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1.  Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) Conference and Expo 
Ramaswamy, Lalitha | Velraja, Supriya | Escalante, Guillermo | Harvey, Phil | Alencar, Michelle | Haddock, Bryan | Harvey, Phil | Escalante, Guillermo | Alencar, Michelle | Haddock, Bryan | Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof | Jeszka, Jan | Zawieja, Bogna | Podgórski, Tomasz | Trussardi Fayh, Ana Paula | Okano, Alexandre Hideki | de Jesus Ferreira, Amanda Maria | Jäger, Ralf | Purpura, Martin | Harris, Roger C. | Krause, Molly M. | Lavanger, Kiley A. | Allen, Nina O. | Lieb, Allison E. | Mullen, Katie A. | Eckerson, Joan M. | Lavanger, Kiley A. | Krause, Molly M. | Allen, Nina O. | Lieb, Allison E. | Mullen, Katie A. | Eckerson, Joan M. | Morales, Elisa | Forsse, Jeffrey | Andre, Thomas | McKinley, Sarah | Hwang, Paul | Tinsley, Grant | Spillane, Mike | Grandjean, Peter | Willoughby, Darryn | Jagim, A. | Wright, G. | Kisiolek, J. | Meinking, M. | Ochsenwald, J. | Andre, M. | Jones, M. T. | Oliver, J. M. | Ferreira, Victor Araújo | de Souza, Daniel Costa | dos Santos, Victor Oliveira Albuquerque | Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira | Costa, Eduardo Caldas | Fayh, Ana Paula Trussardi | Mathews, Suresh T. | Bishop, Haley D. | Bowen, Clara R. | Liang, Yishan | West, Emily A. | Rogers, Rebecca R. | Marshall, Mallory R. | Petrella, John K. | Holland, A. Maleah | Kephart, Wesley C. | Mumford, Petey W. | Mobley, C. Brooks | Lowery, Ryan P. | Wilson, Jacob M. | Roberts, Michael D. | Trexler, Eric T. | Hirsch, Katie R. | Campbell, Bill I. | Mock, Meredith G. | Smith-Ryan, Abbie E. | Zemek, Kate | Johnston, Carol | Mobley, C. Brooks | Mumford, Petey W. | Pascoe, David D. | Lockwood, Christopher M. | Miller, Michael E. | Roberts, Michael D. | Sanders, Gabriel J. | Peveler, Willard | Warning, Brooke | Peacock, Corey A. | Kephart, Wesley C. | Mumford, Petey W. | Lowery, Ryan P. | Roberts, Michael D. | Wilson, Jacob M. | Sandler, David | Ojalvo, Sara Perez | Komorowski, James | Campbell, Bill I. | Aguilar, Danielle | Vargas, Andres | Conlin, Laurin | Sanders, Amey | Fink-Irizarry, Paola | Norton, Layne | Perry, Ross | McCallum, Ryley | Wynn, Matthew R. | Lenton, Jack | Campbell, Bill I. | Gai, Chris | Donelson, Seth | Best, Shiva | Bove, Daniel | Couvillion, Kaylee | Dolan, Jeff | Xing, Dante | Chernesky, Kyshia | Pawela, Michael | Toledo, Andres D. | Jimenez, Rachel | Rabideau, M. | Walker, A. | Pellegrino, J. | Hofacker, M. | McFadden, B. | Conway, S. | Ordway, C. | Sanders, D. | Monaco, R. | Fragala, M. S. | Arent, S. M. | Stone, Jason D. | Kreutzer, Andreas | Oliver, Jonathan M. | Kisiolek, Jacob | Jagim, Andrew R. | Hofacker, M. | Walker, A. | Pellegrino, J. | Rabideau, M. | McFadden, B. | Conway, S. | Sanders, D. | Ordway, C. | Monaco, R. | Fragala, M. S. | Arent, S. M. | Tok, Ozlem | Pellegrino, Joseph K. | Walker, Alan J. | Sanders, David J. | McFadden, Bridget A. | Rabideau, Meaghan M. | Conway, Sean P. | Ordway, Chris E. | Bello, Marissa | Hofacker, Morgan L. | Mackowski, Nick S. | Poyssick, Anthony J. | Capone, Eddie | Monaco, Robert M. | Fragala, Maren S. | Arent, Shawn M. | Mumford, Petey W. | Holland, A. Maleah | Kephart, Wesley C. | Lowery, Ryan P. | Mobley, C. Brooks | Patel, Romil K. | Newton, Annie | Beck, Darren T. | Roberts, Michael D. | Wilson, Jacob M. | Young, Kaelin C. | Silver, Tobin | Ellerbroek, Anya | Buehn, Richard | Vargas, Leo | Tamayo, Armando | Peacock, Corey | Antonio, Jose | Ellerbroek, Anya | Silver, Tobin | Buehn, Richard | Vargas, Leo | Tamayo, Armando | Peacock, Corey | Antonio, Jose | Pollock, Adam | Ellerbroek, Anya | Silver, Tobin | Peacock, Corey | Antonio, Jose | Kreutzer, A. | Zavala, P. | Fleming, S. | Jones, M. | Oliver, J. M. | Jagim, A. | Haun, Cody T. | Mumford, Petey W. | Hyde, Parker N. | Fairman, Ciaran M. | Kephart, Wesley C. | Beck, Darren T. | Moon, Jordan R. | Roberts, Michael D. | Kendall, Kristina L. | Young, Kaelin C. | Hudson, Geoffrey M. | Hannings, Tara | Sprow, Kyle | DiPietro, Loretta | Kalman, Doug | Ojalvo, Sara Perez | Komorowski, James | Zavala, P. | Fleming, S. | Jones, M. | Oliver, J. | Jagim, A. | Wallace, Brian | Bergstrom, Haley | Wallace, Kelly | Monsalves-Alvarez, Matias | Oyharçabal, Sebastian | Espinoza, Victoria | VanDusseldorp, Trisha A. | Escobar, Kurt A. | Johnson, Kelly E. | Cole, Nathan | Moriarty, Terence | Stratton, Matthew | Endito, Marvin R. | Mermier, Christine M. | Kerksick, Chad M. | Romero, Matthew A. | Mobley, C. Brooks | Linden, Melissa | Meers, Grace Margaret-Eleanor | Rector, R. Scott | Roberts, Michael D. | Gills, Joshua L | Lu, Hocheng | Parker, Kimberly | Dobbins, Chris | Guillory, Joshua N. | Romer, Braden | Szymanski, David | Glenn, Jordan | Newmire, Daniel E. | Rivas, Eric | Deemer, Sarah E. | Wildman, Robert | Ben-Ezra, Victor | Kerksick, C. | Gieske, B. | Stecker, R. | Smith, C. | Witherbee, K. | Lane, Michael T. | Byrd, M. Travis | Bell, Zachary | Frith, Emily | Lane, Lauren M. C. | Lane, Michael T. | Byrd, M. Travis | Bell, Zachary | Frith, Emily | Lane, Lauren M. C. | Peacock, Corey A. | Silver, Tobin A. | Colas, Megan | Mena, Mauricio | Rodriguez, Winter | Sanders, Gabriel J. | Antonio, Jose | Vansickle, Andrea | DiFiore, Brittany | Stepp, Stephanie | Slack, Grant | Smith, Bridget | Ruffner, Kayla | Mendel, Ronald | Lowery, Lonnie | Hirsch, Katie R. | Mock, Meredith G. | Blue, Malia M. N. | Trexler, Eric T. | Roelofs, Erica J. | Smith-Ryan, Abbie E. | Conlin, Laurin | Aguilar, Danielle | Campbell, Bill I. | Norton, Layne | Coles, Katie | Trexler, Eric T. | Martinez, Nic | Joy, Jordan M. | Vogel, Roxanne M. | Hoover, Thomas H. | Broughton, K. Shane | Dalton, R. | Sowinski, R. | Grubic, T. | Collins, P. B. | Colletta, A. | Reyes, A. | Sanchez, B. | Kozehchain, M. | Jung, Y. P. | Rasmussen, C. | Murano, P. | Earnest, C. P. | Greenwood, M. | Kreider, R. B. | Grubic, T. | Dalton, R. | Sowinski, R. | Collins, P. B. | Colletta, A. | Reyes, A. | Sanchez, B. | Kozehchain, M. | Jung, Y. P. | Rasmussen, C. | Murano, P. | Earnest, C. P. | Greenwood, M. | Kreider, R. B. | Sowinski, R. | Dalton, R. | Grubic, T. | Collins, P. B. | Colletta, A. | Reyes, A. | Sanchez, B. | Kozehchain, M. | Jung, Y. P. | Rasmussen, C. | Murano, P. | Earnest, C. P. | Greenwood, M. | Kreider, R. B. | Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof | Jeszka, Jan | Podgórski, Tomasz | Kerksick, C. | Gieske, B. | Stecker, R. | Smith, C. | Witherbee, K. | Urbina, Stacie | Santos, Emily | Villa, Katelyn | Olivencia, Alyssa | Bennett, Haley | Lara, Marissa | Foster, Cliffa | Wilborn, Colin | Taylor, Lem | Cholewa, Jason M | Hewins, Amy | Gallo, Samantha | Micensky, Ashley | de Angelis, Christian | Carney, Christopher | Campbell, Bill | Conlin, Laurin | Norton, Layne | Rossi, Fabricio | Koozehchian, M. S. | Collins, P. B. | Sowinski, R. | Grubic, T. | Dalton, R. | O’Connor, A. | Shin, S. Y. | Jung, Y. Peter | Sanchez, B. K. | Coletta, A. | Cho, M. | Reyes, A. | Rasmussen, C. | Earnest, C. P. | Murano, P. S. | Greenwood, M. | Kreider, R. B.
