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1.  Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):289-293.
A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels.
PMCID: PMC2620642  PMID: 19262763
bacterial-feeding nematodes; barley; beef manure; clover cyst nematode; compost; cull potato; Diplogaster lheritieri; Heterodera trifolii; potato; root-knot nematode; root-lesion nematode; sawdust
2.  Evaluation of the Effect of Ecologic on Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tomato Plant, Lycopersicon esculenum 
Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant), due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment preceded Floradel tomato planting to allow breakdown of the chitin material into the soil. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root materials were taken as growth end-points. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was obtained with regard to the growth rate of L. esculentum at 100 g chitin treatment compared to the control with no chitin. Mean fresh weights of Floradel tomato were 78.0 ± 22.3g, 81.0 ± 20.3g, 109.0 ± 25.4g and 102.0 ± 33.3g at 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. The analysis of root knot nematode concentrations indicated a substantial effect on reproduction rate associated with chitin amendment. Study results showed a significant decrease in both root knot nematode eggs and juveniles (J2) at 100g and 200g Ecologic chitin levels, however, an increase in nematode concentrations was recorded at the 50g Ecologic chitin level (p ≤ 0.05). The mean amounts of J2 population, as expressed per 1500cm3 soil, were 49,933 ± 38,819, 86,050 ± 25248, 103 ± 133 and 103 ± 133 for 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. Similarly, the mean numbers of root knot nematode eggs (per 1500cm3 of soil) were 40,759 ± 36,712, 66,048 ± 39,730, 9,904 ± 16,591 and 9,257 ± 17,204. Root gall rating was also significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) at the 100g and 200g chitin levels compared to the control. Percent gall ratings were 3.3 ± 1.0%, 3.2 ± 1.0%, 1.0 ± 0.5%, and 1.0% ± 0.6% for amendment levels of 0, 50, 100, and 200g chitin, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3662226  PMID: 18678924
Ecologic chitin; root knot nematode; tomato plant; agricultural management
3.  Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Nematode Communities in Soil with Different Agricultural Histories 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):294-301.
Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) hay amendment on nematode community structure in the soil surrounding roots of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) infected with root-knot nematodes was examined in two greenhouse experiments. Soils were from field plots treated long-term (LT) with yard-waste compost or no yard-waste compost in LT experiment, and from a short-term (ST) agricultural site in ST experiment. Soils collected were either amended or not amended with C. juncea hay. Nematode communities were examined 2 months after squash was inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Amendment increased (P < 0.05) omnivorous nematodes in both experiments but increased only bacterivorous nematodes in ST experiment (P < 0.05), where the soil had relatively low organic matter (<2%). This effect of C. juncea amendment did not occur in LT experiment, in which bacterivores were already abundant. Fungivorous nematodes were not increased by C. juncea amendment in either experiment, but predatory nematodes were increased when present. Although most nematode faunal indices, including enrichment index, structure index, and channel index, were not affected by C. juncea amendment, structure index values were affected by previous soil organic matter content. Results illustrate the importance of considering soil history (organic matter, nutrient level, free-living nematode number) in anticipating changes following amendment with C. juncea hay.
PMCID: PMC2620648  PMID: 19262764
community structure indices; Cucurbita pepo; Meloidogyne incognita; organic amendments; squash; sunn hemp
4.  Effect of Castor and Velvetbean Organic Amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria in Greenhouse Experiments 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(4S):624-631.
Effectiveness of castor (Ricinus communis) and velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) amendments was tested for suppression of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and growth of okra (Hibiscus esculentus) in three greenhouse experiments. Regression analysis was used to relate nematode population data or plant growth responses to various rates (0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 g/560 cm³ soil pot) of each amendment in separate experiments. In general, plant growth parameters responded positively to the amendment rate until a level of about 4 g to 5 g of velvetbean or castor amendment/pot. Similar trends were observed for nematode galls, egg masses, and second-stage juveniles extracted from root systems. In most circumstances, quadratic equations best expressed the relationships between plant or nematode parameters and rates of velvetbean or castor amendment, leading to the assumption that a best rate of the amendment for plant growth or nematode suppression can be predicted. In a third experiment, in which both amendments were compared directly, velvetbean amendment was more efficient than castor in suppressing nematodes as well as in improving plant growth.
