Stability of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood was determined in pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. and C. annuum L.) at 24, 28, and 32 °C. Reactions of the C. annuum cultivars Charleston Belle and Keystone Resistant Giant and the C. chinense cultigens PA-426 and PA-350 to M. incognita were compared. Charleston Belle is homozygous for the N gene that confers resistance to M. incognita in C. annuum, and Keystone Resistant Giant is the susceptible recurrent parent of Charleston Belle. PA-426 is homozygous for a single dominant resistance gene that is allelic to the N gene, and PA-350 is susceptible. Root galling, egg-mass production, numbers of eggs per g fresh root, and reproductive factor of M. incognita increased for all pepper genotypes as temperature increased. Severity of root galling and nematode reproduction were less for PA-426 and Charleston Belle compared to PA-350 and Keystone Resistant Giant at all temperatures. However, both PA-426 and Charleston Belle exhibited a partial loss of resistance at the higher temperatures. For example, at 32 °C, the numbers of M. incognita eggs per g fresh root and the reproductive index for PA-426 and Charleston Belle were in the susceptible range. Nevertheless, the gall index for both cultivars was still within the resistant range. Both PA-350 and Keystone Resistant Giant exhibited highly susceptible reactions at 28 and 32 °C. Although the resistances of PA-426 and Charleston Belle were somewhat compromised at high temperatures, cultivars possessing these resistances will still be useful for managing M. incognita under high soil temperatures.
Capsicum annuum L.; C. chinense Jacq.; habanero; heat stability; Meloidogyne incognita; resistance; root-knot nematode; Scotch Bonnet pepper; soilborne pathogen; soil temperature; vegetable breeding
Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide and host resistance were compared for managing the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in pepper. Three pepper cultivars (Carolina Cayenne, Keystone Resistant Giant, and California Wonder) that differed in resistance to M. incognita were grown in field plots that had been fumigated with methyl bromide (98% CH₃Br : 2% CCl₃NO₂ [w/w]) before planting or left untreated. Carolina Cayenne is a well-adapted cayenne-type pepper that is highly resistant to M. incognita. The bell-type peppers Keystone Resistant Giant and California Wonder are intermediate to susceptible and susceptible, respectively. None of the cultivars exhibited root galling in the methyl bromide fumigated plots and nematode reproduction was minimal (<250 eggs/g fresh root), indicating that the fumigation treatment was highly effective in controlling M. incognita. Root galling of Carolina Cayenne and nematode reproduction were minimal, and fruit yields were not reduced in the untreated plots. The root-galling reaction for Keystone Resistant Giant was intermediate (gall index = 2.9, on a scale of 1 to 5), and nematode reproduction was moderately high. However, yields of Keystone Resistant Giant were not reduced in untreated plots. Root galling was severe (gall index = 4.3) on susceptible California Wonder, nematode reproduction was high, and fruit yields were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in untreated plots. The resistance exhibited by Carolina Cayenne and Keystone Resistant Giant provides an alternative to methyl bromide for reducing yield losses by southern root-knot nematodes in pepper. The high level of resistance of Carolina Cayenne also suppresses population densities of M. incognita.
Capsicum annuum; Meloidogyne incognita; methyl bromide alternatives; nematode management; nematode resistance; pepper; root-knot nematodes
Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as rootstocks showed moderate and relatively high resistance to M. incognita, respectively. In M. incognita-infested soil in a greenhouse, AR-96023 supported approximately 6-fold less nematode eggs per gram root and produced about 2-fold greater yield compared to a nongrafted commercial variety. The commercial variety grafted on AR-96023 produced a yield as great as the non-grafted variety in the root-knot nematode-free greenhouse. Some resistant varieties and accessions used as rootstocks produced lower yields (P < 0.01) than that of the non-grafted variety in the noninfested greenhouse. Use of rootstocks with nematode-resistance and graft compatibility may be effective for control of root-knot nematodes on susceptible pepper.
