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1.  Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica by Pasteuria penetrans in Field Soil 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(1):43-49.
The role of Pasteuria penetrans in suppressing numbers of root-knot nematodes was investigated in a 7-year monocuhure of tobacco in a field naturally infested with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica. The suppressiveness of the soil was tested using four treatments: autoclaving (AC), microwaving (MW), air drying (DR), and untreated. The treated soil bioassays consisted of tobacco cv. Northrup King 326 (resistant to M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica) and cv. Coker 371 Gold (susceptible to M. incognita and M. javanica) in pots inoculated with 0 or 2,000 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita race 1. Endospores of P. penetrans were killed by AC but were only slightly affected by MW, whereas most fungal propagules were destroyed or inhibited in both treatments. Root galls, egg masses, and numbers of eggs were fewer on Coker 371 Gold in MW, DR, and untreated soil than in AC-treated soil. There were fewer egg masses than root galls on both tobacco cultivars in MW, DR, and untreated soil than in the AC treatment. Because both Meloidogyne spp. were suppressed in MW soil (with few fungi present) as well as in DR and untreated soil, the reduction in root galling, as well as numbers of egg masses and eggs appeared to have resulted from infection of both nematode species by P. penetrans.
PMCID: PMC2619665  PMID: 19277344
bacterium; biological control; Meloidogyne incognita; M. javanica; nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; Pasteuria penetrans; root-knot nematode; suppressive soil; tobacco
2.  RKN Lethal DB: A database for the identification of Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) candidate lethal genes 
Bioinformation  2012;8(19):950-952.
Root Knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the most devastating parasites that infect the roots of hundreds of plant species. RKN cannot live independently from their hosts and are the biggest contributors to the loss of the world's primary foods. RNAi gene silencing studies have demonstrated that there are fewer galls and galls are smaller when RNAi constructs targeted to silence certain RKN genes are expressed in plant roots. We conducted a comparative genomics analysis, comparing RKN genes of six species: Meloidogyne Arenaria, Meloidogyne Chitwoodi, Meloidogyne Hapla, Meloidogyne Incognita, Meloidogyne Javanica, and Meloidogyne Paranaensis to that of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, to identify candidate genes that will be lethal to RKN when silenced or mutated. Our analysis yielded a number of such candidate lethal genes in RKN, some of which have been tested and proven to be effective in soybean roots. A web based database was built to house and allow scientists to search the data. This database will be useful to scientists seeking to identify candidate genes as targets for gene silencing to confer resistance in plants to RKN.
The database can be accessed from
PMCID: PMC3488838  PMID: 23144556
RKN; Meloidogyne; web based database; RNAi; C. elegans
3.  Host suitability of Ixora spp. for the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 and M. javanica 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):722-728.
Eight commonly cultivated Ixora species or cultivars were tested for their suitability as hosts and their level of tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica in a greenhouse study. Twenty weeks postinoculation with 5,000 eggs per pot, M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of all eight Ixora species or cultivars tested. However, only M. javanica-infected 'Petite Yellow' and 'Maui' had decreases (P ≤ 0.05) in root wet weights, suggesting that the other cultivars were more tolerant to these root-knot nematode species. Differential host suitability to each Meloidogyne species was based on the relative number of galls, galls per gram root weight, egg masses, and second-stage juveniles produced per plant. 'Bonnie Lynn,' 'Maui,' and 'Petite Red' were good to excellent hosts for both Meloidogyne spp. Ixora coccinea was a good host for M. incognita race 1 but less suitable for M. javanica. 'Singapore' and 'Petite Yellow' were poor hosts for M. incognita race 1 but excellent hosts for M. javanica. 'Nora Grant' and I. casei 'Super King' were poor hosts for both species of root-knot nematodes.
PMCID: PMC2629859  PMID: 19283052
host-parasite relationship; Ixora spp.; Meloidogyne incognita race 1; M. javanica; nematode; ornamental; root-knot nematode; woody ornamental
4.  Effects of Root Decay on the Relationship between Meloidogyne spp. Gall Index and Egg Mass Number in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):707-711.