PMCID: PMC2620327  PMID: 19274257
Hibiscus esculentus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Mucuna deeringiana; nematode; nematode management; okra; Ricinus communis; root-knot nematode
5.  Efficacy of 1,3-Dichloropropene in Soil Amended with Compost and Unamended Soil 
Journal of Nematology  2001;33(4S):289-293.
1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) is a likely alternative soil fumigant for methyl bromide. The objective was to determine root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, survival in microplots after exposure to 1,3-D for various periods of time in soil that have previously been amended with compost. The treatments were 1,3-D applied broadcast at 112 liters/ha and untreated controls in both compost-amended and unamended soil. Soil samples were collected from each microplot at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after fumigation at three depths (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm). One week after fumigation, six tomato seedlings were transplanted into each microplot and root galling was recorded 6 weeks later. Plants grown in fumigated compost-amended soil had more galls than plants from fumigated unamended soil at P ≤ 0.1. Gall indices from roots in fumigated soil amended with compost were not different from nonfumigated controls. Based on soil bioassays, the number of galls decreased with increasing time after fumigation in both compost-amended and unamended soil at 0-to-15 and 15-to-30 cm depths, but not at 30 to 45 cm deep. Higher soil water content due to the elevated levels of organic matter in the soil at these depths may have interfered with 1,3-D movement, thus reducing its efficacy.
PMCID: PMC2620517  PMID: 19265889
compost-amended soil; deep sand soil; 1,3-dichloropropene; fumigation; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; nematode; root-knot nematode; tomato
6.  Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Tissue, Incorporated at Different Depths in a Soil Column, on Meloidogyne incognita  
Journal of nematology  2007;39(2):111-117.
Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended with broccoli tissue, which was mixed throughout the tube or concentrated in a 10-cm layer. After three weeks at 28°C, M. incognita populations in the amended tubes were 57 to 80% smaller than in non-amended tubes. Mixing broccoli throughout the tubes reduced M. incognita more than concentrating broccoli in a 10-cm layer. Amending a 10-cm layer reduced M. incognita in the non-amended layers of those tubes by 31 to 71%, probably due to a nematicidal effect of released volatiles. However, the localized direct effect was much stronger than the indirect effect of volatiles. The strong direct effect may have resulted from the release of non-volatile nematicidal compounds. Therefore, when using biofumigation with broccoli to control M. incognita, the tissue should be thoroughly and evenly mixed through the soil layer(s) where the target nematodes occur. Effects on saprophytic nematodes were the reverse. Amended soil layers had much greater numbers of saprophytic nematodes than non-amended layers, and there was no indirect effect of amendments on saprophytic nematodes in adjacent non-amended layers.
PMCID: PMC2586485  PMID: 19259479
amendment; biofumigation; broccoli; Brassica oleracea; management; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; soil
7.  Effect of Compost and Maize Cultivars on Plant-parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  1997;29(4S):731-736.
Effects of yard waste compost and maize (Zea mays) cultivar on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were examined in four experiments in north Florida. In one experiment, eight maize cultivars were evaluated; the other three experiments involved split-plot designs with compost treatments as main plots and maize cultivars as subplots. The three compost treatments used in these experiments were: 269 mt/ha of a yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incolporated into the soil, and an unamended control. No interactions between compost treatment and cultivar occurred in any experiment. Effects of compost treatment on Mesocriconema spp., Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus spp. were inconsistent, whereas significant effects of compost on population densities of Paratrichodorus minor were found on four of six sampling occasions. Cultivar affected final population densities (Pf) of M. incognita. In two tests, Pf of M. incognita on a Florida subtropical experimental hybrid (Howard III) were only 36% and 23% of Pf on the standard tropical hybrid (Pioneer Brand X304C). In an integrated approach to management of nematodes in maize, the effects of compost amendment and culfivar choice acted independently. Apparently, cultivar choice is more important than amendment with yard waste compost for management of M. incognita population levels in a maize rotation crop.
