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1.  Post-Control Surveillance of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida with Chemically-Baited Sticky Traps 
Background
Chagas disease prevention critically depends on keeping houses free of triatomine vectors. Insecticide spraying is very effective, but re-infestation of treated dwellings is commonplace. Early detection-elimination of re-infestation foci is key to long-term control; however, all available vector-detection methods have low sensitivity. Chemically-baited traps are widely used in vector and pest control-surveillance systems; here, we test this approach for Triatoma spp. detection under field conditions in the Gran Chaco.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Using a repeated-sampling approach and logistic models that explicitly take detection failures into account, we simultaneously estimate vector occurrence and detection probabilities. We then model detection probabilities (conditioned on vector occurrence) as a function of trapping system to measure the effect of chemical baits. We find a positive effect of baits after three (odds ratio [OR] 5.10; 95% confidence interval [CI95] 2.59–10.04) and six months (OR 2.20, CI95 1.04–4.65). Detection probabilities are estimated at p≈0.40–0.50 for baited and at just p≈0.15 for control traps. Bait effect is very strong on T. infestans (three-month assessment: OR 12.30, CI95 4.44–34.10; p≈0.64), whereas T. sordida is captured with similar frequency in baited and unbaited traps.
Conclusions/Significance
Chemically-baited traps hold promise for T. infestans surveillance; the sensitivity of the system at detecting small re-infestation foci rises from 12.5% to 63.6% when traps are baited with semiochemicals. Accounting for imperfect detection, infestation is estimated at 26% (CI95 16–40) after three and 20% (CI95 11–34) after six months. In the same assessments, traps detected infestation in 14% and 8.5% of dwellings, whereas timed manual searches (the standard approach) did so in just 1.4% of dwellings only in the first survey. Since infestation rates are the main indicator used for decision-making in control programs, the approach we present may help improve T. infestans surveillance and control program management.
Author Summary
Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in southern South America. Dwelling-infesting populations are controlled through insecticide-spraying campaigns; however, dwellings are often re-infested when insecticide effects wane, and this leads to the re-establishment of disease transmission. Detecting and eliminating re-infestation foci is therefore crucial to prevent new cases. Unfortunately, available vector detection methods all have low sensitivity. Here, we show that simple sticky traps baited with widely available chemicals are significantly more sensitive than either unbaited traps or active manual searches by trained staff — the standard method used in control programs. Increased trap sensitivity (about 500% higher), together with an analytical approach that takes detection failures into account, allows us to estimate dwelling infestation rates at about 20–26%; in contrast, just 0–1.4% of dwellings were identified as infested by manual searches. This large difference highlights the importance of enhancing surveillance systems, and reveals how crude infestation indices may mislead decision-makers. We conclude that chemically baited sticky traps can help improve T. infestans surveillance systems and thus strengthen vector control program management.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001822
PMCID: PMC3441417  PMID: 23029583
2.  Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on Reducing Wood Borer Infestation Rates in Wood Packaging Material Entering the United States 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96611.
Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 (ISPM15) in 2002, which provides treatment standards for WPM used in international trade. ISPM15 was originally developed by members of the International Plant Protection Convention to “practically eliminate” the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM. The United States (US) implemented ISPM15 in three phases during 2005–2006. We compared pest interception rates of WPM inspected at US ports before and after US implementation of ISPM15 using the US Department of Agriculture AQIM (Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring) database. Analyses of records from 2003–2009 indicated that WPM infestation rates declined 36–52% following ISPM15 implementation, with results varying in statistical significance depending on the selected starting parameters. Power analyses of the AQIM data indicated there was at least a 95% chance of detecting a statistically significant reduction in infestation rates if they dropped by 90% post-ISPM15, but the probability fell as the impact of ISPM15 lessened. We discuss several factors that could have reduced the apparent impact of ISPM15 on lowering WPM infestation levels, and suggest ways that ISPM15 could be improved. The paucity of international interception data impeded our ability to conduct more thorough analyses of the impact of ISPM15, and demonstrates the need for well-planned sampling programs before and after implementation of major phytosanitary policies so that their effectiveness can be assessed. We also present summary data for bark- and wood-boring insects intercepted on WPM at US ports during 1984–2008.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096611
PMCID: PMC4020780  PMID: 24827724
3.  All That Glisters Is Not Gold: Sampling-Process Uncertainty in Disease-Vector Surveys with False-Negative and False-Positive Detections 
Background
Vector-borne diseases are major public health concerns worldwide. For many of them, vector control is still key to primary prevention, with control actions planned and evaluated using vector occurrence records. Yet vectors can be difficult to detect, and vector occurrence indices will be biased whenever spurious detection/non-detection records arise during surveys. Here, we investigate the process of Chagas disease vector detection, assessing the performance of the surveillance method used in most control programs – active triatomine-bug searches by trained health agents.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Control agents conducted triplicate vector searches in 414 man-made ecotopes of two rural localities. Ecotope-specific ‘detection histories’ (vectors or their traces detected or not in each individual search) were analyzed using ordinary methods that disregard detection failures and multiple detection-state site-occupancy models that accommodate false-negative and false-positive detections. Mean (±SE) vector-search sensitivity was ∼0.283±0.057. Vector-detection odds increased as bug colonies grew denser, and were lower in houses than in most peridomestic structures, particularly woodpiles. False-positive detections (non-vector fecal streaks misidentified as signs of vector presence) occurred with probability ∼0.011±0.008. The model-averaged estimate of infestation (44.5±6.4%) was ∼2.4–3.9 times higher than naïve indices computed assuming perfect detection after single vector searches (11.4–18.8%); about 106–137 infestation foci went undetected during such standard searches.
Conclusions/Significance
We illustrate a relatively straightforward approach to addressing vector detection uncertainty under realistic field survey conditions. Standard vector searches had low sensitivity except in certain singular circumstances. Our findings suggest that many infestation foci may go undetected during routine surveys, especially when vector density is low. Undetected foci can cause control failures and induce bias in entomological indices; this may confound disease risk assessment and mislead program managers into flawed decision making. By helping correct bias in naïve indices, the approach we illustrate has potential to critically strengthen vector-borne disease control-surveillance systems.
