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1.  Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes about the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review 
PLoS Medicine  2011;8(5):e1001037.
A systematic review of published studies reveals that undergraduate medical students may experience substantial exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, and that this contact may be associated with positive attitudes about marketing.
Background
The relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has become a source of controversy. Physicians' attitudes towards the industry can form early in their careers, but little is known about this key stage of development.
Methods and Findings
We performed a systematic review reported according to PRISMA guidelines to determine the frequency and nature of medical students' exposure to the drug industry, as well as students' attitudes concerning pharmaceutical policy issues. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and ERIC from the earliest available dates through May 2010, as well as bibliographies of selected studies. We sought original studies that reported quantitative or qualitative data about medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing, their attitudes about marketing practices, relationships with industry, and related pharmaceutical policy issues. Studies were separated, where possible, into those that addressed preclinical versus clinical training, and were quality rated using a standard methodology. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. We found that 40%–100% of medical students reported interacting with the pharmaceutical industry. A substantial proportion of students (13%–69%) were reported as believing that gifts from industry influence prescribing. Eight studies reported a correlation between frequency of contact and favorable attitudes toward industry interactions. Students were more approving of gifts to physicians or medical students than to government officials. Certain attitudes appeared to change during medical school, though a time trend was not performed; for example, clinical students (53%–71%) were more likely than preclinical students (29%–62%) to report that promotional information helps educate about new drugs.
Conclusions
Undergraduate medical education provides substantial contact with pharmaceutical marketing, and the extent of such contact is associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism about negative implications of these interactions. These results support future research into the association between exposure and attitudes, as well as any modifiable factors that contribute to attitudinal changes during medical education.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
The complex relationship between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry has long been a subject of discussion among physicians and policymakers. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical sales representatives may influence clinical decision making in a way that is not always in the best interests of individual patients, for example, encouraging the use of expensive treatments that have no therapeutic advantage over less costly alternatives. The pharmaceutical industry often uses physician education as a marketing tool, as in the case of Continuing Medical Education courses that are designed to drive prescribing practices.
One reason that physicians may be particularly susceptible to pharmaceutical industry marketing messages is that doctors' attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry may form early in their careers. The socialization effect of professional schooling is strong, and plays a lasting role in shaping views and behaviors.
Why Was This Study Done?
Recently, particularly in the US, some medical schools have limited students' and faculties' contact with industry, but some have argued that these restrictions are detrimental to students' education. Given the controversy over the pharmaceutical industry's role in undergraduate medical training, consolidating current knowledge in this area may be useful for setting priorities for changes to educational practices. In this study, the researchers systematically examined studies of pharmaceutical industry interactions with medical students and whether such interactions influenced students' views on related topics.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers did a comprehensive literature search using appropriate search terms for all relevant quantitative and qualitative studies published before June 2010. Using strict inclusion criteria, the researchers then selected 48 articles (from 1,603 abstracts) for full review and identified 32 eligible for analysis—giving a total of approximately 9,850 medical students studying at 76 medical schools or hospitals.
Most students had some form of interaction with the pharmaceutical industry but contact increased in the clinical years, with up to 90% of all clinical students receiving some form of educational material. The highest level of exposure occurred in the US. In most studies, the majority of students in their clinical training years found it ethically permissible for medical students to accept gifts from drug manufacturers, while a smaller percentage of preclinical students reported such attitudes. Students justified their entitlement to gifts by citing financial hardship or by asserting that most other students accepted gifts. In addition, although most students believed that education from industry sources is biased, students variably reported that information obtained from industry sources was useful and a valuable part of their education.
Almost two-thirds of students reported that they were immune to bias induced by promotion, gifts, or interactions with sales representatives but also reported that fellow medical students or doctors are influenced by such encounters. Eight studies reported a relationship between exposure to the pharmaceutical industry and positive attitudes about industry interactions and marketing strategies (although not all included supportive statistical data). Finally, student opinions were split on whether physician–industry interactions should be regulated by medical schools or the government.
What Do These Findings Mean?
