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1.  Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica by Pasteuria penetrans in Field Soil 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(1):43-49.
The role of Pasteuria penetrans in suppressing numbers of root-knot nematodes was investigated in a 7-year monocuhure of tobacco in a field naturally infested with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica. The suppressiveness of the soil was tested using four treatments: autoclaving (AC), microwaving (MW), air drying (DR), and untreated. The treated soil bioassays consisted of tobacco cv. Northrup King 326 (resistant to M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica) and cv. Coker 371 Gold (susceptible to M. incognita and M. javanica) in pots inoculated with 0 or 2,000 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita race 1. Endospores of P. penetrans were killed by AC but were only slightly affected by MW, whereas most fungal propagules were destroyed or inhibited in both treatments. Root galls, egg masses, and numbers of eggs were fewer on Coker 371 Gold in MW, DR, and untreated soil than in AC-treated soil. There were fewer egg masses than root galls on both tobacco cultivars in MW, DR, and untreated soil than in the AC treatment. Because both Meloidogyne spp. were suppressed in MW soil (with few fungi present) as well as in DR and untreated soil, the reduction in root galling, as well as numbers of egg masses and eggs appeared to have resulted from infection of both nematode species by P. penetrans.
PMCID: PMC2619665  PMID: 19277344
bacterium; biological control; Meloidogyne incognita; M. javanica; nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; Pasteuria penetrans; root-knot nematode; suppressive soil; tobacco
2.  RKN Lethal DB: A database for the identification of Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) candidate lethal genes 
Bioinformation  2012;8(19):950-952.
Root Knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the most devastating parasites that infect the roots of hundreds of plant species. RKN cannot live independently from their hosts and are the biggest contributors to the loss of the world's primary foods. RNAi gene silencing studies have demonstrated that there are fewer galls and galls are smaller when RNAi constructs targeted to silence certain RKN genes are expressed in plant roots. We conducted a comparative genomics analysis, comparing RKN genes of six species: Meloidogyne Arenaria, Meloidogyne Chitwoodi, Meloidogyne Hapla, Meloidogyne Incognita, Meloidogyne Javanica, and Meloidogyne Paranaensis to that of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, to identify candidate genes that will be lethal to RKN when silenced or mutated. Our analysis yielded a number of such candidate lethal genes in RKN, some of which have been tested and proven to be effective in soybean roots. A web based database was built to house and allow scientists to search the data. This database will be useful to scientists seeking to identify candidate genes as targets for gene silencing to confer resistance in plants to RKN.
Availability
The database can be accessed from http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/RKN/
doi:10.6026/97320630008950
PMCID: PMC3488838  PMID: 23144556
RKN; Meloidogyne; web based database; RNAi; C. elegans
3.  Host suitability of Ixora spp. for the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 and M. javanica 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):722-728.
Eight commonly cultivated Ixora species or cultivars were tested for their suitability as hosts and their level of tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica in a greenhouse study. Twenty weeks postinoculation with 5,000 eggs per pot, M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of all eight Ixora species or cultivars tested. However, only M. javanica-infected 'Petite Yellow' and 'Maui' had decreases (P ≤ 0.05) in root wet weights, suggesting that the other cultivars were more tolerant to these root-knot nematode species. Differential host suitability to each Meloidogyne species was based on the relative number of galls, galls per gram root weight, egg masses, and second-stage juveniles produced per plant. 'Bonnie Lynn,' 'Maui,' and 'Petite Red' were good to excellent hosts for both Meloidogyne spp. Ixora coccinea was a good host for M. incognita race 1 but less suitable for M. javanica. 'Singapore' and 'Petite Yellow' were poor hosts for M. incognita race 1 but excellent hosts for M. javanica. 'Nora Grant' and I. casei 'Super King' were poor hosts for both species of root-knot nematodes.
PMCID: PMC2629859  PMID: 19283052
host-parasite relationship; Ixora spp.; Meloidogyne incognita race 1; M. javanica; nematode; ornamental; root-knot nematode; woody ornamental
4.  Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium 
The Plant Pathology Journal  2014;30(3):288-298.