A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if root necrosis had an effect on the relationship between root-knot nematode gall index and egg mass number. Thirty-four cultigens of Cucumis (14 accessions, 12 cultivars, and six breeding lines of C. sativus, and two accessions of C. metuliferus) were evaluated against four root-knot species (Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, M. incognita race 3, and M. javanica) measuring gall index, root necrosis, and egg mass number. Root necrosis affected the gall index-egg mass relationship. At lower root necrosis values, a stronger relationship existed between gall index and egg mass number than at higher root necrosis values. Root tissue was destroyed by root necrosis, and normal root-knot nematode reproduction would not occur, even though root galling was still observed. The races of M. incognita tested had a greater effect in predisposing C. sativus and C. metuliferus to root necrosis than did M. arenaria race 2 or M. javanica. This study showed that root necrosis had an adverse affect on the relationship between gall index and egg mass number in cucumber.
PMCID: PMC2629864  PMID: 19283049
African horned cucumber; cucumber; Cucumis sativus; Cucumis metuliferus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; resistance; root-knot nematode
5.  Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(3):173-178.
Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root-knot nematodes or interfere with hatching and affect their capacity to invade and develop within their roots. M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa could be used with effect to decrease a mixed field populations of root-knot nematodes.
PMCID: PMC3380490  PMID: 22736854
Crotalaria spectabilis; Crotalaria retusa; Dolichos lablab; Mucuna pruriens; Phaseolus vulgaris; nematicidal compounds; phytoalexins
6.  Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):272-278.
Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested.
PMCID: PMC3873904  PMID: 24379486
Anaerobic soil disinfestation; ASD; Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba; Canavalia ensiformis; cover crops; cowpea; Eruca sativa; Helianthus annuus; jack bean; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; mustard; pearl millet; Pennisetum glaucum; root-knot nematodes; sorghum-sudangrass; sunflower; Vigna unguiculata
7.  Phenotypic Expression of rkn1-Mediated Meloidogyne incognita Resistance in Gossypium hirsutum Populations 
Journal of nematology  2006;38(2):250-257.
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is a damaging pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) worldwide. A major gene (rkn1) conferring resistance to M. incognita was previously identified on linkage group A03 in G. hirsutum cv. Acala NemX. To determine the patterns of segregation and phenotypic expression of rkn1, F1, F2, F2:3, BC1F1 and F2:7 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from intraspecific crosses between Acala NemX and a closely related susceptible cultivar Acala SJ-2 were inoculated in greenhouse tests with M. incognita race 3. The resistance phenotype was determined by the extent of nematode-induced root galling and nematode egg production on roots. Suppression of root galling and egg production was highly correlated among individuals in all tests. Root galling and egg production on heterozygous plants did not differ from the susceptible parent phenotype 125 d or more after inoculation, but were slightly suppressed with shorter screening (60 d), indicating that rkn1 behaved as a recessive gene or an incompletely recessive gene, depending on the screening condition. In the RIL, rkn1 segregated in an expected 1 resistant: 1 susceptible ratio for a major resistance gene. However, within the resistant class, 21 out of 34 RIL were more resistant than the resistant parent Acala NemX, indicating transgressive segregation. These results suggest that rkn1-based resistance in G. hirsutum can be enhanced in progenies of crosses with susceptible genotypes. Allelism tests and molecular genetic analysis are needed to determine the relationship of rkn1 to other M. incognita resistance sources in cotton.
PMCID: PMC2586458  PMID: 19259455
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; resistance; rkn1; root-knot nematode; phenotypic expression; transgressive segregation
8.  Responses of Some Common Cruciferae to Root-knot Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4S):550-554.
Ten cultivated plants of the family Cruciferae were evaluated for susceptibility to Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. incognita races 1 and 3, and M. javanica in a series of four separate greenhouse tests. After 62-64 days, or 1,032-1,072 degree days (10 C base), several of the crops evaluated showed moderate to severe levels of galling (> 3.0 on 0-5 scale) and moderate numbers of egg masses (>2.0 on 0-5 scale) in response to each of the nematode species and races. Among the plants tested, collard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) cv. Georgia Southern was the least susceptible (fewest galls and egg masses) to each of the four nematode isolates. Similar low levels of infection were obtained with broccoli (B. oleracea var. botrytis) cv. De Cicco in response to M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria. Numbers of second-stage juveniles hatched from eggs per root system were variable in the test with M. arenaria, but lowest on collard for each of the other nematodes. Some commonly grown crucifers are hosts to several different species and races of Meloidogyne, which should be considered if these crops are included in cropping systems.
