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1.  Overview of Organic Amendments for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, with Case Studies from Florida 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(2):69-81.
Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions.
PMCID: PMC3380460  PMID: 22791915
biological control; compost; free-living nematodes; mulch; organic agriculture; pest management; soil food web; sustainable agriculture
2.  Conserving and Enhancing Biological Control of Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(2):75-89.
Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and duration of biological control. In future research, greater use should be made of bioassays that measure nematode suppression because changes in abundance of particular antagonists may not affect biological control of plant parasites.
PMCID: PMC4077175  PMID: 24987159
antagonists; biological control; crop rotation; farming practices; organic amendments; pesticides; plant genotype; tillage
3.  Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Tissue, Incorporated at Different Depths in a Soil Column, on Meloidogyne incognita  
Journal of nematology  2007;39(2):111-117.
Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended with broccoli tissue, which was mixed throughout the tube or concentrated in a 10-cm layer. After three weeks at 28°C, M. incognita populations in the amended tubes were 57 to 80% smaller than in non-amended tubes. Mixing broccoli throughout the tubes reduced M. incognita more than concentrating broccoli in a 10-cm layer. Amending a 10-cm layer reduced M. incognita in the non-amended layers of those tubes by 31 to 71%, probably due to a nematicidal effect of released volatiles. However, the localized direct effect was much stronger than the indirect effect of volatiles. The strong direct effect may have resulted from the release of non-volatile nematicidal compounds. Therefore, when using biofumigation with broccoli to control M. incognita, the tissue should be thoroughly and evenly mixed through the soil layer(s) where the target nematodes occur. Effects on saprophytic nematodes were the reverse. Amended soil layers had much greater numbers of saprophytic nematodes than non-amended layers, and there was no indirect effect of amendments on saprophytic nematodes in adjacent non-amended layers.
PMCID: PMC2586485  PMID: 19259479
amendment; biofumigation; broccoli; Brassica oleracea; management; Meloidogyne incognita; root-knot nematode; soil
4.  Effect of Meloidogyne arenaria and Mulch Type on Okra in Microplot Experiments 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(4S):616-623.
The effects of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata) hay, an aged yard-waste compost (mainly woodchips), and a control treatment without amendment were determined on two population levels of root-knot (Melaidogyne arenaria) nematode over three consecutive years in field microplots. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus, susceptible to the root-knot nematode) and a rye (Secale cereale) cover crop (poor nematode host) were used in the summer and winter seasons, respectively. The organic amendment treatments affected plant growth parameters. In the first year, okra yields were greatest in peanut-amended plots. Yield differences with amendment treatment diminished in the second and third years. Okra plant height, total fruit weight, and fruit number were greater with the lower population level of the root-knot nematode. Residual levels of nutrients in soil were greater where root-knot nematode levels and damage were higher and plant growth was poor. Nutrient levels affected the growth of a subsequent rye cover crop.
PMCID: PMC2620323  PMID: 19274256
compost; Hibiscus esculentus; Meloidogyne arenaria; nematode; organic amendments; pest management; root-knot nematode; sustainable agriculture
5.  Factors Affecting the Suppression of Heterodera glycines by N-Viro Soil 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(2):220-225.
Previous laboratory research demonstrated that N-Viro Soil (NVS), an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid, suppressed plant-parasitic nematodes. This study continued to explore the use of NVS as a nematode management tool specifically addressing factors that could influence its use. N-Viro Soil from different locations, the components of NVS (de-watered biosolids and fly ash admixtures), and sterilized NVS were applied to sand microcosms to determine effects on nematode survival sand solution pH and ammonia concentrations. This study confirmed the previous finding that an important mechanism of Heterodera glycines suppression by NVS was the generation of alkaline soil conditions. Only the fly ash admixture that resulted in an increase in pH to 10.0 suppressed H. glycines to the same level as NVS. Alkaline-stabilization of biosolids was necessary to achieve nematode suppression. Biosolids applied at rates <3% dry w/w did not suppress H. glycines to the same level as equivalent amounts of NVS. Sand solution pH levels after biosolid application, regardless of rate, were approximately 8.5 whereas 1% and 4% w/w NVS amendment resulted in pH levels of 10.3 and 11.6, respectively. NVS from different processing facilities were all effective in suppressing H. glycines. The NVS source that produced the highest concentration of ammonia did not reduce H. glycines survival to the same level as those sources generating pH levels above 10.1. Microbes associated with NVS appeared not to be responsible for the nematode suppressiveness of the amendment; there was no difference in nematode suppression between autoclaved and nonautoclaved NVS. The role that ammonia plays in the suppression of H. glycines by NVS is still unclear.