We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.
doi:10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2014.0013
PMCID: PMC4181115  PMID: 25289015
Bacillus cereus; biological control; giant cell; Meloidogyne hapla
5.  Effects of Root Decay on the Relationship between Meloidogyne spp. Gall Index and Egg Mass Number in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber 
Journal of Nematology  1992;24(4S):707-711.
A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if root necrosis had an effect on the relationship between root-knot nematode gall index and egg mass number. Thirty-four cultigens of Cucumis (14 accessions, 12 cultivars, and six breeding lines of C. sativus, and two accessions of C. metuliferus) were evaluated against four root-knot species (Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, M. incognita race 3, and M. javanica) measuring gall index, root necrosis, and egg mass number. Root necrosis affected the gall index-egg mass relationship. At lower root necrosis values, a stronger relationship existed between gall index and egg mass number than at higher root necrosis values. Root tissue was destroyed by root necrosis, and normal root-knot nematode reproduction would not occur, even though root galling was still observed. The races of M. incognita tested had a greater effect in predisposing C. sativus and C. metuliferus to root necrosis than did M. arenaria race 2 or M. javanica. This study showed that root necrosis had an adverse affect on the relationship between gall index and egg mass number in cucumber.
PMCID: PMC2629864  PMID: 19283049
African horned cucumber; cucumber; Cucumis sativus; Cucumis metuliferus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; resistance; root-knot nematode
6.  Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(3):173-178.
Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root-knot nematodes or interfere with hatching and affect their capacity to invade and develop within their roots. M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa could be used with effect to decrease a mixed field populations of root-knot nematodes.
PMCID: PMC3380490  PMID: 22736854
Crotalaria spectabilis; Crotalaria retusa; Dolichos lablab; Mucuna pruriens; Phaseolus vulgaris; nematicidal compounds; phytoalexins
7.  Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):272-278.
Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested.
PMCID: PMC3873904  PMID: 24379486
Anaerobic soil disinfestation; ASD; Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba; Canavalia ensiformis; cover crops; cowpea; Eruca sativa; Helianthus annuus; jack bean; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; mustard; pearl millet; Pennisetum glaucum; root-knot nematodes; sorghum-sudangrass; sunflower; Vigna unguiculata
8.  Phenotypic Expression of rkn1-Mediated Meloidogyne incognita Resistance in Gossypium hirsutum Populations 
Journal of nematology  2006;38(2):250-257.
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is a damaging pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) worldwide. A major gene (rkn1) conferring resistance to M. incognita was previously identified on linkage group A03 in G. hirsutum cv. Acala NemX. To determine the patterns of segregation and phenotypic expression of rkn1, F1, F2, F2:3, BC1F1 and F2:7 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from intraspecific crosses between Acala NemX and a closely related susceptible cultivar Acala SJ-2 were inoculated in greenhouse tests with M. incognita race 3. The resistance phenotype was determined by the extent of nematode-induced root galling and nematode egg production on roots. Suppression of root galling and egg production was highly correlated among individuals in all tests. Root galling and egg production on heterozygous plants did not differ from the susceptible parent phenotype 125 d or more after inoculation, but were slightly suppressed with shorter screening (60 d), indicating that rkn1 behaved as a recessive gene or an incompletely recessive gene, depending on the screening condition. In the RIL, rkn1 segregated in an expected 1 resistant: 1 susceptible ratio for a major resistance gene. However, within the resistant class, 21 out of 34 RIL were more resistant than the resistant parent Acala NemX, indicating transgressive segregation. These results suggest that rkn1-based resistance in G. hirsutum can be enhanced in progenies of crosses with susceptible genotypes. Allelism tests and molecular genetic analysis are needed to determine the relationship of rkn1 to other M. incognita resistance sources in cotton.