PMCID: PMC2619653  PMID: 19277321
Brassica chinensis; Brassica napus; Brassica oleracea; Brassica rapa; broccoli; cabbage; canola; cauliflower; chinese cabbage; collard; host-plant resistance; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; mustard; nematode; radish; Raphanus sativus; Sinapis alba; turnip
9.  Differential Response to Root-Knot Nematodes in Prunus Species and Correlative Genetic Implications 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(3):370-380.
Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated against one M. arenaria, one M. incognita, one M. javanica, and the Florida isolate. These 10 rootstocks plus Nemaguard and Nemared were retested by growing three different rootstock genotypes together in containers of soil infested individually with each of the above four isolates. Garfi and Garrigues almonds, GF.305 and Rutgers Red Leaf peaches, and the peach-almond GF.677 were susceptible to all isolates. Differences in resistance were detected among the other rootstocks of the subgenus Amygdalus. The peach-almond GF.557 and Summergrand peach were resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica and the Florida isolate. Nemaguard, Nemared, and its two hybrids G x N no. 15 and G x N no. 22 were resistant to all but the Florida isolate. In the subgenus Prunophora, Myrobalan plums P.1079, P.2175, P.2980, and P.2984; Marianna plum 29C; and P. insititia plum AD.101 were resistant to all isolates. Thus, two different genetic systems of RKN resistance were found in the subgenus Amygdalus: one system acting against M. arenaria and M. incognita, and another system also acting against M. javanica. Prunophora rootstocks bear a complete genetic system for resistance also acting against the Florida isolate. The hypotheses on the relationships between these systems and the corresponding putative genes of resistance are presented.
PMCID: PMC2619779  PMID: 19274170
Amygdalus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Prunophora; Prunus amygdalus; Prunus cerasifera; Prunus persica; resistance
10.  Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(2):142-147.
Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rutgers’) was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida.
PMCID: PMC3578473  PMID: 23482324
Aeschynomene americana; Amaranthus retroflexus; Cyperus esculentus; Eleusine indica; Florida; host status; nematode reproduction; Portulaca oleracea; root-knot nematodes; Solanum americanum
11.  Identification of Sources of Resistance to Four Species of Root-knot Nematodes in Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(3):272-282.
Resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3, has been identified, incorporated, and deployed into commercial cultivars of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. Cultivars with resistance to other economically important root-knot nematode species attacking tobacco, M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. javanica, and other host-specific races of M. incognita, are not available in the United States. Twenty-eight tobacco genotypes of diverse origin and two standard cultivars, NC 2326 (susceptible) and Speight G 28 (resistant to M. incognita races 1 and 3), were screened for resistance to eight root-knot nematode populations of North Carolina origin. Based on root gall indices at 8 to 12 weeks after inoculation, all genotypes except NC 2326 and Okinawa were resistant to M. arenaria race 1, and races 1 and 3 of M. incognita. Except for slight root galling, genotypes resistant to M. arenaria race 1 responded similarly to races 1 and 3 of M. incognita. All genotypes except NC 2326, Okinawa, and Speight G 28 showed resistance to M. javanica. Okinawa, while supporting lower reproduction of M. javanica than NC 2326, was rated as moderately susceptible. Tobacco breeding lines 81-R-617A, 81-RL- 2K, SA 1213, SA 1214, SA 1223, and SA 1224 were resistant to M. arenaria race 2, and thus may be used as sources of resistance to this pathogen. No resistance to M. hapla and only moderate resistance to races 2 and 4 of M. incognita were found in any of the tobacco genotypes. Under natural field infestations of M. arenaria race 2, nematode development on resistant tobacco breeding lines 81-RL-2K, SA 1214, and SA 1215 was similar to a susceptible cultivar with some nematicide treatments; however, quantity and quality of yield were inferior compared to K 326 plus nematicides.
PMCID: PMC2620380  PMID: 19270897
Javanese root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne species; nematode; resistance; southern root-knot nematode; tobacco
12.  Efficacy Evaluation of Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum and Nematicide Avermectin against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumber 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89717.