Table of contents
P1 Impact of antioxidant-enriched nutrient bar supplementation on the serum antioxidant markers and physical fitness components of track and field athletes
Lalitha Ramaswamy, Supriya Velraja
P2 The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on fitness levels in resistance trained women
Guillermo Escalante, Phil Harvey, Michelle Alencar, Bryan Haddock
P3 The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in resistance trained men
Phil Harvey, Guillermo Escalante, Michelle Alencar, Bryan Haddock
P4 The efficacy of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on physical capacity and selected biochemical markers in elite wrestlers
Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Jan Jeszka, Bogna Zawieja, Tomasz Podgórski
P5 Effects of different nutritional strategies in hydration and physical performance in healthy well-trained males
Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Amanda Maria de Jesus Ferreira
P6 Reduction of plasma creatine concentrations as an indicator of improved bioavailability
Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Roger C Harris
P7 Effect of three different breakfast meals on energy intake and nutritional status in college-age women
Molly M. Krause, Kiley A. Lavanger, Nina O. Allen, Allison E. Lieb, Katie A. Mullen, Joan M. Eckerson
P8 Accuracy of the ASA24® Dietary Recall system for assessing actual dietary intake in normal weight college-age women.
Kiley A. Lavanger, Molly M. Krause, Nina O. Allen, Allison E. Lieb, Katie A. Mullen, Joan M. Eckerson
P9 β-aminoisobutyric acid does not regulate exercise induced UCP-3 expression in skeletal muscle
Elisa Morales, Jeffrey Forsse, Thomas Andre, Sarah McKinley, Paul Hwang, Grant Tinsley, Mike Spillane, Peter Grandjean, Darryn Willoughby
P10 The ability of collegiate football athletes to adhere to sport-specific nutritional recommendations
A. Jagim, G. Wright, J. Kisiolek, M. Meinking, J. Ochsenwald, M. Andre, M.T. Jones, J. M. Oliver
P11 A single session of low-volume high intensity interval exercise improves appetite regulation in overweight men
Victor Araújo Ferreira, Daniel Costa de Souza, Victor Oliveira Albuquerque dos Santos, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Eduardo Caldas Costa, Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh
P12 Acute effects of oral peppermint oil ingestion on exercise performance in moderately-active college students
Suresh T. Mathews, Haley D. Bishop, Clara R. Bowen, Yishan Liang, Emily A. West, Rebecca R. Rogers, Mallory R. Marshall, John K. Petrella
P13 Associations in body fat and liver triglyceride content with serum health markers in sedentary and exercised rats fed a ketogenic diet, Western diet or standard chow over a 6-week period
A. Maleah Holland, Wesley C. Kephart, Petey W. Mumford, C. Brooks Mobley, Ryan P. Lowery, Jacob M. Wilson, Michael D. Roberts
P14 Physiological changes following competition in male and female physique athletes: A pilot study
Eric T. Trexler, Katie R. Hirsch, Bill I. Campbell, Meredith G. Mock, Abbie E. Smith-Ryan
P15 Relationship between cognition and hydration status in college students at a large Southwestern university
Kate Zemek, Carol Johnston
P16 Whey protein-derived exosomes increase protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes
C. Brooks Mobley, Petey W. Mumford, David D. Pascoe, Christopher M. Lockwood, Michael E. Miller, Michael D. Roberts
P17 The effect of three different energy drinks on 1.5-mile running performance, oxygen consumption, and perceived exertion
Gabriel J. Sanders, Willard Peveler, Brooke Warning, Corey A. Peacock
P18 The Ketogenic diet improves rotarod performance in young and older rats
Wesley C. Kephart, Petey W. Mumford, Ryan P. Lowery, Michael D. Roberts, Jacob M. Wilson
P19 Absorption of bonded arginine silicate compared to individual arginine and silicon components
David Sandler, Sara Perez Ojalvo, James Komorowski
P20 Effects of a high (2.4 g/kg) vs. low/moderate (1.2 g/kg) protein intake on body composition in aspiring female physique athletes engaging in an 8-week resistance training program
Bill I. Campbell, Danielle Aguilar, Andres Vargas, Laurin Conlin, Amey Sanders, Paola Fink-Irizarry, Layne Norton, Ross Perry, Ryley McCallum, Matthew R. Wynn, Jack Lenton
P21 Effects of a high (2.4 g/kg) vs. low/moderate (1.2 g/kg) protein intake on maximal strength in aspiring female physique athletes engaging in an 8-week resistance training program
Bill I. Campbell, Chris Gai, Seth Donelson, Shiva Best, Daniel Bove, Kaylee Couvillion, Jeff Dolan, Dante Xing, Kyshia Chernesky, Michael Pawela, Andres D. Toledo, Rachel Jimenez
P22 Monitoring of female collegiate athletes over a competitive season reveals changes in nutritional biomarkers
M. Rabideau, A. Walker, J. Pellegrino, M. Hofacker, B. McFadden, S. Conway, C. Ordway, D. Sanders, R. Monaco, M. S. Fragala, S. M. Arent
P23 Comparison of prediction equations to indirect calorimetry in men and women athletes
Jason D. Stone, Andreas Kreutzer, Jonathan M. Oliver, Jacob Kisiolek, Andrew R. Jagim
P24 Regional variations in sweat-based electrolyte loss and changes in plasma electrolyte content in Division I female athletes over the course of a competitive season
M. Hofacker, A. Walker, J. Pellegrino, M. Rabideau, B. McFadden, S. Conway, D. Sanders, C. Ordway, R. Monaco, M. S. Fragala, S. M. Arent
P25 In-season changes in plasma amino acid levels in Division I NCAA female athletes
Ozlem Tok, Joseph K. Pellegrino, Alan J. Walker, David J. Sanders, Bridget A. McFadden, Meaghan M. Rabideau, Sean P. Conway, Chris E. Ordway, Marissa Bello, Morgan L. Hofacker, Nick S. Mackowski, Anthony J. Poyssick, Eddie Capone, Robert M. Monaco, Maren S. Fragala, Shawn M. Arent
P26 Effects of a ketogenic diet with exercise on serum markers of bone metabolism, IGF-1 and femoral bone mass in rats
Petey W. Mumford, A. Maleah Holland, Wesley C. Kephart, Ryan P. Lowery, C. Brooks Mobley, Romil K. Patel, Annie Newton, Darren T. Beck, Michael D. Roberts, Jacob M. Wilson, Kaelin C. Young
P27 Casein supplementation in trained men and women: morning versus evening
Tobin Silver, Anya Ellerbroek, Richard Buehn, Leo Vargas, Armando Tamayo, Corey Peacock, Jose Antonio
P28 A high protein diet has no harmful effects: a one-year crossover study in resistance-trained males
Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Richard Buehn, Leo Vargas, Armando Tamayo, Corey Peacock, Jose Antonio
P29 SUP (Stand-up Paddling) athletes: nutritional intake and body composition
Adam Pollock, Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Corey Peacock, Jose Antonio
P30 The effects of 8 weeks of colostrum and bio-active peptide supplementation on body composition in recreational male weight lifters
A. Kreutzer, P. Zavala, S. Fleming, M. Jones, J. M. Oliver, A. Jagim
P31 Effects of a Popular Women’s Thermogenic Supplement During an Energy-Restricted High Protein Diet on Changes in Body Composition and Clinical Safety Markers
Cody T. Haun, Petey W. Mumford, Parker N. Hyde, Ciaran M. Fairman, Wesley C. Kephart, Darren T. Beck, Jordan R. Moon, Michael D. Roberts, Kristina L. Kendall, Kaelin C. Young
P32 Three days of caffeine consumption following caffeine withdrawal yields small strength increase in knee flexors
Geoffrey M Hudson, Tara Hannings, Kyle Sprow, Loretta DiPietro
P33 Comparison of cellular nitric oxide production from various sports nutrition ingredients
Doug Kalman, Sara Perez Ojalvo, James Komorowski
P34 The effects of 8 weeks of bio-active peptide supplementation on training adaptations in recreational male weight lifters
P. Zavala, S. Fleming, M. Jones, J. Oliver, A. Jagim
P35 Effects of MusclePharm Assault BlackTM on lower extremity spinal excitability and postactivation potentiation: A pilot study
Brian Wallace, Haley Bergstrom, Kelly Wallace
P36 Effects of four weeks of Ketogenic Diet alone and combined with High intensity Interval Training or Continuous-Moderate intensity on body composition, lipid profile and physical performance on healthy males
Matias Monsalves-Alvarez, Sebastian Oyharçabal, Victoria Espinoza
P37 Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on creatine kinase, muscular performance, and perceived muscle soreness following acute eccentric exercise
Trisha A. VanDusseldorp, Kurt A. Escobar, Kelly E. Johnson, Nathan Cole, Terence Moriarty, Matthew Stratton, Marvin R. Endito, Christine M. Mermier, Chad M. Kerksick
P38 Effects of endurance training on markers of ribosome biogenesis in rodents fed a high fat diet
Matthew A. Romero, C. Brooks Mobley, Melissa Linden, Grace Margaret-Eleanor Meers, R. Scott Rector, Michael D. Roberts
P39 The effects of acute citrulline-malate on lower-body isokinetic performance in recreationally active individuals
Joshua L Gills, Hocheng Lu, Kimberly Parker, Chris Dobbins, Joshua N Guillory, Braden Romer, David Szymanski, Jordan Glenn
P40 The effect pre-ingested L-isoleucine and L-leucine on blood glucose responses and glycemic hormones in healthy inactive adults: Preliminary data.
Daniel E. Newmire, Eric Rivas, Sarah E. Deemer, Robert Wildman, Victor Ben-Ezra
P41 Does protein and source impact substrate oxidation and energy expenditure during and after moderate intensity treadmill exercise?
