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1.  Suppression of Pratylenchus penetrans Populations in Potato and Tomato using African Marigolds 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(2):130-134.
Current strategies for management of Pratylenchus penetrans in both white potato and tomato consist of the use of fumigant or non-fumigant nematicides or crop rotation. The objective of this study was to determine if double-cropping African marigolds (Tagetes erecta) with potatoes or tomatoes could reduce P. penetrans populations. Plots were 10 m × 3 m arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included marigolds, potatoes or tomatoes, and natural weedy fallow followed by either potatoes or tomatoes. Nematode populations were sampled before spring planting, between crops in August and after harvest in November. During the 3 years of the study, P. penetrans soil population density declined by an average of 93% from the pre-plant level when marigold was grown in rotation with potato and by 98% when marigold was grown.in rotation with tomato. Weedy fallow preceding potato resulted in an average decline in P. penetrans soil population density of 38%, and a similar decrease (37%) was seen when fallow preceded tomato. There was a significant reduction in the number of P. penetrans found in both potato and tomato roots when the crops followed marigolds. These results suggest that P. penetrans population density may be significantly reduced when marigolds are double-cropped with potatoes or tomatoes.
PMCID: PMC2620546  PMID: 19265920
biological control; double-cropped; lesion nematode; marigolds; potato early dying; Pratylenchus penetrans; thiophenes; tomato
2.  Effects of Phenamiphos, Methyl Bromide, and Fallowing on Pratylenchus Penetrans, Yield of Medicago sativa, and Fusarium Infections 
Journal of Nematology  1979;11(3):265-269.
A field study was made of the effects of a residual nematicide (phenamiphos), a fumigant (methyl bromide), and fallowing on the number of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans), forage yields of alfalfa, and the occurrence of Fusarium spp. in plant roots and soil. Fallowing controlled nematodes initially, but by the end of the second growing season, nematode numbers were as high as in plots which had grown a nematode-susceptible crop. Forage yield was greater in fallowed plots only for the first cut in the year after seeding. Fusarium in alfalfa roots and soil was not reduced by fallowing. Phenamiphos reduced nematode numbers, increased forage yields in 2 of 4 years, and reduced Fusarium infections of taproots. Soil fumigation with methyl bromide gave the best control of nematodes and Fusarium and gave significantly higher forage yields for the 4 years of study following fumigation. The 34% increase in alfalfa yield from fumigated plots over the 4 years indicates that the yield of alfalfa is being reduced significantly by microorganisms. The study does not establish the relative contributions of the root lesion nematodes and Fusarium spp. to the reduction.
PMCID: PMC2617972  PMID: 19300645
alfalfa; root lesion nematode; population dynamics; control; nematode-fungus-host interaction
3.  Effects of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae on Vigor and Yield of Strawberry 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4):418-423.
Microplot and small field-plot experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Pratylenchus penetrans on strawberry yield over several seasons and to evaluate the effects of nematode control on strawberry vigor and yield. Pratylenchus penetrans alone or in combination with the black root rot pathogen, Rhizoctonia fragariae, reduced strawberry yield in microplots over time. There were no differences in effects on yield among R. fragariae anastomosis groups A, G, or I. The interaction of the two pathogens appeared to be additive rather than synergistic. In field plots infested with P. penetrans alone, plant vigor and yield were increased by the application of carbofuran and fenamiphos nematicides. Nematode control was transitory, as P. penetrans populations were initially suppressed but were not different in samples taken 10 months after treatment. These data highlight the error in associating causality between plant damage and nematode populations based on a correlation of root disease with nematode diagnostic assays from severely diseased plants. These findings may help to explain how nematode numbers can sometimes be higher in healthy plants than in severely diseased plants that lack sufficient roots to maintain nematode populations. Because nematode populations from up to a year before harvest are better correlated with berry yield, preplant nematode diagnostic assays taken a year in advance of harvest may be superior in predicting damage to perennial strawberry yield.
PMCID: PMC2620392  PMID: 19270914
black root rot; disease complex; Fragaria × ananassa; lesion nematode; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rhizoctonia fragariae
4.  Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Populations as Influenced by Microorganisms and Soil Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  1969;1(3):260-264.
