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1.  Slit Injection of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Established Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):302-305.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus is a serious problem on bermudagrass, a common warm-season turfgrass, in Florida. The cancellation of organophosphate nematicides necessitates that new management tools be identified for use on sports turf. Postplant application of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) on bermudagrass was evaluated for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course fairways and driving ranges. A series of 10 experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 1,3-D in reducing population densities of B. longicaudatus and enhancing bermudagrass recovery from nematode damage. In 5 of 10 experiments, 1,3-D injected at 46.8 liters/ha was effective in reducing population densities of B. longicaudatus (P < 0.05) compared to untreated plots 2 to 4 weeks after treatment. One month after treatment, population densities of B. longicaudatus ranged from 59% to 97% of those in untreated plots. Nematode suppression generally lasted 2 months or less. Turf visual performance was improved following injection with 1,3-D (P < 0.05) over untreated plots when other factors were not limiting. Turf root development also was enhanced following injection with 1,3-D. Postplant injection of 1,3-D could be a useful nematode management tool for certain sports turf applications.
PMCID: PMC2620649  PMID: 19262765
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Cynodon hybrids; 1,3-dichloropropene; nematicide; nematode; nematode management; soil fumigation; sting nematode; turf
2.  Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Bacillus firmus I-1582 on Golf Course Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(4):331-335.
One of the primary pests of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) on golf courses in the southeastern United States is Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode). In 2011, a commercial formulation of Bacillus firmus I-1582, Nortica 5WG, was launched in the United States for management of plant-parasitic nematodes on turfgrasses. To test the efficacy of late winter/early spring application of this biopesticide on B. longicaudatus, two field trials in 2009 compared B. firmus with fenamiphos and untreated control treatments. In 2011, two additional field trials compared treatment with B. firmus with untreated control only. These trials measured treatment effects on the population density of B. longicaudatus, turf root length, and turf percent green cover. In all four trials, treatment with B. firmus improved root length and decreased numbers of B. longicaudatus in contrast to the untreated. These results indicate that late winter/early spring application of B. firmus is an effective biopesticide treatment for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course bermudagrass.
PMCID: PMC4284084  PMID: 25580025
Bacillus firmus; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biopesticide; Cynodon spp.; management; sting nematode; turfgrass
3.  Efficacy of Methionine Against Ectoparasitic Nematodes on Golf Course Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):217-220.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pathogens of intensely-managed turf used on golf courses. Two of these nematodes that are common in the southeastern US are Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Mesocriconema ornata. Currently, there is a lack of effective treatments that can be used to manage these important pests. Turfgrass field trials evaluated DL-methionine as a turfgrass nematicide against B. longicaudatus and M. ornata. One trial was on a bermudagrass putting green, the other was on zoysiagrass maintained under putting-green conditions. Two rates of methionine, 1120 kg/ha in a single application, and 112 kg/ha applied twice four weeks apart, were compared with untreated control and fenamiphos treatments. Measurements collected included soil nematode counts, turf density, and root lengths. In both trials, 1120 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species (P ≤ 0.1), and 112 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species after two applications. Bermudagrass turf density responded favorably to both methionine rates and root lengths were improved by the 1120 kg/ha rate. Zoysiagrass showed short-term phytotoxicity to methionine, but quickly recovered and treated plots were improved compared to the untreated controls by the end of the trial. These trials indicated that methionine has potential for development as a turfgrass nematicide, but further research is needed to determine how it can best be used.
PMCID: PMC3380498  PMID: 22736817
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; Mesocriconema ornata; nematode management; ring nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass; Zoysia; zoysiagrass
4.  Field Efficacy of Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):8-11.
A commercial formulation of furfural was recently launched in the United States as a turfgrass nematicide. Three field trials evaluated efficacy of this commercial formulation on dwarf bermudagrass putting greens infested primarily with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis, or both these nematodes, and in some cases with Mesocriconema ornatum or Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. In all these trials, furfural improved turf health but did not reduce population densities of B. longicaudatus, M. graminis, or the other plant-parasitic nematodes present. In two additional field trials, efficacy of furfural at increasing depths in the soil profile (0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 15 cm) against B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass was evaluated. Reduction in population density of B. longicaudatus was observed in furfural-treated plots for depths below 5 cm on several dates during both trials. However, no differences in population densities of B. longicaudatus were observed between the furfural-treated plots and the untreated control for soil depth of 0 to 5 cm during either trial. These results indicate that furfural applications can improve health of nematode-infested turf and can reduce population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in turf systems. Although the degree to which turf improvement is directly caused by nematicidal effects is still unclear, furfural does appear to be a useful nematode management tool for turf.