C Kerksick, B Gieske, R Stecker, C Smith, K Witherbee
P42 Effects of a pre-workout supplement on peak power and power maintenance during lower and upper body testing
Michael T. Lane, M. Travis Byrd, Zachary Bell, Emily Frith, Lauren M.C. Lane
P43 Effects of a pre-workout supplement on peak power production during lower and upper body testing in college-age females
Michael T. Lane, M. Travis Byrd, Zachary Bell, Emily Frith, Lauren M.C. Lane
P44 A comparison of whey versus casein protein supplementation on resting metabolic rate and body composition: a pilot study
Corey A. Peacock, Tobin A. Silver, Megan Colas, Mauricio Mena, Winter Rodriguez, Gabriel J. Sanders, Jose Antonio
P45 A novel mixed-tocotrienol intervention enhances recovery after eccentric exercise: preliminary findings
Andrea Vansickle, Brittany DiFiore, Stephanie Stepp, Grant Slack, Bridget Smith, Kayla Ruffner, Ronald Mendel, Lonnie Lowery
P46 The effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose on cycle performance in female cyclists
Katie R. Hirsch, Meredith G. Mock, Malia M.N. Blue, Eric T. Trexler, Erica J. Roelofs, Abbie E. Smith-Ryan
P47 Inclusive vs. exclusive dieting and the effects on body composition in resistance trained individuals
Laurin Conlin, Danielle Aguilar, Bill I. Campbell, Layne Norton, Katie Coles, Eric T. Trexler, Nic Martinez
P48 A whey protein hydrolysate may positively augment resting metabolism compared to intact whey protein
Jordan M. Joy, Roxanne M. Vogel, Thomas H. Hoover, K. Shane Broughton
P49 Seven days of high and low dose creatine nitrate supplementation I: hepatorenal, glucose and muscle enzyme function
R Dalton, R Sowinski, T Grubic, PB Collins, A Colletta, A Reyes, B Sanchez, M Kozehchain, YP Jung, C Rasmussen, P Murano, CP Earnest, M Greenwood, RB Kreider
P50 Seven days of high and low dose creatine nitrate supplementation II: performance
T Grubic, R Dalton, R Sowinski, PB Collins, A Colletta, A Reyes, B Sanchez, M Kozehchain, YP Jung, C Rasmussen, P Murano, CP Earnest, M Greenwood, RB Kreider
P51 Seven days of high and low dose creatine nitrate supplementation III: hemodynamics
R Sowinski, R Dalton, T Grubic, PB Collins, A Colletta, A Reyes, B Sanchez, M Kozehchain, YP Jung, C Rasmussen, P Murano, CP Earnest, M Greenwood, RB Kreider
P52 The efficacy of a β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and biochemical markers in highly-trained combat sports athletes
Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Jan Jeszka, Tomasz Podgórski
P53 Does protein and source impact substrate oxidation and energy expenditure during and after moderate intensity treadmill exercise?
C Kerksick, B Gieske, R Stecker, C Smith, K Witherbee
P54 Effects of 30 days of Cleanse™ supplementation on measure of body composition, waist circumference, and markers of gastrointestinal distress in females
Stacie Urbina, Emily Santos, Katelyn Villa, Alyssa Olivencia, Haley Bennett, Marissa Lara, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor
P55 The effects of moderate- versus high-load training on body composition, muscle growth, and performance in college aged females
Jason M Cholewa, Amy Hewins, Samantha Gallo, Ashley Micensky, Christian De Angelis, Christopher Carney, Bill Campbell, Laurin Conlin, Layne Norton, Fabricio Rossi
P56 Effect of a multi-ingredient preworkout supplement on cognitive function and perceptions of readiness to perform
MS Koozehchian, PB Collins, R Sowinski, T Grubic, R Dalton, A O’Connor, SY Shin, Y Peter Jung, BK Sanchez, A Coletta, M Cho, A Reyes, C Rasmussen, CP Earnest, PS Murano, M Greenwood, RB Kreider
doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0144-9
PMCID: PMC5025820
2.  Rapid and Easy Identification of Capsular Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Use of Fragment Analysis by Automated Fluorescence-Based Capillary Electrophoresis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(11):3451-3457.
The purpose of this study was to develop a high-throughput method for the identification of pneumococcal capsular types. Multiplex PCR combined with fragment analysis and automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis (FAF-mPCR) was utilized. FAF-mPCR was composed of only 3 PCRs for the specific detection of serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6A/6B, 6C, 7F/7A, 7C/(7B/40), 8, 9V/9A, 9N/9L, 10A, 10F/(10C/33C), 11A/11D/11F, 12F/(12A/44/46), 13, 14, 15A/15F, 15B/15C, 16F, 17F, 18/(18A/18B/18C/18F), 19A, 19F, 20, 21, 22F/22A, 23A, 23B, 23F, 24/(24A/24B/24F), 31, 33F/(33A/37), 34, 35A/(35C/42), 35B, 35F/47F, 38/25F, and 39. In order to evaluate the assay, all invasive pneumococcal isolates (n = 394) characterized at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain, from July 2010 to July 2011 were included in this study. The Wallace coefficient was used to evaluate the overall agreement between two typing methods (Quellung reaction versus FAF-mPCR). A high concordance with Quellung was found: 97.2% (383/394) of samples. The Wallace coefficient was 0.981 (range, 0.965 to 0.997). Only 11 results were discordant with the Quellung reaction. However, latex reaction and Quellung results of the second reference laboratory agreed with FAF-mPCR for 9 of these 11 strains (82%). Therefore, we considered that only 2 of 394 strains (0.5%) were not properly characterized by the new assay. The automation of the process allowed the typing of 30 isolates in a few hours with a lower cost than that of the Quellung reaction. These results indicate that FAF-mPCR is a good method to determine the capsular serotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01368-12
PMCID: PMC3486242  PMID: 22875895
3.  Phylogeny and biogeography of Asthenopodinae with a revision of Asthenopus, reinstatement of Asthenopodes, and the description of the new genera Hubbardipes and Priasthenopus (Ephemeroptera, Polymitarcyidae) 
ZooKeys  2015;45-128.
The Neotropical species of Asthenopodinae are revised in a formal phylogenetic context. The five known species of Asthenopus Eaton, 1871, together with other five new species were included in a cladistic analysis using morphological characters (continuous and discretes). Representatives of the Afro-Oriental group of the subfamily (Povilla Navás, 1912 and Languidipes Hubbard, 1984) were also included to test the monophyletic hypothesis traditionally accepted for the group. Additional taxa representing the other subfamilies of Polymitarcyidae were incorparated: Ephoron Williamson, 1802 (Polymitarcyinae) and Campsurus Eaton, 1868, Tortopus Needham & Murphy, 1924 and Tortopsis Molineri, 2010 (Campsurinae). A matrix of 17 taxa and 72 characters was analyzed under parsimony resulting in a single tree supporting the monophyly of the subfamily Asthenopodinae. Other results include the monophyly of the Afro-Oriental taxa (Povilla and Languidipes), the paraphyletic nature of Neotropical Asthenopodinae, and the recognition of four South American genera: Asthenopus (including Asthenopus curtus (Hagen), 1861, Asthenopus angelae de Souza & Molineri, 2012, Asthenopus magnus sp. n., Asthenopus hubbardi sp. n., Asthenopus guarani sp. n.), Asthenopodes Ulmer, 1924, stat. n. (including Asthenopus picteti Hubbard, 1975, stat. n., Asthenopodes traverae sp. n., Asthenopodes chumuco sp. n.), Priasthenopus gen. n. (including Priasthenopus gilliesi (Domínguez), 1988, comb. n.), and Hubbardipes gen. n. (including Hubbardipes crenulatus (Molineri et al.), 2011, comb. n.). Descriptions, diagnoses, illustrations and keys are presented for all Neotropical taxa of Asthenopodinae (adults of both sexes, eggs and nymphs). Additionally a key to the subfamilies and genera of Polymitarcyidae is included. A quantitative biogeographic analysis of vicariance is presented and discussed through the study of the “taxon history” of the group.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.478.8057
PMCID: PMC4319052  PMID: 25685010
Ephemeroptera; Ephemeroidea; Fossoriae; vicariance; evolution; Neotropics; Campsurinae; Campsurus; Tortopus; Tortopsis; Povilla; Languidipes
4.  Bricker versus Wallace anastomosis: A meta-analysis of ureteroenteric stricture rates after ileal conduit urinary diversion 
Introduction:
Data comparing the incidence of ureteroenteric strictures for Bricker and Wallace anastomoses are limited. This study compares both anastomotic techniques in terms of ureteroenteric stricture rates after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion.
Methods:
Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane database) were searched for studies comparing Bricker and Wallace ureteroeneteric anastomoses for ileal conduit urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. Meta-analyses were performed using the random effects method. The primary outcome measure was to determine differences in postoperative ureteroenteric stricture rates for both surgical techniques. Four studies describing 658 patients met the inclusion criteria. The total number of ureters used for ureteroeneteric anastomoses was 1217 (545 in the Bricker group and 672 in the Wallace group).
Results:
There were no significant differences in age (p = 0.472), gender (p = 0.897), duration of follow-up (p = 0.168), and duration to stricture development between groups (p = 0.439). The overall stricture rate was 29 of 1217 (2.4%); 16 of 545 ureters (2.9%) in the Bricker group and 13 of 672 ureters (1.9%) in the Wallace group. The Bricker anastomosis was not associated with a significantly higher overall stricture rate compared to the Wallace ureteroenteric anastomosis (odds ratio: 1.393, 95% confidence interval: 0.441–4.394, p = 0.572).
Conclusion:
Accepting limitations in the available data, we found no significant difference in the incidence of ureteroenteric stricture for Bricker and Wallace anastomoses.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.2692
PMCID: PMC4439225  PMID: 26029296
5.  Parathyroid Glands response to Low Vitamin D levels in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study 
The Ulster Medical Journal  2015;84(1):26-29.
Objective:
To assess the correlation of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (25-OHD) levels based on different assays for measuring 25-OHD in healthy Saudi Arabians living along the east coast.
Patients and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 patients (150 women and 50 men aged between 18-69 years) between January 2011 and December 2012, attending outpatient clinic at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar. The first 200 patients seen without vitamin D supplementation at clinic were enrolled in the study. Serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and 25-OHD tests were performed.
25-OHD was assessed using:chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA)radioimmunoassay (RIA) using Wallac 1470 Gamma CounterHPLC –LC.MS (high performance liquid chromatography-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.
The data was collected, entered into a database and analysed using SPSS, Inc., version 14.
