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1.  Responses of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita to Green Manures and Supplemental Urea in Glasshouse Culture 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):648-654.
The recent loss of many effective nematicides has led to renewed interest in alternative methods of nematode management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rapeseed and velvetbean green manures, and supplemental urea, on the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita. Green manures were incorporated with M. arenaria-infested soil using rates totaling 200,300, and 400 mg N/kg soil. Squash plants grown in this soil were evaluated using a gall index and plant dry weight. A second experiment tested ratios of rapeseed green manure to urea resulting in rates of 50, 100, and 150 mg N/kg soil on viability ofM. incognita eggs and degree of galling on squash test plants. A third experiment examined combinations of velvetbean green manure and urea resulting in rates of 100, 200, and 300 mg N/kg soil on viability of M. incognita eggs. When applied at rates of 200, 300, and 400 mg N/kg soil, rapeseed green manure was more effective than velvetbean green manure at reducing galling of squash roots caused by M. arenaria. Decreased viability of M. incognita eggs was observed from treatments that received rates ≥ 1200 mg N/kg soil with higher percentages of N from urea.
PMCID: PMC2619734  PMID: 19277190
alginate; ammonia; Brassica napus; Cucurbita pepo; green manure; Meloidoyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Mucuna deeringiana; nitrogen; organic amendment; rapeseed; root-knot nematode; squash; velvetbean
2.  Site-Specific Management of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Idaho Potatoes Using 1,3-Dichloropropene; Approach, Experiences, and Economics 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):202-213.
Fumigation for nematode management in irrigated potato production systems of Idaho is widely practiced. Soil injection is the only labeled application method for 1,3-dichloropropene that is conventionally applied on a whole-field basis. Plant-parasitic nematode species exhibit spatially variable population densities that provide an opportunity to practice site-specific fumigation to reduce chemical usage and production costs. During 2002 to 2008, 62 fields intended for commercial potato production in eastern Idaho were sampled using a geo-referenced grid sampling system for plant-parasitic nematode population densities. In total, 4,030 grid samples were collected representing nearly 3,200 ha of commercial potato production. Collectively, 73% of the grid samples had Columbia root knot (CRN) (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) population densities below detectable levels. Site-specific fumigation is the practice of varying application rate of a fumigant based on nematode population density. In 2007, 640 ha of potato production were site-specific fumigated for CRN nematode control in eastern Idaho. On average, this practice resulted in a 30% reduction in chemical usage and production cost savings of $209/ha when 1,3-dichloropropene was used as the sole source of nematode suppression. Reductions in usage of 1,3-dichloropropene can exceed 50% if used in combination with a nonfumigant nematicide such as oxamyl. This combination approach can have production cost savings exceeding $200/ha. Based on farm-gate receipts and USDA inspections provided by potato producers from 2001 to 2011, potato tuber yield and quality have not been adversely affected using site-specific fumigation.
PMCID: PMC3792838  PMID: 24115785
Columbia root-knot nematode; 1,3-dichloropropene; management; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; oxamyl; potato; site-specific precision agriculture; spatial distribution; technique
3.  Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):207-213.
Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil.
PMCID: PMC2620958  PMID: 19262862
forage production; host-parasite interaction; manure; nematode ecology; nematode suppression
4.  Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Tissue, Incorporated at Different Depths in a Soil Column, on Meloidogyne incognita  
Journal of nematology  2007;39(2):111-117.
Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended with broccoli tissue, which was mixed throughout the tube or concentrated in a 10-cm layer. After three weeks at 28°C, M. incognita populations in the amended tubes were 57 to 80% smaller than in non-amended tubes. Mixing broccoli throughout the tubes reduced M. incognita more than concentrating broccoli in a 10-cm layer. Amending a 10-cm layer reduced M. incognita in the non-amended layers of those tubes by 31 to 71%, probably due to a nematicidal effect of released volatiles. However, the localized direct effect was much stronger than the indirect effect of volatiles. The strong direct effect may have resulted from the release of non-volatile nematicidal compounds. Therefore, when using biofumigation with broccoli to control M. incognita, the tissue should be thoroughly and evenly mixed through the soil layer(s) where the target nematodes occur. Effects on saprophytic nematodes were the reverse. Amended soil layers had much greater numbers of saprophytic nematodes than non-amended layers, and there was no indirect effect of amendments on saprophytic nematodes in adjacent non-amended layers.