Numbers of Pratylenchus penetrans in sterilized soil decreased significantly 2 weeks after the addition of 1% w/w (700 ppm N) nonsterile soybean meal (SBM), or sterilized SBM in combination with selected microorganisms. Sterilized SBM had no effect on nematode populations in steamed soil. Bacteria and fungi in the presence of SBM were more effective than the actinomycetes tested, causing up to 96-100% reduction in nematode populations. Simpler nitrogenous compounds included KNO₂, Ca(NO₃)₂, NH₄NO₃, (NH₄)₂CO₃, urea, and peptone, decreased nematode populations with variable effectiveness when added to steamed soil at 700 ppm N; KNO₂ was the most nematicidal.
PMCID: PMC2617827  PMID: 19325687
5.  Problems Associated with Crop Rotation for Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Easter Lily 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(4S):581-589.
In Humboldt and Del Norte counties of California and Curry County, Oregon, Easter lilies (Lilium longiflotum) are grown commercially in a 3- to 6-year rotation with pasture for cattle and sheep. Bulbs are sold to greenhouse operations to produce flowering plants. The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a serious detriment to Easter lily production. Both soil and planting stock are often infested; typically, a dual nematicide application is used consisting of a preplant soil fumigation followed by an at-planting application of an organophosphate or carbamate. Nematicide usage has resulted in ground-water contamination. Several factors that could lead to an improved crop rotation program were examined in five field trials in Oregon. Examining the relative nematode host status of crops for feeding cattle and sheep indicated differences in host suitability among clovers and fescues that could prove useful in development of pasture mixes. Populations of P. penetrans under continuous fallow and pasture were monitored for 4 years following harvest of Easter lilies. Populations fluctuated in both situations but generally increased on pasture plants and decreased under fallow. Nematodes were still detectable at the end of 4 years of weed-free fallow. Populations of P. penetrans on Easter lilies were followed over two successive crops. Numbers in soil peaked in July and then decreased while numbers within roots continued to increase until harvest in October.
PMCID: PMC2620334  PMID: 19274250
crop rotation; Easter lily; lesion nematode; Lilium longiflorum; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans
6.  Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Sugarcane in Louisiana and Efficacy of Nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(4S):493-501.
A survey conducted from May 1995 through August 1998 revealed diverse nematode communities in Louisiana sugarcane fields. High populations of Mesocriconema, Paratrichodorus, Pratylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus were widespread in nine sugarcane production parishes. Comparisons of plant cane and ratoon sugarcane crops indicated that nematode community levels increase significantly in successive ratoon crops. Nematicide trials evaluated the efficacy of aldicarb, ethoprop, and phorate against indigenous nematode populations. Aldicarb consistently increased the number of millable stalks, cane tonnage, and yield of sucrose in soils with a high sand content. Yield increases were concomitant with reductions in the density of the nematode community shortly after planting and at harvest. In soils with a higher clay content, the chemicals were less effective in controlling nematode populations and, as a result, yield increases were minimal.
PMCID: PMC2620482  PMID: 19271000
aldicarb; chemical control; distribution; ethoprop; frequency; Helicotylenchus spp.; lesion nematode; Mesocriconema spp.; nematode; nematode management; Paratrichodorus spp.; Pratylenchus spp.; ring nematode; Saccharum officinarum; spiral nematode; stubby-root nematode; stunt nematode; sugarcane; Tylenchorhynchus spp.
7.  Effects of Fumigants and Systemic Pesticides on Pratylenchus penetrans and Potato Yield 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(4):424-430.
Replicated trials were conducted near Alliston, Ontario, in 1983 and 1984 to evaluate the efficacy of five chemical treatments in controlling the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans on potato, Solanum tuberosum cv. Russet Burbank. The fumigants Vorlex, at 55 liters product/ha, and Telone II B, at 75 liters product/ha, were more effective in suppressing high initial population densities of 18,320 and 50,880 P. penetrans/kg soil in 1983 and 1984, respectively, than single applications of the systemic pesticides Temik 10 G at 22 kg product/ha, Vydate L at 18 and 9 liters product/ha, and Furadan 10 G at 33 kg product/ha. The combination of Vorlex + Temik resulted in greatest nematode suppression and lowest populations at harvest. In 1983, marketable tuber yield (> 7 cm) in the Vorlex + Temik plots was 20.7 t/ha, compared to 4.7 t for the untreated check. Vorlex alone and Telone II B plots yielded 17.3 and 15.9 t/ha, respectively; Temik with 7.5 t also yielded better than the check. Vydate and Furadan did not influence yields significantly. Total yields differed from the check in all treatments except with Furadan. In 1984, marketable yields ranged from 15.5 t/ha for the Vorlex + Temik treatment to 11.2 for the untreated check, but the differences were not statistically significant. Total yields, however, were significantly increased by the fumigants. The difference in response to chemical treatment in the 2 years was attributed to greater heat stress and lack of supplementary irrigation in 1983.