Results:
The mean age was 45.8±15.8 (18-74) years, and calcium level was 2.27±0.15 mmol/l. (range 2.125 to 2.62 mmol/l). Alkaline phosphatase was 88.91±35.94 (34-302) IU, parathormone 6.7±3.06 (1.35-21.2) (1.3-6.8 pmol/l). Of the participants, 188 were either vitamin D insufficient or deficient as measured by CLIA 11.85±6.14 (2-29.6), and 91 (48.4%) of them had secondary hyperparathyroidism 9.48±4.55 pc/l. Those with normal CLIA-measured 25-OHD levels had normal PTH levels. Of those with insufficiency, 4/21 (19%) had raised PTH levels; and of those with deficiency, 81/166 (48.79%) had raised levels, whereas with HPLC-LC.MS, 156 were shown to be insufficient and 97 deficient (with PTH level of 7.41±4.2). Thirteen of 41 patients (31.7%) with insufficiency were shown, by HPLC-LC.MS, to have raised PTH. All patients with vitamin D deficiency as diagnosed by HPLC-LC.MS had secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Conclusions:
The above results suggest that the method of measurement strongly influences vitamin D levels and that previous reports suggesting no association between vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism should be viewed with caution.
PMCID: PMC4330802  PMID: 25964700
6.  Afri-Can Forum 2 
Mukudu, Hillary | Martinson, Neil | Sartorius, Benn | Coetzee, Jenny | Dietrich, Janan | Mokgatswana, Kgaugelo | Jewkes, Rachel | Gray, Glenda E. | Dugas, Marylène | Béhanzin, Luc | Guédou, Fernand A. | Gagnon, Marie-Pierre | Alary, Michel | Rutakumwa, Rwamahe | Mbonye, Martin | Kiwanuka, Thadeus | Nakamanya, Sarah | Muhumuza, Richard | Nalukenge, Winfred | Seeley, Janet | Atujuna, Millicent | Wallace, Melissa | Brown, Ben | Bekker, Linda Gail | Newman, Peter A. | Harryparsad, Rushil | Olivier, Abraham J. | Jaspan, Heather B. | Wilson, Douglas | Dietrich, Janan | Martinson, Neil | Mukudu, Hillary | Mkhize, Nonhlanhla | Morris, Lynn | Cianci, Gianguido | Dinh, Minh | Hope, Thomas | Passmore, Jo-Ann S. | Gray, Clive M. | Henrick, Bethany M. | Yao, Xiao-Dan | Rosenthal, Kenneth L. | Henrick, Bethany M. | Yao, Xiao-Dan | Drannik, Anna G. | Abimiku, Alash’le | Rosenthal, Kenneth L. | Chanzu, Nadia | Mwanda, Walter | Oyugi, Julius | Anzala, Omu | Mbow, Moustapha | Jallow, Sabelle | Thiam, Moussa | Davis, Alberta | Diouf, Assane | Ndour, Cheikh T. | Seydi, Moussa | Dieye, Tandakha N. | Mboup, Souleymane | Goodier, Martin | Rilley, Eleanor | Jaye, Assan | Yao, Xiao-Dan | Omange, RW. | Henrick, Bethany M. | Lester, Richard T. | Kimani, Joshua | Ball, T. Blake | Plummer, Francis A. | Rosenthal, Kenneth L. | Béhanzin, Luc | Guédou, Fernand A. | Geraldo, Nassirou | Mastétsé, Ella Goma | Sossa, Jerôme Charles | Zannou, Marcel Djimon | Alary, Michel | Osawe, Sophia | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Okolo, Felicia | Umaru, Stephen | Abimiku, Rebecca | Audu, Sam | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Nyange, Jacquelyn | Olenja, Joyce | Mutua, Gaudensia | Jaoko, Walter | Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria | Farah, Bashir | Khaniri, Maureen | Anzala, Omu | Cockcroft, Anne | Tonkin, Kendra | Girish, Indu | Mhati, Puna | Cunningham, Ashley | Andersson, Neil | Farah, Bashir | Indangasi, Jackton | Jaoko, Walter | Mutua, Gaudensia | Khaniri, Maureen | Nyange, Jacquelyn | Anzala, Omu | Diphoko, Thabo | Gaseitsiwe, Simani | Maiswe, Victoria | Iketleng, Thato | Maruapula, Dorcas | Bedi, Keabetswe | Moyo, Sikhulile | Musonda, Rosemary | Wainberg, Mark | Makhema, Joseph | Novitsky, Vladimir | Marlink, Richard | Essex, Max | Okoboi, Stephen | Ssali, Livingstone | Kalibala, Sam | Birungi, Josephine | Egessa, Aggrey | Wangisi, Jonathan | Okullu, Lyavala Joanne | Bakanda, Celestin | Obare, Francis | Boer, I. Marion Sumari-de | Semvua, Hadija H. | van den Boogaard, Jossy | Kiwango, Krisanta W. | Ngowi, Kennedy M. | Nieuwkerk, Pythia T. | Aarnoutse, Rob E. | Kiwelu, Ireen | Muro, Eva | Kibiki, Gibson S. | Datiri, Ruth | Choji, Grace | Osawe, Sophia | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Okolo, Felicia | Umaru, Stephen | Abimiku, Rebecca | Audu, Samuel | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Fomsgaard, A. | Karlsson, I. | Jensen, K. J. | Jensen, S. S. | Leo-Hansen, C. | Jespersen, S. | Da Silva Té, D. | Rodrigues, C. M. | da Silva, Z. J. | Janitzek, C. M. | Gerstoft, J. | Kronborg, G. | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Osawe, Sophia | Daitiri, Ruth | Choji, Grace | Umaru, Stephen | Okolo, Felicia | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Emily, Nyariki | Joyce, Olenja | Robert, Lorway R. | Anzala, Anzala | Viljoen, Katie | Wendoh, Jerome | Kidzeru, Elvis | Karaoz, Ulas | Brodie, Eoin | Botha, Gerrit | Mulder, Nicola | Gray, Clive | Cameron, William | Stintzi, Alain | Jaspan, Heather | Levett, Paul N. | Alexander, David | Gulzar, Naveed | Grewal, Prabvir S. | Poon, Art F. Y. | Brumme, Zabrina | Harrigan, P. Richard | Brooks, James I. | Sandstrom, Paul A. | Calvez, Stryker | Sanche, Stephen E. | Scott, Jamie K. | Swartz, Leslie | Kagee, Ashraf | Lesch, Anthea | Kafaar, Zuhayr | De Wet, Anneliese | Okpokoro, Evaezi | Osawe, Sophia | Daitiri, Ruth | Choji, Grace | Umaru, Stephen | Okolo, Felicia | Datong, Pam | Abimiku, Alash’le | Dietrich, Janan | Smith, Tricia | Cotton, Laura | Hornschuh, Stefanie | van der Watt, Martin | Miller, Cari L. | Gray, Glenda | Smit, Jenni | Jaggernath, Manjeetha | Ndung’u, Thumbi | Brockman, Mark | Kaida, Angela | Akolo, Maureen | Kimani, Joshua | Gelmon, Larry | Chitwa, Michael | Osero, Justus | Cockcroft, Anne | Marokoane, Nobantu | Kgakole, Leagajang | Maswabi, Boikhutso | Mpofu, Neo | Ansari, Umaira | Andersson, Neil | Nakinobe, Elizabeth | Miiro, George Mukalazi | Zalwango, Flavia | Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica | Kaleebu, Potiano | Semwanga, John Ross | Nyanzi, Emily | Musoke, Saidat Namuli | Nakinobe, Elizabeth | Miiro, George | Mbidde, Edward Katongole | Lutalo, Tom | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Handema, Ray | Chianzu, Graham P. | Thiam, Moussa | Diagne-Gueye, Diabou | Ndiaye, Mame K. | Mbow, Moustapha | Ndiaye, Birahim P. | Traore, Ibrahima | Dia, Mamadou C. | Thomas, Gilleh | Tour-Kane, Coumba | Mboup, Souleymane | Jaye, Assan | Nyanzi, Emily | Mbidde, Edward Katongole | Kaleebu, Pontiano | Mpendo, Juliet | Kimani, Joshua | Birungi, Josephine | Muyindike, Winnie | Kambugu, Andrew | Sebastian, Hachizovu | Ray, Handema | Mike, Chaponda | Bertin, Kabuya Jean | Modest, Mulenga | Thiam, Moussa | Janha, Omar | Davis, Alberta | Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred | Nwakanma, Davis C. | Mboup, Souleymane | Jaye, Assan | Jespersen, Sanne | Hønge, Bo Langhoff | Esbjörnsson, Joakim | Medina, Candida | Da Silva TÉ, David | Correira, Faustino Gomes | Laursen, Alex Lund | Østergaard, Lars | Andersen, Andreas | Aaby, Peter | Erikstrup, Christian | Wejse, Christian | Dieye, Siry | Sarr, Moussa | Sy, Haby | Mbodj, Helene D. | Ndiaye, Marianne | Ndiaye, Amy | Moussa, Seydi | Jaye, Assan | Mboup, Souleymane | Nyombi, Balthazar M. | Shao, Elichilia R. | Chilumba, Innocent B. | Moyo, Sikhulile | Gaseitsiwe, Simani | Musonda, Rosemary | Datong, Pam | Inyang, Bucky | Osawe, Sophia | Izang, Abel | Cole, Chundung | Okolo, Felicia | Cameron, Bill | Rosenthal, Kenneth | Gray, Clive | Jaspan, Heather | Abimiku, Alash’le | Seraise, Boitumelo | Andrea-Marobela, Kerstin | Moyo, Sikhulile | Musonda, Rosemary | Makhema, Joseph | Essex, Max | Gaseitsiwe, Simani
BMC Infectious Diseases  2016;16(Suppl 2):315.
Table of contents
A1 Introduction to the 2nd synchronicity forum of GHRI/CHVI-funded Canadian and African HIV prevention and vaccine teams
O1 Voluntary medical male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in adult males in Soweto: What do indicators and incidence rate show?