Author Summary
Vector-borne disease prevention often relies on health agents inspecting dwellings and eliminating the vector infestation foci they detect. The effectiveness of prevention programs thus depends on vector-detection performance. Unfortunately, detection failures can be common, particularly when infestation is rare and vector foci small. Although this can threaten vector control, the actual performance of vector searches has seldom been investigated in detail. Here, we assess Chagas disease vector detection by trained control-surveillance agents. We used models that explicitly account for detection errors to analyze triplicate vector detection/non-detection records from 414 man-made ‘ecotopes’ (houses, henhouses, woodpiles, etc.) in two rural localities. On average, a single round of vector searches correctly identified about 28% of the infested ecotopes; detection was more challenging in lightly-infested ecotopes and in some ecotope types, particularly houses and brick piles. After correcting detection errors, we estimated that ∼45% of the ecotopes were most likely infested, while observed rates were ∼11–19%; standard, single-round vector searches therefore missed many infestation foci. Our findings underscore the importance of taking detection failures into account when assessing infestation by disease vectors, and illustrate a straightforward approach to tackle the major but still underappreciated problem of imperfect vector detection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003187
PMCID: PMC4169387  PMID: 25233352
4.  Molecular Characterization and Development of Real-Time PCR Assay for Pine-Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78804.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine-wood nematode (PWN), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, one of the most damaging emerging pest problems to forests around the world. It is native to North America where it causes relatively minor damage to native conifers but is labeled an EPPO-A-2 pest and a quarantine nematode for many countries outside of the United States because of its potential for destruction to their native conifers. Exports of wood logs and commodities involving softwood packaging materials now require a lab test for the presence/absence of this regulated nematode species. We characterized the DNA sequences on the ribosomal DNA small subunit, large subunit D2/D3, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit one on the aphelenchid species and described the development of a real-time-PCR method for rapid and accurate identification of PWN targeting the ITS-1. A total of 97 nematode populations were used to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of this assay, including 45 populations of B. xylophilus and 36 populations of 21 other species of Bursaphelenchus which belong to the abietinus, cocophilus, eggersi, fungivorus, hofmanni, kevini, leoni, sexdentati, and xylophilus groups and one unassigned group from a total of 13 groups in the genus Bursaphelenchus; 15 populations of Aphelenchoides besseyi, A. fragariae, Aphelenchoides species and Aphelenchus avenae; and one population of mixed nematode species from a soil sample. This assay proved to be specific to B. xylophilus only and was sensitive to a single nematode specimen regardless of the life stages present. This approach provides rapid species identification necessary to comply with the zero-tolerance export regulations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078804
PMCID: PMC3823978  PMID: 24244367
5.  Modeling Dengue Vector Dynamics under Imperfect Detection: Three Years of Site-Occupancy by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Urban Amazonia 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58420.
Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the vectors of dengue, the most important arboviral disease of humans. To date, Aedes ecology studies have assumed that the vectors are truly absent from sites where they are not detected; since no perfect detection method exists, this assumption is questionable. Imperfect detection may bias estimates of key vector surveillance/control parameters, including site-occupancy (infestation) rates and control intervention effects. We used a modeling approach that explicitly accounts for imperfect detection and a 38-month, 55-site detection/non-detection dataset to quantify the effects of municipality/state control interventions on Aedes site-occupancy dynamics, considering meteorological and dwelling-level covariates. Ae. aegypti site-occupancy estimates (mean 0.91; range 0.79–0.97) were much higher than reported by routine surveillance based on ‘rapid larval surveys’ (0.03; 0.02–0.11) and moderately higher than directly ascertained with oviposition traps (0.68; 0.50–0.91). Regular control campaigns based on breeding-site elimination had no measurable effects on the probabilities of dwelling infestation by dengue vectors. Site-occupancy fluctuated seasonally, mainly due to the negative effects of high maximum (Ae. aegypti) and minimum (Ae. albopictus) summer temperatures (June-September). Rainfall and dwelling-level covariates were poor predictors of occupancy. The marked contrast between our estimates of adult vector presence and the results from ‘rapid larval surveys’ suggests, together with the lack of effect of local control campaigns on infestation, that many Aedes breeding sites were overlooked by vector control agents in our study setting. Better sampling strategies are urgently needed, particularly for the reliable assessment of infestation rates in the context of control program management. The approach we present here, combining oviposition traps and site-occupancy models, could greatly contribute to that crucial aim.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058420
PMCID: PMC3589427  PMID: 23472194
6.  Reducing the Impact of the Next Influenza Pandemic Using Household-Based Public Health Interventions 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(9):e361.
Background
The outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in domestic poultry and wild birds has caused global concern over the possible evolution of a novel human strain [1]. If such a strain emerges, and is not controlled at source [2,3], a pandemic is likely to result. Health policy in most countries will then be focused on reducing morbidity and mortality.
Methods and Findings
We estimate the expected reduction in primary attack rates for different household-based interventions using a mathematical model of influenza transmission within and between households. We show that, for lower transmissibility strains [2,4], the combination of household-based quarantine, isolation of cases outside the household, and targeted prophylactic use of anti-virals will be highly effective and likely feasible across a range of plausible transmission scenarios. For example, for a basic reproductive number (the average number of people infected by a typically infectious individual in an otherwise susceptible population) of 1.8, assuming only 50% compliance, this combination could reduce the infection (symptomatic) attack rate from 74% (49%) to 40% (27%), requiring peak quarantine and isolation levels of 6.2% and 0.8% of the population, respectively, and an overall anti-viral stockpile of 3.9 doses per member of the population. Although contact tracing may be additionally effective, the resources required make it impractical in most scenarios.