PMCID: PMC2618668  PMID: 19290166
root lesion nematode; chemical control; Vorlex; Telone; aldicarb; oxamyl; carbofuran; cost; population dynamics; Solanum tuberosum; potato
8.  Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Trichoderma harzianum on the Strawberry Black Root Rot Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(4):351-357.
The effects of inundative releases of entomopathogenic Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae infective juveniles and applications of the biological control fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (RootShield) on Pratylenchus penetrans and strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia fragariae were determined in field microplots and small plots. Entomopathogenic nematodes were applied as a soil drench at rates of 7.4 or 14.8 billion per ha in May or August for 3 years. RootShield was applied as crown dips at planting or later as a soil drench. There were no differences in P. penetrans from plants drenched with water alone or with S. carpocapsae or S. feltiae nematodes, averaged over rates and timing. The nematode species applied and the rate or timing of application had no effect on lesion nematodes. Our results suggest that P. penetrans exposure to living or heat-killed S. feltiae and associated bacteria resulted in temporary lack of motility. A progressively increasing proportion of P. penetrans became active again and, after 8 days, had infected tomato roots in similar numbers to unexposed P. penetrans. In laboratory assays and field plots or microplots, S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae did not permanently affect P. penetrans in tomato or strawberry.
PMCID: PMC2620591  PMID: 19265955
black root rot; entomopathogenic nematodes; Galleria mellonella; motility; Pratylenchus penetrans; repellence; Rhizoctonia fragariae; Rootsheild; Steinernema carpocapsae; S. feltiae; strawberry; Trichoderma harzianum
9.  Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):207-213.
Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil.
PMCID: PMC2620958  PMID: 19262862
forage production; host-parasite interaction; manure; nematode ecology; nematode suppression
10.  Influence of Meloidogyne incognita on the Water Relations of Cotton Grown in Microplots 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4):465-471.
The effects of Meloidogyne incognita on the growth and water relations of cotton were evaluated in a 2-year field study. Microplots containing methyl bromide-fumigated fine sandy loam soil were infested with the nematode and planted to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Treatments included addition of nematodes alone, addition of nematodes plus the insecticide-nematicide aldicarb (1.7 kg/ha), and an untreated control. Meloidogyne incognita population densities reached high levels in both treatments where nematodes were included. Root galling, plant height at harvest, and seed cotton yield were decreased by nematode infection. In older plants (89 days after planting [DAP]), leaf transpiration rates and stomatal conductance were reduced, and leaf temperature was increased by nematode infection. Nematode infection did not affect (P = 0.05) leaf water potential in either young or older plants but lowered the osmotic potential. The maximum rate and cumulative amount of water flowing through intact plants during a 24-hour period were lower, on both a whole-plant and per-unit-leaf-area basis, in infected plants than in control plants. Application of aldicarb moderated some of the nematode effects but did not eliminate them.
PMCID: PMC2619637  PMID: 19277313
aldicarb; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; nematode; plant water relations; root-knot nematode; stomatal resistance; transpiration; water flux; water potential
11.  Effects of Fumigant Nematicides on Yield and Quality of Paste Tomatoes Grown in Southwestern Ontario 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):656-661.
Field trials were conducted at the Delhi Research Station, Ontario, Canada, on a Fox loamy sand soil during 1987 and 1988 to evaluate the effects of row application of the fumigants Telone II, Telone C-17, Vorlex Plus, and Vorlex Plus CP on the yield and quality of paste tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ferry Morse 6203). The four fumigants were equally effective in controlling the natural field populations of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb). A significant reduction in marketable red fruit yield due to different nematode densities at time of transplanting was observed in 1988. Fumigation did not significantly affect the yield of nonmarketable fruit, the relative maturation rate, or the processing quality in either year.