PMCID: PMC2620953  PMID: 19262864
ammonia; biosolid; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne incognita; nematodes; pH
6.  Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management 
Journal of Nematology  2010;42(1):73-77.
Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed.
PMCID: PMC3380514  PMID: 22736840
fertilizer use efficiency model; normalized difference vegetative index; nutrient amendment; soil amendments; soil degradation; soybeans; soybean cyst nematode
7.  Nematode Population Fluctuations during Decomposition of Specific Organic Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(1):37-44.
Population densities of nematodes in field soil without plants were monitored for 10 months following application of organic amendments to pots in a greenhouse. The four treatments consisted of three different kinds of organic amendments: homogeneous crop residues of maize (Zea mays, C:N = 48.0:1), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum, C:N = 32.9:1), or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens, C:N = 18.6:1), plus a control without any amendment. Plant-parasitic nematodes declined in all treatments due to absence of a food source. Bacterivore numbers increased following amendment application and remained greater than initial population levels until 4 months after application. Fungivore numbers were higher than initial levels until 6 months after amendment application and did not decline below the initial numbers during the course of the experiment. On several sampling dates, the bacterivorous genera Cervidellus and Eucephalobus were most abundant in pots with maize residues. Among the fungivores, Aphelenchoides numbers early in the experiment were greatest in pots amended with velvetbean, whereas numbers of Aphelenchus, Nothotylenchus, and Tylenchidae (mainly Filenchus) were greatest during the latter half of the experiment following the maize amendment. Omnivorous nematodes, particularly Eudorylaimus, showed two peaks in abundance during the course of the experiment. Results provided some evidence that population levels of some genera of bacterivores and fungivores may be affected by specific organic amendments.
PMCID: PMC2620342  PMID: 19270873
bacterivores; fungivores; nematode community; omnivores; plant parasitics; predators; soil ecology; trophic groups
8.  Evaluation of the Effect of Ecologic on Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tomato Plant, Lycopersicon esculenum 
Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant), due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment preceded Floradel tomato planting to allow breakdown of the chitin material into the soil. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root materials were taken as growth end-points. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was obtained with regard to the growth rate of L. esculentum at 100 g chitin treatment compared to the control with no chitin. Mean fresh weights of Floradel tomato were 78.0 ± 22.3g, 81.0 ± 20.3g, 109.0 ± 25.4g and 102.0 ± 33.3g at 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. The analysis of root knot nematode concentrations indicated a substantial effect on reproduction rate associated with chitin amendment. Study results showed a significant decrease in both root knot nematode eggs and juveniles (J2) at 100g and 200g Ecologic chitin levels, however, an increase in nematode concentrations was recorded at the 50g Ecologic chitin level (p ≤ 0.05). The mean amounts of J2 population, as expressed per 1500cm3 soil, were 49,933 ± 38,819, 86,050 ± 25248, 103 ± 133 and 103 ± 133 for 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. Similarly, the mean numbers of root knot nematode eggs (per 1500cm3 of soil) were 40,759 ± 36,712, 66,048 ± 39,730, 9,904 ± 16,591 and 9,257 ± 17,204. Root gall rating was also significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) at the 100g and 200g chitin levels compared to the control. Percent gall ratings were 3.3 ± 1.0%, 3.2 ± 1.0%, 1.0 ± 0.5%, and 1.0% ± 0.6% for amendment levels of 0, 50, 100, and 200g chitin, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3662226  PMID: 18678924
Ecologic chitin; root knot nematode; tomato plant; agricultural management
9.  Effects of Solarization and Ammonium Amendments on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2000;32(4S):537-541.
The effects of soil solarization and ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate against plant-parasitic nematodes on yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) and on vinca (Catharanthus roseus) were evaluated at two sites. Solarization for 3 weeks in the spring suppressed population levels of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Criconemella spp., and Dolichodorus heterocephalus throughout the growing season on both crops at both sites. Levels of Meloidogyne incognita were suppressed initially, but population densities increased by the end of the crop in several cases. In one site, numbers of Paratrichodorus minor resurged following solarization to levels that were greater than those present in unsolarized control plots. The effect of solarization was not enhanced by combination with ammonium amendments, but, in one site, application of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate resulted in lower numbers of B. longicaudatus than in the unamended control. Additional research and improved efficacy of candidate amendments are required before they can be successfully integrated with solarization for nematode management. Efficacy of solarization against plant-parasitic nematodes was achieved despite a relatively short (3 weeks) solarization period.