The root-knot nematode (RKN) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests.Effective biological control is need for controlling this destructive pathogen in organic farming system. During October 2010 to 2011, the nematicidal effects of the Syncephalastrum racemosum fungus and the nematicide, avermectin, alone or combined were tested against the RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) on cucumber under pot and field condition in China. Under pot conditions, the application of S. racemosum alone or combined with avermectin significantly increased the plant vigor index by 31.4% and 10.9%, respectively compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. However, treatment with avermectin alone did not significantly affect the plant vigor index. All treatments reduced the number of root galls and juvenile nematodes compared to the untreated control. Under greenhouse conditions, all treatments reduced the disease severity and enhanced fruit yield compared to the untreated control. Fewer nematodes infecting plant roots were observed after treatment with avermectin alone, S. racemosum alone or their combination compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. Among all the treatments, application of avermectin or S. racemosum combined with avermectin was more effective than the S. racemosum treatment. Our results showed that application of S. racemosum combined with avermectin not only reduced the nematode number and plant disease severity but also enhanced plant vigor and yield. The results indicated that the combination of S. racemosum with avermectin could be an effective biological component in integrated management of RKN on cucumber.
PMCID: PMC3933638  PMID: 24586982
13.  Host Suitability of Potential Cover Crops for Root-knot Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4S):619-623.
Several potential cover crops were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica in a series of five greenhouse experiments. No galls or egg masses were observed on roots of castor (Ricinus communis), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Iron Clay), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), or American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana). Occasional egg masses (rating ≤1.0 on 0-5 scale) were observed on marigold (Tagetes minuta) in one test with M. incognita, on sesame (Sesamum indicum cv. Paloma) in a test with M. arenaria, and on sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea cv. Tropic Sun) in 1 of 2 tests with M. incognita; otherwise, these crops were free of egg masses. Numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatched from eggs per root system were low (≤10/pot) for the abovementioned crops. Egg-mass levels and numbers of hatched J2 of M. incognita on pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides, Tifleaf II hybrid) were comparable to those on a susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Rutgers). In a test with M. arenaria, egg mass levels and numbers of J2 on Japanese millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) were similar to those on tomato. Japanese millet was susceptible to each of the nematode isolates tested. However, several of the crops evaluated were very poor hosts or non-hosts of the nematode isolates, including several legumes (cowpea, crotalaria, jointvetch, sunn hemp) that have potential use in both nematode and nitrogen management.
PMCID: PMC2620418  PMID: 19270926
Aeschynomene americana; castor; cowpea; Crotalaria juncea; Crotalaria spectabilis; Echinochloa frumentacea; host-plant resistance; jointvetch; marigold; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; millet; nematode; nematode management; Pennisetum glaucum; Pennisetum typhoides; Ricinus communis; sesame; Sesamum indicum; sunn hemp; sustainable agriculture; Tagetes minuta; Vigna unguiculata
14.  Effects of Irrigation, Nitrogen, and a Nematicide on Pearl Millet 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4S):571-574.
Pearl millet is used mainly as a temporary forage crop in the southern United States. A new pearl millet hybrid has potential as a major grain crop in the United States. The effects of nematodes, irrigation, a nematicide, and nitrogen rates on a new pearl millet grain hybrid, HGM-100, and nematode population changes were determined in a 2-year study. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) entered the roots of pearl millet and caused minimal galling, but produced large numbers of eggs that hatched into second-stage juveniles. Root-gall indices ranged from 1.00 to 1.07 on a 1-5 scale and were not affected by irrigation or rates of nitrogen. Yield of pearl millet was up to 31% higher under no supplemental irrigation than under irrigation, 16% higher in fenamiphos-treated plots than untreated plots, and 56% higher in plots treated with 38 kg nitrogen/ha than plots treated with 85 kg nitrogen/ha. In southern Georgia, pearl millet appears to be resistant to ring nematode (Criconemella ornata) but favors development and reproduction of M. incognita.
PMCID: PMC2619661  PMID: 19277324
chemical control; Criconemella ornata; irrigation; Meloidogyne incognita; millet; nematode; nitrogen; Pennisetum glaucum; ring nematode; root-knot nematode
15.  Nematicidal Activity of Fatty Acid Esters on Soybean Cyst and Root-knot Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(4S):677-684.