Capsicum spp.; graft compatibility; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode control; pepper; resistance; root-knot nematodes; rootstock
Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar ‘California Wonder’ and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar ‘LS2341 (JP187992)’, which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding.
pepper (Capsicum annuum L.); SSR markers; genetic map; 12 linkage groups
The tobamovirus resistance gene L3 of Capsicum chinense was mapped using an intra-specific F2 population (2,016 individuals) of Capsicum annuum cultivars, into one of which had been introduced the C. chinenseL3 gene, and an inter-specific F2 population (3,391 individuals) between C. chinense and Capsicum frutescence. Analysis of a BAC library with an AFLP marker closely linked to L3-resistance revealed the presence of homologs of the tomato disease resistance gene I2. Partial or full-length coding sequences were cloned by degenerate PCR from 35 different pepper I2 homologs and 17 genetic markers were generated in the inter-specific combination. The L3 gene was mapped between I2 homolog marker IH1-04 and BAC-end marker 189D23M, and located within a region encompassing two different BAC contigs consisting of four and one clones, respectively. DNA fiber FISH analysis revealed that these two contigs are separated from each other by about 30 kb. DNA fiber FISH results and Southern blotting of the BAC clones suggested that the L3 locus-containing region is rich in highly repetitive sequences. Southern blot analysis indicated that the two BAC contigs contain more than ten copies of the I2 homologs. In contrast to the inter-specific F2 population, no recombinant progeny were identified to have a crossover point within two BAC contigs consisting of seven and two clones in the intra-specific F2 population. Moreover, distribution of the crossover points differed between the two populations, suggesting linkage disequilibrium in the region containing the L locus.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0848-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
This study evaluated the types of gene action governing the inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora nicotianae necrosis in populations derived from two crosses involving two susceptible (Beldi and Nabeul II) and one resistant (CM334) cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Populations, composed of Pr, Ps, F1 , F 2 , BC 1 Pr, and BC 1 Ps generations, were inoculated with six P. nicotianae isolates. Generation means analysis indicated that an additive-dominance model was appropriate for P. nicotianae isolates Pn Ko1 , Pn Ko2 and Pn Kr1 , which showed low aggressiveness in the two crosses. For the more aggressive isolates Pn Bz1 , Pn Bz2 and Pn Kr2 , epistasis was an integral component of resistance in the two crosses. The presence of epistasis in the resistance of pepper to P. nicotianae was dependent on the level of aggressiveness of the isolates. Selection in pepper with less aggressive isolates was efficient, but not with more aggressive isolates; on the other hand, selection with more aggressive isolates was more stable. The minimum number of genes controlling resistance was estimated at up to 2.71. In the majority of cases, the additive variance was significant and greater than the environmental and dominance variance.
additive model; best fit model; gene effect; heredity
Field trials were conducted during 1986, 1988, 1989, and 1991 to compare the effects of 1,3-dichloropropene, fenamiphos, and carbofuran on yield and quality of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum) in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. When compared with untreated plots, numbers of M. incognita juveniles recovered from soil 60 and(or) 90 days after chile pepper emergence were reduced (P = 0.05) following 1,3-D treatment every year except 1986. Nematode numbers were also reduced (P = 0.05) by fenamiphos in 1989. Chile pepper yields were significantly higher than those in untreated control plots (P = 0.05) all 4 years in plots treated with 1,3-D and in 1989 in plots treated with fenamiphos. Use of carbofuran did not significantly reduce nematode numbers or enhance yields in these experiments. Green chile pepper fruit quality was enhanced (P = 0.05) following 1,3-D treatments in 1988 and 1989 but was unaffected by fenamiphos or carbofuran application. Increasing placement depth of 1,3-D from 28 to 48 cm increased (P = 0.05) red chile pepper yield compared with that obtained with conventional placement in 1988 only, and did not affect green chile pepper yield.
application technique; Capsicum annuum; carbofuran; chile pepper; crop quality; depth of placement; fenamiphos; fumigation; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; 1,3-dichloropropene; root-knot nematode; yield
Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, whereas race 2 was more frequent than race 1 in the Dehradun, Farrukhabad, Hardoi, and Sitapur districts. The overall frequencies were 70% and 30% for race 1 and race 2, respectively, in the study area.