PMCID: PMC3957574  PMID: 24644368
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; management; Meloidogyne graminis; Mesocriconema ornatum; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
5.  Interaction Between Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus on Bermudagrass and Seashore Paspalum Hosts 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(1):17-20.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus are among the most common nematode parasites of turfgrasses in Florida. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) are the two turf species most commonly used on Florida golf courses. This paper explores the interactions between B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus on bermudagrass and seashore paspalum hosts. Data collected from thousands of nematode samples submitted to the Florida Nematode Assay Lab over a 8-yr period revealed a negative relationship between B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus on bermudagrass, but not seashore paspalum. In a multi-year field plot experiment using multiple cultivars of bermudagrass, and seashore paspalum B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus were negatively related on both turf species. Greenhouse trials where multiple cultivars of both turf species were inoculated with different combinations of B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus found that each nematode species was inhibitory to the other on both host species. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus clearly impact each other on turfgrass hosts, although the mechanism of the nematode-nematode interactions is unknown.
PMCID: PMC3625127  PMID: 23589655
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; interaction; Paspalum vaginatum; seashore paspalum; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
6.  Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 on Overseeded Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):223-227.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus is an important parasite of both warm-season bermudagrass and winter overseed grasses used on golf courses in the southeastern United States. Field trials were conducted to study the effects of a commercial formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 applied to overseed grasses during the winter and early spring on population density of B. longicaudatus and bermudagrass health in late spring after bermudagrass broke dormancy. These studies found that P. lilacinus reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus in most cases, but not below damaging levels. Multiple applications of 1 × 1010 spores/m2 were generally more effective than 2 × 1010 spores/m2 in reducing nematode numbers and improving turf roots. These results indicate that application of this formulation of P. lilacinus strain 251 to overseeded turf in the spring may be a useful integrated pest management tool for B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass, but is not sufficient as a stand-alone nematode management tactic.
PMCID: PMC3792840  PMID: 24115787
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; Paecilomyces lilacinus, sting nematode; turfgrass
7.  Effects of Belonolaimus longicaudatus Management and Nitrogen Fertility on Turf Quality of Golf Course Fairways 
Journal of nematology  2007;39(1):62-66.
Field experiments evaluated the effects of nematicide and fertility on performance of ‘Tifway 419’ bermudagrass parasitized by the sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus). Plot treatments were nontreated or nematicide (1,3-dichloropropene) treated combined with different nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels. Effects of treatments on numbers of B. longicaudatus and turf performance were compared. Nematicide consistently reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus, but fertilizer level had no effect on B. longicaudatus. Turf performance of nematicide-treated plots was improved compared with nontreated plots during both experiments. Increasing N fertilizer level improved turf performance in nematicide-treated plots in some cases, but had no effect on turf performance in nontreated plots in either experiment. Results suggest that increasing N fertilizer levels may not improve turf performance at sites infested with B. longicaudatus unless nematode management tactics are effective in reducing nematode densities.
PMCID: PMC2586477  PMID: 19259477
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; fertilizer; nitrogen; sting nematode; turfgrass; management; turf quality
8.  Diversity and Occurrence of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Golf Course Turfgrasses in North and South Carolina, USA 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(4):337-347.
One hundred and eleven golf courses from 39 counties in the Carolinas were surveyed for plant-parasitic nematodes. Species diversity within habitats was analyzed with five diversity indices including Diversity index (H’), Evenness (J’), Richness (SR), Dominance (λ) and Diversity (H2). The results revealed a remarkably high diversity of 24 nematode species belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Of those, 23 species were found in SC, 19 species in NC, and 18 species were detected in both states. Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis and Paratrichodorus minor were the most prevalent and abundant species in golf course turfgrasses in both states. Twelve species were new records of plant parasitic nematodes in turfgrasses in both NC and SC. The results also revealed effects of different habitats on diversity of nematode species in turfgrass ecosystem. H’ and SR values were higher in SC than in NC. H’, J’ and H2 values were significantly higher in sandy than in clay soil in NC, but no significant differences between sand and clay soil were detected in SC or in pooled data from both states. There were no significant differences for all indices among the management zones (putting green, fairway and tee) in NC. However, in SC and pooled data, H’, SR and H2 were significantly higher in putting greens than in fairways and tees. Significant differences from different grass species (bermudagrass, creeping bentgrass and zoysiagrass) were detected only in H’, which was significantly higher in zoysiagrass than in bentgrass or bermudagrass in NC. In pooled data, H’ was significantly higher in zoysiagrass samples than in creeping bentgrass samples but was not significantly different from bermudagrass samples.