PMCID: PMC2586458  PMID: 19259455
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; resistance; rkn1; root-knot nematode; phenotypic expression; transgressive segregation
9.  First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran 
Journal of Nematology  2015;47(1):86.
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant’s oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant’s oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12.1 ± 0.8 (11 to 13) µm; Tail = 50 ± 5.6 (42 to 57) µm; Hyaline 15 ± 1.8 (12 to 18) µm. Oak manna, Q. infectoria population of second stage juveniles clearly possessed short body length and consequently other morphometric features were less than those determined for Q. brantii population, and these features were: (n = 12), L = 359.0 ± 17.3 (319 to 372) µm; a = 28.6 ± 3 (22.8 to 31); b = 5.0 ± 0.3 (4.8 to 5.2); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.2 (3 to 3.6), c = 8.1 ± 0.5 (7.4 to 8.8), ć = 4.7 ± 0.5 (3.9 to 5.2); Stylet = 11.4 ± 0.7 (10 to 12) µm; Tail = 44 ± 1.8 (42 to 47) µm; Hyaline 12 ± 1.7 (10 to 15) µm. To date two species of Meloidogyne, M. querciana Golden, 1979 and M. christiei Golden and Kaplan, 1986 have been reported to parasitize oaks (Quercus spp.) from the United States of America. M. querciana was found on pin oak Quercus palustris in Virginia. The oak RKN infected pine oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily in greenhouse tests (Golden, 1979). The other species M. christiei was described from turkey oak and Q. laevis in Florida, which has monospecific host range (Golden and Kaplan, 1986). Both of these RKN species seem to be restricted to the United States of America and have not been reported from other place. According to our knowledge this is the first report of occurrence of M. hapla on Q. brantii and Q. infectoria in the world. This study includes these two oak species to the host range of RKN, M. hapla for the world and expands the information of RKN, M. hapla host ranges on oaks.
PMCID: PMC4388584  PMID: 25861121
detection; diagnosis; Iran; Meloidogyne hapla; National Botanical Garden of Iran; oak
10.  Responses of Some Common Cruciferae to Root-knot Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4S):550-554.
Ten cultivated plants of the family Cruciferae were evaluated for susceptibility to Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. incognita races 1 and 3, and M. javanica in a series of four separate greenhouse tests. After 62-64 days, or 1,032-1,072 degree days (10 C base), several of the crops evaluated showed moderate to severe levels of galling (> 3.0 on 0-5 scale) and moderate numbers of egg masses (>2.0 on 0-5 scale) in response to each of the nematode species and races. Among the plants tested, collard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) cv. Georgia Southern was the least susceptible (fewest galls and egg masses) to each of the four nematode isolates. Similar low levels of infection were obtained with broccoli (B. oleracea var. botrytis) cv. De Cicco in response to M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria. Numbers of second-stage juveniles hatched from eggs per root system were variable in the test with M. arenaria, but lowest on collard for each of the other nematodes. Some commonly grown crucifers are hosts to several different species and races of Meloidogyne, which should be considered if these crops are included in cropping systems.
PMCID: PMC2619653  PMID: 19277321
Brassica chinensis; Brassica napus; Brassica oleracea; Brassica rapa; broccoli; cabbage; canola; cauliflower; chinese cabbage; collard; host-plant resistance; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; mustard; nematode; radish; Raphanus sativus; Sinapis alba; turnip
11.  Differential Response to Root-Knot Nematodes in Prunus Species and Correlative Genetic Implications 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(3):370-380.
Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated against one M. arenaria, one M. incognita, one M. javanica, and the Florida isolate. These 10 rootstocks plus Nemaguard and Nemared were retested by growing three different rootstock genotypes together in containers of soil infested individually with each of the above four isolates. Garfi and Garrigues almonds, GF.305 and Rutgers Red Leaf peaches, and the peach-almond GF.677 were susceptible to all isolates. Differences in resistance were detected among the other rootstocks of the subgenus Amygdalus. The peach-almond GF.557 and Summergrand peach were resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica and the Florida isolate. Nemaguard, Nemared, and its two hybrids G x N no. 15 and G x N no. 22 were resistant to all but the Florida isolate. In the subgenus Prunophora, Myrobalan plums P.1079, P.2175, P.2980, and P.2984; Marianna plum 29C; and P. insititia plum AD.101 were resistant to all isolates. Thus, two different genetic systems of RKN resistance were found in the subgenus Amygdalus: one system acting against M. arenaria and M. incognita, and another system also acting against M. javanica. Prunophora rootstocks bear a complete genetic system for resistance also acting against the Florida isolate. The hypotheses on the relationships between these systems and the corresponding putative genes of resistance are presented.
PMCID: PMC2619779  PMID: 19274170
Amygdalus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; Prunophora; Prunus amygdalus; Prunus cerasifera; Prunus persica; resistance
12.  Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(2):142-147.
Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rutgers’) was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida.
PMCID: PMC3578473  PMID: 23482324
Aeschynomene americana; Amaranthus retroflexus; Cyperus esculentus; Eleusine indica; Florida; host status; nematode reproduction; Portulaca oleracea; root-knot nematodes; Solanum americanum
13.  Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants 
Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants’ susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.00193
PMCID: PMC4392611  PMID: 25914698
nitric oxide; jasmonic acid; tomato; root knot nematode; protease inhibitor 2 (PI2); basal defense
14.  Identification of Sources of Resistance to Four Species of Root-knot Nematodes in Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(3):272-282.
Resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3, has been identified, incorporated, and deployed into commercial cultivars of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. Cultivars with resistance to other economically important root-knot nematode species attacking tobacco, M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. javanica, and other host-specific races of M. incognita, are not available in the United States. Twenty-eight tobacco genotypes of diverse origin and two standard cultivars, NC 2326 (susceptible) and Speight G 28 (resistant to M. incognita races 1 and 3), were screened for resistance to eight root-knot nematode populations of North Carolina origin. Based on root gall indices at 8 to 12 weeks after inoculation, all genotypes except NC 2326 and Okinawa were resistant to M. arenaria race 1, and races 1 and 3 of M. incognita. Except for slight root galling, genotypes resistant to M. arenaria race 1 responded similarly to races 1 and 3 of M. incognita. All genotypes except NC 2326, Okinawa, and Speight G 28 showed resistance to M. javanica. Okinawa, while supporting lower reproduction of M. javanica than NC 2326, was rated as moderately susceptible. Tobacco breeding lines 81-R-617A, 81-RL- 2K, SA 1213, SA 1214, SA 1223, and SA 1224 were resistant to M. arenaria race 2, and thus may be used as sources of resistance to this pathogen. No resistance to M. hapla and only moderate resistance to races 2 and 4 of M. incognita were found in any of the tobacco genotypes. Under natural field infestations of M. arenaria race 2, nematode development on resistant tobacco breeding lines 81-RL-2K, SA 1214, and SA 1215 was similar to a susceptible cultivar with some nematicide treatments; however, quantity and quality of yield were inferior compared to K 326 plus nematicides.
PMCID: PMC2620380  PMID: 19270897
Javanese root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne species; nematode; resistance; southern root-knot nematode; tobacco
15.  Efficacy Evaluation of Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum and Nematicide Avermectin against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumber 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89717.
The root-knot nematode (RKN) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests.Effective biological control is need for controlling this destructive pathogen in organic farming system. During October 2010 to 2011, the nematicidal effects of the Syncephalastrum racemosum fungus and the nematicide, avermectin, alone or combined were tested against the RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) on cucumber under pot and field condition in China. Under pot conditions, the application of S. racemosum alone or combined with avermectin significantly increased the plant vigor index by 31.4% and 10.9%, respectively compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. However, treatment with avermectin alone did not significantly affect the plant vigor index. All treatments reduced the number of root galls and juvenile nematodes compared to the untreated control. Under greenhouse conditions, all treatments reduced the disease severity and enhanced fruit yield compared to the untreated control. Fewer nematodes infecting plant roots were observed after treatment with avermectin alone, S. racemosum alone or their combination compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. Among all the treatments, application of avermectin or S. racemosum combined with avermectin was more effective than the S. racemosum treatment. Our results showed that application of S. racemosum combined with avermectin not only reduced the nematode number and plant disease severity but also enhanced plant vigor and yield. The results indicated that the combination of S. racemosum with avermectin could be an effective biological component in integrated management of RKN on cucumber.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089717
PMCID: PMC3933638  PMID: 24586982
16.  Host Suitability of Potential Cover Crops for Root-knot Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4S):619-623.