Researchers have indicated that the C₉ fatty acid, pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid), has considerable nematicidal activity that could be increased by derivitization and improved emulsification. Microemulsions of methyl and ethylene glycol esters of pelargonic acid developed by Mycogen Corporation (San Diego, CA) were tested for nematicidal activity against root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes. All treamaents were compared to a deionized water control and a microemulsion "blank" (minus active ingredient). Methyl pelargonate reduced gall numbers at concentrations ≥0.8 μl a.i./liter, and ethylene glycol pelargonate reduced gall numbers at ≥6.4 μl a.i./liter in a laboratory bioassay of Meloidogyne javanica on roots of tomato seedlings. Microscopic observation of treated M. javanica second-stage juveniles suggested that methyl pelargonate was toxic to nematodes at concentrations as low as 0.2 μl a.i./liter. Cysts of Heterodera glycines per gram of root were significantly reduced by weekly soil drenches of methyl pelargonate at 6.4, 3.2, and 1.6 μl a.i./liter compared to controls in one greenhouse experiment. Weekly soil drenches of methyl pelargonate at 4.8 or 3.2 μ1 a.i./liter also significantly reduced the number of eggs produced by M. incognita on soybean in a greenhouse test. In both greenhouse tests with soybean, rates of methyl pelargonate ≥4.8 μl a.i./liter had considerable phytotoxicity. No significant interaction of chemical treatment and different soil mixtures affected the nematode numbers produced or plant vigor observed. Soil drenches with microemulsions of methyl pelargonate at 3.2 μl a.i./liter applied weekly, or as two initial applications, were effective as a nematicide for root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes with negligible effects on plant vigor.
PMCID: PMC2619835  PMID: 19274268
fatty acid; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematicide; nonanoie acid; pelargonic acid methyl ester; pelargonic acid ethylene glycol ester; phytotoxicity; root-knot nematode; soybean cyst nematode
16.  Response of Some Common Annual Bedding Plants to Three Species of Meloidogyne 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):773-777.
Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating ≥4.2 and ≥14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Century Mix and Coleus blumei cv. Rainbow were susceptible (>1,500 eggs/plant) to all three Meloidogyne isolates. Response of Petunia x hybrida varied with cultivar and nematode isolate. Little or no galling or egg production from any Meloidogyne isolate was observed on Ageratum houstonianum cv. Blue Mink, Lobularia maritima cv. Rosie O'Day, or Tagetes patula cv. Dwarf Primrose. Galling was slight (mean rating ≤2.0) but varied with nematode species on Dianthus chinensis cv. Baby Doll Mix, Salvia splendens cv. Bonfire, and Vinca rosea cv. Little Bright Eye. Verbena × hybrida cv. Florist was heavily infected (gall rating >4.0 and ≥7,900 eggs/plant) by M. javanica and M. arenaria but was nearly free of galling from M. incognita. Zinna elegans cv. Scarlet was nearly free of galling from M. incognita and M. arenaria but was susceptible (mean gall rating = 2.9; 3,400 eggs/plant) to M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2619562  PMID: 19279963
Ageratum houstonianum; Antirrhinum majus; Celosia argentea; Coleus blumei; Dianthus chinensis; flowers; Lobularia maritima; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; ornamental; Petunia x hybrida; Salvia splendens; Tagetes patula; Verbena × hybrida; Vinca rosea; Zinnia elegans
17.  QTL Analysis for Transgressive Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode in Interspecific Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Progeny Derived from Susceptible Parents 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34874.
The southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a major soil-inhabiting plant parasite that causes significant yield losses in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Progeny from crosses between cotton genotypes susceptible to RKN produced segregants in subsequent populations which were highly resistant to this parasite. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 138 lines developed from a cross between Upland cotton TM-1 (G. hirsutum L.) and Pima 3–79 (G. barbadense L.), both susceptible to RKN, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) determining responses to RKN in greenhouse infection assays with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Compared to both parents, 53.6% and 52.1% of RILs showed less (P<0.05) root-galling index (GI) and had lower (P<0.05) nematode egg production (eggs per gram root, EGR). Highly resistant lines (transgressive segregants) were identified in this RIL population for GI and/or EGR in two greenhouse experiments. QTLs were identified using the single-marker analysis nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis test. Four major QTLs located on chromosomes 3, 4, 11, and 17 were identified to account for 8.0 to 12.3% of the phenotypic variance (R2) in root-galling. Two major QTLs accounting for 9.7% and 10.6% of EGR variance were identified on chromosomes 14 and 23 (P<0.005), respectively. In addition, 19 putative QTLs (P<0.05) accounted for 4.5–7.7% of phenotypic variance (R2) in GI, and 15 QTLs accounted for 4.2–7.3% of phenotypic variance in EGR. In lines with alleles positive for resistance contributed by both parents in combinations of two to four QTLs, dramatic reductions of >50% in both GI and EGR were observed. The transgressive segregants with epistatic effects derived from susceptible parents indicate that high levels of nematode resistance in cotton may be attained by pyramiding positive alleles using a QTL mapping approach.
