Mycotic aneurysm formation is a rare and potentially fatal sequela of bacteremia. We present the cases of 2 octogenarians who had surgically confirmed mycotic aneurysms that involved the ascending aorta, with contained rupture (pseudoaneurysm). Neither patient had evidence of valvular endocarditis. Patient 1, an 82-year-old man, had streptococcal bacteremia. Imaging confirmed a mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and resection was successful. Patient 2, an 83-year-old woman, had recurrent staphylococcal bacteremia and progressive widening of the mediastinum, and imaging revealed a mycotic pseudoaneurysm. She underwent surgical repair with use of a bovine pericardial patch, but she died 2 weeks later because of patch dehiscence.
We did not initially suspect mycotic aneurysm in either patient. Despite the availability of accurate, noninvasive imaging techniques, strong clinical suspicion is required for the early diagnosis of mycotic aneurysm.
Aneurysm, infected/diagnosis/etiology/pathology/surgery/ultrasonography; anti-bacterial agents/therapeutic use; aorta/pathology/surgery; aortic aneurysm/diagnosis/surgery; staphylococcus infections/complications/pathology
Cerebral mycotic aneurysms (MAs) also called infective aneurysms, are uncommon and are usually encountered in patients with infective endocarditis. These aneurysms often present with intracranial hemorrhage. MAs may resolve on treatment with antibiotics alone. However prognosis with medical management alone is unpredictable. Good prognosis with surgery has been reported for single accessible ruptured MAs. However surgery is associated with significant morbidity. Endovascular treatment of MAs along with appropriate antibiotics is emerging as an acceptable option for these patients.
We describe two cases of infective endocarditis complicated by ruptured MA treated successfully by liquid embolic glue material.
mycotic aneurysm, infective endocarditis, endovascular treatment, liquid embolic glue material
The manifestation of infective endocarditis often resembles vasculitis. Approximately one in five infective endocarditis cases are referred initially to a nephrologist because of abnormal renal function or abnormal urinalysis; therefore, infection should be ruled out before diagnosing vasculitis.
A case involving a patient with infective endocarditis who presented with migrating skin lesions, renal infarction and multiple pseudoaneurysms is reported. Echocardiography revealed mitral valve vegetation and viridans streptococci were identified in peripheral blood cultures. Although mitral valve annuloplasty and an aneurysm ligation operation were performed with proper antibiotic treatment, the remaining mycotic aneurysm progressed and caused neurological complications. The patient was cured completely after reoperation.
Aneurysm; Endocarditis; Infected; Vasculitis
Mycotic aneurysms are rarely seen in patients who have infective endocarditis, and the management of these patients remains controversial. We present the case of a patient who had infective endocarditis complicated by a mycotic aneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery. There was substantial mitral regurgitation, and Streptococcus viridans was isolated from the blood samples. Dysarthria appeared during the 4th week of the antibiotic therapy, but resolved completely 8 hours after onset. The left middle cerebral artery was embolized with platinum detachable coils. On the 7th day after the radiologic intervention, the native mitral valve was replaced with a 33-mm St. Jude Medical® bileaflet mechanical mitral prosthesis. Most mycotic aneurysms show notable regression of symptoms with effective antibiotic treatment, and a very few may diminish in size. However, it is impossible to predict the response of these aneurysms to therapy. To prevent the perioperative rupture of mycotic aneurysms and intracranial hemorrhage, priority should be given to endovascular interventions to treat cerebrovascular aneurysms in patients such as ours.
Aneurysm, infected; embolization, therapeutic; endocarditis, bacterial; intracranial aneurysm/therapy; mitral valve/surgery
Mycotic aneurysms are a rare cause of intracranial aneurysms that develop in the presence of infections such as infective endocarditis. They account for a small percentage of all intracranial aneurysms and carry a high-mortality rate when ruptured. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve and acute stroke. He subsequently developed subarachnoid hemorrhage during antibiotic treatment, and a large intracranial aneurysm was
discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Current recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's ruptured aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.