Conclusions
National influenza pandemic preparedness plans currently focus on reducing the impact associated with a constant attack rate, rather than on reducing transmission. Our findings suggest that the additional benefits and resource requirements of household-based interventions in reducing average levels of transmission should also be considered, even when expected levels of compliance are only moderate.
Voluntary household-based quarantine and external isolation are likely to be effective in limiting the morbidity and mortality of an influenza pandemic, even if such a pandemic cannot be entirely prevented, and even if compliance with these interventions is moderate.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Naturally occurring variation in the influenza virus can lead both to localized annual epidemics and to less frequent global pandemics of catastrophic proportions. The most destructive of the three influenza pandemics of the 20th century, the so-called Spanish flu of 1918–1919, is estimated to have caused 20 million deaths. As evidenced by ongoing tracking efforts and news media coverage of H5N1 avian influenza, contemporary approaches to monitoring and communications can be expected to alert health officials and the general public of the emergence of new, potentially pandemic strains before they spread globally.
Why Was This Study Done?
In order to act most effectively on advance notice of an approaching influenza pandemic, public health workers need to know which available interventions are likely to be most effective. This study was done to estimate the effectiveness of specific preventive measures that communities might implement to reduce the impact of pandemic flu. In particular, the study evaluates methods to reduce person-to-person transmission of influenza, in the likely scenario that complete control cannot be achieved by mass vaccination and anti-viral treatment alone.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers developed a mathematical model—essentially a computer simulation—to simulate the course of pandemic influenza in a hypothetical population at risk for infection at home, through external peer networks such as schools and workplaces, and through general community transmission. Parameters such as the distribution of household sizes, the rate at which individuals develop symptoms from nonpandemic viruses, and the risk of infection within households were derived from demographic and epidemiologic data from Hong Kong, as well as empirical studies of influenza transmission. A model based on these parameters was then used to calculate the effects of interventions including voluntary household quarantine, voluntary individual isolation in a facility outside the home, and contact tracing (that is, asking infectious individuals to identify people whom they may have infected and then warning those people) on the spread of pandemic influenza through the population. The model also took into account the anti-viral treatment of exposed, asymptomatic household members and of individuals in isolation, and assumed that all intervention strategies were put into place before the arrival of individuals infected with the pandemic virus.
  Using this model, the authors predicted that even if only half of the population were to comply with public health interventions, the proportion infected during the first year of an influenza pandemic could be substantially reduced by a combination of household-based quarantine, isolation of actively infected individuals in a location outside the household, and targeted prophylactic treatment of exposed individuals with anti-viral drugs. Based on an influenza-associated mortality rate of 0.5% (as has been estimated for New York City in the 1918–1919 pandemic), the magnitude of the predicted benefit of these interventions is a reduction from 49% to 27% in the proportion of the population who become ill in the first year of the pandemic, which would correspond to 16,000 fewer deaths in a city the size of Hong Kong (6.8 million people). In the model, anti-viral treatment appeared to be about as effective as isolation when each was used in combination with household quarantine, but would require stockpiling 3.9 doses of anti-viral for each member of the population. Contact tracing was predicted to provide a modest additional benefit over quarantine and isolation, but also to increase considerably the proportion of the population in quarantine.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This study predicts that voluntary household-based quarantine and external isolation can be effective in limiting the morbidity and mortality of an influenza pandemic, even if such a pandemic cannot be entirely prevented, and even if compliance with these interventions is far from uniform. These simulations can therefore inform preparedness plans in the absence of data from actual intervention trials, which would be impossible outside (and impractical within) the context of an actual pandemic. Like all mathematical models, however, the one presented in this study relies on a number of assumptions regarding the characteristics and circumstances of the situation that it is intended to represent. For example, the authors found that the efficacy of policies to reduce the rate of infection vary according to the ease with which a given virus spreads from person to person. Because this parameter (known as the basic reproductive ratio, R0) cannot be reliably predicted for a new viral strain based on past epidemics, the authors note that in an actual influenza pandemic rapid determinations of R0 in areas already involved would be necessary to finalize public health responses in threatened areas. Further, the implementation of the interventions that appear beneficial in this model would require devoting attention and resources to practical considerations, such as how to staff isolation centers and provide food and water to those in household quarantine. However accurate the scientific data and predictive models may be, their effectiveness can only be realized through well-coordinated local, as well as international, efforts.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030361.
• World Health Organization influenza pandemic preparedness page
• US Department of Health and Human Services avian and pandemic flu information site
• Pandemic influenza page from the Public Health Agency of Canada
• Emergency planning page on pandemic flu from the England Department of Health
• Wikipedia entry on pandemic influenza with links to individual country resources (note: Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030361
PMCID: PMC1526768  PMID: 16881729
7.  Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence When Detection Is Imperfect II: Drivers of Site-Occupancy by Synanthropic Triatoma brasiliensis in the Brazilian Northeast 
Background
Understanding the drivers of habitat selection by insect disease vectors is instrumental to the design and operation of rational control-surveillance systems. One pervasive yet often overlooked drawback of vector studies is that detection failures result in some sites being misclassified as uninfested; naïve infestation indices are therefore biased, and this can confound our view of vector habitat preferences. Here, we present an initial attempt at applying methods that explicitly account for imperfect detection to investigate the ecology of Chagas disease vectors in man-made environments.
Methodology
We combined triplicate-sampling of individual ecotopes (n = 203) and site-occupancy models (SOMs) to test a suite of pre-specified hypotheses about habitat selection by Triatoma brasiliensis. SOM results were compared with those of standard generalized linear models (GLMs) that assume perfect detection even with single bug-searches.
Principal Findings
Triatoma brasiliensis was strongly associated with key hosts (native rodents, goats/sheep and, to a lesser extent, fowl) in peridomestic environments; ecotope structure had, in comparison, small to negligible effects, although wooden ecotopes were slightly preferred. We found evidence of dwelling-level aggregation of infestation foci; when there was one such focus, same-dwelling ecotopes, whether houses or peridomestic structures, were more likely to become infested too. GLMs yielded negatively-biased covariate effect estimates and standard errors; both were, on average, about four times smaller than those derived from SOMs.