Several potential cover crops were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica in a series of five greenhouse experiments. No galls or egg masses were observed on roots of castor (Ricinus communis), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Iron Clay), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), or American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana). Occasional egg masses (rating ≤1.0 on 0-5 scale) were observed on marigold (Tagetes minuta) in one test with M. incognita, on sesame (Sesamum indicum cv. Paloma) in a test with M. arenaria, and on sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea cv. Tropic Sun) in 1 of 2 tests with M. incognita; otherwise, these crops were free of egg masses. Numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatched from eggs per root system were low (≤10/pot) for the abovementioned crops. Egg-mass levels and numbers of hatched J2 of M. incognita on pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides, Tifleaf II hybrid) were comparable to those on a susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Rutgers). In a test with M. arenaria, egg mass levels and numbers of J2 on Japanese millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) were similar to those on tomato. Japanese millet was susceptible to each of the nematode isolates tested. However, several of the crops evaluated were very poor hosts or non-hosts of the nematode isolates, including several legumes (cowpea, crotalaria, jointvetch, sunn hemp) that have potential use in both nematode and nitrogen management.
PMCID: PMC2620418  PMID: 19270926
Aeschynomene americana; castor; cowpea; Crotalaria juncea; Crotalaria spectabilis; Echinochloa frumentacea; host-plant resistance; jointvetch; marigold; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; millet; nematode; nematode management; Pennisetum glaucum; Pennisetum typhoides; Ricinus communis; sesame; Sesamum indicum; sunn hemp; sustainable agriculture; Tagetes minuta; Vigna unguiculata
17.  Effects of Irrigation, Nitrogen, and a Nematicide on Pearl Millet 
Journal of Nematology  1995;27(4S):571-574.
Pearl millet is used mainly as a temporary forage crop in the southern United States. A new pearl millet hybrid has potential as a major grain crop in the United States. The effects of nematodes, irrigation, a nematicide, and nitrogen rates on a new pearl millet grain hybrid, HGM-100, and nematode population changes were determined in a 2-year study. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) entered the roots of pearl millet and caused minimal galling, but produced large numbers of eggs that hatched into second-stage juveniles. Root-gall indices ranged from 1.00 to 1.07 on a 1-5 scale and were not affected by irrigation or rates of nitrogen. Yield of pearl millet was up to 31% higher under no supplemental irrigation than under irrigation, 16% higher in fenamiphos-treated plots than untreated plots, and 56% higher in plots treated with 38 kg nitrogen/ha than plots treated with 85 kg nitrogen/ha. In southern Georgia, pearl millet appears to be resistant to ring nematode (Criconemella ornata) but favors development and reproduction of M. incognita.
PMCID: PMC2619661  PMID: 19277324
chemical control; Criconemella ornata; irrigation; Meloidogyne incognita; millet; nematode; nitrogen; Pennisetum glaucum; ring nematode; root-knot nematode
18.  Nematicidal Activity of Fatty Acid Esters on Soybean Cyst and Root-knot Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(4S):677-684.