PMCID: PMC2629863  PMID: 19283042
chloropicrin; 1,3-dichloropropene; fumigation; Lycopersicon esculentum; methyl isothiocyanate; nematode; paste tomato; Pratylenchus penetrans; tomato
12.  Nematicidal Injection: Targeted Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes of Trees and Vines 
Journal of Nematology  1977;9(4):307-311.
Pressurized injection of nematicidal solutions was effective for control of nematodes within trees and vines. Significant (P = 0.01) control of Pratylenchus vulnus on grape was attained with four nonfumigants (carbofuran, oxamyl, phenamiphos, and sulfocarb) and one fumigant nematicide (DBCP). Pratylenchus penetrans was controlled (P = 0.05 and 0.1) in apples and walnuts with sulfocarh and oxamyl. This species also was controlled in apples with carbofuran and phenamiphos. The advantages of pressure injection over traditional methods of nematicide applications are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2620266  PMID: 19305613
grapes; apples; walnuts; Pratylenchus vulnus; P. penetrans
13.  Interactions of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita as Coinhabitants in Tomato 
Journal of Nematology  1972;4(3):170-174.
Greenhouse experiments on the interactions of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita showed that the population densities of both nematode species were depressed whenthey coinhabited tomato roots. Fifty days after inoculation, the population level of a P. penetrans monoculture was about four times higher than when M. incognita was present. Conversely, M. incognita reproduced twice as fast alone as in combination. There were no significant differences in the numbers of P. penetrans when they were inoculated either 10 days prior to or after introduction of M. incognita. Root entry by P. penetrans was significantly inhibited by the presence of M. incognita. Split-root experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of M. incognita upon reproduction of P. penetrans involved factors other than the availability of feeding sites. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects of P. penetrans on M. incognita appeared to be primarily due to the quantity of available roots.
PMCID: PMC2619931  PMID: 19319262
population; penetration; inhibition
14.  Use of Nematodes as Biomonitors of Nonfumigant Nematicide Movement through Field Soil 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(1):63-70.
Three field experiments were established in a loamy sand soil in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina to determine downward movement of aldicarb and fenamiphos with a nematode bioassay. Penetration of bioassay plant roots by Meloidogyne incognita was measured at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment in the greenhouse as a means of determining nematicide effectiveness. Chemical movement was similar in planted and fallow soil. Nematicidal activity was greater in soil collected from the 0 to 10 cm depth than from the 10 to 20 cm depth. Fenamiphos suppressed host penetration by the nematode more than aldicarb under the high rainfall (19 cm) and low soil temperatures that occurred soon after application in the spring. During the summer, which had 13 cm precipitation and warmer soil temperatures, both chemicals performed equally well at the 0 to 10 cm depth. At the lower soil level (10 to 20 cm), aldicarb limited nematode penetration of host roots more quickly than fenamiphos. Both of these chemicals moved readily in the sandy soil in concentrations sufficient to control M. incognita. Although some variability was encountered in similar experiments, nematodes such as M. incognita have considerable potential as biomonitors of nematicide movement in soil.
PMCID: PMC2619347  PMID: 19279744
aldicarb; chemical movement; fenamiphos; Glycine max; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; nematode; root-knot nematode; soybean
15.  Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Sm3, Bacterial Antagonist of Pratylenchus penetrans 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(2):183-189.
The interaction of Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Sm3 and the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans was investigated in three separate greenhouse experiments with soils from southern British Columbia, Canada. The bacteria were applied to the roots of strawberry plants and planted in unpasteurized field soils, with natural or supplemented infestation of P. penetrans. Nematode suppression in roots was evident after 6 or 10 weeks in all experiments. Root or shoot growth were increased after 10 weeks in two experiments. Population dynamics of P. chlororaphis Sm3 in the rhizosphere was followed using an antibiotic-resistant mutant of P. chlororaphis Sm3. There was no apparent correlation between bacterial density in the rhizosphere and P. penetrans suppression in strawberry roots and rhizosphere soil, although the soil with the highest nematode reduction also had the largest P. chlororaphis Sm3 population in the rhizosphere.