Conclusions/Significance
Our results confirm substantial population-level ecological heterogeneity in T. brasiliensis. They also suggest that, at least in some sites, control of this species may benefit from peridomestic rodent control and changes in goat/sheep husbandry practices. Finally, our comparative analyses highlight the importance of accounting for the various sources of uncertainty inherent to vector studies, including imperfect detection. We anticipate that future research on infectious disease ecology will increasingly rely on approaches akin to those described here.
Author Summary
Chagas disease prevention depends on the control of its insect vectors — large blood-sucking bugs called triatomines. One commonly neglected problem of vector studies is imperfect detection, whereby some sites are mistakenly classified as uninfested. We address this drawback by combining repeated sampling of ‘ecotopes’ (houses, fowl-houses, corrals, woodpiles, etc.) with models that accommodate detection failures to study habitat selection by a major vector, Triatoma brasiliensis. Triatoma brasiliensis was strongly associated with peridomestic rodents and goats/sheep. We found little support to the conventional view that T. brasiliensis prefers stone-like habitats; at least in our study setting, host availability was much more important than ecotope structure, and, overall, wooden habitats (timber piles or wood-fenced corrals) were slightly favored. The risk of infestation in any individual ecotope increased when another ecotope in the same dwelling was also infested; this increase was the same for houses and for peridomestic structures. These findings suggest that management of peridomestic animals, and especially rodents and goats, could help mitigate the risk of dwelling and house infestation by T. brasiliensis. In sum, our study demonstrates how relatively simple but sound sampling and analytical approaches can critically enhance our understanding of disease ecology by explicitly accounting for imperfect detection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002861
PMCID: PMC4014420  PMID: 24811125
8.  Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence when Detection Is Imperfect: Infestation of Amazonian Palm Trees by Triatomine Bugs at Three Spatial Scales 
Background
Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (∼0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (∼0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation.
Conclusions/Significance
Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in heavily disturbed urban settings. Our methodological approach has wide application in infectious disease research; by improving eco-epidemiological parameter estimation, it can also significantly strengthen vector surveillance-control strategies.
Author Summary
Blood-sucking bugs of the genus Rhodnius are major vectors of Chagas disease. Control and surveillance of Chagas disease transmission critically depend on ascertaining whether households and nearby ecotopes (such as palm trees) are infested by these vectors. However, no bug detection technique works perfectly. Because more sensitive methods are more costly, vector searches face a trade-off between technical prowess and sample size. We compromise by using relatively inexpensive sampling techniques that can be applied multiple times to a large number of palms. With these replicated results, we estimate the probability of failing to detect bugs in a palm that is actually infested. We incorporate this information into our analyses to derive an unbiased estimate of palm infestation, and find it to be about 50% – twice the observed proportion of infested palms. We are then able to model the effects of regional, landscape, and local environmental variables on palm infestation. Individual palm attributes contribute overwhelmingly more than landscape or regional covariates to explaining infestation, suggesting that palm tree management can help mitigate risk locally. Our results illustrate how explicitly accounting for vector, pathogen, or host detection failures can substantially improve epidemiological parameter estimation when perfect detection techniques are unavailable.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000620
PMCID: PMC2830460  PMID: 20209149
9.  Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia 
Preventive Veterinary Medicine  2014;113(4):469-483.
Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases.
Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced.
The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing.
Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export.
doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.01.003
PMCID: PMC3989042  PMID: 24462194
Risk assessment; Cost-effectiveness; Somalia; RVF; FMD; Brucellosis; PPR; CCPP; CBPP
10.  Lethal Temperature for Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Infested Wood Using Microwave Energy 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(2):101-110.
To reduce the risks associated with global transport of wood infested with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, microwave irradiation was tested at 14 temperatures in replicated wood samples to determine the temperature that would kill 99.9968% of nematodes in a sample of ≥ 100,000 organisms, meeting a level of efficacy of Probit 9. Treatment of these heavily infested wood samples (mean of > 1,000 nematodes/g of sapwood) produced 100% mortality at 56 °C and above, held for 1 min. Because this “brute force” approach to Probit 9 treats individual nematodes as the observational unit regardless of the number of wood samples it takes to treat this number of organisms, we also used a modeling approach. The best fit was to a Probit function, which estimated lethal temperature at 62.2 (95% confidence interval 59.0-70.0) °C. This discrepancy between the observed and predicted temperature to achieve Probit 9 efficacy may have been the result of an inherently limited sample size when predicting the true mean from the total population. The rate of temperature increase in the small wood samples (rise time) did not affect final nematode mortality at 56 °C. In addition, microwave treatment of industrial size, infested wood blocks killed 100% of > 200,000 nematodes at ≥ 56 °C held for 1 min in replicated wood samples. The 3rd-stage juvenile (J3) of the nematode, that is resistant to cold temperatures and desiccation, was abundant in our wood samples and did not show any resistance to microwave treatment. Regression analysis of internal wood temperatures as a function of surface temperature produced a regression equation that could be used with a relatively high degree of accuracy to predict internal wood temperatures, under the conditions of this study. These results provide strong evidence of the ability of microwave treatment to successfully eradicate B. xylophilus in infested wood at or above 56 °C held for 1 min.
PMCID: PMC3380472  PMID: 22736846
Pinewood nematode; quarantine; microwave; dielectric heating; international trade; embargo; eradication; Probit 9; International Standard of Phytosanitary Measures No. 15
11.  Quantifying the impact of community quarantine on SARS transmission in Ontario: estimation of secondary case count difference and number needed to quarantine 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:488.
Background
Community quarantine is controversial, and the decision to use and prepare for it should be informed by specific quantitative evidence of benefit. Case-study reports on 2002-2004 SARS outbreaks have discussed the role of quarantine in the community in transmission. However, this literature has not yielded quantitative estimates of the reduction in secondary cases attributable to quarantine as would be seen in other areas of health policy and cost-effectiveness analysis.