This analysis shows that students are frequently exposed to pharmaceutical marketing, even in the preclinical years, and that the extent of students' contact with industry is generally associated with positive attitudes about marketing and skepticism towards any negative implications of interactions with industry. Therefore, strategies to educate students about interactions with the pharmaceutical industry should directly address widely held misconceptions about the effects of marketing and other biases that can emerge from industry interactions. But education alone may be insufficient. Institutional policies, such as rules regulating industry interactions, can play an important role in shaping students' attitudes, and interventions that decrease students' contact with industry and eliminate gifts may have a positive effect on building the skills that evidence-based medical practice requires. These changes can help cultivate strong professional values and instill in students a respect for scientific principles and critical evidence review that will later inform clinical decision-making and prescribing practices.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001037.
Further information about the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on doctors and medical students can be found at the American Medical Students Association PharmFree campaign and PharmFree Scorecard, Medsin-UKs PharmAware campaign, the nonprofit organization Healthy Skepticism, and the Web site of No Free Lunch.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001037
PMCID: PMC3101205  PMID: 21629685
2.  Deliberate Apprenticeship in the Pediatric Emergency Department Improves Experience for Third-year Students 
INTRODUCTION
The Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) provides medical students with learning in a high-volume, fast-paced environment; characteristics that can be stressful for new students. Shadowing can improve transitioning, yet this alone does not facilitate students’ development of independent medical care competencies. This study evaluates if third-year medical students’ deliberate apprenticeship with senior residents increases students’ comfort and patient exposure in the PED.
METHODS
This study took place over the 2011–2012 academic year, and study participants were all third-year medical students during their pediatric clerkship rotation. This was a prospective educational intervention assigning students to randomized control blocks of deliberate apprenticeship (DA) intervention or control. DA students were paired with a senior resident who oriented and worked with the student, while control students were unpaired. All students completed a 20-question structured survey at shift end, which included questions about their perception of the learning environment, comfort with, and number of patient care responsibilities performed. We used independent Mann-Whitney and t-tests to compare experiences between the groups. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. We used the constant comparative method to qualitatively analyze students’ comments.
RESULTS
Response rate was 85% (145/169). Students also rated on 5-point Likert-scale their level of comfort with defined aspects of working in the PED. DA students (n=76) were significantly more comfortable obtaining histories (4.2 versus 3.8) and formulating differential diagnoses (3.9 versus 3.4). DA students also performed more physical exams (2.9 versus 2.4). We categorized themes from the qualitative analysis of the students’ comments about their PED experience. The titles for these themes are as follows: PED provides a good learning experience; uncertainty about the medical student’s role in the PED; third-year medical students compete with other learners for teaching attention; opportunities provided to medical students for inclusion in patient care; personal knowledge deficits limit the ability to participate in the PED; PED pace affects learning opportunities.
CONCLUSION
DA constitutes a feasible approach to the clinical learning environment that increases students’ patient care experiences and may ease transitioning for undergraduate medical students to new clinical environments.
doi:10.5811/westjem.2014.5.19647
PMCID: PMC4100848  PMID: 25035748
3.  Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective 
Medical Education Online  2010;15:10.3402/meo.v15i0.5212.
Background
Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students' motivation for research and (d) obtain students' personal views on doing research.
Methods
Undergraduate medical students (N=317) completed a research skills questionnaire developed by the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in Applied Undergraduate Research Skills (CETL-AURS) at Reading University. The questionnaire assessed students' transferable skills, research-specific skills (e.g., study design, data collection and data analysis), research experience and attitude and motivation towards doing research.
Results
The majority of students are motivated to pursue research. Graduate entrants and male students appear to be the most confident regarding their research skills competencies. Although all students recognise the role of research in medical practice, many are unaware of the medical research activities or successes within their university. Of those who report no interest in a career incorporating research, a common perception was that researchers are isolated from patients and clinical practice.
Discussion
Students have a narrow definition of research and what it entails. An explanation for why research competence does not align more closely with research motivation is derived from students' lack of understanding of the concept of translational research, as well as a lack of awareness of the research activity being undertaken by their teachers and mentors. We plan to address this with specific research awareness initiatives.
doi:10.3402/meo.v15i0.5212
PMCID: PMC2939395  PMID: 20844608
undergraduate; research skills; translational research; training; scholarly activity programmes
4.  Integrated modular teaching in dermatology for undergraduate students: A novel approach 
Context:
Undergraduate teaching in dermatology comprises didactic lectures and clinical classes. Integrated modular teaching is a novel approach, which integrates basic sciences with dermatology in the form of a module. Further the module also incorporates various teaching modalities, which facilitate active participation from students and promotes learning. The pre- and post-test values showed the effectiveness of the integrated module. The students feedback was encouraging.