We report a case of a sixty year old man with a mycotic infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a left psoas abscess. After treatment with parenteral antibiotics he underwent early aortic reconstruction with an in-situ prosthetic graft wrapped in an omental pedicle. Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms can be treated in this way despite the potential for graft infection from persisting retroperitoneal sepsis.
Aneurysm; Omentum; Psoas abscess
Infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can present insidiously with non-specific symptoms or they may present as ruptured AAA in the classical manner.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report two cases of mycotic AAA with Listeria monocytogenes. One patient presented with a ruptured aneurysm, while the other patient had a symptomatic non-ruptured presentation with computer tomography (CT) angiogram demonstrating peri-aortic inflammatory change of a rapidly expanding aneurysm. Both patients were treated with excision of the infected tissue and inlay prosthetic surgical repair as well as long term antibiotics.
Arterial aneurysms caused by L. monocytogenes are rare. Risk factors include immunosuppression, infective endocarditis, intravenous drug use and septicaemia. Listeria infections should be discussed with the Health Protection Agency and local microbiologists due to their ubiquity.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm due to L. monocytogenes is best managed via surgical resection in combination with long term antimicrobial therapy. The role of endovascular exclusion is unclear.
Mycotic; Aneurysm; Listeria; Monocytogenes; Aortic
After cardiac transplantation, bacterial mediastinitis is a rare but dangerous early complication. Of the 113 patients who underwent heart or heart-lung transplantation at our hospital from August 1981 to April 1989, 8 developed purulent mediastinitis. Treatment involved surgical débridment, local irrigation, drainage, and high-dose systemic antibiotics. No patient died of an acute mediastinal infection. In 2 cases, however, chronic mediastinitis led to the formation of a huge mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Eleven days after surgical intervention for rupture, 1 patient died of aneurysmal rerupture; the 2nd patient remains well 16 months after prosthetic replacement of the ascending aorta and reconstruction of the necrotic proximal portion of the left coronary artery with a saphenous vein patch. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:186-93)
Aneurysm, infected; heart transplantation; mediastinitis
Bacterial endarteritis is rare and usually affects the abdominal aorta. A case of bacterial left subclavian arteritis complicated by mycotic aneurysm is presented. An early diagnosis of infective arteritis was made based on a history of fever, sweats, rigors, and a progressive macular rash, polyarthralgia splinter haemorrhage (limited to the left arm), and a loud left subclavian bruit on admission. A mycotic aneurysm was diagnosed by computed tomography and treated surgically. In cases of endarteritis the possibility of a mycotic aneurysm should be borne in mind even when there is no evidence of endocarditis.
We report herein a case successful endovascular treatment with a stent-graft of a rare case of rapidly growing mycotic aneurysm of the left common carotid artery due to acute bacterial endocarditis after eradication of the infection. Infected mycotic aneurysms of the peripheral vasculature have been considered as a contraindication for stent-graft implantation because of the possibility of microorganism spreading to the stent-graft; however, if there is evidence of complete eradication of microorganism and surgery is not an option, stent-graft implantation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm.
Mycotic aneurysm; covered stent; endovascular therapy; infective endocarditis; carotid artery
Coronary aneurysms represent anomalies identified in 0.15%–4.9% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. At present, there is no uniform definition of this pathology. Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) are extremely uncommon, with an incidence of 0.1%. It has been demonstrated that atherosclerosis is the main cause of these anomalies in adults, and Kawasaki disease in children and adolescents. Other causes include connective tissue disorders, trauma, vasculitis, congenital, mycotic, and idiopathic. These dilated sections of the coronary artery are not benign pathology because they are subject to spasm, thrombosis, and subsequent distal embolism, spontaneous dissection and rupture. Treatment options include anticoagulation, custom-made covered stents, reconstruction, resection, and exclusion with bypass. Our report on an old case illustrates the giant saccular LMCA aneurysm leading to myocardial ischemia due to coronary steal phenomenon.
