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1.  Responses of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita to Green Manures and Supplemental Urea in Glasshouse Culture 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):648-654.
The recent loss of many effective nematicides has led to renewed interest in alternative methods of nematode management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rapeseed and velvetbean green manures, and supplemental urea, on the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita. Green manures were incorporated with M. arenaria-infested soil using rates totaling 200,300, and 400 mg N/kg soil. Squash plants grown in this soil were evaluated using a gall index and plant dry weight. A second experiment tested ratios of rapeseed green manure to urea resulting in rates of 50, 100, and 150 mg N/kg soil on viability ofM. incognita eggs and degree of galling on squash test plants. A third experiment examined combinations of velvetbean green manure and urea resulting in rates of 100, 200, and 300 mg N/kg soil on viability of M. incognita eggs. When applied at rates of 200, 300, and 400 mg N/kg soil, rapeseed green manure was more effective than velvetbean green manure at reducing galling of squash roots caused by M. arenaria. Decreased viability of M. incognita eggs was observed from treatments that received rates ≥ 1200 mg N/kg soil with higher percentages of N from urea.
PMCID: PMC2619734  PMID: 19277190
alginate; ammonia; Brassica napus; Cucurbita pepo; green manure; Meloidoyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Mucuna deeringiana; nitrogen; organic amendment; rapeseed; root-knot nematode; squash; velvetbean
2.  Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(4):329-336.
In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control.
PMCID: PMC3592367  PMID: 23482503
fermented animal manure; nematode trophic groups; nitrogen amendments; phytoparasitic nematodes; sawdust
3.  Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):207-213.
Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil.
PMCID: PMC2620958  PMID: 19262862
forage production; host-parasite interaction; manure; nematode ecology; nematode suppression
4.  Host-Parasite Relationship of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Potato 
Journal of Nematology  1985;17(4):395-399.
The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene gave good to excellent control of the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, on potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Nonfumigant nematicides (aldicarb, fensulfothion, carbofuran, ethoprop, and phenamiphos) were less effective in controlling M. chitwoodi, since the nematode affects tuber quality more than quantity. Soil temperature during the growing season affected parasitism of M. chitwoodi on potato more than did the initial nematode population. There were positive linear correlations between degree-days and infected and galled tubers (r = 0.92), degree-days and nematode generations (r = 1.00), and infected and galled tubers and nematode generations (r = 0.91). Differences in degree-days and resultant nematode reproduction caused great variability in infection and galling of potato tubers during four growing seasons: 89% for 1979, 0% for 1980, 13% for 1981, and 18% for 1982, giving positive linear correlation (r = 0.99) between final nematode soil population (Pf) and percentage of infected and galled tubers. Corresponding increases in the soil populations of second-stage juveniles (J2) during the growing season were 9,700% in 1979, 170% in 1980,552% in 1981, and 326% in 1982. There was a negative linear correlation (r = -0.87) between initial soil J2 populations (Pi) and the degree of parasitism (infection and galling) of potato tubers, Pi being of secondary importance to degree-days.
PMCID: PMC2618474  PMID: 19294115
Columbia root-knot nematode; Solanum tuberosum; soil temperature; reproduction; generations; degree-days; chemicals; population densities; control
5.  Allelopathy in the Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(1):8-14.
There are numerous reports of nematicidal chemicals in crude plant homogenates, leachates, and decomposing residues. These compounds are usually assumed to be secondary metabolites, which serve as chemical defenses against disease and parasites. When such compounds are released into the rhizosphere, they are known as allelochemicals. The possibility exists to exploit allelochemicals for nematode control, and there have been many attempts to use this approach either by rotation, intercropping, or green manure treatments. Results have met with mixed success. Proof of allelochemical activity in field situations is difficult to obtain, but it is evident that some rotation crops are significantly better at reducing nematode populations than others. Rotations with non-host plants may simply deny the nematode population an adequate food source for reproduction (passive suppression), whereas allelopathic crops kill nematodes by the production of toxic compounds (active suppression). Progress toward sustainable agriculture should benefit from studies on allelopathic nematode control. However, grower acceptance of new plant-rotation strategies are based on economic and logistical considerations as well as efficacy. A potential practical application of allelopathic nematode control that involves using rapeseed as a green manure crop to reduce populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in temperate orchards is presented.
PMCID: PMC2619676  PMID: 19277340
allelopathy; amendment; Brassica; glucosinolate; green manure; isothiocyanate; management; nematode; rapeseed; rotation; thioglucosidase; Xiphinema
6.  Plant-parasitic Nematode Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Carbamate and Organophosphate Nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(4):481-488.