PMCID: PMC3325951  PMID: 22514682
18.  Root-knot Nematode Problem of Some Winter Ornamental Plants and Its Biomanagement 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):198-206.
A microplot study under field conditions was carried out during 2 consecutive years to assess the effect of root-knot nematode infection (2,000 Meloidogyne incognita eggs/kg soil) on three winter ornamental plants: hollyhock (Althea rosea), petunia (Petunia hybrida), and poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Effects of root-dip treatment with the biocontrol agents Pochonia chlamydosporia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nematicide fenamiphos were tested. The three ornamental species were highly susceptible to M. incognita, developing 397 and 285 (hollyhock), 191 and 149 (petunia), and 155 and 131 (poppy) galls and egg masses per root system, respectively, and exhibited 37% (petunia), 29% (poppy), and 23% (hollyhock) (P = 0.05) decrease in the flower production. Application of fenamiphos, P. chlamydosporia, P. fluorescens, and B. subtilis suppressed nematode pathogenesis (galls + egg masses) by 64%, 37%, 27%, and 24%, respectively, leading to 14% to 29%, 7% to 15%, 14% to 36%, and 7% to 33% increase in the flower production of the ornamental plants, respectively. Treatment with P. fluorescens also increased the flowering of uninfected plants by 11% to 19%. Soil population of M. incognita was decreased (P = 0.05) due to various treatments from 2 months onward, being greatest with fenamiphos, followed by P. chlamydosporia, B. subtilis, and P. fluorescens. Frequency of colonization of eggs, egg masses, and females by the bioagents was greatest by P. chlamydosporia, i.e., 25% to 29%, 47% to 60%, and 36% to 41%, respectively. Colonization of egg masses by B. subtilis and P. fluorescens was 28% to 31% and 11% to 13%, respectively, but the frequency was 0.3% to 1.3% in eggs. Rhizosphere population of the bioagents was increased (P = 0.05) over time, being usually greater in the presence of nematode.
PMCID: PMC2620963  PMID: 19262861
Bacillus subtilis; biocontrol; hollyhock; Meloidogyne incognita; petunia; Pochonia chlamydosporia; poppy; Pseudomonas fluorescens; rhizosphere population
19.  The Development and Influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica on Wheat 
Journal of Nematology  1981;13(3):345-352.
The effects of soil temperature and initial inoculum density (Pi) of Meloidogyne incognito and M. javanica on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Anza) and nematode reproduction were studied in controlled temperature baths in the glasshouse. Nematode reproduction was directly proportional to temperature between 14 and 30 C for M. incognita and between 18 and 26 C for M. javanica. Reproduction rates (Pf/Pi, where Pf = final number of eggs) for Pi's of 3,000, 9,000, and 30,000 eggs/plant were greatest at each temperature when Pi = 3,000. Maximum M. incognita reproduction rate (Pf/Pi = 51.12) was at 30 C. At 26 C, M. javanica reproduction (Pf/Pi = 14.82, 9.02, and 4.23 for Pi = 3,000, 9,000, and 30,000, respectively) was about half that of M. incognita when Pi = 3,000 or 9,000 but similar when Pi = 30,000. Reproduction of both species was depressed between 14 and 18 C. Shoot and root growth and head numbers were inversely related to soil temperature between 14 and 30 C but were not affected by the Pi of M. incognita when 7 d old seedlings were inoculated. When newly germinated seedlings were inoculated with M. incognita or M. javanica, the Pi did not affect shoot and root fresh weights, shoot/root ratio, and tillering, but it did reduce root dry weight (M. javanica at 26 C) and increase shoot dry weight (M. incognita at 18-22 C). The optimum temperature range is lower for wheat growth than for nematode reproduction. Wheat cv. Anza is a good host for M. incognita and M. javanica, but it is tolerant to both species.