Hillary Mukudu, Neil Martinson, Benn Sartorius
O2 Developing a peer-led community mobilization program for sex workers in Soweto: HIV risk and demographics
Jenny Coetzee, Janan Dietrich, Kgaugelo Mokgatswana, Rachel Jewkes, Glenda E. Gray
O3 Salient beliefs about adherence: A qualitative survey conducted as part of the demonstration study on "treatment as prevention" (TasP) and "pre-exposure prophylaxis" (PrEP) among female sex workers (FSWS) in Cotonou, Benin
Marylène Dugas, Luc Béhanzin, Fernand A. Guédou, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Michel Alary
O4 Relative perception of risk as a driver of unsafe sexual practices among key populations: Cases of fisherfolk and women and their partners involved in multiple sexual partnerships in Uganda
Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Martin Mbonye, Thadeus Kiwanuka, Sarah Nakamanya, Richard Muhumuza, Winfred Nalukenge, Janet Seeley
O5 Exploring the acceptability of new biomedical HIV prevention technologies among MSM, adolescents and heterosexual adults in South Africa
Millicent Atujuna, Melissa Wallace, Ben Brown, Linda Gail Bekker, Peter A. Newman
O6 HIV-susceptible target cells in foreskins after voluntary medical male circumcision in South Africa
Rushil Harryparsad, Abraham J. Olivier, Heather B. Jaspan, Douglas Wilson, Janan Dietrich, Neil Martinson, Hillary Mukudu, Nonhlanhla Mkhize, Lynn Morris, Gianguido Cianci, Minh Dinh, Thomas Hope, Jo-Ann S. Passmore, Clive M. Gray
O7 HIV-1 proteins activate innate immune responses via TLR2 heterodimers
Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Kenneth L. Rosenthal, the INFANT Study Team
O8 Characterization of an innate factor in human milk and mechanisms of action against HIV-1
Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Anna G. Drannik, Alash’le Abimiku, Kenneth L. Rosenthal, the INFANT Study Team
O9 Secretor status and susceptibility to HIV infections among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya
Nadia Chanzu, Walter Mwanda, Julius Oyugi, Omu Anzala
O10 Natural Killer cell recall responsiveness to Gag-HIV-1 peptides of HIV-1 exposed but uninfected subjects are associated with peripheral CXCR6+ NK cell subsets
Moustapha Mbow, Sabelle Jallow, Moussa Thiam, Alberta Davis, Assane Diouf, Cheikh T. Ndour, Moussa Seydi, Tandakha N. Dieye, Souleymane Mboup, Martin Goodier, Eleanor Rilley, Assan Jaye
O11 Profiles of resistance: Local innate mucosal immunity to HIV-1 in commercial sex workers
Xiao-Dan Yao, RW. Omange, Bethany M. Henrick, Richard T. Lester, Joshua Kimani, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Kenneth L. Rosenthal
O12 Early antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among female sex workers in Cotonou, Benin: A demonstration project
Luc Béhanzin, Fernand A. Guédou, Nassirou Geraldo, Ella Goma Mastétsé, Jerôme Charles Sossa, Marcel Djimon Zannou, Michel Alary
O13 Building capacity for HIV prevention trials: Preliminary data from a Nigerian cohort of HIV exposed sero-negatives (HESN)
Sophia Osawe, Evaezi Okpokoro, Felicia Okolo, Stephen Umaru, Rebecca Abimiku, Sam Audu, Pam Datong, Alash’le Abimiku
O14 Equipping healthcare professionals with skills required for the conduct of clinical trials in an effort to build capacity. Lessons learned
Jacquelyn Nyange, Joyce Olenja, Gaudensia Mutua, Walter Jaoko, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi, Bashir Farah, Maureen Khaniri, Omu Anzala
O15 Educational technology to support active learning for HIV researchers and planners
Anne Cockcroft, Kendra Tonkin, Indu Girish, Puna Mhati, Ashley Cunningham, Neil Andersson
O16 From Lake Kivu (Rwanda) and Lake Malawi (Tanzania) to the shores of Lake Victoria (Uganda): Strengthening laboratory capacity through Good Clinical Laboratory Practice training
Bashir Farah, Jackton Indangasi, Walter Jaoko, Gaudensia Mutua, Maureen Khaniri, Jacquelyn Nyange, Omu Anzala
O17 Rilpivirine and etravirine resistance mutations in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy in Botswana
Thabo Diphoko, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Victoria Maiswe, Thato Iketleng, Dorcas Maruapula, Keabetswe Bedi, Sikhulile Moyo, Rosemary Musonda, Mark Wainberg, Joseph Makhema, Vladimir Novitsky, Richard Marlink, Max Essex
O18 From home-based HIV testing to initiation of treatment: The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) Experience with Home-based HIV Counselling and Testing (HBHCT) among Adolescents in Uganda, 2005-2011
Stephen Okoboi, Livingstone Ssali, Sam Kalibala, Josephine Birungi, Aggrey Egessa, Jonathan Wangisi, Lyavala Joanne Okullu, Celestin Bakanda, Francis Obare41
O19 Feasibility study on using real time medication monitoring among HIV infected and Tuberculosis patients in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
I. Marion Sumari-de Boer, Hadija H. Semvua, Jossy van den Boogaard, Krisanta W. Kiwango, Kennedy M. Ngowi, Pythia T. Nieuwkerk, Rob E. Aarnoutse, Ireen Kiwelu, Eva Muro, Gibson S. Kibiki
O20 Deaths still among sero-discordant cohort in Nigeria despite Access to treatment
Ruth Datiri, Grace Choji, Sophia Osawe, Evaezi Okpokoro, Felicia Okolo, Stephen Umaru, Rebecca Abimiku, Samuel Audu, Pam Datong, Alash’le Abimiku
O21 Therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine trials in Denmark and Guinea-Bissau
Fomsgaard A, Karlsson I, Jensen KJ, Jensen SS, Leo-Hansen C, Jespersen S, Da Silva Té D, Rodrigues CM, da Silva ZJ, Janitzek CM, Gerstoft J, Kronborg G, the WAPHIR Group
O22 Willingness to participate in a HIV vaccine Trial among HIV exposed sero-negative (HESN) persons in Jos, Nigeria
Evaezi Okpokoro, Sophia Osawe, Ruth Daitiri, Grace Choji, Stephen Umaru, Felicia Okolo, Pam Datong, Alash'le Abimiku
O23 Clinical research volunteers’ perceptions and experiences of screening for enrolment at KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research, Kenya
Nyariki Emily, Olenja Joyce, Lorway R. Robert, Anzala Anzala
O24 Gut microbiome, HIV-exposure, and vaccine responses in South African infants
Katie Viljoen, Jerome Wendoh, Elvis Kidzeru, Ulas Karaoz, Eoin Brodie, Gerrit Botha, Nicola Mulder, Clive Gray, William Cameron, Alain Stintzi, Heather Jaspan, for the INFANT study team
O25 Analysis of HIV pol diversity in the concentrated HIV epidemic in Saskatchewan
Paul N. Levett, David Alexander, Naveed Gulzar, Prabvir S. Grewal, Art F. Y. Poon, Zabrina Brumme, P. Richard Harrigan, James I. Brooks, Paul A. Sandstrom, Stryker Calvez, Stephen E. Sanche, Jamie K. Scott
P1 Evaluating a HIV vaccine research community engagement programme at two HIV prevention research centres in the Western Cape
Leslie Swartz, Ashraf Kagee, Anthea Lesch, Zuhayr Kafaar, Anneliese De Wet
P2 Validating HIV acquisition risk score using a cohort HIV exposed sero-negative persons in a discordant relationship in Jos, Nigeria, West Africa
Evaezi Okpokoro, Sophia Osawe, Ruth Daitiri, Grace Choji, Stephen Umaru, Felicia Okolo, Pam Datong, Alash'le Abimiku
P3 Bridging the gap between adults and adolescents and youth adults (AYA) – Employing a youth-centred approach to investigate HIV risk among AYA in Soweto and Durban, South Africa
Janan Dietrich, Tricia Smith, Laura Cotton, Stefanie Hornschuh, Martin van der Watt, Cari L. Miller, Glenda Gray, Jenni Smit, Manjeetha Jaggernath, Thumbi Ndung’u, Mark Brockman, Angela Kaida, on behalf of the AYAZAZI study teams
P4 Neighbours to sex workers: A key population that has been ignored
Maureen Akolo, Joshua Kimani, Prof Larry Gelmon, Michael Chitwa, Justus Osero
P5 Young women’s access to structural support programmes in a district of Botswana
Anne Cockcroft, Nobantu Marokoane, Leagajang Kgakole, Boikhutso Maswabi, Neo Mpofu, Umaira Ansari, Neil Andersson
P6 Voices for action from peri-urban Ugandan students, teachers and parents on HIV/STI prevention: Qualitative research results
Nakinobe Elizabeth, Miiro George Mukalazi, Zalwango Flavia, Nakiyingi-Miiro Jessica, Kaleebu Potiano
P7 Engaging Social Media as an education tool on the fly: The use of Facebook for HIV and Ebola prevention and awareness amongst adolescents in Uganda
John Ross Semwanga, Emily Nyanzi, Saidat Namuli Musoke, Elizabeth Nakinobe, George Miiro, Edward Katongole Mbidde, Tom Lutalo, Pontiano Kaleebu
P8 Circulating HIV-1 subtypes among sexual minority populations in Zambia
Ray Handema, Graham P. Chianzu
P9 The Development of HIV Bio-bank resource management to support clinical trial and Intervention research: WAPHIR experience
Moussa Thiam, Diabou Diagne-Gueye, Mame K. Ndiaye, Moustapha Mbow, Birahim P. Ndiaye, Ibrahima Traore, Mamadou C. Dia, Gilleh Thomas, Coumba Tour-Kane, Souleymane Mboup, Assan Jaye
P10 Capacity building for clinical trials as a novel approach for scaling up HIV prevention research initiatives in East Africa: achievements and challenges
Emily Nyanzi, Edward Katongole Mbidde, Pontiano Kaleebu, Juliet Mpendo, Joshua Kimani, Josephine Birungi, Winnie Muyindike, Andrew Kambugu
P11 Community and media perspective of research; an advocacy workshop on HIV prevention research
Hachizovu Sebastian, Handema Ray, Chaponda Mike, Kabuya Jean Bertin, Mulenga Modest
P12 Development of a quantitative HIV-1 and HIV-2 real time PCR (qRT-PCR) viral load assay
Moussa Thiam, Omar Janha, Alberta Davis, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Davis C. Nwakanma, Souleymane Mboup, Assan Jaye
P13 Differential effects of sex in a West African Cohort of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual infected patients: Men are worse off
Sanne Jespersen, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Candida Medina, David Da Silva TÉ, Faustino Gomes Correira, Alex Lund Laursen, Lars Østergaard, Andreas Andersen, Peter Aaby, Christian Erikstrup, Christian Wejse, for the Bissau HIV Cohort study group
P14 HIV-infected adolescents in transition from pediatric to adult HIV care in Dakar, Senegal: sample characteristics and immunological and virological profiles
Siry Dieye, Moussa Sarr, Haby Sy, Helene D Mbodj, Marianne Ndiaye, Amy Ndiaye, Seydi Moussa, Assan Jaye, Souleymane Mboup100
P15 Molecular characterization of vertically transmitted HIV-1 among children born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers in Northern Tanzania
Balthazar M. Nyombi, Elichilia R. Shao, Innocent B. Chilumba, Sikhulile Moyo, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary Musonda
P16 Breast-fed HIV-1 exposed infants play catch up. A preliminary report
Pam Datong, Bucky Inyang, Sophia Osawe, Abel Izang, Chundung Cole, Felicia Okolo, Bill Cameron, Kenneth Rosenthal, Clive Gray, Heather Jaspan, Alash’le Abimiku, the INFANT study team
P17 The frequency of N348I mutation in patient failing combination antiretroviral treatment In Botswana
Boitumelo Seraise, Kerstin Andrea-Marobela, Sikhulile Moyo, Rosemary Musonda, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Simani Gaseitsiwe
doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1466-6
PMCID: PMC4943497  PMID: 27410689
7.  Incidental Findings on Knee Radiographs in Children and Adolescents 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2014;6(3):305-311.