The sensitivity of acetylcholinesterases (ACHE) isolated from the plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to carbamate and organophosphate nematicides was examined. The AChE from plant-parasitic nematode species were more sensitive to carbamate inhibitors than was AChE from C. elegans, but response to the organophosphates was approximately equivalent. The sulfur-containing phosphate nematicides were poor inhibitors of nematode acetylcholinesterase, but treatment with an oxidizing agent greatly improved inhibition. Behavioral bioassays with living nematodes revealed a poor relationship between enzyme inhibition and expression of symptoms in live nematodes.
PMCID: PMC2619087  PMID: 19287747
acetylcholinesterase; Caenorhabditis elegans; carbamate; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; nematicide; organophosphate
7.  Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Potato with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(4S):556-565.
During 1993-94, several fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides were tested alone and in combination at various rates for control of Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) in potato. Ethoprop, oxamyl, or metam sodium alone did not adequately reduce tuber infection. Metam sodium plus ethoprop reduced culled tubers to 3%, and metam sodium plus 2 or 3 foliar applications of oxamyl reduced culls to ≤10% in all but one instance. Fosthiazate provided excellent control of tuber infection with or without metam sodium. Rates of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) below 234 liters/ha did not always adequately control tuber damage, but 140 liters/ha of 1,3-D plus ethoprop reduced the percentage of culled tubers to zero. 1,3-Dichloropropene plus chloropicrin did not provide better control than 1,3-D alone. Combinations of 1,3-D at 94 liters/ha or greater plus metam sodium at 374 liters/ha or greater consistently provided excellent control of tuber damage by M. chitwoodi and would be the treatment of choice where soilborne fungal pathogens are also present.
PMCID: PMC2620491  PMID: 19271010
1,3-dichloropropene; aldicarb; ethoprop; fosthiazate; fumigants; Meloidogyne; metam sodium; nematicides; oxamyl; potato; root-knot nematode
8.  Soil Organic Matter and Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(4):289-295.
Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops.
PMCID: PMC2620584  PMID: 19265946
cover crops; crop rotation; green manure; nematode control
9.  Efficacy Evaluation of Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum and Nematicide Avermectin against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumber 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89717.
The root-knot nematode (RKN) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests.Effective biological control is need for controlling this destructive pathogen in organic farming system. During October 2010 to 2011, the nematicidal effects of the Syncephalastrum racemosum fungus and the nematicide, avermectin, alone or combined were tested against the RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) on cucumber under pot and field condition in China. Under pot conditions, the application of S. racemosum alone or combined with avermectin significantly increased the plant vigor index by 31.4% and 10.9%, respectively compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. However, treatment with avermectin alone did not significantly affect the plant vigor index. All treatments reduced the number of root galls and juvenile nematodes compared to the untreated control. Under greenhouse conditions, all treatments reduced the disease severity and enhanced fruit yield compared to the untreated control. Fewer nematodes infecting plant roots were observed after treatment with avermectin alone, S. racemosum alone or their combination compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. Among all the treatments, application of avermectin or S. racemosum combined with avermectin was more effective than the S. racemosum treatment. Our results showed that application of S. racemosum combined with avermectin not only reduced the nematode number and plant disease severity but also enhanced plant vigor and yield. The results indicated that the combination of S. racemosum with avermectin could be an effective biological component in integrated management of RKN on cucumber.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089717
PMCID: PMC3933638  PMID: 24586982
10.  Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(2):98-105.
A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations.
PMCID: PMC2620544  PMID: 19265915
Arachis hypogaea L; Aspergillus; microbial community; microbial diversity; nematode; Panicum virgatum; peanut; rhizosphere ecology; root-knot nematode; Sclerotium rolfsii; southern blight; switchgrass
11.  Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Tissue, Incorporated at Different Depths in a Soil Column, on Meloidogyne incognita  
Journal of nematology  2007;39(2):111-117.
Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended with broccoli tissue, which was mixed throughout the tube or concentrated in a 10-cm layer. After three weeks at 28°C, M. incognita populations in the amended tubes were 57 to 80% smaller than in non-amended tubes. Mixing broccoli throughout the tubes reduced M. incognita more than concentrating broccoli in a 10-cm layer. Amending a 10-cm layer reduced M. incognita in the non-amended layers of those tubes by 31 to 71%, probably due to a nematicidal effect of released volatiles. However, the localized direct effect was much stronger than the indirect effect of volatiles. The strong direct effect may have resulted from the release of non-volatile nematicidal compounds. Therefore, when using biofumigation with broccoli to control M. incognita, the tissue should be thoroughly and evenly mixed through the soil layer(s) where the target nematodes occur. Effects on saprophytic nematodes were the reverse. Amended soil layers had much greater numbers of saprophytic nematodes than non-amended layers, and there was no indirect effect of amendments on saprophytic nematodes in adjacent non-amended layers.
PMCID: PMC2586485  PMID: 19259479
amendment; biofumigation; broccoli; Brassica oleracea; management; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; soil
12.  Degradation of Fenamiphos in Agricultural Production Soil 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(1):40-44.
Nematicides are used to control a wide variety of nematodes on many crops; unfortunately, oftentimes the control they provide is erratic. This erratic behavior is not always predictable and has been associated with chemical, physical, and biological degradation of nematicides. Their accelerated degradation is an agricultural problem that has been observed in crop monocultures and in other crop production systems where a biodegradable compound is repeatedly applied to the same soil. The problem can occur in field soil and golf course greens; it is not unique to any single nematicide or class of nematicides, but rather to many classes of pesticides. As indicated by the population density of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in the soil in a 6-year sweet corn-sweet potato-vetch rotation, the efficacy of the nematicide fenamiphos diminished during the third year. Therefore, use of the nematicide applied immediately before planting sweet corn, sweet potato, and vetch should not exceed 3 years. After 3 years, the crop rotation and(or) the nematicide should be changed.
PMCID: PMC2620284  PMID: 19274197
control; degradation; enhanced degradation; fenamiphos; management; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; nematode; root-knot nematode; rotation
13.  Evaluation of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Biocontrol Agent of Meloidogyne javanica on Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(4):578-584.
The efficacy of the nematode parasite Paecilomyces lilacinus, alone and in combination with phenamiphos and ethoprop, for controlling the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tobacco and the ability of this fungus to colonize in soil under field conditions were evaluated for 2 years in microplots. Combinations and individual treatments of the fungus grown on autoclaved wheat seed, M. javanica eggs (76,000 per plot), and nematicides were applied to specified microplots at the time of transplanting tobacco the first year. Vetch was planted as a winter cover crop, and the fungus and nematicides were applied again the second year to specified plots at transplanting time. The fungus did not control the nematode in either year of these experiments. The average root-gall index (0 = no visible galls and 5 = > 100 galls per root system) ranged from 2.7 to 3.9 the first year and from 4.3 to 5.0 the second in nematode-infested plots treated with nematicides. Plants with M. javanica alone or in combination with P. lilacinus had galling indices of 5.0 both years; the latter produced lower yields than all other treatments during both years of the study. Nevertheless, the average soil population densities of P. lilacinus remained high, ranging from 1.2 to 1.3 × 106 propagules/g soil 1 week after the initial inoculation and from 1.6 to 2.3 × 104 propagules/g soil at harvest the second year. At harvest the second year the density of fungal propagules was greatest at the depth of inoculation, 15 cm, and rapidly decreased below this level.
PMCID: PMC2618854  PMID: 19290257
biocontrol; ethoprop; 1,3-dichloropropene; fenamiphos; fungal egg parasite; Meloidogyne javanica; nematicide; Nicotiana tabacum; Paecilomyces lilacinus; root-knot nematode; tobacco; vetch; Vicia vilIosa
14.  The Surface Coat of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes: Chemical Composition, Origin, and Biological Role—A Review 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(2):127-134.
Chemical composition, origin, and biological role of the surface coat (SC) of plant-parasitic nematodes are described and compared with those of animal-parasitic and free-living nematodes. The SC of the plant-parasitic nematodes is 5-30 nm thick and is characterized by a net negative charge. It consists, at least in part, of glycoproteins and proteins with various molecular weights, depending upon the nematode species. The lability of its components and the binding of human red blood cells to the surface of many tylenchid plant-parasitic nematodes, as well as the binding of several neoglycoproteins to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne, suggest the presence of carbohydrate-recognition-domains for host plants and parasitic or predatory soil microorganisms (Pasteuria penetrans and Dactylaria spp., for example). These features may also assist in nematode adaptations to soil environments and to plant hosts with defense mechanisms that depend on reactions to nematode surfaces. Surface coat proteins can be species and race specific, a characteristic with promising diagnostic potential.