PMCID: PMC2586485  PMID: 19259479
amendment; biofumigation; broccoli; Brassica oleracea; management; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; soil
5.  Control of Paratrichodorus allius and Corky Ringspot Disease of Potato in the Columbia Basin of Oregon 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(4S):566-575.
Corky ringspot disease (CRS) of potato, caused by tobacco rattle virus that is vectored by stubby-root nematodes (Paratrichodorus spp.), is often controlled by aldicarb. When use of aldicarb on potato was suspended in 1989, an increase in crops rejected due to CRS in the Columbia Basin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest occurred. During 1992-94, several fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides were tested alone and in combination for control of P. allius and CRS. Aldicarb alone significantly reduced CRS but not to acceptable levels. Metam sodium or ethoprop alone did not control CRS, but metam sodium plus ethoprop provided adequate control under light disease pressure. Two or three postemergence applications of oxamyl, either with or without metham sodium, appeared to control CRS at low pressure. Fosthiazate reduced CRS incidence when used alone but not in combination with metam sodium. At low P. allius population densities, 1,3 dichloropropene (1,3-D) controlled CRS at 94 liters/ha, and rates of 140 liters/ha or greater were adequate at higher population densities. Treatment with 1,3-D plus chloropicrin was no better than 1,3-D alone and did not always control CRS. Combinations of 1,3-D at 94 liters/ha or greater plus metam sodium at 374 liters/ha or greater controlled CRS. Paratrichodorus allius numbers were higher and severity of CRS greater after wheat than after field corn, but P. allius declined rapidly after potato was planted and remained at low levels until harvest.
PMCID: PMC2620489  PMID: 19271011
1,3-dichloropropene; aldicarb; chloropicrin; corky ringspot; ethoprop; fosthiazate; fumigants; metam sodium; nematicides; oxamyl; Paratrichodorus; potato; stubby-root nematode; tobacco rattle virus
6.  Control of Paratrichodorus allius and Corky Ringspot Disease in Potato with Shank-injected Metam Sodium 
Journal of nematology  2007;39(3):258-262.
Corky ringspot disease (CRS) of potato produces necrotic areas in tubers that are considered quality defects that can lead to crop rejection. CRS is caused by tobacco rattle virus that is vectored by stubby-root nematodes (Paratrichodorus spp., Trichodorus spp.) at very low population densities, making disease management difficult and expensive. Fumigation with metam sodium (MS) is a common practice to control soil-borne fungi and increase potato yield. MS is generally applied in water via chemigation (water-run, WR) but is ineffective at controlling CRS when WR-applied, even at high rates. Therefore, WR MS is often used in combination with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), aldicarb or oxamyl to attain adequate CRS control. Between 1996 and 2000, fields with a history of CRS were treated with WR MS, shank-injected MS, and/or 1,3-D, and tubers were evaluated for symptoms of CRS. Shank injection of MS (SH MS) at depths of 41 cm, 15 and 30 cm, or 15, 30 and 45 cm controlled CRS over 3 years of testing. All rates of 280 liters/ha or greater were effective. Shank injection of metam potassium (MP) at rates of 448 liters/ha was also effective. 1,3-D controlled CRS alone or in combination with WR or SH MS. Proper shank application of MS or MP may adequately control CRS without the additional cost of other nematicides at low (<10 P. allius/250 g soil) to moderate (10 to 30 P. allius/250 g soil) populations of the nematode vector. Although SH MS was superior to WR MS, additional research is necessary to determine if this practice would be sufficient at higher CRS disease pressure or if addition of other nematicides would be necessary.