Background
Despite the wide use of knee radiography in children and adolescent patients visiting the outpatient clinic, there has been no analysis about the prevalence and type of incidental findings yet. This study was performed to investigate the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents according to age.
Methods
A total of 1,562 consecutive patients younger than 18 years of age were included. They who visited Seoul National University Bundang Hospital's outpatient clinic with a chief complaint of knee pain or malalignment between 2010 and 2011. We reviewed the knee radiographs and analyzed the prevalence and type of incidental findings, such as metaphyseal lucent area, epiphyseal cortical irregularity, osteochondroma and Harris growth arrest line.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 10.2 years (range, 1 month to 18 years). We identified 355 incidental findings in 335 patients (21.4%) and 98 abnormal findings (6.3%). The most common incidental finding was metaphyseal lucent area (131, 8.4%), followed by epiphyseal cortical irregularity (105, 6.7%), Harris growth arrest line (75, 4.8%), and osteochondroma (44, 2.8%). An epiphyseal cortical irregularity tended to have a higher prevalence at younger age (p < 0.001) and the prevalences of metaphyseal lucent area and Harris growth arrest line were also higher at a younger age (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). However, the osteochondroma tended to have a higher prevalence at an older age (p = 0.004).
Conclusions
This study describes the incidental findings on knee radiographs in children and adolescents and provides effective information from a viewpoint of an orthopedic doctor. The authors recommend considering those incidental findings if unfamiliar findings appear on a knee radiograph in the pediatric outpatient clinic.
doi:10.4055/cios.2014.6.3.305
PMCID: PMC4143518  PMID: 25177456
Knee radiograph; Incidental finding; Children; Adolescent
8.  Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head with focal anatomic-resurfacing implantation (HemiCAP): preliminary results of an alternative option 
Background
The optimal treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to report preliminary clinical results of focal anatomic-resurfacing implantation for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Methods
Five patients (four male, one female) with seven surgical procedures, ages between 37 and 52 with an average age of 45.2 (+/− 7.2), diagnosed as femoral head avascular necrosis and who were unresponsive to conservative management or had failed previous surgical treatments were treated with a focal anatomic femoral head resurfacing between the years 2011–2012 and were retrospectively reviewed. Five patients with at least two years of follow-up, one left hip, two right hips, and two patients with bilateral hip surgery were included in this review. After safe surgical dislocation of the hip, full exposure of the femoral head was established. A focal-resurfacing implant matching patient anatomy and femoral head curvature was performed accordingly. Neither intraoperative or postoperative complications nor revision ensued. Visual analogue scores and Harris Hip Scores were recorded both preoperatively and at postoperative 2 years for all seven surgeries.
Results
The mean follow-up period was 26.6 +/− 3.8 months, with a range between 24–33 months. The mean visual analogue scores were 8.9 +/− 0.9 preoperatively and 2.3 +/− 1.0 postoperatively at year two (p = 0.017). Harris Hip Scores at postoperative follow-up were found to improve significantly from good to excellent scores (86.0 +/− 7.9), compared with preoperative poor scores (26.7 +/− 11.8) (p = 0.018). The clinical improvements in visual analogue scores (VAS) and Harris Hip Scores were also found to correlate with each other (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
In the present study, the alternative technique of focal anatomic hip resurfacing with HemiCAP® yielded preliminary successful results for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series in the literature, reporting functional clinical results with the use of a focal anatomic-resurfacing implant for the treatment of focal femoral head osteonecrosis.
doi:10.1186/s13018-015-0199-3
PMCID: PMC4423414  PMID: 25924980
Femoral head; Osteonecrosis; Hip; Focal anatomic-resurfacing; Implantation
9.  Effect of Osteonecrosis Intervention Rod Versus Core Decompression Using Multiple Small Drill Holes on Early Stages of Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Prospective Study on a Series of 60 Patients with a Minimum 1-Year-Follow-Up 
Introduction:
The conventional CD used 10 mm drill holes associated with a lack of structural support. Thus, alternative methods such as a tantalum implant, small drill holes, and biological treatment were developed to prevent deterioration of the joint. The treatment of CD by multiple 3.2 mm drill holes could reduce the femoral neck fracture and partial weight bearing was allowed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of osteonecrosis intervention rod versus core decompression using multiple small drill holes on early stages of necrosis of the femoral head.
Method:
From January 2011 to January 2012, 60 patients undergoing surgery for osteonecrosis with core decompression were randomly assigned into 2 groups based on the type of core decompression used: (1) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 16 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with a porous tantalum rod insertion. The diameter of the drill hole for the intervention rod was 10mm.(2) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 14 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with core decompression using five drill holes on the lateral femur, the diameter of the hole was 3.2 mm. The average age of the patient was 32.6 years (20-45 years) and the average time of follow-up was 25.6 months (12- 28 months) in the rod implanted group. The average age of the patient was 35.2 years (22- 43 years) and the average time of follow-up was 26.3 months (12-28 months) in the small drill holes group.
Results:
The average of surgical time was 40 min, and the mean volume of blood loss was 30 ml in both surgical groups. The average of Harris score was improved from 56.2 ± 7.1 preoperative to 80.2 ± 11.4 at the last follow-up in the rod implanted group (p < 0.05). The mean Harris score was improved from 53.8 ± 6.6 preoperative to 79.7 ± 13.2 at the last follow-up in the small drill holes group (p<0. 05). No significant difference was observed in Harris score between the two groups. At the last follow-up, 28 of 36 hips were at the same radiographic stages as pre-operation, and 8 deteriorated in the rod implanted group. 26 of 34 hips were at the same radiographic stage as pre-operation, and 8 deteriorated in the small drill holes group. No significant difference was observed in radiographic stage between the two groups. There was no favourable result on the outcome of a tantalum intervention implant compared to multiple small drill holes.
Discussion:
CD via multiple small drill holes would allow similar postoperative load-bearing and seems to result in similar or even better clinical outcome without the prolonged implantation of an expensive tantalum implant. A tantalum rod intervention and core decompression using multiple small drill holes were effective on the stage I hips rather than stage II hips.
doi:10.2174/1874325001509010179
PMCID: PMC4483536  PMID: 26157535
Core decompression; early stage; intervention rod; multiple small drill holes; osteonecrosis
10.  Study of treatment using percutaneous acetabuloplasty and interstitial implantation of 125I seeds for patients with metastatic periacetabular tumors 
Background
The periacetabular area is one of the primary sites of metastatic tumors, which often present as osteolytic bone destruction. Bone destruction in the acetabulum caused by metastatic tumors will cause hip pain and joint dysfunction. It results in decreased quality of life for patients. The aim of our study was to explore the clinical effect of metastatic periacetabular tumors treated with percutaneous cementoplasty and interstitial implantation of 125I seeds.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was performed on 24 patients with metastatic periacetabular tumors who underwent combined therapy of percutaneous acetabuloplasty and interstitial implantation of 125I seeds between February 2003 and June 2011. There were 13 males and 11 females aged 19–80 years with a mean age of 57.3. The primary tumor site was the lung in eight cases, the breast in six, the prostate cancer in eight, and the liver in two. The amount of implanted 125I seeds was 12–20 seeds/person, with a mean of 16.5 seeds/person, and the matching peripheral dosage (MPD) was 80~100Gy. Routine postoperative chemotherapy and other combined treatments were applied to patients after the surgical operation. Changes in the Karnofsky Score(KPS), Harris Hip Score(Harris), and Visual Analog Scale(VAS) were observed during the follow-up period.
Results
The 24 patients’ operations were all successful. No major complications occurred. Complete pain relief was achieved in 58% (14 of 24) of patients, and pain reduction was achieved in the 42% remaining (10) patients. The mean duration of pain relief was 8.3 months. Pain recurred in one patient 3 months after surgery. Six patients had died and 18 patients were alive at the time of the 1-year follow-up. Comparing the KPS, Harris and VAS scores pre- and postoperativelyat 1, 6, and 12 months, the combined therapy method was significantly effective in metastatic periacetabular tumor patients (P<0.05).
Conclusions
Percutaneous cementoplasty with interstitial implantation of 125I seeds is an effective treatment method for metastatic periacetabular tumor patients, providing tumor resistance, pain relief, increased bone stability, and improved quality of life for patients.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-250
PMCID: PMC3546855  PMID: 23164341
Periacetabular; Metastatic tumor; 125I seed implantation; Percutaneous acetabuloplasty; Bone cement
11.  Continued Evolution of West Nile Virus, Houston, Texas, USA, 2002–2012 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(9):1418-1427.