Capsicum annum cultivars; isolate; Meloidogyne javanica; race; root-knot nematode; pathogenic variability; pepper
The effects of Meloidogyne incognita on the Big Jim, Jalapeno, and New Mexico No. 6 chile (Capsicum annuum) cultivars were investigated in microplots for two growing seasons. All three cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and reacted similarly to different initial populations of this nematode. Severe stunting and yield suppressions occurred at all initial M. incognita densities tested ranging from 385 to 4,230 eggs and larvae/500 cm³ soil. Regression analysis of the microplot data from a sandy loam soil showed yield losses of 31% for the 1978 season and 25% for the 1979 season for the three cultivars for each 10-fold increase in the initial population of M. incognita.
Capsicum annuum; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; pepper
Meloidogyne incognita-infected and noninfected tubers of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) were treated with 56 L/ha 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots and subsequently examined for tuber and nematode viability in the greenhouse using a chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) bioassay system. The study was conducted three times. Nutsedge tuber viability and M. incognita harbored in both yellow and purple nutsedge tubers were unaffected by 1,3-D treatment. Nematode reproduction on nutsedges and associated chile pepper plants varied among years, possibly due to differing levels of tuber infection or soil temperature, but was not affected by fumigation. The presence of M. incognita resulted in greater yellow nutsedge tuber germination and reproduction. The efficacy of 1,3-D for management of M. incognita in chile pepper production is likely to be reduced when nutsedges are present in high numbers, reinforcing the importance of managing these weeds and nematodes simultaneously.
Capsicum annuum; chile pepper; Cyperus esculentus; Cyperus rotundus; 1,3-dichloropropene; fumigant; management; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; perennial weed; purple nutsedge; root-knot nematode; tuber; yellow nutsedge
Variability in reproduction and pathogenicity of 12 populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 was evaluated on Florunner peanut, Centennial soybean, Rutgers tomato, G70, K326, and Mc944 tobacco, and Carolina Cayenne, Mississippi Nemaheart, and Santanka pepper. Differences among M. arenaria populations in rates of egg production 45 days after inoculation were observed for all cultivars except Santanka pepper. Differences among populations in dry top weights or fresh root weights were recorded on all cultivars. Numbers of nematode eggs produced on Florunner peanut varied from 3,419 to 11,593/g fresh root weight. On resistant tobacco cultivars (G70 and K326), one nematode population produced high numbers of eggs (12,042 and 6,499/g fresh root weight on G70 and K326, respectively), whereas the other populations produced low numbers of eggs (less than 500 eggs/g fresh root weight on both cultivars). Two variant M. arenaria race 1 populations were identified by factor analysis of reproductive rates on all nine cultivars. Differences m reproduction and pathogenicity observed among populations would affect the design of sustainable management systems for M. arenaria.