Methods
Using data from the 2003 Ontario, Canada, SARS outbreak, two novel expressions for the impact of quarantine are presented. Secondary Case Count Difference (SCCD) reflects reduction in the average number of transmissions arising from a SARS case in quarantine, relative to not in quarantine, at onset of symptoms. SCCD was estimated using Poisson and negative binomial regression models (with identity link function) comparing the number of secondary cases to each index case for quarantine relative to non-quarantined index cases. The inverse of this statistic is proposed as the number needed to quarantine (NNQ) to prevent one additional secondary transmission.
Results
Our estimated SCCD was 0.133 fewer secondary cases per quarantined versus non-quarantined index case; and a NNQ of 7.5 exposed individuals to be placed in community quarantine to prevent one additional case of transmission in the community. This analysis suggests quarantine can be an effective preventive measure, although these estimates lack statistical precision.
Conclusions
Relative to other health policy areas, literature on quarantine tends to lack in quantitative expressions of effectiveness, or agreement on how best to report differences in outcomes attributable to control measure. We hope to further this discussion through presentation of means to calculate and express the impact of population control measures. The study of quarantine effectiveness presents several methodological and statistical challenges. Further research and discussion are needed to understand the costs and benefits of enacting quarantine, and this includes a discussion of how quantitative benefit should be communicated to decision-makers and the public, and evaluated.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-488
PMCID: PMC2808319  PMID: 20034405
12.  Identification of Novel Target Genes for Safer and More Specific Control of Root-Knot Nematodes from a Pan-Genome Mining 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(10):e1003745.
Root-knot nematodes are globally the most aggressive and damaging plant-parasitic nematodes. Chemical nematicides have so far constituted the most efficient control measures against these agricultural pests. Because of their toxicity for the environment and danger for human health, these nematicides have now been banned from use. Consequently, new and more specific control means, safe for the environment and human health, are urgently needed to avoid worldwide proliferation of these devastating plant-parasites. Mining the genomes of root-knot nematodes through an evolutionary and comparative genomics approach, we identified and analyzed 15,952 nematode genes conserved in genomes of plant-damaging species but absent from non target genomes of chordates, plants, annelids, insect pollinators and mollusks. Functional annotation of the corresponding proteins revealed a relative abundance of putative transcription factors in this parasite-specific set compared to whole proteomes of root-knot nematodes. This may point to important and specific regulators of genes involved in parasitism. Because these nematodes are known to secrete effector proteins in planta, essential for parasitism, we searched and identified 993 such effector-like proteins absent from non-target species. Aiming at identifying novel targets for the development of future control methods, we biologically tested the effect of inactivation of the corresponding genes through RNA interference. A total of 15 novel effector-like proteins and one putative transcription factor compatible with the design of siRNAs were present as non-redundant genes and had transcriptional support in the model root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Infestation assays with siRNA-treated M. incognita on tomato plants showed significant and reproducible reduction of the infestation for 12 of the 16 tested genes compared to control nematodes. These 12 novel genes, showing efficient reduction of parasitism when silenced, constitute promising targets for the development of more specific and safer control means.
Author Summary
Plant-parasitic nematodes are annually responsible for more than $100 billion crop yield loss worldwide and those considered as causing most of the damages are root-knot nematodes. These nematodes used to be controlled by chemicals that are now banned from use because of their poor specificity and high toxicity for the environment and human health. In the absence of sustainable alternative solutions, new control means, more specifically targeted against these nematodes and safe for the environment are needed. We searched in root-knot nematode genomes, genes conserved in various plant-damaging species while otherwise absent from the genomes of non target species such as those of chordates, plants, annelids, insect pollinators and mollusks. These genes are probably important for plant parasitism and their absence from non-target species make them interesting candidates for the development of more specific and safer control means. Further bioinformatics pruning of this set of genes yielded 16 novel candidates that could be biologically tested. Using RNA interference, we knocked down each of these 16 genes in a root-knot nematode and tested the effect on plant parasitism efficiency. Out of the 16 tested genes, 12 showed a significant and reproducible diminution of infestation when silenced and are thus particularly promising.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003745
PMCID: PMC3814813  PMID: 24204279
13.  An agent-based simulation of extirpation of Ceratitis capitata applied to invasions in California 
Journal of Pest Science  2013;87(1):39-51.
We present an agent-based simulation (ABS) of Ceratitis capitata (“Medfly”) developed for estimating the time to extirpation of this pest in areas where quarantines and eradication treatments were immediately imposed. We use the ABS, implemented in the program MED-FOES, to study seven different outbreaks that occurred in Southern California from 2008 to 2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed by the State, based on a linear developmental model (thermal unit accumulation, or “degree-day”). MED-FOES is a useful tool for invasive species managers as it incorporates more information from the known biology of the Medfly, and includes the important feature of being demographically explicit, providing significant improvements over simple degree-day calculations. While there was general agreement between the length of quarantine by degree-day and the time to extirpation indicated by MED-FOES, the ABS suggests that the margin of safety varies among cases and that in two cases the quarantine may have been excessively long. We also examined changes in the number of individuals over time in MED-FOES and conducted a sensitivity analysis for one of the outbreaks to explore the role of various input parameters on simulation outcomes. While our implementation of the ABS in this work is motivated by C. capitata and takes extirpation as a postulate, the simulation is very flexible and can be used to study a variety of questions on the invasion biology of pest insects and methods proposed to manage or eradicate such species.
doi:10.1007/s10340-013-0513-y
PMCID: PMC3925300  PMID: 24563646
Simulation; Model; Medfly; Quarantine; Agent-based modeling
14.  The Effects of City Streets on an Urban Disease Vector 
PLoS Computational Biology  2013;9(1):e1002801.