Aims:
The aim of this study was to determine the acceptance and opinion of undergraduate students regarding integrated modular teaching as a new teaching aid in dermatology.
Settings and Design:
This was a descriptive study. Varied teaching methodologies involving multiple disciplines were undertaken in six major undergraduate topics in dermatology for seventh and eighth semester students.
Materials and Methods:
A total of six modules were conducted over a period of 12 months for students of seventh and eighth semesters. The topics for the various modules were sexually transmitted diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, oral ulcers, leprosy, connective tissue disorders and psoriasis. Faculty members from different disciplines participated. Pre- and post-test were conducted before and after the modules respectively to gauge the effectiveness of the modules.
Results:
It was found that almost every student had a better score on the posttest as compared to the pretest. General feedback obtained from the students showed that all of them felt that modular teaching was a more interesting and useful teaching learning experience than conventional teaching.
Conclusions:
Integrated modular teaching can be an effective adjunct in imparting theoretical and practical knowledge to the students. Further, various teaching methodologies can be used in integrated modules effectively with active student participation. Thus integrated modular teaching addresses two important issues in medical education, namely integration and active student participation.
doi:10.4103/2229-5178.137774
PMCID: PMC4144209  PMID: 25165641
Dermatology; integrated modular teaching; undergraduate
5.  Evaluation of an interactive case simulation system in dermatology and venereology for medical students 
Background
Most of the many computer resources used in clinical teaching of dermatology and venereology for medical undergraduates are information-oriented and focus mostly on finding a "correct" multiple-choice alternative or free-text answer. We wanted to create an interactive computer program, which facilitates not only factual recall but also clinical reasoning.
Methods
Through continuous interaction with students, a new computerised interactive case simulation system, NUDOV, was developed. It is based on authentic cases and contains images of real patients, actors and healthcare providers. The student selects a patient and proposes questions for medical history, examines the skin, and suggests investigations, diagnosis, differential diagnoses and further management. Feedback is given by comparing the user's own suggestions with those of a specialist. In addition, a log file of the student's actions is recorded. The program includes a large number of images, video clips and Internet links. It was evaluated with a student questionnaire and by randomising medical students to conventional teaching (n = 85) or conventional teaching plus NUDOV (n = 31) and comparing the results of the two groups in a final written examination.
Results
The questionnaire showed that 90% of the NUDOV students stated that the program facilitated their learning to a large/very large extent, and 71% reported that extensive working with authentic computerised cases made it easier to understand and learn about diseases and their management. The layout, user-friendliness and feedback concept were judged as good/very good by 87%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Log files revealed that the students, in general, worked with each case for 60–90 min. However, the intervention group did not score significantly better than the control group in the written examination.
Conclusion
We created a computerised case simulation program allowing students to manage patients in a non-linear format supporting the clinical reasoning process. The student gets feedback through comparison with a specialist, eliminating the need for external scoring or correction. The model also permits discussion of case processing, since all transactions are stored in a log file. The program was highly appreciated by the students, but did not significantly improve their performance in the written final examination.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-40
PMCID: PMC1590009  PMID: 16907972
6.  Are care workers appropriate mentors for nursing students in residential aged care? 
BMC Nursing  2014;13(1):44.
Background
The aged care sector is increasingly dominated by a less-qualified workforce at a time of increasing prevalence of complex health concerns, such as dementia. An Australian program to develop teaching aged care facilities is being undertaken to build the sector’s capacity and provide nursing students with positive experiences of engaging with vulnerable clients. This research aimed to examine care staff potential to facilitate nursing student engagement with clinically relevant knowledge in the performance of hygiene care in a residential aged care facility.
Methods
This study was designed as an action research study. A cycle of reflection, planning, action, and evaluation is described to illustrate the carer mentor capacity to engage with and contribute to the learning of nursing students. Participants were second year student nurses (n = 10) on a four-week placement in a Tasmanian aged care facility in 2013 and their nurse/carer mentors (n = 17). Mentors participated in six action research meetings, and nursing students engaged in a parallel series of four feedback meetings during the placement.