PMCID: PMC3592363  PMID: 23482422
North Carolina; South Carolina; detection; distribution; diversity; ecology; golf course; identification; plant-parasitic nematode; turfgrass
9.  Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):260-264.
Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ≥ 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm).
PMCID: PMC3873902  PMID: 24379484
Agrostis palustris; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; creeping bentgrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; nematicide; nematode management; sting nematode; turfgrass
10.  Alternatives to Fenamiphos for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(4):477-482.
Plant-parasitic nematodes can be very damaging to turfgrasses. The projected cancellation of the registration for fenamiphos in the near future has generated a great deal of interest in identifying acceptable alternative nematode management tactics for use on turfgrasses. Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated applications of several commercially available nematicides and root biostimulants for reducing population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and (or) promoting health of bermudagrass in nematode-infested soil. One experimental site was infested with Hoplolaimus galeatus and Trichodorus obtusus, the second with Belonolaimus longicaudatus. In both trials, none of the experimental treatments reduced population densities (P ≤ 0.1) of plant-parasitic nematodes, or consistently promoted turf visual performance or turf root production. Nematologists with responsibility to advise turf managers regarding nematode management should thoroughly investigate the validity of product claims before advising clientele in their use.
PMCID: PMC2621000  PMID: 19262894
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Hoplolaimus galeatus; lance nematode; sting nematode; stubby-root nematode; Trichodorus obtusus; turf
11.  Saline Irrigation Affects Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus on Seashore Paspalum 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(1):37-44.
Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) has great potential for use in salt-affected turfgrass sites. Use of this grass on golf courses, athletic fields, and lawns in subtropical coastal areas may aid in conservation of freshwater resources. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus are considered among the most damaging root pathogens of turfgrasses in Florida. Glasshouse experiments were performed in 2002 and 2003 to examine the effects of increasing levels of irrigation salinity on B. longicaudatus and H. galeatus. Irrigation treatments were formulated by concentrating deionized water to six salinity levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 dS/m). Final population densities of H. galeatus followed a negative linear regression (r² = 0.92 and 0.83; P <= 0.01) with increasing salinity levels. Final population densities of B. longicaudatus were quadratically (r² = 0.72 and 0.78; P <= 0.01) related to increasing salinity levels from 0 to 25 dS/m. An increase in population densities of B. longicaudatus was observed at moderate salinity levels (10 and 15 dS/m) compared to 0 dS/m. Root-length comparisons revealed that B. longicaudatus caused root stunting at low salinity levels, 0 to 10 dS/m, but roots were not affected at 15 to 25 dS/m. These results indicate that the ability of B. longicaudatus to feed and stunt root growth was negatively affected at salinity levels of 15 dS/m and above.
PMCID: PMC2620935  PMID: 19262841
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; Hoplolaimus galeatus; lance nematode; Paspalum vaginatum; salinity; seashore paspalum; sting nematode
12.  Evaluation of Three Nematicides for the Control of Phytoparasitic Nematodes in 'Tifgreen II' Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(Annals 2):46-49.
Three nematicides were evaluated for control of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Criconemella spp., and Meloidogyne spp. in 'Tifgreen II' bermudagrass mowed at golf course fairway height (1.3 cm) in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Bermudagrass plots were treated with fenamiphos (13.5 kg a.i./ha), oxamyl (13.5 kg a.i./ha), or 30% formaldehyde (6.4 liter a.i./ha). The plots treated with fenamiphos or formaldehyde were split 14 days later and one-half of each plot received two biweekly applications of formaldehyde. Forty-two days after the treatments were applied, the turfgrass vigor ratings and dry root weights in plots treated with fenamiphos were higher (P < 0.05) than the control, oxamyl, or formaldehyde treatments. The population levels of B. longicaudatus were suppressed (P < 0.05) in the fenamiphos, fenamiphos plus formaldehyde, and oxamyl treatments.