PMCID: PMC2620438  PMID: 19270964
bacteria; biological control; growth promotion; nematode; Pratylenchus penetrans; Pseudomonas chlororaphis; rhizosphere bacteria; root-lesion nematode; strawberry
16.  Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus penetrans to Navy Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 
Journal of Nematology  1985;17(2):81-85.
The pathogenicity of Pratylenchus penetrans (root-lesion nematode) to Phaseolus vulgaris (navy bean) was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. Shoot and root fresh weight of cv. Sanilac plants were increased 4 and 21%, respectively, by an initial population density (Pi) of 25 P. penetrans per 100 cm³ soil. Leaf area and shoot fresh and dry weights were decreased by a Pi of 50 or more P. penetrans per 100 cm³ soil. A significant positive linear relationship existed between initial soil population densities of P. penetrans and final soil and root population densities of this nematode. Three dry bean cultivars, Sanilac, Seafarer, and Tuscola, were susceptible to P. penetrans, and yields were reduced by 43-76% when plants were exposed to a Pi of 150 P. penetrans per 100 cm³ soil. P. penetrans also reproduced on bean cultivars Saginaw, Gratiot, and Kentwood, but did not decrease bean yields, suggesting that these cultivars were tolerant to this nematode.
PMCID: PMC2618433  PMID: 19294063
root-lesion nematode; bean yields; cultivars; population densities
17.  Pratylenchus penetrans Population Dynamics on Three Potato Cultivars 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(3):361-368.
Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on the potato cultivars Hudson, Katahdin, and Superior was determined in greenhouse and field microplot experiments. Although all three cultivars were good hosts for P. penetrans, differences in reproductive rate were found. In one greenhouse experiment, Katahdin plants inoculated with 1,500 or 15,000 P. penetrans per pot had larger population densities at harvest than did Superior; however differences between these cultivars were not significant in three other greenhouse experiments. In another experiment, population densities of P. penetrans on Hudson did not differ from those on Katahdin and Superior when inoculated with 270 and 5,080 nematodes per pot after 45 days in the greenhouse. However, population densities were usually higher on Hudson and Katahdin than on Superior in field microplots at four initial population densities during two seasons. Higher population densities on Hudson were detectable 304 days after planting in one of the two microplot studies. The juvenile:female and the male:female ratios were sometimes larger on Katahdin than on Superior, but differences were inconsistent. There was no evidence of resistance in the three cultivars evaluated, but reproduction was generally highest on Hudson and lowest on Superior.
PMCID: PMC2618655  PMID: 19290156
extraction efficiency; fecundity; host suitability; potato; Pratylenchus penetrans; resistance; root-lesion nematode; Solanum tuberosum; survival
18.  Standardization of Reporting Procedures for Nematicide Efficacy Testing: A Research and Extension Perspective 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):575-585.
Nematicide tests reported in the Annals of Applied Nematology from 1991 to 1995 were reviewed and evaluated for 24 criteria. Most criteria such as soil type, nematode density, cultivar planted, test location, and nematicide applied were reported in more than adequate detail. Soil moisture content and temperature conditions during the test, field history of pesticide use, agronomic-horticultural production practices, and measurements of yield were reported less adequately. Many reports dealing with fumigant nematicides and application by irrigation had inadequate descriptions of rates and application methodology, Although areas for improvement exist, overall the published works in Annals of Applied Nematology are well-reported experiments. Pressure exists from several elements of hematology to "standarize" reporting procedures and test practices. Due to the diversity of crops, nematodes, nematicides, edaphic and environmental conditions that affect nematicide fate, nematode activity, plant growth, and subsequently nematicide efficacy, creation of a completely standardized format is improbable. More accurate reporting of some test criteria rather than standardization will allow better comparison between tests when results do not concur and allow future researchers to duplicate application rates and methodologies to determine the sources of discrepancies between tests, including environmental variations.
PMCID: PMC2619741  PMID: 19277177
application; calibration; dosage; experimental design; nematicide; nematode control agent; nematode management
19.  Interactions Among Pratylenchus penetrans, P. scribneri, and Verticillium dahliae in the Potato Early Dying Disease Complex 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(2):228-234.