PMCID: PMC2619597  PMID: 19277272
biological control agents; carbohydrate-recognition-domain; glycoprotein; lectin; neoglycoprotein; plant-parasitic nematode; protein; recognition; surface coat
15.  Site-Specific Management of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Idaho Potatoes Using 1,3-Dichloropropene; Approach, Experiences, and Economics 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):202-213.
Fumigation for nematode management in irrigated potato production systems of Idaho is widely practiced. Soil injection is the only labeled application method for 1,3-dichloropropene that is conventionally applied on a whole-field basis. Plant-parasitic nematode species exhibit spatially variable population densities that provide an opportunity to practice site-specific fumigation to reduce chemical usage and production costs. During 2002 to 2008, 62 fields intended for commercial potato production in eastern Idaho were sampled using a geo-referenced grid sampling system for plant-parasitic nematode population densities. In total, 4,030 grid samples were collected representing nearly 3,200 ha of commercial potato production. Collectively, 73% of the grid samples had Columbia root knot (CRN) (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) population densities below detectable levels. Site-specific fumigation is the practice of varying application rate of a fumigant based on nematode population density. In 2007, 640 ha of potato production were site-specific fumigated for CRN nematode control in eastern Idaho. On average, this practice resulted in a 30% reduction in chemical usage and production cost savings of $209/ha when 1,3-dichloropropene was used as the sole source of nematode suppression. Reductions in usage of 1,3-dichloropropene can exceed 50% if used in combination with a nonfumigant nematicide such as oxamyl. This combination approach can have production cost savings exceeding $200/ha. Based on farm-gate receipts and USDA inspections provided by potato producers from 2001 to 2011, potato tuber yield and quality have not been adversely affected using site-specific fumigation.
PMCID: PMC3792838  PMID: 24115785
Columbia root-knot nematode; 1,3-dichloropropene; management; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; oxamyl; potato; site-specific precision agriculture; spatial distribution; technique
16.  Nematodes Parasitic on Forest Trees: III. Reproduction on Selected Hardwoods 
Journal of Nematology  1971;3(2):170-173.
The host-parasite relationships of 13 species of plant parasitic nematodes and five species of hardwoods native to the southeastern United States were tested on greenhouse-grown tree seedlings for 6-10 months. Criteria for parasitism were completion o f life cycle and population increase of nematodes. Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Scutellonema brachyurum and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni parasitized and reproduced on three or more of the species tested. Hoplolaimus galeatus and Pratylenchus brachyurus parasitized two species, Trichodorus christiei and Criconemoides xenoplax parasitized only red maple. Meloidogyne javanica/Liriodendron tulipifera combination was the only positive root-knot nematode/hardwood host-parasite relationship. Hemicycliophora silvestris, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. hapla were not parasites of the tree species tested.
PMCID: PMC2619869  PMID: 19322363
Host-parasite relations; Liquidambar styraciflua; Acer rubrum; Liriodendron tulipifera; Platanus occidentalis; Populus heterophylla
17.  Effects of Belonolaimus longicaudatus Management and Nitrogen Fertility on Turf Quality of Golf Course Fairways 
Journal of nematology  2007;39(1):62-66.
Field experiments evaluated the effects of nematicide and fertility on performance of ‘Tifway 419’ bermudagrass parasitized by the sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus). Plot treatments were nontreated or nematicide (1,3-dichloropropene) treated combined with different nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels. Effects of treatments on numbers of B. longicaudatus and turf performance were compared. Nematicide consistently reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus, but fertilizer level had no effect on B. longicaudatus. Turf performance of nematicide-treated plots was improved compared with nontreated plots during both experiments. Increasing N fertilizer level improved turf performance in nematicide-treated plots in some cases, but had no effect on turf performance in nontreated plots in either experiment. Results suggest that increasing N fertilizer levels may not improve turf performance at sites infested with B. longicaudatus unless nematode management tactics are effective in reducing nematode densities.