We investigated the genetics and evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) since initial detection in the United States in 1999 on the basis of continual surveillance studies in the Houston, Texas, USA, metropolitan area (Harris County) as a surrogate model for WNV evolution on a national scale. Full-length genomic sequencing of 14 novel 2010–2012 WNV isolates collected from resident birds in Harris County demonstrates emergence of 4 independent genetic groups distinct from historical strains circulating in the greater Houston region since 2002. Phylogenetic and geospatial analyses of the 2012 WNV isolates indicate closer genetic relationship with 2003–2006 Harris County isolates than more recent 2007–2011 isolates. Inferred monophyletic relationships of these groups with several 2006–2009 northeastern US isolates supports potential introduction of a novel WNV strain in Texas since 2010. These results emphasize the need to maintain WNV surveillance activities to better understand WNV transmission dynamics in the United States.
doi:10.3201/eid1909.130377
PMCID: PMC3810927  PMID: 23965756
West Nile virus; WNV; flavivirus; viruses; virus surveillance; viral epidemiology; virus evolution; phylogenetics; Texas
12.  Bipolar Hemarthroplasty Using Cementless Conical Stem for Treatment of Dorr Type B and C Femoral Neck Fracture 
Hip & Pelvis  2015;27(4):232-240.
Purpose
The current study aims to evaluate the clinical and the radiological outcome of bipolar hemiarthroplasty using cementless cone stem to treat osteoporotic femoral neck fracture and compare the results according to the proximal femur geometry.
Materials and Methods
Seventy-five hips (75 patients) that underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty with cementless cone stem between September 2006 and December 2011 were analyzed. The minimum follow-up period was 3 years. Thirty-three hips were classified as type B and 41 as type C. The clinical outcome was assessed using Harris hip score and the walking ability score. Radiographic evaluation was performed to evaluate the stability of the prosthesis.
Results
At the most recent follow up, the mean Harris hip score was 86 (range, 70-92) and 65% recovered to preoperative ambulatory status. In the radiographic exam, stable stem fixation was achieved in all cases. For the complications, eight hips developed deep vein thrombosis while three hips showed heterotopic ossification. Dislocation and delayed deep infection occurred in one hip resepectively. There were no significance differences in Harris hip score and walking ability score when the type B group was compare with the type C.
Conclusion
Bipolar hemiarthroplasty with cementless cone stem showed an excellent early outcome both clinically and radiographically regardless of the shape of the proximal femur. We believe this prosthesis can provide early stability to the Dorr type B and C femur and is an effective treatment for treating osteoporotic femoral neck fracture.
doi:10.5371/hp.2015.27.4.232
PMCID: PMC4972794  PMID: 27536631
Bipolar hemiarthroplasty; Cone stem; Femoral neck fractures
13.  Mimetic butterflies support Wallace's model of sexual dimorphism 
Theoretical and empirical observations generally support Darwin's view that sexual dimorphism evolves due to sexual selection on, and deviation in, exaggerated male traits. Wallace presented a radical alternative, which is largely untested, that sexual dimorphism results from naturally selected deviation in protective female coloration. This leads to the prediction that deviation in female rather than male phenotype causes sexual dimorphism. Here I test Wallace's model of sexual dimorphism by tracing the evolutionary history of Batesian mimicry—an example of naturally selected protective coloration—on a molecular phylogeny of Papilio butterflies. I show that sexual dimorphism in Papilio is significantly correlated with both female-limited Batesian mimicry, where females are mimetic and males are non-mimetic, and with the deviation of female wing colour patterns from the ancestral patterns conserved in males. Thus, Wallace's model largely explains sexual dimorphism in Papilio. This finding, along with indirect support from recent studies on birds and lizards, suggests that Wallace's model may be more widely useful in explaining sexual dimorphism. These results also highlight the contribution of naturally selected female traits in driving phenotypic divergence between species, instead of merely facilitating the divergence in male sexual traits as described by Darwin's model.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0171
PMCID: PMC2602815  PMID: 18426753
Batesian mimicry; polymorphism; female-limited mimicry; directional selection; stabilizing sexual selection; convergence
14.  Alfred Russel Wallace and the Antivaccination Movement in Victorian England 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2010;16(4):664-668.
Historical analysis can play a major role in public health policy.
Alfred Russel Wallace, eminent naturalist and codiscoverer of the principle of natural selection, was a major participant in the antivaccination campaigns in late 19th-century England. Wallace combined social reformism and quantitative arguments to undermine the claims of provaccinationists and had a major impact on the debate. A brief account of Wallace’s background, his role in the campaign, and a summary of his quantitative arguments leads to the conclusion that it is unwarranted to portray Victorian antivaccination campaigners in general as irrational and antiscience. Public health policy can benefit from history, but the proper context of the evidence used should always be kept in mind.
doi:10.3201/eid1604.090434
PMCID: PMC3321934  PMID: 20350381
Vaccination; Alfred Russel Wallace; vaccines; England; historical review
15.  The Distribution of Henipaviruses in Southeast Asia and Australasia: Is Wallace’s Line a Barrier to Nipah Virus? 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e61316.
Nipah virus (NiV) (Genus Henipavirus) is a recently emerged zoonotic virus that causes severe disease in humans and has been found in bats of the genus Pteropus. Whilst NiV has not been detected in Australia, evidence for NiV-infection has been found in pteropid bats in some of Australia’s closest neighbours. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of henipaviruses in fruit bat (Family Pteropodidae) populations to the north of Australia. In particular we tested the hypothesis that Nipah virus is restricted to west of Wallace’s Line. Fruit bats from Australia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia were tested for the presence of antibodies to Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus, and tested for the presence of HeV, NiV or henipavirus RNA by PCR. Evidence was found for the presence of Nipah virus in both Pteropus vampyrus and Rousettus amplexicaudatus populations from East Timor. Serology and PCR also suggested the presence of a henipavirus that was neither HeV nor NiV in Pteropus alecto and Acerodon celebensis. The results demonstrate the presence of NiV in the fruit bat populations on the eastern side of Wallace’s Line and within 500 km of Australia. They indicate the presence of non-NiV, non-HeV henipaviruses in fruit bat populations of Sulawesi and Sumba and possibly in Papua New Guinea. It appears that NiV is present where P. vampyrus occurs, such as in the fruit bat populations of Timor, but where this bat species is absent other henipaviruses may be present, as on Sulawesi and Sumba. Evidence was obtained for the presence henipaviruses in the non-Pteropid species R. amplexicaudatus and in A. celebensis. The findings of this work fill some gaps in knowledge in geographical and species distribution of henipaviruses in Australasia which will contribute to planning of risk management and surveillance activities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061316
PMCID: PMC3634832  PMID: 23637812
16.  Description of six new species of Lycocerus Gorham (Coleoptera, Cantharidae), with taxonomic note and new distribution data of some other species 
ZooKeys  2014;85-107.
Six new species of Lycocerus Gorham are described, Lycocerus gracilicornis sp. n. (China: Sichuan), Lycocerus longihirtus sp. n. (China: Yunnan), Lycocerus sichuanus sp. n. (China: Sichuan), Lycocerus hubeiensis sp. n. (China: Hubei), Lycocerus napolovi sp. n. (Vietnam: Sa Pa) and Lycocerus quadrilineatus sp. n. (Vietnam: Sa Pa), and provided with illustrations of habitus, antennae and aedeagi of male or and antennae, abdominal sternites VIII and genitalia of female. Lycocerus rubroniger Švihla, 2011 is synonymized with Lycocerus obscurus Pic, 1916. Lycocerus hickeri Pic, 1934 and Lycocerus obscurus are provided with illustrations of abdominal sternites VIII of female. Nine species are recorded from China for the first time, Lycocerus bicoloripennis (Pic, 1924), Lycocerus caliginostus Gorham, 1889, Lycocerus jendeki Švihla, 2005, Lycocerus malaisei (Wittmer, 1995), Lycocerus obscurus, Lycocerus olivaceus (Wittmer, 1995), Lycocerus purpureus Kazantsev, 2007, Lycocerus ruficornis (Wittmer, 1995) and Lycocerus semiextensus (Wittmer, 1995), and Lycocerus ruficornis is also recorded for Myanmar for the first time.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.456.8465
PMCID: PMC4329401  PMID: 25709523
Taxonomy; Lycocerus; new species; synonym; new records; China; Vietnam; Myanmar
17.  Unifying treatments for depression: an application of the Free Energy Principle 
Major Depressive Disorder is a debilitating and increasingly prevalent psychiatric condition (Compton et al., 2006; Andersen et al., 2011). At present, its primary treatments are antidepressant medications and psychotherapy. Curiously, although the pharmacological effects of antidepressants manifest within hours, remission of clinical symptoms takes a number of weeks—if at all. Independently, support has grown for an idea—proposed as early as Helmholtz (von Helmholtz, 1924)—that the brain is a prediction machine, holding generative models1 for the purpose of inferring causes of sensory information (Dayan et al., 1995; Rao and Ballard, 1999; Knill and Pouget, 2004; Friston et al., 2006; Friston, 2010). If the brain does indeed represent a collection of beliefs about the causal structure of the world, then the depressed phenotype may emerge from a collection of depressive beliefs. These beliefs are modified gradually through successive combinations of expectations with observations. As a result, phenotypic remission ought to take some time as the brain's relevant statistical structures become less pessimistic.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00153
PMCID: PMC4335302  PMID: 25750630
major depressive disorder; predictive coding; free-energy principle; antidepressants; computational psychiatry; generative models; antidepressants efficacy
18.  The Epidemiology of Myasthenia Gravis in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2016;57(2):419-425.
Purpose
An epidemiological study of myasthenia gravis (MG) has not been performed in Korea. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of MG in Korea.
Materials and Methods
Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) data from 2010 to 2014 were searched for MG codes as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. After identifying MG cases, we estimated the prevalence and annual incidence of MG based on the HIRA database and Korean population data.
Results
During the study period, 10138 MG cases were identified. The prevalence of MG was 10.42 cases per 100000 people in 2010 and this increased every year to 12.99 cases per 100000 people in 2014. The average incidence of MG between 2011 and 2014 was 0.69 cases per 100000 person-years. The prevalence and incidence were higher in the older (≥50 years) age group than in the younger (<50 years) age group [prevalence: 9.26 vs. 19.24 per 100000, relative risk 2.077, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.976-2.183, p<0.001; incidence: 0.47 vs. 1.18 per 100000, relative risk 2.490, 95% CI 2.006-3.091, p<0.001].