PMCID: PMC2619831  PMID: 19274277
compost; cultural practice; host plant resistance; integrated pest management; Meloidogyne incognita; mulch; nematode; organic amendment; Paratrichodorus minor; sustainable agriculture; Zea mays
8.  Effect of Yard Waste Compost on Nematode Densities and Maize Yield 
Journal of Nematology  1996;28(4S):655-660.
The effects of a yard waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and forage yield of maize (Zea mays) were determined over three seasons in two sites in north Florida. In each test, the experimental design was a randomized complete block with five replications and three treatments: 269 mt/ha of a yard waste compost C:N ratio = 35:1 to 46:1) applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Of the nematodes found in these sites, Paratrichodorus minor was affected most by compost treatments, with densities at harvest reduced by a compost treatment on at least one sampling date in all three seasons (P ≤ 0.05). Meloidogyne incognita was not consistently affected by compost application. Densities of Criconemella spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were reduced by compost treatment much more often in the third season than in the first two seasons of the study (P ≤ 0.05). Forage yield of maize was increased (P ≤ 0.05) by both compost treatments in every test, with yield increases ranging from 10% to 212% over yield levels in unamended control plots and varying with season (P ≤ 0.05). Use of yard waste compost on agricultural sites may provide a beneficial amendment for crop production and a convenient means for disposal of a common waste product from urban areas. Effects of this compost with high C:N ratio on nematodes were long-term, often not appearing until the third season of the study.
PMCID: PMC2619736  PMID: 19277191
C:N ratio; compost; Criconemella spp.; cultural practice; maize; management; Meloidogyne incognita; mulch; nematode; organic amendment; Paratrichodorus minor; Pratylenchus spp.; sustainable agriculture; Zea mays
9.  Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(4S):616-623.
The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop.
PMCID: PMC2620323  PMID: 19274256
compost; Hibiscus esculentus; Meloidogyne arenaria; nematode; organic amendments; pest management; root-knot nematode; sustainable agriculture
10.  Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(1):36-41.
Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, stems, or leaves of G. pulchella was effective in controlling M. incognita on I. reptans. Tissue extracts of G. pulchella were lethal to various plant-parasitic nematodes but were innocuous to free-living nematodes. Root exudates of G. pulchella were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 250 ppm or higher. Gaillardia pulchella could be used to manage M. incognita as a rotation crop, a co-planted crop, or a soil amendment for control of root-knot nematode.
PMCID: PMC2620738  PMID: 19262785
antagonistic plants; Asteraceous plants; Ipomoea repans; root exudates; rotation; soil amendment; tissue extracts
11.  Rate Response of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Nematode Control in Spring Squash in Deep Sand Soils 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(4S):524-530.
The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) formulated with chloropicrin is viewed as a likely alternative for replacing methyl bromide in Florida when the latter is phased out in 2005. Therefore, it behooves us to learn more about using 1,3-D in deep, sand soils. Two trials were conducted on spring squash to determine the most effective rate of 1,3-D for the control of Meloidogyne spp. Rates tested included 0, 56, 84, 112, and 168 liters/ha of 1,3-D applied broadcast with conventional chisels 30 cm deep. The chisel traces were sealed by disking immediately after fumigant application. Cucurbita pepo cv. Sunex 9602 was sown 7 days after fumigation. The population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil and root-knot nematode galling severity was determined at 34 and 65 days after planting (DAP), and the number of marketable fruit and yield were determined. The number of fruit and yield were higher in all plots that received 1,3-D than in untreated controls. The number of Meloidogyne spp. second-stage juveniles was lower in all fumigated plots in trial 1 at both 34 and 65 DAP, and in trial 2 at 65 DAP, than in the untreated control. The severity of root galling was decreased with all treatments in both trials, with broadcast rates of 84, 112, and 168 liters/ha providing the best control of root-knot nematodes in spring squash grown in sandy soil. Satisfactory management of root knot on squash grown in early spring months in north Florida can be achieved with low rates of 1,3-D.