PMCID: PMC2618884  PMID: 19290302
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; chemical control; Criconemella spp.; fenamiphos; formaldehyde; lance nematode; Hoplolaimus galeatus; Meloidogyne spp.; oxamyl; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
13.  Isolates of the Pasteuria penetrans Group from Phytoparasitic Nematodes in Bermudagrass Turf 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(4S):750-762.
A survey was conducted between 1985 and 1989 of isolates of the Pasteuria penetrans group on phytoparasitic nematodes in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) turf in southern Florida. Six different isolates of the P. penetrans group were observed from five different species of phytoparasitic nematode hosts. Five of the bacterial isolates were different (P ≤ 0.01) in sporangium diameter, endospore width, and ratio of sporangium diameter to endospore width. All locations surveyed had one or more isolates present, suggesting that the Pasteuria penetrans group is widespread in its distribution in southern Florida. Three survey sites had high densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, with more than 60% of the host population encumbered with a large-spored isolate of Pasteuria (mean sporangium diameter = 6.10 μm). One of these sites was monitored for 16 months during which the proportion of nematodes encumbered with this Pasteuria isolate remained constant. Soil infested with this isolate was not suppressive to Pasteuria-free populations of B. longicaudatus grown on bermudagrass for 6 months after controlled soil inoculation. However, the proportion of spore-encumbered and parasitized B. longicaudatus after 6 months was 73%, which was similar to the 74% level observed at the field site. The uhrastructure of mature sporangia of the large-spored isolates of Pasteuria from B. longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus is described and compared with ultrastructural descriptions of P. penetrans sensu strictu and P. thornei from the literature. These B. longicaudatus and H. galeatus isolates of Pasteuria appear to be distinct from the known species and may warrant new species status.
PMCID: PMC2619098  PMID: 19287792
bacterial parasite; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; Helicotylenchus microlobus; Hoplolaimus galeatus; Meloidogyne spp.; Pasteuria penetrans group; Tylenchorhynchus annulatus; ultrastructure
14.  Effects of Formulation and Host Nematode Density on the Ability of In Vitro-Produced Pasteuria Endospores to Control its Host Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(2):87-90.
The effect of nematode population density at the time of application and formulations of in vitro-produced Pasteuria spp. endospores on the final population density of Belonolaimus longicaudatus was studied in an 84-d-long pot bioassay. The experiment utilized a factorial design consisting of 30 or 300 B. longicaudatus /100 cm3 of sandy soil and three formulations of in vitro-produced Pasteuria spp. endospores (nontreated, granular, or liquid). No differences were observed in percent endospore attachment between nematode inoculum levels during either trial. Granular and liquid formulations of in vitro-produced endospores suppressed nematode population densities by 22% and 59% in the first trial and 20% and 63% in the second, respectively compared with the nontreated control. The liquid formulation increased percent endospore attachment by 147% and 158%, respectively, compared with the granular formulation. The greatest root retention by the host plant was observed at the lower B. longicaudatus inoculation level following application of the liquid formulation. While both the granular and liquid formulations reduced B. longicaudatus population densities in the soil, the liquid spore suspension was most effective.
PMCID: PMC3380477  PMID: 22736843
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; biological control; formulation; management; Pasteuria spp.; sting nematode; suppression; turfgrass
15.  Evaluation of Amino Acids as Turfgrass Nematicides1 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(4):292-297.
Laboratory experiments revealed that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog at rates of 224 and 448 kg amino acid/ha reduced the number of Belonolaimus longicaudatus mixed life-stages and Meloidogyne incognita J2 in soil, whereas L-threonine and lysine were not effective in reducing the number of either nematode. Futhermore, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog were equally effective against B. longicaudatus at rates of 112, 224, and 448 kg amino acid/ha, and the highest rate (448 kg amino acid/ha) of all amino acids was more effective in reducing the number of B. longicaudatus than the lower rate. However, phytotoxicity was observed on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) treated with 448 kg amino acid/ha of methionine hydroxyl analog and DL methionine. In addition, in one of two field experiments on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) turf percentage green cover was increased and the number of B. longicaudatus was reduced by 224 kg amino acid/ha of DL-methionine and potassium methionate compared to untreated controls in one of two trials.