Arachis hypogaea; Capsicum frutescens; Glycine max; host suitability; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne arenaria; nematode; Nicotiana tabacum; pathogenicity; peanut; pepper; reproduction; soybean; tomato; tobacco
An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC–MS and headspace GC–MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis using AFLP markers confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of accessions according to Capsicum species and separated C. baccatum from the C. annuum–C. chinense–C. frutescens complex. Species-specific clustering was also observed when accessions were grouped based on their semi-polar metabolite profiles. In total 88 semi-polar metabolites could be putatively identified. A large proportion of these metabolites represented conjugates of the main pepper flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and luteolin) decorated with different sugar groups at different positions along the aglycone. In addition, a large group of acyclic diterpenoid glycosides, called capsianosides, was found to be highly abundant in all C. annuum genotypes. In contrast to the variation in semi-polar metabolites, the variation in volatiles corresponded well to the differences in pungency between the accessions. This was particularly true for branched fatty acid esters present in pungent accessions, which may reflect the activity through the acyl branch of the metabolic pathway leading to capsaicinoids. In addition, large genetic variation was observed for many well-established pepper aroma compounds. These profiling data can be used in breeding programs aimed at improving metabolite-based quality traits such as flavour and health-related metabolites in pepper fruits.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0432-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Capsicum; Metabolite profiling; Semi-polar compounds; Volatiles; Pungency; AFLP
The efficacy of clean fallow, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus), snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pepper (Capsicum annuum) production was evaluated in field tests from 1993 to 1995. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra than on snapbean or pepper. Application of fenamiphos at 6.7 kg a.i./ha did not suppress numbers of nematodes on any sampling date when compared with untreated plots. The lack of efficacy could be the result of microbial degradation of the nematicide. Application of fenamiphos suppressed root-gall development on okra following fallow and 1-year sod in 1993, but not thereafter. A few galls were observed on roots of snapbean following 2- and 3-year fallow but none following 1-, 2-, and 3-year bermudagrass sod. Population densities of Pythium aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, and Rhizoctonia solani in soil after planting vegetables were suppressed by 2- or 3-year sod compared with fallow but were not affected by fenamiphos. Yields of snapbean, pepper, and okra did not differ between fallow and 1-year sod. In the final year of the study, yields of all crops were greater following 3-year sod than following fallow. Application of fenamiphos prior to planting each crop following fallow or sod did not affect yields.
Bermudagrass; Capsicum annuum; Gynodon dactylon; Cyperus esculentus; fenamiphos; Hibiscus esculentus; management; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; nematode; nutsedge; okra; pepper; Phaseolus vulgaris; resistance; root-knot nematode; snapbean; sod-based rotation
Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection.
Capsicum annuum; chile pepper; Cyperus esculentus; host-parasite relationship; inoculum source; interaction; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; weed; yellow nutsedge
The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Together with DNA fingerprints derived from AFLP markers, we evaluated variation in fruit and plant morphology of plants collected across the species native range in South America and evaluated these characters in combination with the unique geography, climate and ecology at different sites where plants originated.
The present study mapped the ecogeographic distribution, analyzed the spatial genetic structure, and assessed the relationship between the spatial genetic pattern and the variation of morphological traits in a diverse C. baccatum germplasm collection spanning the species distribution. A combined diversity analysis was carried out on the USDA-ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection using data from GIS, morphological traits and AFLP markers. The results demonstrate that the C. baccatum collection covers wide geographic areas and is adapted to divergent ecological conditions in South America ranging from cool Andean highland to Amazonia rainforest. A high level of morphological diversity was evident in the collection, with fruit weight the leading variable. The fruit weight distribution pattern was compatible to AFLP-based clustering analysis for the collection. A significant spatial structure was observed in the C. baccatum gene pool. Division of the domesticated germplasm into two major regional groups (Western and Eastern) was further supported by the pattern of spatial population structure.
The results reported improve our understanding of the combined effects of geography, ecology and human intervention on organization of the C. baccatum genepool. The results will facilitate utilization of C. baccatum for crop improvement and species conservation by providing a framework for efficient germplasm collection management and guidance for future plant acquisitions.
Meloidogyne enterolobii is widely considered to be an aggressive root-knot nematode species that is able to reproduce on root-knot nematode-resistant tomato and pepper cultivars. In greenhouse experiments, M. enterolobii isolates 1 and 2 from Switzerland were able to reproduce on tomato cultivars carrying the Mi-1 resistance gene as well as an N-carrying pepper cultivar. Reproduction factors (Rf) ranged between 12 and 109 depending on the plant cultivar, with M. enterolobii isolate 2 being more virulent when compared to isolate 1. In contrast, M. arenaria completely failed to reproduce on these resistant tomato and pepper cultivars. Although some variability in virulence and effectiveness of root-knot nematode-resistance genes was detected, none of the plant cultivars showed Rf values less than 1 or less than 10% of the reproduction observed on the susceptible cv. ‘Moneymaker’ (Rf = 23-44) used to characterize resistance. The ability of M. enterolobii to overcome the resistance of tomato and pepper carrying the Mi-1 and the N gene makes it difficult to manage this root-knot nematode species, particularly in organic farming systems where chemical control is not an option.