PMCID: PMC2620479  PMID: 19271005
Cucurbita pepo; 1,3-dichloropropene; efficacy; fumigation; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; rate; root-knot nematode; squash
12.  Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(3):290-296.
Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment.
PMCID: PMC2620769  PMID: 19262819
free-living nematode; nematode-trapping fungi; organic amendments; root-knot nematode; soil ecosystem; soil nutrient; sunn hemp; tillage
13.  Effects of Midas® on Nematodes in Commercial Floriculture Production in Florida 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(1):17-21.
Cut flower producers currently have limited options for nematode control. Four field trials were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate Midas® (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50) for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) on Celosia argentea var. cristata in a commercial floriculture production field in southeastern Florida. Midas (224 kg/ha) was compared to methyl bromide:chloropicrin (98:2, 224 kg/ha), and an untreated control. Treatments were evaluated for effects on Meloidogyne arenaria J2 and free-living nematodes in soil through each season, and roots at the end of each season. Plant growth and root disease were also assessed. Population levels of nematodes isolated from soil were highly variable in all trials early in the season, and generally rebounded by harvest, sometimes to higher levels in fumigant treatments than in the untreated control. Although population levels of nematodes in soil were not significantly reduced during the growing season, nematodes in roots and galling at the end of the season were consistently reduced with both methyl bromide and Midas compared to the untreated control. Symptoms of phytotoxicity were observed in Midas treatments during the first year and were attributed to Fe toxicity. Fertilization was adjusted during the second year to investigate potential fumigant/fertilizer interactions. Interactions occurred at the end of the fourth trial between methyl bromide and fertilizers with respect to root-knot nematode J2 isolated from roots and galling. Fewer J2 were isolated from roots treated with a higher level of Fe (3.05%) in the form of Fe sucrate, and galling was reduced in methyl bromide treated plots treated with this fertilizer compared to Fe EDTA. Reduced galling was also seen with Midas in Fe sucrate fertilized plots compared to Fe EDTA. This research demonstrates the difficulty of reducing high root-knot nematode population levels in soil in subtropical conditions in production fields that have been repeatedly fumigated. Although soil population density may remain stable, root population density and disease can be reduced.
PMCID: PMC3380505  PMID: 22736832
Celosia argentea; floriculture; iodomethane; methyl bromide; root-knot nematodes; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; Midas®
14.  Nematode Population Fluctuations during Decomposition of Specific Organic Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(1):37-44.
Population densities of nematodes in field soil without plants were monitored for 10 months following application of organic amendments to pots in a greenhouse. The four treatments consisted of three different kinds of organic amendments: homogeneous crop residues of maize (Zea mays, C:N = 48.0:1), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum, C:N = 32.9:1), or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens, C:N = 18.6:1), plus a control without any amendment. Plant-parasitic nematodes declined in all treatments due to absence of a food source. Bacterivore numbers increased following amendment application and remained greater than initial population levels until 4 months after application. Fungivore numbers were higher than initial levels until 6 months after amendment application and did not decline below the initial numbers during the course of the experiment. On several sampling dates, the bacterivorous genera Cervidellus and Eucephalobus were most abundant in pots with maize residues. Among the fungivores, Aphelenchoides numbers early in the experiment were greatest in pots amended with velvetbean, whereas numbers of Aphelenchus, Nothotylenchus, and Tylenchidae (mainly Filenchus) were greatest during the latter half of the experiment following the maize amendment. Omnivorous nematodes, particularly Eudorylaimus, showed two peaks in abundance during the course of the experiment. Results provided some evidence that population levels of some genera of bacterivores and fungivores may be affected by specific organic amendments.