PMCID: PMC3380522  PMID: 22736861
amino acid; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; methionine; nematode management; sting nematode; turfgrass
16.  Quantifying Potential Tolerance of Selected Cotton Cultivars to Belonolaimus longicaudatus  
Journal of nematology  2006;38(2):187-191.
Glyphosate-tolerant cotton cultivars were evaluated for tolerance to Belonolaimus longicaudatus in field experiments conducted from 2004 to 2005. Field trials were arranged in a split-plot design that included treatment with four levels of 1, 3-dichloropropene (0.0, 13.9, 27.8, and 41.7 1 a.i./ha) to establish a range of population densities of B. longicaudatus. Six cotton cultivars (early-to-mid maturity: DP444BG/RR SG501BR, ST5242BR; mid-to late maturity: DP451B/RR, ST5599BR, DP655BRR) were planted as whole plots. Fumigation was effective in suppressing B. longicaudatus population densities at mid-season, but not at cotton harvest, and increased cotton lint yield. The cultivar × fumigation interaction for cotton lint yield was not significant for the six cultivars evaluated, indicating that tolerance did not occur in this nematode-host combination. Early-to-mid maturity cultivars yielded significantly more than mid-to-late maturity cultivars in both years. Small but significant differences in nematode final population density were observed between cultivars that may be related to relative maturity.
PMCID: PMC2586460  PMID: 19259446
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; cotton; crop loss; 1; 3-dichloropropene; fumigant nematicide; Gossypium hirsutum; glyphosate; herbicide-tolerant crops; host-plant tolerance; nematode; sting nematode; transgenic
17.  Damage Function and Economic Threshold for Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Potato 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(3):318-322.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus has long been recognized as a pathogen of potato (Solanum tuberosum). However, a damage function relating expected yield of potato to population densities of B. longicaudatus at planting has not been derived, and the economic threshold for nematicide application is unknown. The objectives of this study were to derive the damage function of B. longicaudatus on potato and to calculate the economic threshold population density. The damage function data for B. longicaudatus on potato were obtained from an ongoing field study to evaluate cropping systems and nematode management practices. Soil samples were collected from experimental field plots, and nematodes were extracted from a 130-cm³ subsample with a centrifugal-flotation method. A damage function was derived by linear regression of potato yield on nematode population density at planting. Based on this derived damage function and published potato prices, the economic threshold for nematicide application was calculated at 2 to 3 B. longicaudatus/130 cm³ of soil, which was near the detection threshold based on methodology used in this study.
PMCID: PMC2620459  PMID: 19270983
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; damage function; economic threshold; nematode; plant disease loss; potato; Solanum tuberosum; sting nematode
18.  Nematicidal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Root-knot Nematode in Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(3):261-266.
Certain nematodes are common soilborne organisms found in turfgrass in the United States that cause significant economic damage to golf course turf. One of the most prevalent plant-parasitic nematodes infesting turfgrass are root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Chemical treatment options for root-knot nematodes in turfgrass are limited, and there is a need for new nematicidal active ingredients to address this problem. In this study, we evaluated the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a potential nematicide in laboratory and field experiments. AgNP was synthesized by a redox reaction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride using 0.2% starch as a stabilizer. When J2 of M. incognita were exposed to AgNP in water at 30 to 150 μg/ml, >99% nematodes became inactive in 6 hr. When turfgrass and soil composite samples infested with M. graminis were treated with 150 μg/ml AgNP, J2 were reduced in the soil samples by 92% and 82% after 4- and 2-d exposures, respectively, in the treated compared to the nontreated soil samples. Field trials evaluating AgNP were conducted on a bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) putting green infested with M. graminis. Biweekly application of 90.4 mg/m2 of AgNP improved turfgrass quality in one year and reduced gall formation in the roots in two years without phytotoxicity. The AgNP application did not significantly reduce the number of M. graminis J2 in plots during the growing season. The laboratory assays attested to the nematicidal effect of AgNP, and the field evaluation demonstrated its benefits for mitigating damage caused by root-knot nematode in bermudagrass.