Researchers have indicated that the C₉ fatty acid, pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid), has considerable nematicidal activity that could be increased by derivitization and improved emulsification. Microemulsions of methyl and ethylene glycol esters of pelargonic acid developed by Mycogen Corporation (San Diego, CA) were tested for nematicidal activity against root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes. All treamaents were compared to a deionized water control and a microemulsion "blank" (minus active ingredient). Methyl pelargonate reduced gall numbers at concentrations ≥0.8 μl a.i./liter, and ethylene glycol pelargonate reduced gall numbers at ≥6.4 μl a.i./liter in a laboratory bioassay of Meloidogyne javanica on roots of tomato seedlings. Microscopic observation of treated M. javanica second-stage juveniles suggested that methyl pelargonate was toxic to nematodes at concentrations as low as 0.2 μl a.i./liter. Cysts of Heterodera glycines per gram of root were significantly reduced by weekly soil drenches of methyl pelargonate at 6.4, 3.2, and 1.6 μl a.i./liter compared to controls in one greenhouse experiment. Weekly soil drenches of methyl pelargonate at 4.8 or 3.2 μ1 a.i./liter also significantly reduced the number of eggs produced by M. incognita on soybean in a greenhouse test. In both greenhouse tests with soybean, rates of methyl pelargonate ≥4.8 μl a.i./liter had considerable phytotoxicity. No significant interaction of chemical treatment and different soil mixtures affected the nematode numbers produced or plant vigor observed. Soil drenches with microemulsions of methyl pelargonate at 3.2 μl a.i./liter applied weekly, or as two initial applications, were effective as a nematicide for root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes with negligible effects on plant vigor.
PMCID: PMC2619835  PMID: 19274268
fatty acid; Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematicide; nonanoie acid; pelargonic acid methyl ester; pelargonic acid ethylene glycol ester; phytotoxicity; root-knot nematode; soybean cyst nematode
19.  Response of Some Common Annual Bedding Plants to Three Species of Meloidogyne 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):773-777.
Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating ≥4.2 and ≥14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Century Mix and Coleus blumei cv. Rainbow were susceptible (>1,500 eggs/plant) to all three Meloidogyne isolates. Response of Petunia x hybrida varied with cultivar and nematode isolate. Little or no galling or egg production from any Meloidogyne isolate was observed on Ageratum houstonianum cv. Blue Mink, Lobularia maritima cv. Rosie O'Day, or Tagetes patula cv. Dwarf Primrose. Galling was slight (mean rating ≤2.0) but varied with nematode species on Dianthus chinensis cv. Baby Doll Mix, Salvia splendens cv. Bonfire, and Vinca rosea cv. Little Bright Eye. Verbena × hybrida cv. Florist was heavily infected (gall rating >4.0 and ≥7,900 eggs/plant) by M. javanica and M. arenaria but was nearly free of galling from M. incognita. Zinna elegans cv. Scarlet was nearly free of galling from M. incognita and M. arenaria but was susceptible (mean gall rating = 2.9; 3,400 eggs/plant) to M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2619562  PMID: 19279963
Ageratum houstonianum; Antirrhinum majus; Celosia argentea; Coleus blumei; Dianthus chinensis; flowers; Lobularia maritima; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; ornamental; Petunia x hybrida; Salvia splendens; Tagetes patula; Verbena × hybrida; Vinca rosea; Zinnia elegans
20.  Genetic Mapping of Resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in Arachis stenosperma: A New Source of Nematode Resistance for Peanut 
G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2015;6(2):377-390.
Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne sp.) are a major threat to crops in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The use of resistant crop varieties is the preferred method of control because nematicides are expensive, and hazardous to humans and the environment. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is infected by four species of RKN, the most damaging being M. arenaria, and commercial cultivars rely on a single source of resistance. In this study, we genetically characterize RKN resistance of the wild Arachis species A. stenosperma using a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between A. duranensis and A. stenosperma. Four quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on linkage groups 02, 04, and 09 strongly influenced nematode root galling and egg production. Drought-related, domestication and agronomically relevant traits were also evaluated, revealing several QTL. Using the newly available Arachis genome sequence, easy-to-use KASP (kompetitive allele specific PCR) markers linked to the newly identified RKN resistance loci were developed and validated in a tetraploid context. Therefore, we consider that A. stenosperma has high potential as a new source of RKN resistance in peanut breeding programs.
doi:10.1534/g3.115.023044
PMCID: PMC4751557  PMID: 26656152
Arachis; peanut; QTL; root-knot nematode resistance; marker-assisted selection; drought; yield; introgression
21.  Root-knot Nematode Problem of Some Winter Ornamental Plants and Its Biomanagement 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):198-206.