PMCID: PMC2620486  PMID: 19271007
ammonium bicarbonate; ammonium sulfate; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; Catharanthus roseus; Cucurbita pepo; Dolichodorus heterocephalus; integrated pest management; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; Paratrichodorus minor; squash; sustainable agriculture; vinca
10.  Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(3):290-296.
Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. juncea as amendment before planting squash, whereas the other half did not. Crotalaria juncea amendment increased squash shoot and root weights in all soils tested, except in YWC+ soil where the organic matter content was high without the amendment. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. incognita if the inoculum level was low, and when the soil contained relatively abundant nematode-antagonistic fungi. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. incognita and free-living nematodes than frozen or untreated soil, indicating nematode-antagonistic microorganisms played a role in nematode suppression. The effects of C. juncea amendment on nutrient cycling were complex. Amendment with C. juncea increased the abundance of free-living nematodes and Harposporium anguillulae, a fungus antagonistic to them in the second experiment but not in the first experiment. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C. juncea amendment.
PMCID: PMC2620769  PMID: 19262819
free-living nematode; nematode-trapping fungi; organic amendments; root-knot nematode; soil ecosystem; soil nutrient; sunn hemp; tillage
11.  Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(3):267-274.
In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern.
PMCID: PMC4176409  PMID: 25276000
Calendula; Camelina sativa; canola meal; condensed distiller’s solubles; Cuphea; field pennycress; Glycine max; green manure; Heterodera glycines; management; marigold; organic fertilizer; organic soil amendment; soybean; soybean cyst nematode; spring camelina; Thlaspi arvense; turkey manure ash
12.  Effect of Tillage and Crop Residue Management on Nematode Densities on Corn 
Journal of Nematology  1994;26(4S):669-674.
Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P ≤ 0.10) only in one experiment for Paratrichodorus minor and two experiments for Pratylenchus spp. Compared with other treatments, fallow reduced (P ≤ 0.05) Pi of P. minor in two of three cases and Pf of Meloidogyne incognita in one of five sites, but enhanced soil Pf of Pratylenchus spp. in three of five sites. Tillage practices and management of cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.
PMCID: PMC2619568  PMID: 19279946
corn; Criconemella spp.; cover crop; cropping system; green manure; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; organic amendment; Paratrichodorus minor; Pratylenchus spp.; sustainable agriculture; tillage; Zea mays
13.  Effects of Chicken-excrement Amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria 
Journal of Nematology  1993;25(1):71-77.
The effects of chicken litter on Meloidogyne arenaria in tomato plants cv. Rutgers were determined in the greenhouse. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into a sandy soil amended with five rates of chicken litter and inoculated with 2,000 M. arenaria eggs. After 10 days, total numbers of nematodes in the roots decreased with increasing rates of chicken litter. After 46 days, egg numbers also decreased with increasing litter rates. In another experiment, soil was amended with two litter types, N-P-K fertilizer, and the two primary constituents of chicken litter (manure and pine-shaving bedding). After 10 days, numbers of nematodes in roots were smaller in chicken-excrement treatments as compared to nonexcrement treatments. At 46 days, there were fewer nematode eggs in chicken-excrement treatments compared to nonexcrement treatments. Egg numbers also were smaller for fertilizer and pine-shaving amendments as compared to nonamended controls. Chicken litter and manure amendments suppressed plant growth by 10 days after inoculation but enhanced root weights at 46 days after inoculation. Amendment of soil with chicken litter suppressed M. arenaria and may provide practical control of root-knot nematodes as part of an integrated management system.