PMCID: PMC4176408  PMID: 25275999
bermudagrass; management; Meloidogyne; nematicide; root-knot nematode; silver nanoparticle; turfgrass
19.  Field Responses of Bermudagrass and Seashore paspalum Cultivars to Sting and Spiral Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(3-4):201-208.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus spp. are damaging nematode species on bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Eight bermudagrass and three seashore paspalum cultivars were tested for responses to both nematode species in field plots for two years in Florida. Soil samples were taken every three months and nematode population densities in soil were quantified. Turfgrass aboveground health was evaluated throughout the growing season. Results showed that all bermudagrass cultivars, except TifSport, were good hosts for B. longicaudatus, and all seashore paspalum cultivars were good hosts for H. pseudorobustus. Overall, bermudagrass was a better host for B. longicaudatus while seashore paspalum was a better host for H. pseudorobustus. TifSport bermudagrass and SeaDwarf seashore paspalum cultivars supported the lowest population densities of B. longicaudatus. Seashore paspalum had a higher percent green cover than bermudagrass in the nematode-infested field. Nematode intolerant cultivars were identified.
PMCID: PMC3547344  PMID: 23430148
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon spp.; field; Helicotylenchus spp.; Paspalum vaginatum; resistance; seashore paspalum; spiral nematodes; sting nematodes
20.  Influence of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Nitrate Leaching in Turf 
Journal of nematology  2006;38(4):461-465.
Experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of the sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) on root reductions and quantity of nitrate (NO3 −) leached from ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass in lysimeters. Forty lysimeters were planted with ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass, of which 20 were inoculated with B. longicaudatus and 20 were noninoculated. Root length was compared between treatments at six, 12, and 18 weeks after initiation of the experiments. Turf was fertilized every three weeks, and leaching events were simulated at 21 and 42-day intervals in trial one and trial two, respectively. Leachate was collected, and the quantity of NO3 − leached was compared between treatments. Root reductions were observed in lysimeters inoculated with B. longicaudatus at all evaluation dates. Quantity of NO3 − leached was greater in inoculated lysimeters at the 18-week evaluation during both trials. This study indicates that nematode damage to turf roots limits root vigor and N uptake, thereby increasing nitrate leaching, adding to water quality concerns.
PMCID: PMC2586471  PMID: 19259464
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; nitrate leaching; sting nematode; turfgrass; management; water quality
21.  Population Dynamics of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Criconemella ornata and Growth Response of Bermudagrass and Overseeded Grasses on Golf Greens Following Treatment with Nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  1982;14(3):358-363.
Portions of a 'Tifgreen' bermudagrass golf green with poor turf and large numbers of Belonolabnus longicaudatus and Criconemella ornata were treated with selected nematicides in the summers of 1977 and 1978. Improvements in turf quality were observed within 4 wk after treatment with phenamiphos and fensulfothion. Treatment with phenamiphos restulted in lower numbers of B. longicaudatus 4 and 14 wk after treatment in the 1977 experiment and up to 1 yr after treatment in the 1978 experiment. Treatment with fensulfothion reduced the number of B. longicaudatus for only 1 month after treatment and significantly increased the numbers of this nematode in September and March in the 1978 experiment, Negative correlations were obtained between numbers of B. longicaudatus and turf qualily up to 1 yr. Numbers of C. ornata were reduced only in January and June following treatment with phenamiphos and not at any time with fensulfothion. Treatment with fensulfothion resulted in higher numbers of this nematode than in check plots in November and March. The percent area covered by prostrate spurge the following year was reduced following treatment with phenamiphos, but not with fensulfothion.
PMCID: PMC2618188  PMID: 19295721
phenantiphos; fensulfothion; DBCP; sting nematodes; ring nematodes
22.  Yield Reduction and Root Damage to Cotton Induced by Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(2):205-209.
Sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) is recognized as a pathogen of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), but the expected damage from a given population density of this nematode has not been determined. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of increasing initial population densities (Pi) of B. longicaudatus on cotton yield and root mass. In a field plot study, nematicide application and cropping history were used to obtain a wide range of Pi values. Cotton yields were regressed on Pi density of B. longicaudatus to quantify yield losses in the field. In controlled environmental chambers, cotton was grown in soil infested with increasing Pi's of B. longicaudatus. After 40 days, root systems were collected, scanned on a desktop scanner, and root lengths were measured. Root lengths were regressed on inoculation density of B. longicaudatus to quantify reductions in the root systems. In the field, high Pi's (>100 nematodes/130 cm³ of soil) reduced yields to near zero. In controlled environmental chamber studies, as few as 10 B. longicaudatus/130 cm³ of soil caused a 39% reduction in fine cotton roots, and 60 B. longicaudatus/130 cm³ of soil caused a 70% reduction. These results suggest that B. longicaudatus can cause significant damage to cotton at low population densities, whereas at higher densities crop failure can result.