Capsicum annuum; resistance; root-knot nematodes; Solanum lycopersicon
Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj ‘Pacific Gold’ and Sa ‘IdaGold’ were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on pepper (Capsicum annuum) without phytotoxicity. Rates of soil application (% w/w) for the phytotoxicity study were: 0.5 Sa, 0.2 Bj, 0.25 Sa + 0.25 Bj, 0.375 Sa + 0.125 Bj, 0.125 Sa + 0.375 Bj, and 0, applied 0 – 5 weeks before transplant. Overall, 0.2% Bj was the least toxic meal to pepper seedlings. By comparison, 0.5% S. alba seed meal did not reduce lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination at week 0, but all seed meal treatments containing B. juncea prevented or significantly reduced germination at week 0. The seed meals did not affect lettuce seed germination at weeks 1-5, but hypocotyl growth was reduced by all except 0.2% Bj at weeks 1, 4 and 5. Brassica juncea and Sa meals were tested for M. incognita suppression at 0.2, 0.15, 0.1 and 0.05%; mixtures were 0.1% Sa + 0.1% Bj, 0.15% Sa + 0.05% Bj, and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj. All treatments were applied 2 weeks before transplant. The 0.2% Bj and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj treatments overall had the longest shoots and highest fresh weights. Eggs per g root were lowest with 0.1 – 0.2% Bj amendments and the seed meal mixtures. The results indicate that Bj and some Bj + Sa mixtures can be applied close to transplant to suppress M. incognita populations on pepper; consequently, a seed meal mixture could be selected to provide activity against more than one pest or pathogen. For pepper, care should be taken in formulating mixtures so that Sa rates are low compared to Bj.
amendment; biofuel byproducts; Brassica; glucosinolate; management; Meloidogyne incognita; mustard seed meal; root-knot nematode; Sinapis
Resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3, has been identified, incorporated, and deployed into commercial cultivars of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. Cultivars with resistance to other economically important root-knot nematode species attacking tobacco, M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. javanica, and other host-specific races of M. incognita, are not available in the United States. Twenty-eight tobacco genotypes of diverse origin and two standard cultivars, NC 2326 (susceptible) and Speight G 28 (resistant to M. incognita races 1 and 3), were screened for resistance to eight root-knot nematode populations of North Carolina origin. Based on root gall indices at 8 to 12 weeks after inoculation, all genotypes except NC 2326 and Okinawa were resistant to M. arenaria race 1, and races 1 and 3 of M. incognita. Except for slight root galling, genotypes resistant to M. arenaria race 1 responded similarly to races 1 and 3 of M. incognita. All genotypes except NC 2326, Okinawa, and Speight G 28 showed resistance to M. javanica. Okinawa, while supporting lower reproduction of M. javanica than NC 2326, was rated as moderately susceptible. Tobacco breeding lines 81-R-617A, 81-RL- 2K, SA 1213, SA 1214, SA 1223, and SA 1224 were resistant to M. arenaria race 2, and thus may be used as sources of resistance to this pathogen. No resistance to M. hapla and only moderate resistance to races 2 and 4 of M. incognita were found in any of the tobacco genotypes. Under natural field infestations of M. arenaria race 2, nematode development on resistant tobacco breeding lines 81-RL-2K, SA 1214, and SA 1215 was similar to a susceptible cultivar with some nematicide treatments; however, quantity and quality of yield were inferior compared to K 326 plus nematicides.