Results
At the beginning of the placement, nursing students exhibited a disregard for the clinical value of care provision. Students considered provision of hygiene care, in particular, the preserve of care workers and an inappropriate training exercise in the context of an undergraduate nursing qualification. To assist students to make links between core nursing competencies and hygiene care as well as to engender respect for their role within the aged care facility, carer mentors developed the Carer Assessment and Reporting Guide. Once implemented during the final weeks of the placement, the Guide improved student perceptions of resident hygiene care (reframed as assessment) and the role of facility care workers, as well as reinforcing carer self-esteem.
Conclusion
Hygiene care is replete with nursing competencies that are valuable for undergraduate learners, including assessments of skin integrity, mobility, cognitive function, bowels and urine, and basic hygiene. Nurse education programs should strive to address student misconceptions about care work in facilities to account for population level increases in care needs.
doi:10.1186/s12912-014-0044-8
PMCID: PMC4271505  PMID: 25530713
Aged care; Nursing; Clinical placement; Carer; Hygiene; Action research
7.  A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills 
BMC Medical Education  2013;13:135.
Background
Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology.
Methods
Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status.
Results
For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n = 11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n = 4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n = 10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n = 2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.007).
Conclusion
Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an observed structured clinical examination of these skills, when used as an adjunct to clinical skills face-to-face tutorials and deliberate practice of skills in a blended learning format. Video demonstrations can provide an enduring, on-demand, portable resource for revision, which can even be used at the bedside by learners. Such resources are cost-effectively scalable for large numbers of learners.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-135
PMCID: PMC3851453  PMID: 24090039
Video; Clinical skills; Medical student; Endocrinology; Medical education; E-learning
8.  When Are Circular Lesions Square? A National Clinical Education Skin Lesion Audit and Study 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2014;41(5):500-504.
Background
Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer by organ type and referral accuracy is vital for diagnosis and management. The British Association of Dermatologists (BAD) and literature highlight the importance of accurate skin lesion examination, diagnosis and educationally-relevant studies.
Methods
We undertook a review of the relevant literature, a national audit of skin lesion description standards and a study of speciality training influences on these descriptions. Questionnaires (n=200), with pictures of a circular and an oval lesion, were distributed to UK dermatology/plastic surgery consultants and speciality trainees (ST), general practitioners (GP), and medical students (MS). The following variables were analysed against a pre-defined 95% inclusion accuracy standard: site, shape, size, skin/colour, and presence of associated scars.
Results
There were 250 lesion descriptions provided by 125 consultants, STs, GPs, and MSs. Inclusion accuracy was greatest for consultants over STs (80% vs. 68%; P<0.001), GPs (57%) and MSs (46%) (P<0.0001), for STs over GPs (P<0.010) and MSs (P<0.0001) and for GPs over MSs (P<0.010), all falling below audit standard. Size description accuracy sub-analysis according to circular/oval dimensions was as follows: consultants (94%), GPs (80%), STs (73%), MSs (37%), with the most common error implying a quadrilateral shape (66%). Addressing BAD guidelines and published requirements for more empirical performance data to improve teaching methods, we performed a national audit and studied skin lesion descriptions. To improve diagnostic and referral accuracy for patients, healthcare professionals must strive towards accuracy (a circle is not a square).
Conclusions
We provide supportive evidence that increased speciality training improves this process and propose that greater focus is placed on such training early on during medical training, and maintained throughout clinical practice.
doi:10.5999/aps.2014.41.5.500
PMCID: PMC4179353  PMID: 25276641
Clinical audit; Skin neoplasms; Education; Study; Surgery, plastic
9.  Writing to Learn: An Evaluation of the Calibrated Peer Review™ Program in Two Neuroscience Courses 
Although the majority of scientific information is communicated in written form, and peer review is the primary process by which it is validated, undergraduate students may receive little direct training in science writing or peer review. Here, I describe the use of Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR), a free, web-based writing and peer review program designed to alleviate instructor workload, in two undergraduate neuroscience courses: an upper- level sensation and perception course (41 students, three assignments) and an introductory neuroscience course (50 students; two assignments). Using CPR online, students reviewed primary research articles on assigned ‘hot’ topics, wrote short essays in response to specific guiding questions, reviewed standard ‘calibration’ essays, and provided anonymous quantitative and qualitative peer reviews. An automated grading system calculated the final scores based on a student’s essay quality (as determined by the average of three peer reviews) and his or her accuracy in evaluating 1) three standard calibration essays, 2) three anonymous peer reviews, and 3) his or her self review. Thus, students were assessed not only on their skill at constructing logical, evidence-based arguments, but also on their ability to accurately evaluate their peers’ writing. According to both student self-reports and instructor observation, students’ writing and peer review skills improved over the course of the semester. Student evaluation of the CPR program was mixed; while some students felt like the peer review process enhanced their understanding of the material and improved their writing, others felt as though the process was biased and required too much time. Despite student critiques of the program, I still recommend the CPR program as an excellent and free resource for incorporating more writing, peer review, and critical thinking into an undergraduate neuroscience curriculum.