PMCID: PMC2620440  PMID: 19270967
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; cotton; crop loss; damage function; damage threshold; Gossypium hirsutum; nematode; plant disease loss; root scanning; sting nematode
23.  Effects of Potato-Cotton Cropping Systems and Nematicides on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Crop Yields 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(3):297-302.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used.
PMCID: PMC2620462  PMID: 19270980
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; cotton; crop rotation; cropping system; double-cropping; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; potato; root-knot nematode; Solanum tuberosum; sting nematode
24.  Susceptibility of Diploid St. Augustinegrasses to Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(4S):604-610.
A fine-textured, dwarf St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze) genotype, FX-313, was severely damaged in plots in the third year of evaluation in sandy soil in southern Florida. Damage was associated with numerous (> 40/100-cm³ soil) sting nematodes, Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau. Damage was ameliorated (P < 0.05) by fenamiphos applied broadcast at 2.2 g a.i./m², and B. longicaudatus numbers were reduced (P < 0.01), compared with untreated plots. Root dry weights of four diploid (2n = 18) St. Augustinegrasses--FX-261, FX-299, FX-313, and Seville--were reduced (P < 0.001) by B. longicaudatus in a temperature- and light-controlled experiment. Estimated daily transpiration, an indicator of plant health, was reduced (P < 0.001) after 112 days to 3.32 g/pot for inoculated plants, compared with 5.10 g /pot for uninoculated plants. Genotypes did not differ in nematode number per pot (mean 551/215 cm² soil) 128 days after inoculation, but differed (P < 0.05) in nematode numbers on a root dry weight basis, with FX-313 and Seville representing the extremes, 12,300 and 4,000 B. longicaudatus/g root dry weight, respectively. The diploid St. Augustinegrasses evaluated were good hosts for B. longicaudatus, but field data and controlled inoculation demonstrate genetic variation in susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC2619225  PMID: 19283170
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; breeding; fenamiphos; nematode; resistance; St. Augustinegrass; Stenotaphrum secundatum; sting nematode; turfgrass
25.  Molecular and Morphological Characterization and Biological Control Capabilities of a Pasteuria ssp. Parasitizing Rotylenchulus reniformis, the Reniform Nematode 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(3):207-217.
Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of 10 described species of reniform nematodes and is considered the most economically significant pest within the genus, parasitizing a variety of important agricultural crops. Rotylenchulus reniformis collected from cotton fields in the Southeastern US were observed to have the nematode parasitic bacterium Pasteuria attached to their cuticles. Challenge with a Pasteuria-specific monoclonal antibody in live immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA) confirmed the discovery of Pasteuria infecting R. reniformis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were employed to observe endospore ultrastructure and sporogenesis within the host. Pasteuria were observed to infect and complete their life-cycle in juvenile, male and female R. reniformis. Molecular analysis using Pasteuria species-specific and degenerate primers for 16s rRNA and spoII, and subsequent phylogenetic assessment, placed the Pasteuria associated with R. reniformis in a distinct clade within established assemblages for the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes. A global phylogenetic assessment of Pasteuria 16s rDNA using the Neighbor-Joining method resulted in a clear branch with 100% boot-strap support that effectively partitioned the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes from the Pasteuria associated with bacterivorous nematodes. Phylogenetic analysis of the R. reniformis Pasteuria and Pasteuria spp. parasitizing a number of economically important plant parasitic nematodes revealed that Pasteuria with different host specificities are closely related and likely constitute biotypes of the same species. This suggests host preference, and thus effective differentiation and classification are most likely predicated by an influential virulence determinant(s) that has yet to be elucidated. Pasteuria Pr3 endospores produced by in vitro fermentation demonstrated efficacy as a commercial bionematicide to control R. reniformis on cotton in pot tests, when applied as a seed treatment and in a granular formulation. Population control was comparable to a seed-applied nematicide/insecticide (thiodicarb/imidacloprid) at a seed coating application rate of 1.0 x 108 spores/seed.
PMCID: PMC3380488  PMID: 22736858
biological control; cotton; reniform nematode; endospore; Gossypium hirsutum; molecular biology; morphometrics; Pasteuria spp.; phylogenetics; Rotylenchulus reniformis; ultrastructure

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