PMCID: PMC2586497  PMID: 19259496
1,3-dichloropropene; corky ringspot; CRS; fumigants; metam potassium; metam sodium; nematicides; Paratrichodorus allius; potato; stubby-root nematode; tobacco rattle virus; TRV
7.  Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(4):329-336.
In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control.
PMCID: PMC3592367  PMID: 23482503
fermented animal manure; nematode trophic groups; nitrogen amendments; phytoparasitic nematodes; sawdust
8.  Nematicidal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Root-knot Nematode in Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(3):261-266.
Certain nematodes are common soilborne organisms found in turfgrass in the United States that cause significant economic damage to golf course turf. One of the most prevalent plant-parasitic nematodes infesting turfgrass are root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Chemical treatment options for root-knot nematodes in turfgrass are limited, and there is a need for new nematicidal active ingredients to address this problem. In this study, we evaluated the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a potential nematicide in laboratory and field experiments. AgNP was synthesized by a redox reaction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride using 0.2% starch as a stabilizer. When J2 of M. incognita were exposed to AgNP in water at 30 to 150 μg/ml, >99% nematodes became inactive in 6 hr. When turfgrass and soil composite samples infested with M. graminis were treated with 150 μg/ml AgNP, J2 were reduced in the soil samples by 92% and 82% after 4- and 2-d exposures, respectively, in the treated compared to the nontreated soil samples. Field trials evaluating AgNP were conducted on a bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) putting green infested with M. graminis. Biweekly application of 90.4 mg/m2 of AgNP improved turfgrass quality in one year and reduced gall formation in the roots in two years without phytotoxicity. The AgNP application did not significantly reduce the number of M. graminis J2 in plots during the growing season. The laboratory assays attested to the nematicidal effect of AgNP, and the field evaluation demonstrated its benefits for mitigating damage caused by root-knot nematode in bermudagrass.
PMCID: PMC4176408  PMID: 25275999
bermudagrass; management; Meloidogyne; nematicide; root-knot nematode; silver nanoparticle; turfgrass
9.  Allelopathy in the Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(1):8-14.
There are numerous reports of nematicidal chemicals in crude plant homogenates, leachates, and decomposing residues. These compounds are usually assumed to be secondary metabolites, which serve as chemical defenses against disease and parasites. When such compounds are released into the rhizosphere, they are known as allelochemicals. The possibility exists to exploit allelochemicals for nematode control, and there have been many attempts to use this approach either by rotation, intercropping, or green manure treatments. Results have met with mixed success. Proof of allelochemical activity in field situations is difficult to obtain, but it is evident that some rotation crops are significantly better at reducing nematode populations than others. Rotations with non-host plants may simply deny the nematode population an adequate food source for reproduction (passive suppression), whereas allelopathic crops kill nematodes by the production of toxic compounds (active suppression). Progress toward sustainable agriculture should benefit from studies on allelopathic nematode control. However, grower acceptance of new plant-rotation strategies are based on economic and logistical considerations as well as efficacy. A potential practical application of allelopathic nematode control that involves using rapeseed as a green manure crop to reduce populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in temperate orchards is presented.
PMCID: PMC2619676  PMID: 19277340
allelopathy; amendment; Brassica; glucosinolate; green manure; isothiocyanate; management; nematode; rapeseed; rotation; thioglucosidase; Xiphinema
10.  Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):289-293.
A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels.
PMCID: PMC2620642  PMID: 19262763
bacterial-feeding nematodes; barley; beef manure; clover cyst nematode; compost; cull potato; Diplogaster lheritieri; Heterodera trifolii; potato; root-knot nematode; root-lesion nematode; sawdust
11.  Soil Organic Matter and Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(4):289-295.
Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops.