With increasing urbanization vector-borne diseases are quickly developing in cities, and urban control strategies are needed. If streets are shown to be barriers to disease vectors, city blocks could be used as a convenient and relevant spatial unit of study and control. Unfortunately, existing spatial analysis tools do not allow for assessment of the impact of an urban grid on the presence of disease agents. Here, we first propose a method to test for the significance of the impact of streets on vector infestation based on a decomposition of Moran's spatial autocorrelation index; and second, develop a Gaussian Field Latent Class model to finely describe the effect of streets while controlling for cofactors and imperfect detection of vectors. We apply these methods to cross-sectional data of infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Our Moran's decomposition test reveals that the distribution of T. infestans in this urban environment is significantly constrained by streets (p<0.05). With the Gaussian Field Latent Class model we confirm that streets provide a barrier against infestation and further show that greater than 90% of the spatial component of the probability of vector presence is explained by the correlation among houses within city blocks. The city block is thus likely to be an appropriate spatial unit to describe and control T. infestans in an urban context. Characteristics of the urban grid can influence the spatial dynamics of vector borne disease and should be considered when designing public health policies.
Author Summary
Chagas disease is a major parasitic disease in Latin America. It is transmitted by Triatoma infestans an insect common in Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru. We propose a method to demonstrate that streets strongly affect the spatial distribution of infestation by this insect in Arequipa. The effect of streets may be due to several external factors: 1) houses on different sides of a street may not be equally welcoming to the insects due to the presence of certain materials or animals, 2) people inspecting houses on the two sides of a street may not be equally efficient, and, 3) insects may disperse to neighboring houses but rarely reach houses across a street. We take these aspects into account in a second analysis and confirm that streets are important barriers to these insects. Our finding should allow for improvements in the control of insects that transmit Chagas disease in cities. More generally, our methods can be applied to other pests and disease vectors to better understand and control epidemics in cities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002801
PMCID: PMC3547802  PMID: 23341756
15.  Vertical Distribution of Rotylenchulus reniformis in Cotton Fields 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(3):265-271.
The possible impact of Rotylenchulus reniformis below plow depth was evaluated by measuring the vertical distribution of R. reniformis and soil texture in 20 symptomatic fields on 17 farms across six states. The mean nematode population density per field, 0 to 122 cm deep, ranged from 0.4 to 63 nematodes/g soil, and in 15 fields more than half of the R. reniformis present were below 30.5 cm, which is the greatest depth usually plowed by farmers or sampled by consultants. In 11 fields measured, root density was greatest in the top 15 cm of soil; however, roots consistently penetrated 92 to 122 cm deep by midseason, and in five fields in Texas and Louisiana the ratio of nematodes to root-length density within soil increased with depth. Repeated sampling during the year in Texas indicated that up to 20% of the nematodes in soil below 60 cm in the fall survived the winter. Differences between Baermann funnel and sugar flotation extraction methods were not important when compared with field-to-field differences in nematode populations and field-specific vertical distribution patterns. The results support the interpretation that R. reniformis below plow depth can significantly impact diagnosis and treatment of cotton fields infested with R. reniformis.
PMCID: PMC2620978  PMID: 19262871
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; management; nematode; reniform; Rotylenchulus reniformis; vertical distribution
16.  Seasonal Fluctuations of Soil and Tissue Populations of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in Alfalfa 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(1):27-36.
Population dynamics of A. ritzemabosi and D. dipsaci were studied in two alfalfa fields in Wyoming. Symptomatic stem-bud tissue and root-zone soil from alfalfa plants exhibiting symptoms of D. dipsaci infection were collected at intervals of 3 to 4 weeks. Both nematodes were extracted from stem tissue with the Baermann funnel method and from soil with the sieving and Baermann funnel method. Soil moisture and soil temperature at 5 cm accounted for 64.8% and 61.0%, respectively, of the variability in numbers of both nematodes in soil at the Big Horn field. Also at the Big Horn field, A. ritzemabosi was found in soil on only three of the 14 collection dates, whereas D. dipsaci was found in soil on 12 dates. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi was found in stem tissue samples on 9 of the 14 sampling dates whereas D. dipsaci was found on all dates. Populations of both nematodes in stem tissue peaked in October, and soil populations of both peaked in January, when soil moisture was greatest. Numbers of D. dipsaci in stem tissue were related to mean air temperature 3 weeks prior to tissue collection, while none of the climatic factors measured were associated with numbers of A. ritzemabosi. At the Dayton field, soil moisture plus soil temperature at 5 cm accounted for 98.2% and 91.4% of the variability in the soil populations of A. ritzemabosi and D. dipsaci, respectively. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi was extracted from soil at two of the five collection dates, compared to extraction of D. dipsaci at three dates. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi was collected from stem tissue at six of the seven sampling dates while D. dipsaci was found at all sampling dates. The only environmental factor that was associated with an increase in the numbers of both nematodes in alfalfa stem tissue was total precipitation 1 week prior to sampling, and this occurred only at the Dayton field. Numbers of A. ritzemabosi in stem tissue appeared to be not affected by any of the environmental factors studied, while numbers of D. dipsaci in stem tissue were associated with cumulative monthly precipitation, snow cover at time of sampling, and the mean weekly temperature 3 weeks prior to sampling. Harvesting alfalfa reduced the numbers of A. ritzemabosi at the Big Horn field and both nematodes at the Dayton field.
PMCID: PMC2620350  PMID: 19270872
alfalfa; alfalfa stem nematode; Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi; chrysanthemum foliar nematode; climate; distribution; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Medicago sativa; nematode; sampling; seasonal fluctuations
17.  A Simple Method for Determining Aphelenchoides besseyi Infestation Level of Oryza sativa Seeds 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4S):641-643.
A simple extraction method was developed for obtaining the white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, from single seeds of rice, Oryza sativa. The method was as follows: Individual rice seeds were split longitudinally and then transferred into single pipet tips. Tips containing a split seed were then singly placed upright in glass vials with water to extract the nematodes. This method was more efficient than the Baermann funnel technique and allowed nearly 100% recovery of living A. besseyi from single rice seeds within 4 hours.