Javanese root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne species; nematode; resistance; southern root-knot nematode; tobacco
Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick’s law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma and hue angle of fresh- and osmo-oven dried peppers were evaluated. Drying rates occurred predominantly in the falling rate. Moisture diffusivity varied from 8.071 × 10−10–1.048 × 10−8, 7.710 × 10−11–1.018 × 10−9, 9.807 × 10−9–1.746 × 10–8 and 8.748 × 10−10–1.464 × 10−9 m2/s for Bawa, Rodo, Shombo, and Tatashe, respectively. Ea for moisture diffusion during drying of peppers varied from 53.86 to 84.86 kJ/mol and was affected by cultivars and osmotic pretreatment concentration. Osmotic pretreatment and drying temperature had significant effect (p < 0.05) on a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values of dried peppers.
Pepper cultivars; Osmotic dehydration; CIE L* a* b* colour; Effective moisture diffusivity; Activation energy
The reliability of morphological characters and host differential plants for distinguishing between two populations of Meloidogyne incognita was studied. Population A (originally from North Carolina) had incognita-type perineal patterns. A single egg mass subpopulation of population A had a mixture of incognita and acrita perineal patterns with 33% of the patterns atypical for either species. Population B (from Georgia) had predominantly acrita-type patterns with only about 5% atypical patterns. The head shapes of males from both populations were mainly M. incognita. On the basis of stylet length, both populations conformed to M. incognita acrita. Both populations were identified as M. incognita race 1 by reaction on the North Carolina differential hosts. Reactions on azalea and pepper gave no clear identification of the populations. We concluded that there is no relation between perineal pattern, male head shape, and parasitism of host differentials with the two populations studied.
Meloidogyne incognita; races; morphology; taxonomy; parasitism
Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a nutritionally and economically important crop that is cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, condiment, and food additive. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agrobacterium) is a powerful biotechnology tool that could be used in pepper to develop community-based functional genomics resources and to introduce important agronomic traits. However, pepper is considered to be highly recalcitrant for agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and current transformation protocols are either inefficient, cumbersome or highly genotype dependent. The main bottleneck in pepper transformation is the inability to generate cells that are competent for both regeneration and transformation. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Brassica napus BABY BOOM AP2/ERF transcription factor overcomes this bottleneck and can be used to efficiently regenerate transgenic plants from otherwise recalcitrant sweet pepper (C. annuum) varieties. Transient activation of BABY BOOM in the progeny plants induced prolific cell regeneration and was used to produce a large number of somatic embryos that could be converted readily to seedlings. The data highlight the utility of combining biotechnology and classical plant tissue culture approaches to develop an efficient transformation and regeneration system for a highly recalcitrant vegetable crop.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00299-011-1018-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum); Transformation; Agrobacterium; BABY BOOM; Somatic embryogenesis; Regeneration
Interactions among Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and soybean genotype on plant growth and nematode reproduction were studied in a greenhouse. Coker 317 (susceptible to both nematodes) and Gordon (resistant to M. incognita, susceptible to P. brachyurus) were inoculated with increasing initial population densities (Pi) of both nematodes individually and combined. M. incognita and P. brachyurus individually usually suppressed shoot growth of both cultivars, but only root growth on Coker 317 was influenced by a M. incognita × P. brachyurus interaction. Reproduction of both nematodes, although dependent on Pi, was mutually suppressed on Coker 317. P. brachyurus reproduced better on Gordon than on Coker 317 but did not affect resistance to M. incognita. Root systems of Coker 317 were split and inoculated with M. incognita or P. brachyurus or both to determine the nature of the interaction. M. incognita suppressed reproduction of P. brachyurus either when coinhabiting a half-root system or infecting opposing half-root systems; however, P. brachyurus affected M. incognita only if both nematodes infected the same half-root system.