Microplots were infested with combinations of the fungus Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans and P. scribneri to test for individual and combined effects of these organisms on potato yield and nematode reproduction. Verticillium dahliae alone caused yield losses in all 3 years of the experiment, and the interaction between P. penetrans and V. dahliae was significant (P ≤ 0.05) in 2 years. Pratylenchus penetrans alone caused yield losses in 2 years and P. scribneri alone caused yield losses in 1 year. No two-way or three-way interaction was found involving P. scribneri. In 1987, reproduction for low densities of P. penetrans was 5 times higher when P. scribneri was also present than when it was absent, and 3.5 times higher in 1988. In nematode species mixtures, reproduction of P. scribneri was decreased by V. dahliae in 1987-88. The final population density of P. scribneri was negatively affected by V. dahliae and positively related to the initial proportion of P. scribneri to P. penetrans. In species mixtures with proportions of P. penetrans ranging from 0.1 to 0.5, reproduction of P. penetrans was negatively affected by V. dahliae and decreased linearly in relation to the increase in the initial proportion of P. penetrans in both years. The final population density of P. penetrans was affected only by V. dahliae.
PMCID: PMC2619486  PMID: 19279885
interaction; lesion nematode; nematode; potato early dying; Pratylenchus penetrans; P. scribneri; Verticillium dahliae
20.  Transfer and Development of Pasteuria penetrans  
Journal of nematology  2007;39(1):55-61.
Pasteuria penetrans isolate P-20 has been attributed as the cause of soil suppressiveness to peanut root-knot nematode in Florida. In this study, P. penetrans was transferred from a suppressive site to a new site and established by growing susceptible hosts to the peanut root-knot nematode during both summer and winter seasons. When two soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin, were applied broadcast at the rate of 168 liters/ha and 263 kg/ha, respectively, the bacterium was not adversely affected by 1,3-D but was adversely affected by chloropicrin. In autumn 2005, after the harvest of the second peanut crop, the greatest number of J2 was recorded in the chloropicrin-treated plots, followed by the non-fumigated plots and 1,3-D-fumigated plots. The percentage J2 encumbered with endospores, endospores per J2 and percentage of P. penetrans-infected females were greatest in the non-fumigated plots, followed by 1,3-D- and chloropicrin-fumigated plots. This study demonstrates that P. penetrans can be transferred from a suppressive site to a new site and increased to suppressive densities against the peanut root-knot nematode.
PMCID: PMC2586474  PMID: 19259476
Arachis hypogaea; biological control; chloropicrin; 1,3-dichloropropene; fumigation; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; Pasteuria penetrans; peanut; peanut root-knot nematode; suppressive soil; transferability
21.  Corn Response to Subsoiling and Nematicide Application 
Journal of Nematology  1985;17(4):404-407.
A 2-year field study evaluated the influence of subsoiling and nematicide application, alone and in combination, on the growth and yield of field corn in a sandy soil in north-central Florida. The field had a 25-30-cm-deep tillage pan (plowpan) and was infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Trichodorus christei, and Pratylenchus spp. Subsoiling increased corn yield both years, and the residual effect of subsoiling in the first year increased yields in the second year. Preplant application of DD injected in-row increased yields and reduced nematode populations. At-planting applications of DD injected in-row and carbofuran in-furrow or in a band were less effective than subsoiling in increasing yields and reducing nematode numbers. Interactions between subsoiling and nematicide treatments occurred in the second year.
PMCID: PMC2618479  PMID: 19294117
Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting); Hoplolaimus galeatus (lance); Pratylenchus spp. (lesion); Trichodorus christei (stubby-root); carbofuran; chemical control; DD; tillage pan
22.  Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Oriental Lilies with Drip and Foliar-applied Nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(4S):758-767.
Pratylenchus penetrans is a pest for producers of oriental lilies in northern California. Concern over groundwater contamination from 1,2-dichloropropane following shank injections of 1,3-dichloropropene-l,2-dichloropropane mixture and granular applications of aldicarb prompted testing for alternative methods of controlling P. penetrans. In field trials, nematicides applied by drip irrigation (ethoprop, fenamiphos, oxamyl, sodium tetrathiocarbonate, water extracts of marigold and vetch, and 1,3-D plus emulsifier) were tested with and without foliar applications of oxamyl. Nematode populations were reduced (P = 0.05) relative to controls in soil or roots on one or more sampling dates by all drip-applied nematicides except the plant extracts. On some sampling dates, additional reductions (P = 0.05) occurred as a result of three foliar applications of oxamyl. Foliar-applied oxamyl alone also reduced (P = 0.05) nematodes in soil or roots. Lily bulb weight was not affected (P = 0.05) by chemical treatments.