PMCID: PMC2620584  PMID: 19265946
cover crops; crop rotation; green manure; nematode control
12.  Efficacy of Methionine Against Ectoparasitic Nematodes on Golf Course Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):217-220.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pathogens of intensely-managed turf used on golf courses. Two of these nematodes that are common in the southeastern US are Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Mesocriconema ornata. Currently, there is a lack of effective treatments that can be used to manage these important pests. Turfgrass field trials evaluated DL-methionine as a turfgrass nematicide against B. longicaudatus and M. ornata. One trial was on a bermudagrass putting green, the other was on zoysiagrass maintained under putting-green conditions. Two rates of methionine, 1120 kg/ha in a single application, and 112 kg/ha applied twice four weeks apart, were compared with untreated control and fenamiphos treatments. Measurements collected included soil nematode counts, turf density, and root lengths. In both trials, 1120 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species (P ≤ 0.1), and 112 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species after two applications. Bermudagrass turf density responded favorably to both methionine rates and root lengths were improved by the 1120 kg/ha rate. Zoysiagrass showed short-term phytotoxicity to methionine, but quickly recovered and treated plots were improved compared to the untreated controls by the end of the trial. These trials indicated that methionine has potential for development as a turfgrass nematicide, but further research is needed to determine how it can best be used.
PMCID: PMC3380498  PMID: 22736817
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; Mesocriconema ornata; nematode management; ring nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass; Zoysia; zoysiagrass
13.  Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon 
Journal of Nematology  2015;47(3):207-213.
Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 to 3 × 105 endospores/cm3 of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber.
PMCID: PMC4612191  PMID: 26527842
Antirrhinum majus; biological control; Cucumis sativus; cucumber; Meloidogyne; Pasteuria penetrans; Solanum lycopersicum; root-knot nematodes; snapdragon; tomato
14.  Analysis of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Control of Meloidogyne spp. in a Tobacco Pest Management System 
Journal of Nematology  2001;33(4S):325-331.
1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) and nonfumigant nematicides were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne spp. and soil and foliar insects in a tobacco pest management system. In a field with a high Meloidogyne spp. population density (root gall index 4.0 to 4.5 on a 0 to 10 scale in untreated controls), tobacco yields and crop values increased (482 kg/ha and $1,784/ha for 1, 3-D; 326 kg/ha and $1,206/ha for fenamiphos; 252 kg/ha and $933/ha for ethoprop) with nematicide application over an untreated control. In fields with a low population density of Meloidogyne arenaria or M. incognita (root gall index 2.3 to 2.5 in untreated controls), yields ranged from 1,714 to 2,027 kg/ha and were not altered by fumigant or nonfumigant nematicide application. Carbofuran, a soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticide, reduced the number of foliar insecticide applications required to keep insect populations below treatment threshold (3.8 vs. 4.5, respectively, for treated vs. untreated). Carbofuran reduced the cost ($23/ha) of foliar insecticide treatments when compared to an untreated control. Although nonfumigant nematicides provided some soil and foliar insect control, the cost of using a fumigant plus a lower insecticidal rate of a soil insecticide/nematicide was comparable to the least expensive non-fumigant nematicide when the cost of foliar insecticide applications was included in the cost estimates. Savings in foliar insecticide cost by use of soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticides were small ($23/ha) in comparison to potential value reductions by root-knot nematodes when the nonfumigant nematicides fenamiphos or ethoprop ($578/ha and $851/ha, respectively) were used instead of 1,3-D.
PMCID: PMC2620522  PMID: 19265897
1,3-dichloropropene; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; nematicide; nematode management systems; Nicotiana tabacum; root-knot nematode; tobacco
15.  Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:35334.
Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha−1·yr−1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha−1·yr−1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg−1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems.
PMCID: PMC5062124  PMID: 27734955
16.  Effect of Tillage and Crop Residue Management on Nematode Densities on Corn 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):669-674.
Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P ≤ 0.10) only in one experiment for Paratrichodorus minor and two experiments for Pratylenchus spp. Compared with other treatments, fallow reduced (P ≤ 0.05) Pi of P. minor in two of three cases and Pf of Meloidogyne incognita in one of five sites, but enhanced soil Pf of Pratylenchus spp. in three of five sites. Tillage practices and management of cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.
PMCID: PMC2619568  PMID: 19279946
corn; Criconemella spp.; cover crop; cropping system; green manure; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; organic amendment; Paratrichodorus minor; Pratylenchus spp.; sustainable agriculture; tillage; Zea mays
17.  flp-32 Ligand/Receptor Silencing Phenocopy Faster Plant Pathogenic Nematodes 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(2):e1003169.
Restrictions on nematicide usage underscore the need for novel control strategies for plant pathogenic nematodes such as Globodera pallida (potato cyst nematode) that impose a significant economic burden on plant cultivation activities. The nematode neuropeptide signalling system is an attractive resource for novel control targets as it plays a critical role in sensory and motor functions. The FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) form the largest and most diverse family of neuropeptides in invertebrates, and are structurally conserved across nematode species, highlighting the utility of the FLPergic system as a broad-spectrum control target. flp-32 is expressed widely across nematode species. This study investigates the role of flp-32 in G. pallida and shows that: (i) Gp-flp-32 encodes the peptide AMRNALVRFamide; (ii) Gp-flp-32 is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cord of G. pallida; (iii) migration rate increases in Gp-flp-32-silenced worms; (iv) the ability of G. pallida to infect potato plant root systems is enhanced in Gp-flp-32-silenced worms; (v) a novel putative Gp-flp-32 receptor (Gp-flp-32R) is expressed in G. pallida; and, (vi) Gp-flp-32R-silenced worms also display an increase in migration rate. This work demonstrates that Gp-flp-32 plays an intrinsic role in the modulation of locomotory behaviour in G. pallida and putatively interacts with at least one novel G-protein coupled receptor (Gp-flp-32R). This is the first functional characterisation of a parasitic nematode FLP-GPCR.
Author Summary
Plant pathogenic nematodes compromise plant health and productivity globally and are an increasing problem due to the lack of efficient control measures. The nematode nervous system depends heavily on small proteins (neuropeptides) for communication between nerve cells and other nerve cells or other cell types. The disruption of neuropeptide signalling would dysregulate normal behaviour, offering an attractive approach to parasite control. One major group of nematode neuropeptides are the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) that alter nematode behaviour by acting on receptors designated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are attractive targets based on their potential ‘druggability;″ indeed they are targets for many human medicines. This study investigates the functional biology of flp-32, a commonly expressed nematode flp, and a novel FLP-32 receptor in a plant pathogenic nematode of major agricultural importance, Globodera pallida. We show that FLP-32 occurs widely in these parasites and interacts with a novel FLP-32 receptor to modulate their behaviour, affecting their movement and the rate at which they infect host plants. These data indicate that chemicals that activate the FLP-32 receptor in these parasites could effectively slow the worms, potentially making them less successful parasites. The conservation of the FLP-32 ligand and receptor across many different nematode parasites adds to its appeal as a potential target for broad-spectrum parasite control.
PMCID: PMC3585147  PMID: 23468621
18.  Variable Rate Application of Nematicides on Cotton Fields: A Promising Site-Specific Management Strategy 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(1):31-39.