Conclusion
This study was the first nationwide population-based epidemiological study of MG in Korea. The prevalence and incidence of MG were consistent with those of previous studies. We found an increase in the prevalence of MG and a predominance of elderly MG patients.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2016.57.2.419
PMCID: PMC4740535  PMID: 26847295
Myasthenia gravis; prevalence; incidence; epidemiology; nationwide population-based; Korea
19.  Potential utility of conventional MRI signs in diagnosing pseudoprogression in glioblastoma 
Neurology  2011;76(22):1918-1924.
Objective:
To examine the potential utility of conventional MRI signs in differentiating pseudoprogression (PsP) from early progression (EP).
Methods:
This retrospective study reviewed initial postradiotherapy MRI scans of 321 patients with glioblastoma undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A total of 93 patients were found to have new or increased enhancing mass lesions, raising the possibility of PsP. Final diagnosis of PsP or EP was established upon review of surgical specimens from a second resection or by clinical and radiologic follow-up. A total of 11 MRI signs potentially helpful in the differentiation between PsP and EP were examined on the initial post-RT MRI and were correlated with the final diagnosis through χ2 or Fisher exact test.
Results:
Sixty-three (67.7%) of the 93 patients had EP, of which 22 (34.9%) were diagnosed by pathology. Thirty patients (32.3%) had PsP; 6 (16.7% of the 30) were diagnosed by pathology. Subependymal enhancement was predictive for EP (p = 0.001) with 38.1% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity, and 41.8% negative predictive value. The other 10 signs had no predictive value (p = 0.06–1.0).
Conclusions:
Conventional MRI signs have limited utility in diagnosing PsP in patients with recently treated glioblastomas and worsening enhancing lesions. We did not find a sign with a high negative predictive value for PsP that would have been the most useful for the clinical physician. When present, subependymal spread of the enhancing lesion is a useful MRI marker in identifying EP rather than PsP. Neurology® 2011;76:1918–1924
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821d74e7
PMCID: PMC3115805  PMID: 21624991
20.  Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone? 
History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2013.51.1.9
PMCID: PMC3587755  PMID: 23467688
Taenia asiatica; Taenia solium; Taenia saginata; taeniasis; prevalence
21.  Etiologic and epidemiologic study of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Azarbaijan of Iran (2006–2011) 
Background:
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Epidemiologic and etiologic studies help in the prevention of disease and improve surveillance of affected patients. The aim of this study was to study the etiology and epidemiology of HCC in West Azarbaijan of Iran.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross-sectional, retrospective study, medical records of 60 patients with HCC who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2011 in West Azarbaijan of Iran were analyzed for age, sex, location, presence of liver cirrhosis and/or well-known risk factors of HCC. Data were analyzed by SPSS 17 software.
Results:
From 60 patients with HCC, 75% were male and 25% were female. Mean age of the patients was 63.47 years. 51.66% were from rural areas and 48.33% were from urban areas. 43.33% of HCC patients were cirrhotic while 56.66% patients were non-cirrhotic. Of the 26 cirrhotic patients, 57.69% were seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 15.38% not only had history of excess alcohol intake but were also HBsAg positive, 3.84% had history of alcoholism, 3.84% had history of Wilson disease and the rest (19.24%) had cryptogenic cirrhosis. Of the 34 non-cirrhotic patients, 35.29% were positive for HBsAg. None of the 60 patients with HCC had positive serology for hepatitis C virus (HCV) or history of hepatitis C infection.
Conclusion:
In our study, most of the patients (>50%) with HCC did not have underlying liver cirrhosis. In the cirrhotic patients, hepatitis B infection was the most common predisposing factor, followed by hepatitis B infection concomitant with alcoholism, alcoholism alone and Wilson disease. In the remaining cirrhotic patients, we could not find any predisposing factor for cirrhosis. Infection with HCV was not found in our studied group. We concluded that etiology of HCC in our province is different from that in the western countries.
doi:10.4103/0971-5851.107086
PMCID: PMC3618644  PMID: 23580823
Etiology; epidemiology; hepatocellular carcinoma; risk factor
22.  Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Countries Except China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64915.
Background
TB and HIV co-epidemic is a major public health problem in many parts of the world. But the prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection was diversified among countries. Exploring the reasons of the diversity of TB/HIV co-infection is important for public policy, planning and development of collaborative TB/HIV activities. We aimed to summarize the prevalence of TB and HIV co-infection worldwide, using meta-analysis based on systematic review of published articles.
Methods
We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies of the prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection. We also searched bibliographic indices, scanned reference lists, and corresponded with authors. We summarized the estimates using meta-analysis and explored potential sources of heterogeneity in the estimates by metaregression analysis.
Results
We identified 47 eligible studies with a total population of 272,466. Estimates of TB/HIV co-infection prevalence ranged from 2.93% to 72.34%; the random effects pooled prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection was 23.51% (95% CI 20.91–26.11). We noted substantial heterogeneity (Cochran’s χ2 = 10945.31, p<0.0001; I2 = 99.58%, 95% CI 99.55–99.61). Prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection was 31.25%(95%CI 19.30–43.17) in African countries, 17.21%(95%CI 9.97–24.46) in Asian countries, 20.11%(95%CI 13.82–26.39) in European countries, 25.06%(95%CI 19.28–30.84) in Latin America countries and 14.84%(95%CI 10.44–19.24) in the USA. Prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection was higher in studies in which TB diagnosed by chest radiography and HIV diagnosis based on blood analyses than in those which used other diagnostic methods, and in countries with higher prevalence HIV in the general population than in countries with lower general prevalence.
Conclusions
Our analyses suggest that it is necessary to attach importance to HIV/TB co-infection, especially screening of TB/HIV co-infection using methods with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values in the countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence in the general population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064915
PMCID: PMC3669088  PMID: 23741419
23.  Cell-Free microRNA-214 From Urine as a Biomarker for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(11):791-796.
Purpose
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs and microRNA-214 (miR-214) has been associated with the inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell-free miR-214 isolated from urine could be used as a biomarker for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Materials and Methods
A total of 138 patients with primary NMIBC and 144 healthy normal controls were enrolled in this study. By use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were measured and the clinicopathological parameters of patients with NMIBC were compared with those of the controls.
Results
The urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were significantly higher in the NMIBC patients than in the controls (20.08±3.21 vs. 18.96±2.68, p=0.002). However, the urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were neither graded nor staged for the NMIBC patients (p>0.05, each). When we compared the urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 according to clinical outcomes, patients with recurrence had lower levels of miR-214 than did those with no recurrence (19.24±2.67 vs. 20.41±3.41, p=0.023). By contrast, there were no significant differences in the urinary level of cell-free miR-214 between the NMIBC patients showing progression and those showing no progression (p=0.919). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 were an independent predictor of NMIBC recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.011; 95% confidence interval, 1.027 to 3.937; p=0.041).
Conclusions
Urinary levels of cell-free miR-214 could be an independent prognostic parameter for NMIBC recurrence. Thus, urinary cell-free microRNA-214 might be a useful prognostic marker for NMI BC.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.11.791
PMCID: PMC3830974  PMID: 24255763
MicroRNAs; Neoplasms; Recurrence; Urinary bladder
24.  Antithrombotic therapy – predictor of early and long-term bleeding complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2013;9(6):1062-1070.
Introduction
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) – aspirin and clopidogrel – is recommended after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) without an evidence base. The main aim of the study was to estimate the impact of antithrombotic therapy on early and late bleeding. Moreover, we assessed the impact of patients’ characteristics on early bleeding and the influence of bleeding on prognosis.
Material and methods
Between 2009 and 2011, 83 consecutive TAVI patients, age 81.1 ±7.2 years, were included. Bleeding complications were defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) scale. The median follow-up was 12 ±15.5 months (range: 1 to 23) and included 68 (81.9%) patients.
Results
Early bleeding occurred in 51 (61.4%) patients. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) pre-TAVI (p = 0.001) and VKA + clopidogrel early post-TAVI (p = 0.04) were the safest therapies; in comparison to the safest one, peri-procedural DAPT (p = 0.002; p = 0.05) or triple anticoagulant therapy (TAT) (p = 0.003, p = 0.05) increased the risk for early bleeding. Predictors for early bleeding were: clopidogrel pre-TAVI (OR: 4.43, 95% CI: 1.02–19.24, p = 0.04), preceding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.08, OR: 95% CI: 1.12–90.56, p = 0.04), anemia (OR: 4.00, 95% CI: 1.32–12.15, p = 0.01), age > 85 years (OR: 5.96, 95% CI: 1.47–24.13, p = 0.01), body mass index (BMI) (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74–0.99, p = 0.04). Late bleeding occurred in 35 patients (51.4%) on combined therapy, and none on VKA or clopidogrel monotherapy (p = 0.04). Bleeding complications did not worsen the survival.
Conclusions
This study seems to suggest that advanced age, BMI, and a history of anemia increased the risk for early bleeding after TAVI. Clopidogrel pre-TAVI should be avoided; therefore, time of preceding PCI should take into account discontinuation of clopidogrel in the pre-TAVI period. Vitamin K antagonists with clopidogrel seems to be the safest therapy in the early post-TAVI period, similarly as VKA/clopidogrel monotherapy in long-term prophylaxis.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2013.39794
PMCID: PMC3902724  PMID: 24482651
transcatheter aortic valve implantation; antithrombotic prophylaxis; bleeding complications; aortic stenosis
25.  Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs 
ZooKeys  2014;1-43.
The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as “A.” aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that have remained under low salinity. These include the invasive thiarid Tarebia granifera, which can be found in concentrations exceeding 5000 ind.m-2, the lymnaeid Pseudosuccinea columella and the physid Aplexa marmorata.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.440.7803
PMCID: PMC4196252  PMID: 25317060
Mollusca; Gastropoda; biodiversity census; hypersalinity; iSimangaliso Wetland Park; illustrated checklist

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