PMCID: PMC2586477  PMID: 19259477
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; fertilizer; nitrogen; sting nematode; turfgrass; management; turf quality
18.  Field Efficacy of Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):8-11.
A commercial formulation of furfural was recently launched in the United States as a turfgrass nematicide. Three field trials evaluated efficacy of this commercial formulation on dwarf bermudagrass putting greens infested primarily with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis, or both these nematodes, and in some cases with Mesocriconema ornatum or Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. In all these trials, furfural improved turf health but did not reduce population densities of B. longicaudatus, M. graminis, or the other plant-parasitic nematodes present. In two additional field trials, efficacy of furfural at increasing depths in the soil profile (0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 15 cm) against B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass was evaluated. Reduction in population density of B. longicaudatus was observed in furfural-treated plots for depths below 5 cm on several dates during both trials. However, no differences in population densities of B. longicaudatus were observed between the furfural-treated plots and the untreated control for soil depth of 0 to 5 cm during either trial. These results indicate that furfural applications can improve health of nematode-infested turf and can reduce population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in turf systems. Although the degree to which turf improvement is directly caused by nematicidal effects is still unclear, furfural does appear to be a useful nematode management tool for turf.
PMCID: PMC3957574  PMID: 24644368
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; management; Meloidogyne graminis; Mesocriconema ornatum; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
19.  Effect of Combining Soil Solarization with Certain Nematicides on Target and Nontarget Organisms and Plant Growth 
Journal of Nematology  1987;19(Annals 1):107-112.
Field experiments compared pesticidal and plant growth effects of soil solarization, alone and in combination, with overall applications of several nematicides. Nematodes, including Meloidogyne incognita J2, that were targeted for control were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by solarization, 1,3-dichloropropene (44 and 132 liter/ha), ethoprop (13.5 kg/ha), metham sodium (64 liter/ha), formaldehyde (111 liter/ha), and by solarization-nematicide combinations. Control of Pythium ultimum also was obtained by all of the treatments; however, none of the chemicals or combinations of chemicals and solarization controlled nematodes or P. ultimum significantly better than solarization alone. Numbers of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Acala SJ-2) seed-applied Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis which colonized the plant rhizosphere were not affected. Yield of carrot and survival of cotton seedlings was sometimes increased by solarization and (or) chemical treatments. No significant phytotoxicity from soil treatments was found on cotton or carrot.
PMCID: PMC2618686  PMID: 19290287
Bacillus subtilis; biological control; chemical control; Criconemella xenoplax; Daucus carota; 1,3-dichloropropene; ethoprop; formaldehyde; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; metham sodium; Pythium ultimum; ring nematode; solarization; southern root-knot nematode; Trichoderma viride
20.  Pinto Bean Yield Increased by Chemical Control of Pratylenchus spp. 
Journal of Nematology  1972;4(1):28-32.
Pinto bean yields and Pratylenchus spp. (nematode) population densities are reported for field plots pro-plant treated with nematicides in 1966 and 1968. Vidden-D (1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2-dichloropropane and related chlorinated hydrocarbons), Vortex (20% methyl isothioeyanate plus 80% chlorinated Ca-hydrocarbons), Telone PBC (80% dichloropropenes, 15% chloropicrin, and 5% propargyl bromide), Dasardt (0,0-Diethyl 0-[p-(methylsulfmyl)phenyl] phosphorothioate, and Dowfume MC-2 (98% methyl bromide plus 2% chloropierin) were used in 1966. Vorlex, Dasanit, and D-D (1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2-dichloropropane and related chlorinated hydrocarbons) were each used at two rates in 1968.
Fumigated plot yields ranged 32-56% higher than control plots in 1966 and 11-80% higher in 1968. Significant yield increases were obtained for all fumigants except Telone PBC in 1966. In 1968 significant increases were obtained from use of the high rate (374 liters/ha) of Vorlex and low rate (8.4 liters/ha) of Dasanit. There was an inverse relationship between yield and numbers of Pratylenchus spp./g root on four sampling dates in 1968. A correlation coefficient of -.39 (P ≤ 0.05) was obtained for samples taken 36 days after planting and -.52 (P ≤ 0.01) for samples taken 30 days later. There was no significant correlation between yield and numbers of Pratylenchus spp. recovered from the soil.
PMCID: PMC2619920  PMID: 19319242
Pathogenicity; Nematicides; Population dynamies; Fumigation
21.  Efficacy of Methionine Against Ectoparasitic Nematodes on Golf Course Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):217-220.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pathogens of intensely-managed turf used on golf courses. Two of these nematodes that are common in the southeastern US are Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Mesocriconema ornata. Currently, there is a lack of effective treatments that can be used to manage these important pests. Turfgrass field trials evaluated DL-methionine as a turfgrass nematicide against B. longicaudatus and M. ornata. One trial was on a bermudagrass putting green, the other was on zoysiagrass maintained under putting-green conditions. Two rates of methionine, 1120 kg/ha in a single application, and 112 kg/ha applied twice four weeks apart, were compared with untreated control and fenamiphos treatments. Measurements collected included soil nematode counts, turf density, and root lengths. In both trials, 1120 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species (P ≤ 0.1), and 112 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species after two applications. Bermudagrass turf density responded favorably to both methionine rates and root lengths were improved by the 1120 kg/ha rate. Zoysiagrass showed short-term phytotoxicity to methionine, but quickly recovered and treated plots were improved compared to the untreated controls by the end of the trial. These trials indicated that methionine has potential for development as a turfgrass nematicide, but further research is needed to determine how it can best be used.