PMCID: PMC2620342  PMID: 19270873
bacterivores; fungivores; nematode community; omnivores; plant parasitics; predators; soil ecology; trophic groups
15.  Effects of Chicken-excrement Amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(1):71-77.
The effects of chicken litter on Meloidogyne arenaria in tomato plants cv. Rutgers were determined in the greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into a sandy soil amended with five rates of chicken litter and inoculated with 2,000 M. arenaria eggs. After 10 days, total numbers of nematodes in the roots decreased with increasing rates of chicken litter. After 46 days, egg numbers also decreased with increasing litter rates. In another experiment, soil was amended with two litter types, N-P-K fertilizer, and the two primary constituents of chicken litter (manure and pine-shaving bedding). After 10 days, numbers of nematodes in roots were smaller in chicken-excrement treatments as compared to nonexcrement treatments. At 46 days, there were fewer nematode eggs in chicken-excrement treatments compared to nonexcrement treatments. Egg numbers also were smaller for fertilizer and pine-shaving amendments as compared to nonamended controls. Chicken litter and manure amendments suppressed plant growth by 10 days after inoculation but enhanced root weights at 46 days after inoculation. Amendment of soil with chicken litter suppressed M. arenaria and may provide practical control of root-knot nematodes as part of an integrated management system.
PMCID: PMC2619344  PMID: 19279745
amendment; biological control; chicken litter; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne arenaria; nematode; penetration; root-knot nematode; tomato
16.  Effects of Solarization and Ammonium Amendments on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(4S):537-541.
The effects of soil solarization and ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate against plant-parasitic nematodes on yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) and on vinca (Catharanthus roseus) were evaluated at two sites. Solarization for 3 weeks in the spring suppressed population levels of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Criconemella spp., and Dolichodorus heterocephalus throughout the growing season on both crops at both sites. Levels of Meloidogyne incognita were suppressed initially, but population densities increased by the end of the crop in several cases. In one site, numbers of Paratrichodorus minor resurged following solarization to levels that were greater than those present in unsolarized control plots. The effect of solarization was not enhanced by combination with ammonium amendments, but, in one site, application of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate resulted in lower numbers of B. longicaudatus than in the unamended control. Additional research and improved efficacy of candidate amendments are required before they can be successfully integrated with solarization for nematode management. Efficacy of solarization against plant-parasitic nematodes was achieved despite a relatively short (3 weeks) solarization period.
PMCID: PMC2620486  PMID: 19271007
ammonium bicarbonate; ammonium sulfate; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; Catharanthus roseus; Cucurbita pepo; Dolichodorus heterocephalus; integrated pest management; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; Paratrichodorus minor; squash; sustainable agriculture; vinca
17.  Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):272-278.
Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested.
PMCID: PMC3873904  PMID: 24379486
Anaerobic soil disinfestation; ASD; Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba; Canavalia ensiformis; cover crops; cowpea; Eruca sativa; Helianthus annuus; jack bean; management; Meloidogyne arenaria; M. incognita; M. javanica; mustard; pearl millet; Pennisetum glaucum; root-knot nematodes; sorghum-sudangrass; sunflower; Vigna unguiculata
18.  The effects of Brassica green manures on plant parasitic and free living nematodes used in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(2):119-121.
