBM were more effective than the actinomycetes tested, causing up to 96-100% reduction in nematode populations. Simpler nitrogenous compounds included KNO₂, Ca(NO₃)₂, NH₄NO₃, (NH₄)₂CO₃, urea, and peptone, decreased nematode populations with variable effectiveness when added to steamed soil at 700 ppm N; KNO₂ was the most nematicidal.
PMCID: PMC2617827  PMID: 19325687
24.  Management of Lesion Nematodes and Potato Early Dying with Rotation Crops 
Journal of nematology  2006;38(4):442-448.
Soil-incorporated rotation/green manure crops were evaluated for management of potato early dying caused by Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans. After two years of rotation/green manure and a subsequent potato crop, P. penetrans numbers were less after ‘Saia’ oat/‘Polynema’ marigold, ‘Triple S’ sorghum-sudangrass, or ‘Garry’ oat than ‘Superior’ potato or ‘Humus’ rapeseed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for early dying was lowest after Saia oat/marigold, and tuber yields were greater than continuous potato after all crops except sorghum-sudangrass. Saia oat/marigold crops resulted in the greatest tuber yields. After one year of rotation/green manure, a marigold crop increased tuber yields and reduced AUDPC and P. penetrans. In the second potato crop after a single year of rotation, plots previously planted to marigolds had reduced P. penetrans densities and AUDPC and increased tuber yield. Rapeseed supported more P. penetrans than potato, but had greater yields. After two years of rotation/green manure crops and a subsequent potato crop, continuous potato had the highest AUDPC and lowest tuber weight. Rotation with Saia oats (2 yr) and Rudbeckia hirta (1 yr) reduced P. penetrans and increased tuber yields. AUDPC was lowest after R. hirta. Two years of sorghum-sudangrass did not affect P. penetrans, tuber yield or AUDPC. These results demonstrate that P. penetrans may be reduced by one or two years of rotation to non-host or antagonistic plants such as Saia oat, Polynema marigold, or R. hirta and that nematode control may reduce the severity of potato early dying.
PMCID: PMC2586465  PMID: 19259461
Avena sativa; Avena strigosa; black-eyed Susan; Brassica napus; green manure; marigold; management; Pratylenchus penetrans; rapeseed; rotation; Rudbeckia hirta; Solanum tuberosum; Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense; sorghum-sudangrass; Tagetes erecta × T. patula; Verticillium dahliae; wilt
25.  Rotylenchulus reniformis below Plow Depth Suppresses Cotton Yield and Root Growth 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(3):285-291.
Damage to cotton by Rotylenchulus reniformis below plow depth was evaluated in a sandy clay loam soil at Weslaco, Texas. In December 1999, 14 holes on 51-cm centers were dug 91 cm deep along the planting bed and adjacent furrow and 2 ml of 1,3-dichloropropene was placed 91, 61, and 30 cm deep as each hole was refilled and packed. This technique eliminated 96%, 81%, and 74% of R. reniformis down to 107 cm at distances 0, 25, and 51 cm laterally from the point of application (P ≤ 0.05), whereas chisel fumigation at 168 liters/ha 43 cm deep reduced nematode numbers only in the top 61 cm (P ≤ 0.001). Manual placement of fumigant increased yield 92%; chisel fumigation increased yield 88% (P ≤ 0.005). A second experiment in February 2001 placed fumigant 43 or 81 cm deep, or at both 43 and 81 cm. Holes alone had no significant effect on nematode density at planting, midseason or harvest, on root length density at midseason, or on cotton lint yield. Fumigant at 43 cm reduced nematode numbers above fumigant application depth at planting 94% (P ≤ 0.02), at midseason 37% (P ≤ 0.09), and at harvest 0%, increasing yield 57% (P ≤ 0.002). Fumigant at 81 cm reduced nematode numbers above fumigant application depth at planting 86% (P ≤ 0.02), at midseason 74% (P ≤ 0.02), and at harvest 48% (P ≤ 0.01), increasing yield 53% (P ≤ 0.002). Fumigating at both 43 and 81 cm reduced nematode numbers above 90 cm 94% at planting and 79% at midseason, increased midseason root-length density 14-fold below 76 cm, and doubled yield (P ≤ 0.02 in all cases).
PMCID: PMC2620967  PMID: 19262875
cotton; fumigation; Gossypium hirsutum; nematode; reniform; Rotylenchulus reniformis; vertical distribution; yield

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