PMCID: PMC2619344  PMID: 19279745
amendment; biological control; chicken litter; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne arenaria; nematode; penetration; root-knot nematode; tomato
14.  Chemical-Mediated Toxicity of N-Viro Soil to Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(3):297-302.
N-Viro Soil (NVS) is an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid that has been shown to lower population densities and reduce egg hatch of Heterodera glycines and other plant-parasitic nematodes; but the mechanism(s) of nematode suppression of this soil amendment are unknown. This study sought to identify NVS-mediated changes in soil chemical properties and their impact upon H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita mortality. N-Viro Soil was applied to sand in laboratory assays at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% dry w/w with a nonamended treatment as a control. Nematode mortality and changes in sand-assay chemical properties were determined 24 hours after incubation. Calculated lethal concentration (LC90) values were 1.4% w/w NVS for second-stage juveniles of both nematode species and 2.6 and >3.0% w/w NVS for eggs of M. incognita and H. glycines, respectively. Increasing rates of NVS were strongly correlated (r² = 0.84) with higher sand solution pH levels. Sand solution pH levels and, to a lesser extent, the production of ammonia appeared to be the inorganic chemical-mediated factors responsible for killing plant-parasitic nematodes following amendment with NVS.
PMCID: PMC2620783  PMID: 19262820
amendment; ammonia; biosolid; Heterodera glycines; Meloidogyne incognita; nematodes; pH
15.  Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):289-293.
A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels.
PMCID: PMC2620642  PMID: 19262763
bacterial-feeding nematodes; barley; beef manure; clover cyst nematode; compost; cull potato; Diplogaster lheritieri; Heterodera trifolii; potato; root-knot nematode; root-lesion nematode; sawdust
16.  Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment 
Journal of nematology  2006;38(1):3-12.
The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and some microarthropods, are entry-level indicators of enrichment. However, the quantification of abundance and biomass of this diverse group, as an indicator of resource status, requires a plethora of extraction and assessment techniques. Soluble organic compounds are absorbed by bacteria and fungi, while fungi also degrade more recalcitrant sources. These organisms are potential indicators of the nature of incoming substrate, but current methods of biomass determination do not reliably indicate their community composition. Guilds of nematodes that feed on bacteria (e.g., Rhabditidae, Panagrolaimidae) and fungi (e.g., Aphelenchidae, Aphelenchoididae) are responsive to changes in abundance of their food. Through direct herbivory, plant-feeding nematodes (e.g., many species of Tylenchina) also contribute to food web resources. Thus, analysis of the nematode community of a single sample provides indication of carbon flow through an important herbivore channel and through channels mediated by bacteria and fungi. Some nematode guilds are more responsive than others to resource enrichment. Generally, those bacterivores with short lifecycles and high reproductive potential (e.g., Rhabditidae) most closely mirror the bloom of bacteria or respond most rapidly to active plant growth. The feeding habits of some groups remain unclear. For example, nematodes of the Tylenchidae may constitute 30% or more of the individuals in a soil sample; further study is necessary to determine which resource channels they portray and the appropriate level of taxonomic resolution for this group. A graphic representation of the relative biomass of bacterivorous, fungivorous, and herbivorous nematodes provides a useful tool for assessing the importance of the bacterial, fungal, and plant resource channels in an extant food web.
PMCID: PMC2586436  PMID: 19259424
enrichment index; enrichment profile; faunal analysis; soil food web; structure index
17.  Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(2):142-154.
Interpretation of nematode community indices requires a reference to a relatively undisturbed community. Maturity and trophic diversity index values were compared for five pairs of certified organically and conventionally managed soils in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Available nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium) was estimated at various lag periods relative to times of sampling for nematode communities to determine the strength of correlative relationship between nematode communities and nitrogen availability. Soils were sampled six times yearly in 1993 and 1994 to determine the best time of year to sample. Maturity values for plant parasites were greater in organically than conventionally managed soils, and differences between management systems were greater in fall than spring months. However, other maturity and diversity indices did not differ between the two management practices. Differences in crop species grown in the two systems accounted for most differences observed in the community of plant-parasitic nematodes. Indices of free-living nematodes were correlated negatively with concentrations of ammonium, whereas indices of plant-parasitic nematodes were correlated positively with concentrations of nitrate. Due to the similarity of index values between the two systems, organically managed soils are not suitable reference sites for monitoring and assessing the biological aspects of soil quality for annually harvested crops.
PMCID: PMC2620368  PMID: 19270884
community structure; conventional farming; ecology; maturity index; monitoring; nematode; ordination; organic farming; reference sites; trophic diversity
18.  Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Nematode Communities in Soil with Different Agricultural Histories 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):294-301.
Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) hay amendment on nematode community structure in the soil surrounding roots of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) infected with root-knot nematodes was examined in two greenhouse experiments. Soils were from field plots treated long-term (LT) with yard-waste compost or no yard-waste compost in LT experiment, and from a short-term (ST) agricultural site in ST experiment. Soils collected were either amended or not amended with C. juncea hay. Nematode communities were examined 2 months after squash was inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Amendment increased (P < 0.05) omnivorous nematodes in both experiments but increased only bacterivorous nematodes in ST experiment (P < 0.05), where the soil had relatively low organic matter (<2%). This effect of C. juncea amendment did not occur in LT experiment, in which bacterivores were already abundant. Fungivorous nematodes were not increased by C. juncea amendment in either experiment, but predatory nematodes were increased when present. Although most nematode faunal indices, including enrichment index, structure index, and channel index, were not affected by C. juncea amendment, structure index values were affected by previous soil organic matter content. Results illustrate the importance of considering soil history (organic matter, nutrient level, free-living nematode number) in anticipating changes following amendment with C. juncea hay.
PMCID: PMC2620648  PMID: 19262764
community structure indices; Cucurbita pepo; Meloidogyne incognita; organic amendments; squash; sunn hemp
19.  Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(4):329-336.
In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control.
PMCID: PMC3592367  PMID: 23482503
fermented animal manure; nematode trophic groups; nitrogen amendments; phytoparasitic nematodes; sawdust
20.  The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0111965.
Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called ‘pollution swapping’ potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.
PMCID: PMC4460024  PMID: 26053923
21.  Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Its Damage to Lettuce Grown in a Mineral Soil Amended with Chitin and Biocontrol Organisms 
Journal of Nematology  1999;31(4S):719-725.
Chitin was used as soil amendment in fiberglass field microplots, alone or with one or a combination of two to three species of Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Streptomyces costaricanus. Sudangrass and rapeseed were planted as cover crops and incorporated into soil as green manure amendments. Chitin amendment alone increased the marketable yield of lettuce in 1995 and reduced root-galling ratings and the reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla in both 1995 and 1996. Green manure amendments of sudangrass and rapeseed increased total and marketable yields of lettuce, and decreased root-galling ratings and the reproduction of M. hapla in 1996. Hirsutella rhossiliensis in combination with chitin increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1995. The combination of B. thuringiensis, S. costaricanus, and chitin either with or without P. marquandii increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1996. In most cases, however, the nematode-antagonistic organisms did not improve lettuce yield or further suppression of M. hapla compared to the chitin amendment alone. The introduced fungi were recoverable from the infested soil. The rifampicin-resistant mutant of B. thuringiensis was not isolated at the end of the season.
PMCID: PMC2620412  PMID: 19270942
Bacillus thuringiensis; biological control; chitin amendment; cover crop; green manure; Hirsutella rhossiliensis; Lactuca sativa; Meloidogyne hapla; nematode; northern root-knot nematode; Paecilomyces marquandii; Streptomyces costaricanus; Verticillium chlamydosporium
22.  Manipulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities to Induce Suppressive Soils 
Journal of nematology  2007;39(3):213-220.
Naturally occurring disease-suppressive soils have been documented in a variety of cropping systems, and in many instances the biological attributes contributing to suppressiveness have been identified. While these studies have often yielded an understanding of operative mechanisms leading to the suppressive state, significant difficulty has been realized in the transfer of this knowledge into achieving effective field-level disease control. Early efforts focused on the inundative application of individual or mixtures of microbial strains recovered from these systems and known to function in specific soil suppressiveness. However, the introduction of biological agents into non-native soil ecosystems typically yielded inconsistent levels of disease control. Of late, greater emphasis has been placed on manipulation of the cropping system to manage resident beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms as a means to suppress soilborne plant pathogens. One such strategy is the cropping of specific plant species or genotypes or the application of soil amendments with the goal of selectively enhancing disease-suppressive rhizobacteria communities. This approach has been utilized in a system attempting to employ biological elements resident to orchard ecosystems as a means to control the biologically complex phenomenon termed apple replant disease. Cropping of wheat in apple orchard soils prior to re-planting the site to apple provided control of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-5. Disease control was elicited in a wheat cultivar-specific manner and functioned through transformation of the fluorescent pseudomonad population colonizing the rhizosphere of apple. Wheat cultivars that induced disease suppression enhanced populations of specific fluorescent pseudomonad genotypes with antagonistic activity toward R. solani AG-5, but cultivars that did not elicit a disease-suppressive soil did not modify the antagonistic capacity of this bacterial community. Alternatively, brassicaceae seed meal amendments were utilized to develop soil suppressiveness toward R. solani. Suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot in response to seed meal amendment required the activity of the resident soil microbiota and was associated with elevated populations of Streptomyces spp. recovered from the apple rhizosphere. Application of individual Streptomyces spp. to soil systems provided control of R. solani to a level and in a manner equivalent to that obtained with the seed meal amendment. These and other examples suggest that management of resident plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may be a viable method for control of specific soilborne plant pathogens.