Coronary aneurysm; Coronary artery disease; Coronary angiography
We report the first case of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli community-acquired meningitis complicated with multiple aortic mycotic aneurysms. Because of the acute aneurysm expansion with possible impending rupture on 2 abdominal CT scan, the patient underwent prompt vascular surgery and broad spectrum antibiotic therapy but he died of a hemorrhagic shock. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli was identified from both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture before vascular treatment. The present case report does not however change the guidelines of Gram negative bacteria meningitis in adults.
aortic mycotic aneurysm; ESBL producing Escherichia coli; meningitis
In patients without history of vascular surgery, infectious aortitis is a very uncommon, life-threatening condition with nonspecific clinical manifestations, which exposes the patient to uncontrolled sepsis and to the risk of retroperitoneal rupture. State-of-the-art cross-sectional imaging with contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allows confident diagnosis and characterization of unsuspected aortitis in septic patients at an early stage before the development of aneurysmal dilatation. The asymmetric distribution of periaortic inflammatory tissue is helpful for the differentiation of this exceptional disorder from other periaortic abnormalities such as retroperitoneal fibrosis or lymphoma.
Aortitis; computed tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; sepsis; Staphylococcus aureus
This report concerns a 29-year-old man with recent Streptococcus viridans endocarditis on a bicuspid aortic valve who was found to have a mycotic aneurysm of the left anterior descending coronary artery and infective erosion and thinning of the posterior wall of the ascending aorta 1.5 to 3.5 cm above the origin of the left coronary artery, a combination of lesions not previously reported. Mycotic aneurysm of the coronary arteries affects less than 1% of patients with infective endocarditis, and there are few reports of the management of these rare lesions. The surgical management of this patient is presented with a brief review of the available literature.
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of bacteremia, with the potential for some complications, namely mycotic aneurysms, defined as irreversible dilatation of an artery due to destruction of the vessel wall by infection.
The authors present the case of a 52 year-old-Caucasian male, admitted with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and mycotic aneurysm of the right superficial femoral artery, associated with advanced atherosclerotic process.
Mycotic aneurysms are rare, and a high index of suspicion is needed, because appropriate treatment will certainly affect the outcome, as they are associated with high morbidity and mortality.
Takayasu aortoarteritis (TA) rarely affects the nervous system, but when it does, it usually manifests as cerebral ischemia or stroke. These strokes have mainly been attributed to stenotic extracranial vessels. Stenoses of intracranial vessels, although rare in TA, can occur due to either embolization into the vessel or because of the vasculitic process itself. Intracranial aneurysms are very rare in patients with TA. Bilateral cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms are rarer. They have been reported following radiation therapy and in association with fibromuscular dysplasia and juvenile Paget disease. Bilateral mycotic intracavernous aneurysms also occur. Bilateral giant cavernous ICA aneurysms with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) consequent to rupture into the cavernous sinus in a case of TA are extremely unusual. We report a case that fulfilled both American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatology criteria for TA. The patient had bilateral cavernous sinus giant aneurysms and CCF because the right-sided aneurysm had ruptured and was leaking into the cavernous sinus.
Bilateral giant ICA aneurysms; carotid cavernous fistula; Takayasu arteritis
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
Mycotic aneurysm is a disease requiring immediate treatment because of the high risk of rupture. A difficult surgical approach, especially in the case of occurrence on the iliac artery, involving endovascular embolization and extra-anatomic bypass grafting, is known to be a suitable treatment. We performed extra-anatomic bypass grafting after endovascular embolization successfully in two patients. The postoperative computed tomography of both patients showed complete exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm.