Brassica plants once incorporated into soil as green manures have recently been shown to have biofumigant properties and have the potential of controlling plant-parasitic nematodes. In Washington State, plant-parasitic nematodes are successfully managed with synthetic nematicides. However, some of the synthetic nematicides became unavailable recently or their supply is limited leaving growers with few choices to control plant-parasitic nematodes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of Brassica green manures on their own and in combination with reduced rates of synthetic nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and free living nematodes. In a greenhouse experiment and field trials in three seasons, Brassica green manures in combination with half the recommended rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, Telone) reduced root knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi to below detection levels, and reduced lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans and stubby root nematodes, Paratrichodorus allius, to below economic thresholds. The combination treatments did not affect the beneficial free-living nematode populations and the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas. The total cost of growing and soil-incorporating Brassica crops as green manures in combination with reduced rates of 1,3-D was approximately 35% lower than the present commercial costs for application for the full rate of this fumigant. Integrating conventional management practices with novel techniques fosters sustainability of production systems and can increase economic benefit to producers while reducing chemical input.
PMCID: PMC3380464  PMID: 22791922
Plant parasitic nematodes; free living nematodes; Brassicaceae green manures; Telone
19.  Apoplastic Venom Allergen-like Proteins of Cyst Nematodes Modulate the Activation of Basal Plant Innate Immunity by Cell Surface Receptors 
PLoS Pathogens  2014;10(12):e1004569.
Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. Here, we show that venom allergen-like proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Venom allergen-like proteins are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of the venom allergen-like protein Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and two other venom allergen-like proteins from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple unrelated pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic venom allergen-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana involved extracellular protease-based host defenses and non-photochemical quenching in chloroplasts. Non-photochemical quenching regulates the initiation of the defense-related programmed cell death, the onset of which was commonly suppressed by venom allergen-like proteins from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these venom allergen-like proteins only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of venom allergen-like proteins into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize venom allergen-like proteins to suppress the activation of defenses by immunogenic breakdown products in damaged host tissue.
Author Summary
Plant-parasitic nematodes have a major impact on global food security, as they reduce the annual yield of food crops by approximately 10 percent. For decades, the application of non-selective toxic chemicals to infested soils controlled outbreaks of plant-parasitic nematodes. The recent bans on most of these chemicals has redirected attention towards a wider use of basal, broad-spectrum immunity to nematodes in crop cultivars. However, it is currently not known if this most ancient layer of immunity affects host invasion by plant-parasitic nematodes at all. Basal immunity in plants relies on the detection of molecular patterns uniquely associated with infections in the apoplast by surface-localized receptors. Here, we demonstrate that venom allergen-like proteins in secretions of soil-borne cyst nematodes suppress immune responses mediated by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors. Migratory stages of cyst nematodes most likely deliver venom allergen-like proteins together with a range of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes into the apoplast of host cells. We therefore conclude that these nematodes most likely secrete venom allergen-like proteins to modulate host responses triggered by the release of immunogenic fragments of damaged plant cell walls.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004569
PMCID: PMC4263768  PMID: 25500833
20.  Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Its Damage to Lettuce Grown in a Mineral Soil Amended with Chitin and Biocontrol Organisms 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4S):719-725.
Chitin was used as soil amendment in fiberglass field microplots, alone or with one or a combination of two to three species of Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Streptomyces costaricanus. Sudangrass and rapeseed were planted as cover crops and incorporated into soil as green manure amendments. Chitin amendment alone increased the marketable yield of lettuce in 1995 and reduced root-galling ratings and the reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla in both 1995 and 1996. Green manure amendments of sudangrass and rapeseed increased total and marketable yields of lettuce, and decreased root-galling ratings and the reproduction of M. hapla in 1996. Hirsutella rhossiliensis in combination with chitin increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1995. The combination of B. thuringiensis, S. costaricanus, and chitin either with or without P. marquandii increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1996. In most cases, however, the nematode-antagonistic organisms did not improve lettuce yield or further suppression of M. hapla compared to the chitin amendment alone. The introduced fungi were recoverable from the infested soil. The rifampicin-resistant mutant of B. thuringiensis was not isolated at the end of the season.
PMCID: PMC2620412  PMID: 19270942
Bacillus thuringiensis; biological control; chitin amendment; cover crop; green manure; Hirsutella rhossiliensis; Lactuca sativa; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; northern root-knot nematode; Paecilomyces marquandii; Streptomyces costaricanus; Verticillium chlamydosporium
21.  Non-Traditional Legumes as Potential Soil Amendments for Nematode Control 
Journal of Nematology  2002;34(4):358-361.