PMCID: PMC3380498  PMID: 22736817
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; Mesocriconema ornata; nematode management; ring nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass; Zoysia; zoysiagrass
22.  The Future of Nematode Management in Cotton 
Journal of Nematology  2007;39(4):283-294.
The importance of plant-parasitic nematodes as yield-limiting pathogens of cotton has received increased recognition and attention in the United States in the recent past. This paper summarizes the remarks made during a symposium of the same title that was held in July 2007 at the joint meeting of the Society of Nematologists and the American Phytopathological Society in San Diego, California. Although several cultural practices, including crop rotation, can be effective in suppressing the populations of the important nematode pathogens of cotton, the economic realities of cotton production limit their use. The use of nematicides is also limited by issues of efficacy and economics. There is a need for development of chemistries that will address these limitations. Also needed are systems that would enable precise nematicide application in terms of rate and placement only in areas where nematode population densities warrant application. Substantial progress is being made in the identification, characterization and mapping of loci for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. These data will lead to efficient marker-assisted selection systems that will likely result in development and release of nematode-resistant cotton cultivars with superior yield potential and high fiber quality.
PMCID: PMC2586512  PMID: 19259500
23.  The Potential of Thiarubrine C as a Nematicidal Agent against Plant- parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(2):192-200.
Thiarubrine C, a polyacetylenic 1,2-dithiin isolated from the roots of Rudbeckia hirta (Asteraceae), exhibited strong nematicidal activity in in vitro and growth chamber assays. Thiarubrine C was toxic, in the absence of light, to the plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans at LC₅₀s of 12.4 ppm and 23.5 ppm, respectively. A minimum exposure time between 12 and 24 hours was the critical period for nematode mortality due to thiarubrine C. Although thiarubrine C was not totally dependent on light for toxicity, activity was enhanced in the presence of light, especially with the microbivorous nematode, Teratorhabditis dentifera. Upon exposure of M. incognita juveniles to 20 ppm thiarubrine C for 1 hour, infection of tomato plants was greatly reduced compared to untreated checks. Thiarubrine C was also effective in reducing plant infection when mixed with soil 24 hours prior to or at planting, unlike other related compounds such as δ-terthienyl.
PMCID: PMC2620291  PMID: 19274210
assay; control; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicidal agent; plant extract; plant-parasitic nematodes; Pratylenchus penetrans; Rudbeckia hirta; Teraterhabditis dentifera; thiarubrine C
24.  Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants 
Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2006.B0873
PMCID: PMC1635810  PMID: 17048300
Management; Bioagents; Vegetables; Oilseed cake; Nematicides
25.  Alternate row placement is ineffective for cultural control of Meloidogyne incognita in cotton 
Journal of Nematology  2008;40(3):197-200.
The objective of this study was to determine if planting cotton into the space between the previous year's rows reduces crop loss due to Meloidogyne incognita compared to planting in the same row every year. Row placement had a significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on nematode population levels only on 8 July 2005. Plots receiving 1,3-dichloropropene plus aldicarb had lower nematode population levels than non-fumigated plots on 24 May and 8 July in 2005, but not in 2004. The effect of nematicide treatment on nematode populations was not affected by row placement. Row placement did not have a significant effect on root galling or yield in 2004 or 2005. Nematicide treatment decreased root galling in all years, and the decrease was not influenced by row placement. Yield was increased by nematicide application in 2004 and 2005, and the increase was not affected by row placement. Percentage yield loss was not affected by row placement. Changing the placement of rows reduced nematode population levels only on one sampling date in one year, but end-of-season root galling and lint yield were not affected by changing the placement of rows, nor was the effect of fumigation on yield influenced by row placement. Therefore, row placement is unlikely to contribute to M. incognita management in cotton.
PMCID: PMC2664669  PMID: 19440259
cotton; cultural control; Gossypium hirsutum; nematode management; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; row placement

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