Glycine max; antagonism; concomitant infection; population density; root-knot nematode; lesion nematode
A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani isolates obtained from roots of diseased grapevines also was determined both alone and in combination with M. incognita. Ramsey was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 9.8 to 18.4 in a shadehouse and heated glasshouse, respectively) but was resistant to M. javanica and M. hapla. Colombard was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 24.3 and 41.3, respectively) and M. javanica. Shoot growth was suppressed (by 35%) by M. incognita and, to a lesser extent, by M. hapla. Colombard roots were more severely galled than Ramsey roots by all three species, and nematode reproduction was higher on Colombard. Isolates of R. solani assigned to putative anastomosis groups 2-1 and 4, and an unidentified isolate, colonized and induced rotting of grapevine roots. Ramsey was more susceptible to root rotting than Colombard. Shoot growth was inhibited by up to 15% by several AG 4 isolates and by 20% by the AG 2-1 isolate. AG 4 isolates varied in their virulence. Root rotting was higher when grapevines were inoculated with both M. incognita and R. solani and was highest when nematode inoculation preceded the fungus. Shoot weights were lower when vines were inoculated with the nematode 13 days before the fungus compared with inoculation with both the nematode and the fungus on the same day. It was concluded that both the M. incognita population and some R. solani isolates were virulent against both Colombard and Ramsey, and that measures to prevent spread in nursery stock were therefore important.
disease complex; fungus; grapevine; interaction; Meloidogyne hapla; Meloidogyne incognita; Meloidogyne javanica; nematode; Rhizoctonia solani; root-knot nematode; root rot; Vitis champinii; Vitis vinifera
Few sources of resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) have been utilized to develop resistant cultivars, making this resistance vulnerable to virulence in the pathogen population. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of resistance in five primitive accessions of G. hirsutum (TX1174, TX1440, TX2076, TX2079, and TX2107) and to determine allelic relations with the genes for resistance in the genotypes Clevewilt-6 (CW) and Wild Mexico Jack Jones (WMJJ). A half-diallel experimental design was used to create 28 populations from crosses among these seven sources of resistance and the susceptible cultivar DeltaPine 90 (DP90). Resistance to M. incognita was measured as eggs per g roots in the parents, F1 and F2 generations of each cross. The resistance in CW and WMJJ was inherited as recessive traits, as reported previously for CW, whereas the resistance in the TX accessions was inherited as a dominant trait. Chi square analysis of segregation of resistance in the F2 was used to estimate the numbers of genes that conditioned resistance. Resistance in CW and WMJJ appeared to be a multigenic trait whereas the resistance in the TX accessions best fit either a one or two gene model. The TX accessions were screened with nine SSR markers linked to resistance loci in other cotton genotypes. The TX accessions lacked the allele amplified by SSR marker CR316 and linked to resistance in CW and other resistant genotypes derived from this source. Four of five TX genotypes lacked the amplification products from the marker BNL1231 that is also associated with the resistant allele on Chromosome 11 in WMJJ, CW, NemX, M120 RNR and Auburn 634 RNR. However, all five TX genotypes produced the same amplification products from three SSR markers linked to the resistant allele on Chromosome 14 in M120 RNR and M240 RNR. The TX accessions have unique resistance genes that are likely to be useful in efforts to develop resistant cotton cultivars with increased durability.
Allelic relationships; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; host resistance; inheritance of resistance; Meloidogyne incognita; molecular markers; root-knot nematode
Selected soybean genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in two greenhouse tests. Populations of cyst nematode used in the first test were cultures from field samples originally classified as races 1-5, and those used in the second test included inbred cyst lines that corresponded to races 1, 3, and 4. The original race classification of some cyst populations shifted after repeated culture on susceptible 'Lee 68' soybean. Most of the cyst-resistant soybean cultivars tested were susceptible to M. arenaria and M. javanica. Exceptionally large galls were induced by M. arenaria on roots of Asgrow 5979, Hartwig, and CNS soybean. Hartwig soybean and PI 437654 were resistant to all cultured field populations of cyst nematodes in a first greenhouse test. In the second test, cyst indices of 11.3% and 19.4% were observed on roots of PI 437654 and Hartwig, respectively, when infected with an inbred line (OP50) of H. glycines corresponding to race 4. The cyst-resistant soybean germplasm tested, including Hartwig and PI 437654, supported only low numbers of reniform nematodes. The most severe soybean root necrosis observed, however, was associated with reniform nematode infection.
Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne incognita; M. arenaria; M. javanica; reniform nematode; resistance; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; soybean cyst nematode