PMCID: PMC3592621  PMID: 23493247
peer review, writing to learn; web-based learning; learning technology; Calibrated Peer Review
10.  Arthroscopy or ultrasound in undergraduate anatomy education: a randomized cross-over controlled trial 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:85.
Background
The exponential growth of image-based diagnostic and minimally invasive interventions requires a detailed three-dimensional anatomical knowledge and increases the demand towards the undergraduate anatomical curriculum. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) or arthroscopic methods can increase the anatomical knowledge uptake.
Methods
Second-year medical students were randomly allocated to three groups. In addition to the compulsory dissection course, the ultrasound group (MSUS) was taught by eight, didactically and professionally trained, experienced student-teachers and the arthroscopy group (ASK) was taught by eight experienced physicians. The control group (CON) acquired the anatomical knowledge only via the dissection course. Exposure (MSUS and ASK) took place in two separate lessons (75 minutes each, shoulder and knee joint) and introduced standard scan planes using a 10-MHz ultrasound system as well as arthroscopy tutorials at a simulator combined with video tutorials. The theoretical anatomic learning outcomes were tested using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ), and after cross-over an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Differences in student’s perceptions were evaluated using Likert scale-based items.
Results
The ASK-group (n = 70, age 23.4 (20–36) yrs.) performed moderately better in the anatomical MC exam in comparison to the MSUS-group (n = 84, age 24.2 (20–53) yrs.) and the CON-group (n = 88, 22.8 (20–33) yrs.; p = 0.019). After an additional arthroscopy teaching 1% of students failed the MC exam, in contrast to 10% in the MSUS- or CON-group, respectively. The benefit of the ASK module was limited to the shoulder area (p < 0.001). The final examination (OSCE) showed no significant differences between any of the groups with good overall performances. In the evaluation, the students certified the arthroscopic tutorial a greater advantage concerning anatomical skills with higher spatial imagination in comparison to the ultrasound tutorial (p = 0.002; p < 0.001).
Conclusions
The additional implementation of arthroscopy tutorials to the dissection course during the undergraduate anatomy training is profitable and attractive to students with respect to complex joint anatomy. Simultaneous teaching of basic-skills in musculoskeletal ultrasound should be performed by medical experts, but seems to be inferior to the arthroscopic 2D-3D-transformation, and is regarded by students as more difficult to learn. Although arthroscopy and ultrasound teaching do not have a major effect on learning joint anatomy, they have the potency to raise the interest in surgery.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-85
PMCID: PMC3473305  PMID: 22958784
Arthroscopy; Education, Anatomic competence, Randomized controlled trial, Knee joint, Shoulder joint, Students; Medical, Musculoskeletal ultrasound
11.  Medical students’ perceptions of an emergency medicine clerkship: an analysis of self-assessment surveys 
Background
No studies have been performed that evaluate the perceptions of medical students completing an emergency medicine (EM) clerkship. Given the variability of exposure to EM in medical schools nationwide, assessment of the student rotation may inform the structure and content of new and existing clerkships, particularly in relation to student’s acquisition of the core competencies.
Objectives
To investigate whether undergraduate medical students rotating through an EM clerkship improved their understanding and abilities in core content areas and common procedural skills; to evaluate whether improvement was affected by rotation length.