PMCID: PMC2586500  PMID: 19259490
suppressive soils; biological control; replant disease; rhizobacteria
23.  Efficacy of 1,3-Dichloropropene in Soil Amended with Compost and Unamended Soil 
Journal of Nematology  2001;33(4S):289-293.
1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) is a likely alternative soil fumigant for methyl bromide. The objective was to determine root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, survival in microplots after exposure to 1,3-D for various periods of time in soil that have previously been amended with compost. The treatments were 1,3-D applied broadcast at 112 liters/ha and untreated controls in both compost-amended and unamended soil. Soil samples were collected from each microplot at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after fumigation at three depths (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm). One week after fumigation, six tomato seedlings were transplanted into each microplot and root galling was recorded 6 weeks later. Plants grown in fumigated compost-amended soil had more galls than plants from fumigated unamended soil at P ≤ 0.1. Gall indices from roots in fumigated soil amended with compost were not different from nonfumigated controls. Based on soil bioassays, the number of galls decreased with increasing time after fumigation in both compost-amended and unamended soil at 0-to-15 and 15-to-30 cm depths, but not at 30 to 45 cm deep. Higher soil water content due to the elevated levels of organic matter in the soil at these depths may have interfered with 1,3-D movement, thus reducing its efficacy.
PMCID: PMC2620517  PMID: 19265889
compost-amended soil; deep sand soil; 1,3-dichloropropene; fumigation; Lycopersicon esculentum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; nematode; root-knot nematode; tomato
24.  Detection and Occurrence of N-Nitrosamines in Archived Biosolids from the Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
Environmental Science & Technology  2014;48(9):5085-5092.
The occurrence of eight carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in biosolids from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the contiguous United States was investigated. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, seven nitrosamines [(N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA)] were detected with varying detection frequency (DF) in 88% of the biosolids samples (n = 80), with five of the seven being reported here for the first time in biosolids. While rarely detected (DF 3%), NDMA was the most abundant compound at an average concentration of 504 ± 417 ng/g dry weight of biosolids. The most frequently detected nitrosamine was NDPhA (0.7—147 ng/g) with a DF of 79%, followed by NDPA (7–505 ng/g) and NPIP (51–1185 ng/g) at 21% and 11%, respectively. The DF of nitrosamines in biosolids was positively correlated with their respective n-octanol–water partition coefficients (R2 = 0.65). The DF and sum of mean concentrations of nitrosamines in biosolids increased with the treatment capacity of WWTPs. Given their frequent occurrence in nationally representative samples and the amount of U.S. biosolids being applied on land as soil amendment, this study warrants more research into the occurrence and fate of nitrosamines in biosolids-amended soils in the context of crop and drinking water safety.
PMCID: PMC4018098  PMID: 24697330
25.  Effect of Castor and Velvetbean Organic Amendments on Meloidogyne arenaria in Greenhouse Experiments 
Journal of Nematology  1998;30(4S):624-631.
Effectiveness of castor (Ricinus communis) and velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) amendments was tested for suppression of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and growth of okra (Hibiscus esculentus) in three greenhouse experiments. Regression analysis was used to relate nematode population data or plant growth responses to various rates (0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 g/560 cm³ soil pot) of each amendment in separate experiments. In general, plant growth parameters responded positively to the amendment rate until a level of about 4 g to 5 g of velvetbean or castor amendment/pot. Similar trends were observed for nematode galls, egg masses, and second-stage juveniles extracted from root systems. In most circumstances, quadratic equations best expressed the relationships between plant or nematode parameters and rates of velvetbean or castor amendment, leading to the assumption that a best rate of the amendment for plant growth or nematode suppression can be predicted. In a third experiment, in which both amendments were compared directly, velvetbean amendment was more efficient than castor in suppressing nematodes as well as in improving plant growth.
PMCID: PMC2620327  PMID: 19274257
Hibiscus esculentus; Meloidogyne arenaria; Mucuna deeringiana; nematode; nematode management; okra; Ricinus communis; root-knot nematode

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