Field tests were conducted to determine if differences in response to nematicide application (i.e., root-knot nematode (RKN) populations, cotton yield, and profitability) occurred among RKN management zones (MZ). The MZ were delineated using fuzzy clustering of five terrain (TR) and edaphic (ED) field features related to soil texture: apparent soil electrical conductivity shallow (ECa-shallow) and deep (ECa-deep), elevation (EL), slope (SL), and changes in bare soil reflectance. Zones with lowest mean values of ECa- shallow, ECa- deep, NDVI, and SL were designated as at greater risk for high RKN levels. Nematicide-treated plots (4 rows wide and 30 m long) were established in a randomized complete block design within each zone, but the number of replications in each zone varied from four to six depending on the size of the zone.The nematicides aldicarb (Temik 15 G) and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D,Telone II) were applied at two rates (0.51 and 1.0 kg a.i./ha for aldicarb, and 33.1 and 66.2 kg a.i./ha for 1,3-D) to RKN MZ in commercial fields between 2007 and 2009. A consolidated analysis over the entire season showed that regardless of the zone, there were not differences between aldicarb rates and 1,3-D rates. The result across zones showed that 1,3-D provided better RKN control than did aldicarb in zones with low ECa values (high RKN risk zones exhibiting more coarse-textured sandy soils). In contrast, in low risk zones with relatively higher ECa values (heavier textured soil), the effects of 1,3-D and aldicarb were equal and application of any of the treatments provided sufficient control. In low RKN risk zones, a farmer would often have lost money if a high rate of 1,3-D was applied. This study showed that the effect of nematicide type and rate on RKN control and cotton yield varied across management zones (MZ) with the most expensive treatment likely to provide economic benefit only in zones with coarser soil texture. This study demonstrates the value of site specific application of nematicides based on management zones, although this approach might not be economically beneficial in fields with little variability in soil texture.
PMCID: PMC3593262  PMID: 23482903
1,3-dichloropropene; aldicarb; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; management zones; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; precision agriculture; variable rate application
19.  Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Chemicals and Cultivars in Cotton in a Semi-Arid Environment 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(2):101-107.
Management of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) in cotton in the United States was substantially affected by the decision to stop production of aldicarb by its principle manufacturer in 2011. The remaining commercially available tools to manage M. incognita included soil fumigation, nematicide seed treatments, postemergence nematicide application, and cultivars partially resistant to M. incognita. Small plot field studies were conducted on a total of nine sites from 2011–2013 to examine the effects of each of these tools alone or in combinations, on early season galling, late-season nematode density in soil, yield, and value ($/ha = lint value minus chemical costs/ha). The use of a partially resistant cultivar resulted in fewer galls/root system at 35 d after planting in eight of nine tests, lower root-knot nematode density late in the growing season for all test sites, higher lint yield in eight of nine sites, and higher value/ha in six of nine sites. Galls per root were reduced by aldicarb in three of nine sites and by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in two of eight sites, relative to the nontreated control (no insecticide or nematicide treatment). Soil fumigation reduced M. incognita density late in the season in three of nine sites. Value/ha was not affected by chemical treatment in four of nine sites, but there was a cultivar × chemical interaction in four of nine sites. When value/ha was affected by chemical treatment, the nontreated control had a similar value to the treatment with the highest value/ha in seven of eight cultivar-site combinations. The next “best” value/ha were associated with seed treatment insecticide (STI) + oxamyl and aldicarb (similar value to the highest value/ha in six of eight cultivar-site combinations). The lowest valued treatment was STI + 1,3-D. In a semi-arid region, where rainfall was low during the spring for all three years, cultivars with partial resistance to M. incognita was the most profitable method of managing root-knot nematode in cotton.
PMCID: PMC4077170  PMID: 24987161
abamectin; aldicarb; oxamyl; resistance; root-knot nematode; 1,3-dichloropropene
20.  Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):221-227.
Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus ‘Sunrise’ was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’, for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source of brassicaceous seed meal for plant-parasitic nematode management.
PMCID: PMC3380494  PMID: 22736818
amendment; isothiocyanate; glucosinolate; Pratylenchus penetrans; Meloidogyne incognita; brassica; seed meal
21.  Evaluation of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Biocontrol Agent of Meloidogyne javanica on Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(4):578-584.