Dried ground plant tissues from 20 leguminous species were mixed with Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil at 1, 2 or 2.5, and 5% (w/w) and incubated for 1 week at room temperature (21 to 27°C). Tomato ('Rutgers') seedlings were transplanted into infested soil to determine nematode viability. Most tissues reduced gall numbers below the non-amended controls. The tissue amendments that were most effective include: Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria retusa, Indigofera hirsuta, I. nummularifolia, I. spicata, I. suffruticosa, I. tinctoria, and Tephrosia adunca. Although certain tissues reduced the tomato dry weights, particularly at the higher amendment rates (5%), some tissues resulted in greater dry weights. These non-traditional legumes, known to contain bioactive phytochemicals, may offer considerable promise as soil amendments for control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Not only do these legumes reduce root-knot nematodes but some of them also enhance plant height and dry weight.
PMCID: PMC2620579  PMID: 19265956
bioactive; genetic resources; legumes; root-knot nematode; soil amendment
22.  Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(2):226-231.
The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop. Nematode population densities were significantly lower at the termination of the cucumber crop in plots following Celebrity than in plots following Heatwave. Premium and marketable yields of cucumbers were higher in plots following Celebrity than in plots following Heatwave. Application of ethoprop through drip irrigation at 4.6 kg a.i./ha reduced root galling on the cucumber crop but had no effect on the nematode population density in the soil at crop termination. Ethoprop did not affect cucumber yield. These results indicate that planting a resistant tomato cultivar in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system is more effective than applying ethoprop for managing M. incognita.
PMCID: PMC2620288  PMID: 19274214
cucumber; cultural control; double crop; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; root-knot nematode; tomato; trellising
23.  Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(3):267-274.
In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern.
PMCID: PMC4176409  PMID: 25276000
Calendula; Camelina sativa; canola meal; condensed distiller’s solubles; Cuphea; field pennycress; Glycine max; green manure; Heterodera glycines; management; marigold; organic fertilizer; organic soil amendment; soybean; soybean cyst nematode; spring camelina; Thlaspi arvense; turkey manure ash
24.  The multi-year effects of repeatedly growing cotton with moderate resistance to Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(2):140-145.
Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine Land DP458 B/R (susceptible standard, 0% suppression). Cotton was grown in fumigated and non-fumigated plots to measure yield loss. Each genotype and nematicide combination was planted in the same place for three years at two sites to document cumulative effects. In 2006, following three years of the different genotypes, all plots at one site were planted with susceptible cotton to document residual effects of planting resistant genotypes. Root galling and nematode population densities in the soil were significantly lower, and percentage yield suppression was numerically lower, when moderately resistant cotton was grown compared to the susceptible standard in both fields in all three years. Differences between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes are established quickly (after only one season) and then either maintained at similar levels or slightly increased in subsequent years depending on initial nematode levels. However, when susceptible cotton was grown following three years of the moderately resistant genotypes, the nematode suppression provided by moderate resistance was undetectable by the end of the first season. Moderately resistant cotton genotypes are more beneficial than previously reported and should be pursued for nematode management. Rotation of moderately resistant and susceptible cotton could be used along with nematicides to manage root-knot nematodes in a continuous cotton cropping system and reduce selection pressure on the nematodes.
PMCID: PMC3365309  PMID: 22661787
Cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; host-plant resistance; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode management; southern root-knot nematode
25.  Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(2):75-89.
Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and duration of biological control. In future research, greater use should be made of bioassays that measure nematode suppression because changes in abundance of particular antagonists may not affect biological control of plant parasites.
PMCID: PMC4077175  PMID: 24987159
antagonists; biological control; crop rotation; farming practices; organic amendments; pesticides; plant genotype; tillage

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