A microplot study under field conditions was carried out during 2 consecutive years to assess the effect of root-knot nematode infection (2,000 Meloidogyne incognita eggs/kg soil) on three winter ornamental plants: hollyhock (Althea rosea), petunia (Petunia hybrida), and poppy (Papaver rhoeas). Effects of root-dip treatment with the biocontrol agents Pochonia chlamydosporia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nematicide fenamiphos were tested. The three ornamental species were highly susceptible to M. incognita, developing 397 and 285 (hollyhock), 191 and 149 (petunia), and 155 and 131 (poppy) galls and egg masses per root system, respectively, and exhibited 37% (petunia), 29% (poppy), and 23% (hollyhock) (P = 0.05) decrease in the flower production. Application of fenamiphos, P. chlamydosporia, P. fluorescens, and B. subtilis suppressed nematode pathogenesis (galls + egg masses) by 64%, 37%, 27%, and 24%, respectively, leading to 14% to 29%, 7% to 15%, 14% to 36%, and 7% to 33% increase in the flower production of the ornamental plants, respectively. Treatment with P. fluorescens also increased the flowering of uninfected plants by 11% to 19%. Soil population of M. incognita was decreased (P = 0.05) due to various treatments from 2 months onward, being greatest with fenamiphos, followed by P. chlamydosporia, B. subtilis, and P. fluorescens. Frequency of colonization of eggs, egg masses, and females by the bioagents was greatest by P. chlamydosporia, i.e., 25% to 29%, 47% to 60%, and 36% to 41%, respectively. Colonization of egg masses by B. subtilis and P. fluorescens was 28% to 31% and 11% to 13%, respectively, but the frequency was 0.3% to 1.3% in eggs. Rhizosphere population of the bioagents was increased (P = 0.05) over time, being usually greater in the presence of nematode.
PMCID: PMC2620963  PMID: 19262861
Bacillus subtilis; biocontrol; hollyhock; Meloidogyne incognita; petunia; Pochonia chlamydosporia; poppy; Pseudomonas fluorescens; rhizosphere population
22.  QTL Analysis for Transgressive Resistance to Root-Knot Nematode in Interspecific Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Progeny Derived from Susceptible Parents 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34874.
The southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a major soil-inhabiting plant parasite that causes significant yield losses in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Progeny from crosses between cotton genotypes susceptible to RKN produced segregants in subsequent populations which were highly resistant to this parasite. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 138 lines developed from a cross between Upland cotton TM-1 (G. hirsutum L.) and Pima 3–79 (G. barbadense L.), both susceptible to RKN, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) determining responses to RKN in greenhouse infection assays with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Compared to both parents, 53.6% and 52.1% of RILs showed less (P<0.05) root-galling index (GI) and had lower (P<0.05) nematode egg production (eggs per gram root, EGR). Highly resistant lines (transgressive segregants) were identified in this RIL population for GI and/or EGR in two greenhouse experiments. QTLs were identified using the single-marker analysis nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis test. Four major QTLs located on chromosomes 3, 4, 11, and 17 were identified to account for 8.0 to 12.3% of the phenotypic variance (R2) in root-galling. Two major QTLs accounting for 9.7% and 10.6% of EGR variance were identified on chromosomes 14 and 23 (P<0.005), respectively. In addition, 19 putative QTLs (P<0.05) accounted for 4.5–7.7% of phenotypic variance (R2) in GI, and 15 QTLs accounted for 4.2–7.3% of phenotypic variance in EGR. In lines with alleles positive for resistance contributed by both parents in combinations of two to four QTLs, dramatic reductions of >50% in both GI and EGR were observed. The transgressive segregants with epistatic effects derived from susceptible parents indicate that high levels of nematode resistance in cotton may be attained by pyramiding positive alleles using a QTL mapping approach.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034874
PMCID: PMC3325951  PMID: 22514682
23.  The Development and Influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica on Wheat 
Journal of Nematology  1981;13(3):345-352.