PMCID: PMC2618108  PMID: 19300774
temperature; root-knot nematodes; tolerance; population dynamics
20.  Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(1):36-41.
Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, stems, or leaves of G. pulchella was effective in controlling M. incognita on I. reptans. Tissue extracts of G. pulchella were lethal to various plant-parasitic nematodes but were innocuous to free-living nematodes. Root exudates of G. pulchella were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 250 ppm or higher. Gaillardia pulchella could be used to manage M. incognita as a rotation crop, a co-planted crop, or a soil amendment for control of root-knot nematode.
PMCID: PMC2620738  PMID: 19262785
antagonistic plants; Asteraceous plants; Ipomoea repans; root exudates; rotation; soil amendment; tissue extracts
21.  Interrelationships of Meloidogyne Species with Flue-cured Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1981;13(1):67-79.
Microplot and field experiments were conducted to determine relationships of population densities of Meloidogyne spp. to performance of flue-cured tobacco. A 3-yr microplot study of these interactions involved varying initial nematode numbers (Pi).and use of ethoprop to re-establish ranges of nematode densities. Field experiments included various nematicides at different locations. Regression analyses of microplot data from a loamy sand showed that cured-leaf yield losses on 'Coker 319' for each 10-fold increase in Pi were as follows: M. javanica and M. arenaria—-13-19%; M. incognita—5-10%; M. hapla—3.4-5%; and 3% for M. incognita on resistant 'Speight G-28' tobacco. A Pi of 750 eggs and larvae/500 cm³ of soil of all species except M. hapla caused a significant yield loss; only large numbers of M. hapla effected a loss. M. arenaria was the most tolerant species to ethoprop. Root-gall indices for microplot and most field-nematicide tests also were correlated negatively with yield. Relationships of Pi(s) and necrosis indices to yield were best characterized by linear regression models, whereas midseason numbers of eggs plus larvae (Pm) and sometimes gall indices vs. yield were better characterized by quadratic models. The relation of field Pm and yield was also adequately described by the Seinhorst model. Degrees of root galling, root necrosis, yield losses, and basic rates of reproduction on tobacco generally increased from M. hapla to M. incognita to M. arenaria to M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2618040  PMID: 19300725
population dynamics; resistance; Nicotiana tabacum
22.  (Homo)glutathione Deficiency Impairs Root-knot Nematode Development in Medicago truncatula 
PLoS Pathogens  2012;8(1):e1002471.
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are obligatory plant parasitic worms that establish and maintain an intimate relationship with their host plants. During a compatible interaction, RKN induce the redifferentiation of root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells essential for nematode growth and reproduction. These metabolically active feeding cells constitute the exclusive source of nutrients for the nematode. Detailed analysis of glutathione (GSH) and homoglutathione (hGSH) metabolism demonstrated the importance of these compounds for the success of nematode infection in Medicago truncatula. We reported quantification of GSH and hGSH and gene expression analysis showing that (h)GSH metabolism in neoformed gall organs differs from that in uninfected roots. Depletion of (h)GSH content impaired nematode egg mass formation and modified the sex ratio. In addition, gene expression and metabolomic analyses showed a substantial modification of starch and γ-aminobutyrate metabolism and of malate and glucose content in (h)GSH-depleted galls. Interestingly, these modifications did not occur in (h)GSH-depleted roots. These various results suggest that (h)GSH have a key role in the regulation of giant cell metabolism. The discovery of these specific plant regulatory elements could lead to the development of new pest management strategies against nematodes.
Author Summary
Parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms that cause major diseases of plants, animals and humans. During compatible interactions, root-knot nematodes (RKN) induce the formation of galls in which redifferentiation of root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells is essential for nematode growth and reproduction. The importance of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant molecule involved in plant development, in plant microbe interaction and in abiotic stress response, was analyzed during the plant-RKN interaction. Our analyses demonstrated that the gall development and functioning are characterized by an adapted GSH metabolism and that depletion of GSH content impairs nematode reproduction and modified sex ratio. This phenotype is linked to specific modifications of carbon metabolism which do not occur in uninfected roots indicating a peculiar metabolism of this neoformed organ. This first metabolomic analysis during the plant-RKN interaction highlights the regulatory role played by GSH in this pathogenic interaction and completes our vision of the role of GSH during plant-pathogen interactions. RKN sex ratio modification has previously been observed under unfavorable nematode feeding conditions suggesting that the GSH-redox system could be a general sensor of gall fitness in natural conditions.