PMCID: PMC2620416  PMID: 19270929
Aphelenchoides besseyi; assay; extraction; methodology; nematode; nematode load; Oryza sativa; rice; white tip disease
18.  Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats 
Parasites & Vectors  2012;5:82.
Background
The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract.
Methods
Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10) with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent) or 48 h (acaricidal) after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups.
Results
Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230.
Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus.
From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h), efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus.
Conclusion
The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly demonstrated. Taking into account the seasonality of fleas and ticks, the collars have the potential to prevent the transmission of vector-borne diseases and other conditions directly associated with infestation throughout the season of parasite abundance.
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-82
PMCID: PMC3434012  PMID: 22541037
Imidacloprid; Flumethrin; Collars; Efficacy; Safety; Fleas; Ticks; Cats
19.  Conventional and PCR Detection of Aphelenchoides fragariae in Diverse Ornamental Host Plant Species 
Journal of Nematology  2007;39(4):343-355.
A PCR-based diagnostic assay was developed for early detection and identification of Aphelenchoides fragariae directly in host plant tissues using the species-specific primers AFragFl and AFragRl that amplify a 169-bp fragment in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA. These species-specific primers did not amplify DNA from Aphelenchoides besseyi or Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. The PCR assay was sensitive, detecting a single nematode in a background of plant tissue extract. The assay accurately detected A. fragariae in more than 100 naturally infected, ornamental plant samples collected in North Carolina nurseries, garden centers and landscapes, including 50 plant species not previously reported as hosts of Aphelenchoides spp. The detection sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was higher for infected yet asymptomatic plants when compared to the traditional, water extraction method for Aphelenchoides spp. detection. The utility of using NaOH extraction for rapid preparation of total DNA from plant samples infected with A. fragariae was demonstrated.
PMCID: PMC2586516  PMID: 19259510
Aphelenchoides fragariae; detection; diagnosis; foliar nematode; ITS1; method; NaOH; ornamental host; PCR; rDNA
20.  Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(2):127-133.
Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm3 of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R2 = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R2 = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R2 = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm3 soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm3 of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon.
PMCID: PMC3578463  PMID: 23482631
bioassay; root-knot nematode; Seinhorst function; threshold level
21.  Fire Ant Decapitating Fly Cooperative Release Programs (1994–2008): Two Pseudacteon Species, P. tricuspis and P. curvatus, Rapidly Expand Across Imported Fire Ant Populations in the Southeastern United States 
Natural enemies of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren S. richteri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and their hybrid, include a suite of more than 20 fire ant decapitating phorid flies from South America in the genus Pseudacteon. Over the past 12 years, many researchers and associates have cooperated in introducing several species as classical or self-sustaining biological control agents in the United States. As a result, two species of flies, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier and P. curvatus Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae), are well established across large areas of the southeastern United States. Whereas many researchers have published local and state information about the establishment and spread of these flies, here distribution data from both published and unpublished sources has been compiled for the entire United States with the goal of presenting confirmed and probable distributions as of the fall of 2008. Documented rates of expansion were also used to predict the distribution of these flies three years later in the fall of 2011. In the fall of 2008, eleven years after the first successful release, we estimate that P. tricuspis covered about 50% of the fire ant quarantined area and that it will occur in almost 65% of the quarantine area by 2011. Complete coverage of the fire ant quarantined area will be delayed or limited by this species' slow rate of spread and frequent failure to establish in more northerly portions of the fire ant range and also, perhaps, by its preference for red imported fire ants (S. invicta). Eight years after the first successful release of P. curvatus, two biotypes of this species (one biotype occurring predominantly in the black and hybrid imported fire ants and the other occurring in red imported fire ants) covered almost 60% of the fire ant quarantined area. We estimate these two biotypes will cover almost 90% of the quarantine area by 2011 and 100% by 2012 or 2013. Strategic selection of several distributional gaps for future releases will accelerate complete coverage of quarantine areas. However, some gaps may be best used for the release of additional species of decapitating flies because establishment rates may be higher in areas without competing species.
doi:10.1673/031.011.0119
PMCID: PMC3281391  PMID: 21526930
biocontrol; biological control; distribution; expansion; Formicidae; Phoridae; Solenopsis invicta; Solenopsis richteri
22.  Chagas Disease Vector Control in a Hyperendemic Setting: The First 11 Years of Intervention in Cochabamba, Bolivia 
Background
Chagas disease has historically been hyperendemic in the Bolivian Department of Cochabamba. In the early 2000s, an extensive vector control program was implemented; 1.34 million dwelling inspections were conducted to ascertain infestation (2000–2001/2003–2011), with blanket insecticide spraying in 2003–2005 and subsequent survey-spraying cycles targeting residual infestation foci. Here, we assess the effects of this program on dwelling infestation rates (DIRs).
Methodology/Principal Findings
Program records were used to calculate annual, municipality-level aggregate DIRs (39 municipalities); very high values in 2000–2001 (median: 0.77–0.69) dropped to ∼0.03 from 2004 on. A linear mixed model (with municipality as a random factor) suggested that infestation odds decreased, on average, by ∼28% (95% confidence interval [CI95] 6–44%) with each 10-fold increase in control effort. A second, better-fitting mixed model including year as an ordinal predictor disclosed large DIR reductions in 2001–2003 (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, CI95 0.06–0.19) and 2003–2004 (OR 0.22, CI95 0.14–0.34). Except for a moderate decrease in 2005–2006, no significant changes were detected afterwards. In both models, municipality-level DIRs correlated positively with previous-year DIRs and with the extent of municipal territory originally covered by montane dry forests.