The efficacy of the nematode parasite Paecilomyces lilacinus, alone and in combination with phenamiphos and ethoprop, for controlling the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tobacco and the ability of this fungus to colonize in soil under field conditions were evaluated for 2 years in microplots. Combinations and individual treatments of the fungus grown on autoclaved wheat seed, M. javanica eggs (76,000 per plot), and nematicides were applied to specified microplots at the time of transplanting tobacco the first year. Vetch was planted as a winter cover crop, and the fungus and nematicides were applied again the second year to specified plots at transplanting time. The fungus did not control the nematode in either year of these experiments. The average root-gall index (0 = no visible galls and 5 = > 100 galls per root system) ranged from 2.7 to 3.9 the first year and from 4.3 to 5.0 the second in nematode-infested plots treated with nematicides. Plants with M. javanica alone or in combination with P. lilacinus had galling indices of 5.0 both years; the latter produced lower yields than all other treatments during both years of the study. Nevertheless, the average soil population densities of P. lilacinus remained high, ranging from 1.2 to 1.3 × 106 propagules/g soil 1 week after the initial inoculation and from 1.6 to 2.3 × 104 propagules/g soil at harvest the second year. At harvest the second year the density of fungal propagules was greatest at the depth of inoculation, 15 cm, and rapidly decreased below this level.
PMCID: PMC2618854  PMID: 19290257
biocontrol; ethoprop; 1,3-dichloropropene; fenamiphos; fungal egg parasite; Meloidogyne javanica; nematicide; Nicotiana tabacum; Paecilomyces lilacinus; root-knot nematode; tobacco; vetch; Vicia vilIosa
22.  Field Efficacy of Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):8-11.
A commercial formulation of furfural was recently launched in the United States as a turfgrass nematicide. Three field trials evaluated efficacy of this commercial formulation on dwarf bermudagrass putting greens infested primarily with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis, or both these nematodes, and in some cases with Mesocriconema ornatum or Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. In all these trials, furfural improved turf health but did not reduce population densities of B. longicaudatus, M. graminis, or the other plant-parasitic nematodes present. In two additional field trials, efficacy of furfural at increasing depths in the soil profile (0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 15 cm) against B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass was evaluated. Reduction in population density of B. longicaudatus was observed in furfural-treated plots for depths below 5 cm on several dates during both trials. However, no differences in population densities of B. longicaudatus were observed between the furfural-treated plots and the untreated control for soil depth of 0 to 5 cm during either trial. These results indicate that furfural applications can improve health of nematode-infested turf and can reduce population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in turf systems. Although the degree to which turf improvement is directly caused by nematicidal effects is still unclear, furfural does appear to be a useful nematode management tool for turf.
PMCID: PMC3957574  PMID: 24644368
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; management; Meloidogyne graminis; Mesocriconema ornatum; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
23.  Suppression of Root-knot Nematode Populations with Selected Rapeseed Cultivars as Green Manure 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(2):170-174.
Meloidogyne chitwoodi races 1 and 2 and M. hapla reproduced on 12 cultivars of Brassica napus and two cultivars of B. campestris. The mean reproductive factors (Rf), Rf = Pf at 55 days ÷ 5,000, for the three nematodes were 8.3, 2.2, and 14.3, respectively. All three nematodes reproduced more efficiently (P < 0.05) on B. campestris than on B. napus. Amending M. chitwoodi-infested soil in plastic bags with chopped shoots of Jupiter rapeseed reduced the nematode population more (P < 0.05) than amendment with wheat shoots. Incorporating Jupiter shoots to soil heavily infested with M. chitwoodi in microplots reduced the nematode population more (P < 0.05) than fallow or corn shoot treatments. The greatest reduction in nematode population density was attained by cropping rapeseed for 2 months and incorporating it into the soil as a green manure.
PMCID: PMC2619149  PMID: 19283108
Brassica spp.; canola; Columbia root-knot nematode; glucosinolate; host suitability test; Meloidogyne chitwoodi; M. hapla; nematicide; Northern root-knot nematode; organic amendment; reproductive factor
24.  Using C. elegans Forward and Reverse Genetics to Identify New Compounds with Anthelmintic Activity 
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  2016;10(10):e0005058.