PMCID: PMC3252378  PMID: 22241996
23.  Evaluation of 15 Trifolium spp. and of Medicago sativa as Hosts of Four Meloidogyne spp. Found in New Zealand 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(4S):673-676.
The predominant root-knot nematode in New Zealand pastures is Meloidogyne trifoliophila, identified until recently as M. hapla. Clarification was needed on the host range of these two species on legumes found in New Zealand pastures and on clover species closely related to Trifolium repens. In a greenhouse test, 15 Trifolium spp. and Medicago sativa were inoculated with eggs of M. trifoliophila, M. hapla, M. incognita, or M. javanica. All legumes tested were hosts to some degree to each of the root-knot nematodes used, except for T. striatum and M. sativa whose status as hosts to M. trifoliophila was doubtful. Low galling rates occurred on T. glomeratum infected by M. hapla (mean of 3% of the root system galled), on T. semipilosum infected by M. javanica (2%), on T. striatum infected by M. trifoliophila (2%), and on T. micranthum (4%) and M. sativa (6%) infected by M. incognita. The most heavily parasitized clovers were T. repensinfected by M. trifoliophila (92%), T. pratense infected by M. incognita (91%), and T. argutum infected by M. incognita (88%).
PMCID: PMC2619818  PMID: 19274267
alfalfa; breeding; clover; detection; diagnosis; lucerne; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Meloidogyne trifoliophila; nematode; New Zealand; pasture; resistance; root-knot nematode; Trifolium spp.; white clover
24.  Nematicidal activity of fervenulin isolated from a nematicidal actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, on Meloidogyne incognita 
An isolate of the actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021 produced secondary metabolites that inhibited egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate sequence was 99% identical to Streptomyces roseoverticillatus. The culture filtrates form different culture media were tested for nematocidal activity. The maximal activity against M. incognita was obtained by using modified basal (MB) medium. The nematicidal assay-directed fractionation of the culture broth delivered fervenulin (1) and isocoumarin (2). Fervenulin, a low molecular weight compound, shows a broad range of biological activities. However, nematicidal activity of fervenulin was not previously reported. The nematicidal activity of fervenulin (1) was assessed using the broth microdilution technique. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the compound against egg hatch of M. incognita was 30 μg/ml and juvenile mortality of M. incognita increasing was observed at 120 μg/ml. Moreover, at the concentration of 250 μg/ml fervenulin (1) showed killing effect on second-stage nematode juveniles of M. incognita up to 100% after incubation for 96 h. Isocoumarin (2), another bioactive compound produced by Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, showed weak nematicidal activity with M. incognita.
PMCID: PMC3128717  PMID: 21841897
Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021; Fervenulin; Nematicidal activity; Root-knot nematode
25.  Competition of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on Cotton Following Separate and Concomitant Inoculations 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(4):422-429.
It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniformis in the following ratios (Mi:Rr): 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Soil populations of M. incognita and R. reniformis were recorded at 3, 6, 9, 14, 19, 25, 35, 45, and 60 days after inoculations. At each date, samples were taken to determine the life stage of development, number of egg masses, eggs per egg mass, galls, and giant cells or syncytia produced by the nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita and R. reniformis were capable of initially inhibiting each other when the inoculum ratio of one species was higher than the other. In concomitant infections, M. incognita was susceptible to the antagonistic effect of R. reniformis. Rotylenchulus reniformis affected hatching of M. incognita eggs, delayed secondary infection of M. incognita J2, reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita, and reduced J2 of M. incognita 60 days after inoculations. In contrast, M. incognita reduced R. reniformis soil populations only when its proportion in the inoculum ratio was higher than that of R. reniformis. Meloidogyne incognita reduced egg masses produced by R. reniformis, but not production of eggs and secondary infection.
PMCID: PMC2620682  PMID: 19262774
antagonism; competition; concomitant infections; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; Reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; sequential infections

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