Mycotic aneurysm; Endovascular stent; Extra-anatomic bypass
We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with
Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital
because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed
tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in
maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral
wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant
signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery
on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm
was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft
was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter
fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this
case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic
AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and
tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.
mycotic abdominal aneurysm; Campylobacter fetus; vascular surgery
Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma
Hepatic artery aneurysms occur infrequently and are often difficult to diagnose. Non-invasive procedures such as ultrasound or computer assisted tomography have not been considered suitable for definitive diagnosis and angiography is usually required. A patient is described in whom a mycotic hepatic artery aneurysm developed during the course of subacute bacterial endocarditis. The definitive diagnosis was made using computer assisted tomography with intravenous contrast enhancement and angiography was undertaken only as a prelude to transcatheter embolisation. The same technique was used to monitor progress after embolisation precluding the need for follow up angiography. As 80% of patients with hepatic artery aneurysm present for the first time after aneurysm rupture, the mortality associated with this condition is high. More widespread use of intravenous contrast enhanced tomography for abdominal examination in patients with unexplained abdominal pain might result in earlier diagnosis of this condition.
Major causes of morbidity in intravenous drug users are infections. In infective endocarditis, the tricuspid valve is mainly involved. Masses can cause septic embolisms and, in rare cases, they are associated with mycotic aneurysms of pulmonary arteries that lead to severe haemorrhage.
We report the case of a young woman with a history of intravenous drug abuse and prolonged infective tricuspid valve endocarditis. Initially, echocardiography showed large masses on the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve and severe tricuspid regurgitation; blood cultures revealed staphylococcus and streptococcus species. Eight months after initial diagnosis, she presented with severe haemoptysis and fever. CT revealed a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the right pulmonary artery. Lobectomy was performed immediately.
Postoperatively, the patient fully recovered. After continued antibiotic treatment, follow-up examinations showed negative echocardiographic findings and blood cultures results.
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysm are rare. Presentation is variable but invasive and non-invasive investigations collectively facilitate diagnosis and guide operative procedures. Definitive treatment generally utilizes surgical intervention with excision and reconstruction using autologous vein graft. Prolonged targeted antibiotic therapy is an important adjuvant.
We describe the clinical presentation, radiological investigations and strategies on the management of a 47-year-old Caucasian Irish man who presented with a mycotic aneurysm of the popliteal artery due to thromboembolisation from Streptococus pneumoniae endocarditis.
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysms are rare. To the best of our knowledge this is the first documented case of a popliteal artery mycotic aneurysm developing secondary to Streptococus pneumoniae highlighting the changing profile of causative microorganisms.
Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are rare with an incidence of 0.1% in large angiographic series. The majority are atherosclerotic in origin. Other causes include connective tissue disorders, trauma, vasculitis, congenital, mycotic and idiopathic. The primary complication is myocardial ischemia or infarction, with rupture being rare. Treatment options include anticoagulation, custom made covered stents, reconstruction, resection, and exclusion with bypass.
A 66 year-old man was referred for evaluation of a 2 × 2 centimeter saccular aneurysm originating from the distal left main coronary artery. There was associated calcification and mild stenosis of the LM. The workup was prompted by a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction suffered following a laparotomy for a ruptured appendix. The past medical history was pertinent for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and a left carotid endarterectomy.
Cardiopulmonary bypass with hyperkalemic cardioplegic arrest was utilized. The aneurysm was exposed in the atrioventricular groove. The aneurysm was resected and oversewn. Calcification precluded patch angioplasty. The patient then underwent coronary bypass grafting with the left internal thoracic artery placed to the left anterior descending artery and a reversed greater saphenous vein graft to an obtuse marginal branch of the circumflex artery. The postoperative course was uneventful and discharge to home occurred on the fourth postoperative day. Surgical pathology confirmed an atheromatous coronary artery aneurysm.
Left main coronary artery aneurysms in adult patients are predominantly atherosclerotic in origin. The clinical presentation is that of myocardial ischemia, likely from associated embolism. Rupture is rare. Operative treatment is exclusion and revascularization.