Conclusions/Significance
Insecticide-spraying campaigns had very strong, long-lasting effects on DIRs in Cochabamba. However, post-intervention surveys consistently detected infestation in ∼3% of dwellings, underscoring the need for continuous surveillance; higher DIRs were recorded in the capital city and, more generally, in municipalities dominated by montane dry forest – an eco-region where wild Triatoma infestans are widespread. Traditional strategies combining insecticide spraying and longitudinal surveillance are thus confirmed as very effective means for area-wide Chagas disease vector control; they will be particularly beneficial in highly-endemic settings, but should also be implemented or maintained in other parts of Latin America where domestic infestation by triatomines is still commonplace.
Author Summary
Chagas disease is among the most serious public health problems in Latin America; the highest prevalence of infection by its causative agent, the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has historically been recorded in some parts of Bolivia. In the early 2000s, a massive insecticide-spraying program was set up to control dwelling infestation by the blood-sucking bugs that transmit the disease. Here we provide a detailed assessment of the effects of this program in the Department of Cochabamba, one of the most highly-endemic settings worldwide. Our analyses show that municipality-level dwelling infestation rates plummeted from over 70–80% in 2001–2003 to about 2–3% in 2004–2011. This residual infestation was higher in the capital city and, more generally, in municipalities where montane dry forests dominate – probably because wild populations of the main vector, Triatoma infestans, are common in that eco-region. Despite the impressive early achievements of the program, with about 0.5 million people protected from contagion, sustained disease control will require fully operational long-term surveillance systems.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002782
PMCID: PMC3974664  PMID: 24699407
23.  Efficiency of blood culture bottles for the fungal sterility testing of corneal organ culture media 
Background/aim: The consequences of fungal contamination of an organ cultured cornea, though exceptional, are often disastrous for the recipient. Consequently, eye banks often quarantine corneas for 10 days or more before passing them for grafting. This period, though detrimental to the endothelial cell density of the delivered cornea, is necessary to detect contamination using conventional microbiological methods. The authors previously validated the use of a pair of aerobic and anaerobic blood bottles for sensitive and rapid detection of bacteria. To allow a short quarantine period, it remained only to optimise detection of fungi. The authors aimed to compare sensitivity and rapidity of fungal contamination detection by three methods: blood bottles, Sabouraud, and daily visual inspection of the organ culture medium.
Methods: Four inocula (106, 104, 102, 10 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml) of 11 fungi (Candida albicans, C tropicalis, C glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, A fumigatus, A flavus, Acremonium falciforme) were inoculated in a commercial organ culture medium containing a coloured pH indicator (CorneaMax, Eurobio, Les Ulis, France). The real live fungal inoculum was verified immediately after inoculation. After 48 hours at 31°C, samples of the contaminated media were inoculated in three blood bottles: Bactec Aerobic/F, Bactec Mycosis IC/F, and Bactec Myco/F Lytic (Becton Dickinson, Le Pont de Claix, France), then placed in a Bactec 9240 rocking automat, and in four Sabouraud media (solid and liquid, 28°C and 37°C) with daily observation. Contaminated organ culture media were also checked daily for any change in turbidity and/or colour. Experiments were performed in triplicate.
Results: Mycosis IC/F and Myco/F Lytic bottles were neither faster nor more sensitive than the aerobic bottle. The three methods were positive for all inocula, even the lowest (viable inoculum below 10 CFU/ml for each fungus). Contamination was detected within 24 hours by the aerobic bottles in 91% (40/44), by Sabouraud in 98% (43/44) (no significant difference) and by visual inspection in 66% of cases (29/44) (p<0.001 with the two others). Maximum times to detection were 46, 48 and 72 hours respectively.
Conclusion: This study further counters the preconception that fungal contamination is hard to detect in corneal organ culture media. This study is the last step in validating the use of a pair of blood bottles for the sterility testing of organ culture media, this time for fungi. Their use should make it possible to shorten microbiological quarantine and thus deliver corneas with higher endothelial cell density, without increasing the risk of recipient contamination.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2004.053439
PMCID: PMC1772633  PMID: 15834090
organ culture; cornea; blood bottles; sterility controls; fungus
24.  Effect of Controlled Cold Storage on Recovery of Rotylenchulus reniformis from Naturally Infested Soil 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(3):272-275.
Rotylenchulus reniformis is rapidly becoming the most economically important pest associated with cotton in the southeastern United States. Incentive programs have been implemented to support sampling of production fields to determine the presence and abundance of R. reniformis. These sampling programs have dramatically increased the number of soils samples submitted to nematology laboratories during autumn. The large numbers of samples overwhelm most labs and require placement in cold storage until extraction. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the length of time soils infested with R. reniformis can be stored before nematode extraction without compromising the accuracy of estimates of population densities. A sandy loam and a silty loam were the two cotton production soils used in this study. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers decreased 61%during the first 180 days of storage in both soils. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers from the initial sampling through 180 days decreased as a linear function. The decline of R. reniformis numbers during storage was estimated as 0.28% of the population lost daily from the maximum population through 180 days. The diminution of nematode numbers from 180 through 1,080 days in storage continued, but at a slower rate. Numbers of R. reniformis declined to less than 89%, 93%, and 99% of the initial population within 360, 720, and 1,080 days, respectively, of storage. The reduction of R. reniformis numbers over 180 days can be adjusted, allowing a more accurate estimation of R. reniformis levels in soil samples stored at 4 °C.
PMCID: PMC2620982  PMID: 19262872
Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil storage; population density
25.  Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs 
Parasites & Vectors  2012;5:102.
Background
The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis.
Methods
Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups.
Results
Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis.
Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus.
Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water.
The collars eliminated Trichodectes canis within 2 days and Sarcoptes scabiei within 3 months.
Conclusion
The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly-acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly shown. Consequently they have the potential to prevent the transmission of vector-borne diseases and other conditions directly associated with infestation throughout an entire season of parasite abundance.
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-102
PMCID: PMC3433312  PMID: 22647530
Imidacloprid; Flumethrin; Efficacy; Safety; Fleas; Ticks; Lice; Mites; Dogs

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