PMCID: PMC2619466  PMID: 19279836
chemical control; 1,3-dichloropropene; ethoprop; fenamiphos; lesion nematode; Lillium spp.; marigold; nematicide; nematode; oriental lily; oxamyl; Pratylenchus penetrans; Tagetes spp.; sodium tetrathiocarbonate; vetch; Vicia sp.
23.  Joint Influence of Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda) and Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Insecta) on Solanum tuberosum Productivity and Pest Population Dynamics 
Journal of Nematology  1984;16(3):230-234.
The joint action of a plant parasitic nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans (root-lesion nematode), and an insect defoliator, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle), on growth, development, and yield of Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior was studied in the field. Three population densities of P. penetrans were superimposed on each of three population levels of L. decemlineata. The major impact of P. penetrans on final yield was through a reduction in the number of tubers formed during tuber initiation. Defoliation by L. decemlineata increased with time as larvae advanced through successive instars and densities increased. This resulted in a significant reduction in tuber weight and numbers. Total yield of S. tuberosum was decreased by 66% with increasing population densities of L. decemlineata and 27 % with increasing densities of P. penetrans. L. decemlineata feeding did not affect soil population densities of P. penetrans. Root population densities of P. penetrans, however, were significantly (P = 0.05) higher in plants maintained beetle free than in plants grown in the presence of the beetles.
PMCID: PMC2618380  PMID: 19294016
yield; crop loss; interaction; root-lesion nematode; Colorado potato beetle; potato
24.  Alternatives to Fenamiphos for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(4):477-482.
Plant-parasitic nematodes can be very damaging to turfgrasses. The projected cancellation of the registration for fenamiphos in the near future has generated a great deal of interest in identifying acceptable alternative nematode management tactics for use on turfgrasses. Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated applications of several commercially available nematicides and root biostimulants for reducing population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and (or) promoting health of bermudagrass in nematode-infested soil. One experimental site was infested with Hoplolaimus galeatus and Trichodorus obtusus, the second with Belonolaimus longicaudatus. In both trials, none of the experimental treatments reduced population densities (P ≤ 0.1) of plant-parasitic nematodes, or consistently promoted turf visual performance or turf root production. Nematologists with responsibility to advise turf managers regarding nematode management should thoroughly investigate the validity of product claims before advising clientele in their use.
PMCID: PMC2621000  PMID: 19262894
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Hoplolaimus galeatus; lance nematode; sting nematode; stubby-root nematode; Trichodorus obtusus; turf
25.  Correlation of Edaphic Factors with Plant-parasitic Nematode Population Densities in a Forage Field 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(4):642-653.
Two hundred soil samples from the Ap horizon of a reed canarygrass field overlaying several different but related soils in northern Minnesota were analyzed for plant-parasitic nematodes and 22 edaphic factors. Pratylenchus penetrans was the predominant nematode taxon. Others were Aglenchus agricola, Tylenchorhynchus spp., Heterodera trifolii, Paratylenchus spp., Tylenchus maius, and Criconemella sp. Five nematode taxa, P. penetrans, A, agricola, Tylenchorhynchus spp., H. trifolii, and Paratylenchus spp., were correlated with particle size, Tylenchus maius and Criconemella sp. were correlated with effective cation exchange capacity. Nematode field spatial arrangements were related to a combination of statistically significant positive and negative soil factor effects on the nematode populations. Contour maps derived by geostatistical techniques were used to visually validate statistically significant correlations of nematode and soil data. Contour mapping to supplement traditional statistical techniques can be used to achieve a more holistic approach to studies of nematode-soil interrelationships.
PMCID: PMC2619425  PMID: 19279821
Aglenchus agricola; contour mapping; Criconemella; edaphic factor; effective cation exchange capacity; forage; geostatistics; Heterodera trifolii; nematode; Paratylenchus; particle size; Phalaris arundinacea; Pratylenchus penetrans; soil; Tylenchorhynchus; Tylenchus maius

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