The effects of soil temperature and initial inoculum density (Pi) of Meloidogyne incognito and M. javanica on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Anza) and nematode reproduction were studied in controlled temperature baths in the glasshouse. Nematode reproduction was directly proportional to temperature between 14 and 30 C for M. incognita and between 18 and 26 C for M. javanica. Reproduction rates (Pf/Pi, where Pf = final number of eggs) for Pi's of 3,000, 9,000, and 30,000 eggs/plant were greatest at each temperature when Pi = 3,000. Maximum M. incognita reproduction rate (Pf/Pi = 51.12) was at 30 C. At 26 C, M. javanica reproduction (Pf/Pi = 14.82, 9.02, and 4.23 for Pi = 3,000, 9,000, and 30,000, respectively) was about half that of M. incognita when Pi = 3,000 or 9,000 but similar when Pi = 30,000. Reproduction of both species was depressed between 14 and 18 C. Shoot and root growth and head numbers were inversely related to soil temperature between 14 and 30 C but were not affected by the Pi of M. incognita when 7 d old seedlings were inoculated. When newly germinated seedlings were inoculated with M. incognita or M. javanica, the Pi did not affect shoot and root fresh weights, shoot/root ratio, and tillering, but it did reduce root dry weight (M. javanica at 26 C) and increase shoot dry weight (M. incognita at 18-22 C). The optimum temperature range is lower for wheat growth than for nematode reproduction. Wheat cv. Anza is a good host for M. incognita and M. javanica, but it is tolerant to both species.
PMCID: PMC2618108  PMID: 19300774
temperature; root-knot nematodes; tolerance; population dynamics
24.  Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon 
Journal of Nematology  2015;47(3):207-213.
Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 to 3 × 105 endospores/cm3 of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber.
PMCID: PMC4612191  PMID: 26527842
Antirrhinum majus; biological control; Cucumis sativus; cucumber; Meloidogyne; Pasteuria penetrans; Solanum lycopersicum; root-knot nematodes; snapdragon; tomato
25.  Interrelationships of Meloidogyne Species with Flue-cured Tobacco 
Journal of Nematology  1981;13(1):67-79.
Microplot and field experiments were conducted to determine relationships of population densities of Meloidogyne spp. to performance of flue-cured tobacco. A 3-yr microplot study of these interactions involved varying initial nematode numbers (Pi).and use of ethoprop to re-establish ranges of nematode densities. Field experiments included various nematicides at different locations. Regression analyses of microplot data from a loamy sand showed that cured-leaf yield losses on 'Coker 319' for each 10-fold increase in Pi were as follows: M. javanica and M. arenaria—-13-19%; M. incognita—5-10%; M. hapla—3.4-5%; and 3% for M. incognita on resistant 'Speight G-28' tobacco. A Pi of 750 eggs and larvae/500 cm³ of soil of all species except M. hapla caused a significant yield loss; only large numbers of M. hapla effected a loss. M. arenaria was the most tolerant species to ethoprop. Root-gall indices for microplot and most field-nematicide tests also were correlated negatively with yield. Relationships of Pi(s) and necrosis indices to yield were best characterized by linear regression models, whereas midseason numbers of eggs plus larvae (Pm) and sometimes gall indices vs. yield were better characterized by quadratic models. The relation of field Pm and yield was also adequately described by the Seinhorst model. Degrees of root galling, root necrosis, yield losses, and basic rates of reproduction on tobacco generally increased from M. hapla to M. incognita to M. arenaria to M. javanica.
PMCID: PMC2618040  PMID: 19300725
population dynamics; resistance; Nicotiana tabacum

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