The lack of new anthelmintic agents is of growing concern because it affects human health and our food supply, as both livestock and plants are affected. Two principal factors contribute to this problem. First, nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs is increasing worldwide and second, many effective nematicides pose environmental hazards. In this paper we address this problem by deploying a high throughput screening platform for anthelmintic drug discovery using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for infectious nematodes. This method offers the possibility of identifying new anthelmintics in a cost-effective and timely manner.
Methods/Principal findings
Using our high throughput screening platform we have identified 14 new potential anthelmintics by screening more than 26,000 compounds from the Chembridge and Maybridge chemical libraries. Using phylogenetic profiling we identified a subset of the 14 compounds as potential anthelmintics based on the relative sensitivity of C. elegans when compared to yeast and mammalian cells in culture. We showed that a subset of these compounds might employ mechanisms distinct from currently used anthelmintics by testing diverse drug resistant strains of C. elegans. One of these newly identified compounds targets mitochondrial complex II, and we used structural analysis of the target to suggest how differential binding of this compound may account for its different effects in nematodes versus mammalian cells.
The challenge of anthelmintic drug discovery is exacerbated by several factors; including, 1) the biochemical similarity between host and parasite genomes, 2) the geographic location of parasitic nematodes and 3) the rapid development of resistance. Accordingly, an approach that can screen large compound collections rapidly is required. C. elegans as a surrogate parasite offers the ability to screen compounds rapidly and, equally importantly, with specificity, thus reducing the potential toxicity of these compounds to the host and the environment. We believe this approach will help to replenish the pipeline of potential nematicides.
Author Summary
With over two billion people infected and many billions of dollars of lost crops annually, nematode infections are a serious problem for human health and for agricultural production. While there are drugs to treat infections, many pockets of parasites have been identified worldwide that are developing immunity to the standard treatment regimen. In this study we describe a strategy using the model organism C. elegans as a surrogate parasite to identify several new chemical compounds that may offer additional treatments for infection. We demonstrate how to use our platform to identify compounds that are specific in their effect to nematodes and are not simply biocides. We also show through genetic and molecular analysis in this organism that we can quickly identify the mode of action of any new compound. Most critically, we show that a compound first identified in a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, is also effective on a parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne hapla. With this result and considering the level of sequence conservation across much of the nematode phyla we believe our strategy can be more widely applied to find new anthelmintics.
PMCID: PMC5068747  PMID: 27755544
25.  Host-Parasite Relationship of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Potato 
Journal of Nematology  1985;17(4):395-399.
The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene gave good to excellent control of the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, on potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Nonfumigant nematicides (aldicarb, fensulfothion, carbofuran, ethoprop, and phenamiphos) were less effective in controlling M. chitwoodi, since the nematode affects tuber quality more than quantity. Soil temperature during the growing season affected parasitism of M. chitwoodi on potato more than did the initial nematode population. There were positive linear correlations between degree-days and infected and galled tubers (r = 0.92), degree-days and nematode generations (r = 1.00), and infected and galled tubers and nematode generations (r = 0.91). Differences in degree-days and resultant nematode reproduction caused great variability in infection and galling of potato tubers during four growing seasons: 89% for 1979, 0% for 1980, 13% for 1981, and 18% for 1982, giving positive linear correlation (r = 0.99) between final nematode soil population (Pf) and percentage of infected and galled tubers. Corresponding increases in the soil populations of second-stage juveniles (J2) during the growing season were 9,700% in 1979, 170% in 1980,552% in 1981, and 326% in 1982. There was a negative linear correlation (r = -0.87) between initial soil J2 populations (Pi) and the degree of parasitism (infection and galling) of potato tubers, Pi being of secondary importance to degree-days.
PMCID: PMC2618474  PMID: 19294115
Columbia root-knot nematode; Solanum tuberosum; soil temperature; reproduction; generations; degree-days; chemicals; population densities; control

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