Methods
All students participating in an EM clerkship over a 12-month period were asked to complete an anonymous voluntary pre- and post-rotation survey. Confidence with patient assessment, diagnosis, and management plans; trauma and medical resuscitations; formal and informal presentations; basic procedure skills and understanding of the modern practice of EM were self assessed using a Likert scale. Group mean scores on each question on the pre- and post-clerkship surveys were calculated and compared. The mean scores on each survey item, both pre- and post-clerkship, were compared between 2- and 4-week clerkship rotation groups.
Results
Two hundred thirty-nine students participated in the rotation during the 12 months of the study. One hundred sixty-one (161), or 67.4%, completed the pre-rotation survey, and 96 (40.2%) completed the post-rotation survey. Overall, students showed significant mean gains in confidence with initial patient assessment, diagnosis, and management plans (p < 0.01, 0.02, <0.01) and with basic procedure skills (p < 0.01 for all). Students completing a 2-week rotation did not differ significantly from f4week rotators in confidence levels, except in the area of formal presentation skills (p = 0.01), where the 4-week students demonstrated a statistically significant advantage. The 2-week clerkship participants were significantly less confident in all procedures except EKG interpretation, splinting, and venipuncture (p = 0.28, 0.22, 0.05). Regardless of rotation length, students generally felt they had sufficient exposure to patients and opportunities for hands-on learning and practice, and overwhelmingly would recommend the EM clerkship to a fellow student, regardless of their chosen specialty.
Conclusions
Medical students show significant gains in confidence with acute care knowledge, disease management, and procedure skills after completion of an EM clerkship. Although a 4-week clerkship may be preferable to expose students to the widest variety of patients and procedures, all students can benefit and improve in core competencies after an EM undergraduate experience.
doi:10.1186/1865-1380-5-25
PMCID: PMC3419087  PMID: 22647269
12.  Evaluation of Pre-Service Training on Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness in Ethiopia 
Background
The Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness strategy equips health workers with essential knowledge and skills to effectively manage sick children with common neonatal and childhood diseases. Since in-service training is very demanding to achieve the desired coverage of training of health workers, pre-service training is taken as a solution. At the time of the survey, most public and some private health professionals' training institutions were conducting pre-service training. However, several concerns have been expressed on the training. Therefore, this survey was conducted to assess the status of pre-service Integrated Management of New-born and Childhood Illness training.
Methods
A cross sectional survey on health professional training institutes/schools to evaluate pre-service Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness training was conducted in November 2007. Data was collected using pre-tested questionnaires, focused group interviews with teachers and students, observation of students while managing sick children using Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness guidelines, and reviews of pediatric course outlines and other teaching/learning materials. Data was entered in computer and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 12.0.1.
Results
Twenty nine health professionals' training institutions (34 academic programs) which have started pre-service training were included in the survey. Of the 34 programs 22 were diploma nursing, 6 Bachelor of Sciences nursing, 4 health officer and the remaining two medicine. Thirty (88.2%) programs have integrated it in their curriculum. All academic programs had at least one fulltime staff for Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness classroom instruction. Twenty nine (85.3%) programs had staff trained in case management skills. All the 34 academic programs taught health workers skills, 28(82.3%) used mixed approach. Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness was either incorporated for 21 (61.8%) or added to the previous teaching 11 (32.3%). The instructor to student ratio was low for most of the schools. Main challenges encountered in the pre-service teaching were constraints with trained staff and other resources each by 28 (82.3%) programs. Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness was included in student evaluation by all programs (100%). All students and instructors (100%) rated that Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness concept is very relevant or extremely relevant but majority said the time given was short. The over all mean score of students clinical practice was 63.5%.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness was introduced into the teaching programs of most health professional training institutions. The most preferred teaching style was the mixed approach. Group discussion and demonstration were commonly used methods and Integrated Management of Newborn and Childhood Illness questions were included in students' evaluation in almost all programs. Shortage of IMNCI trained staff and teaching materials were major challenges. The use of teaching materials prepared for pre-service training like handbook and model chapter was limited. Instructors and students attitude towards IMNCI was very good. The students overall performance in managing sick child as per the IMNCI guidelines was above average. We recommend that the respective bodies at every level make every effort to strengthen IMNCI pre-service teaching through revisiting curricula, facilitating staff training, availing teaching materials and allocating adequate time. Exploring for an alternative/innovative and sustainable training approach is an assignment for all.
PMCID: PMC3275900  PMID: 22434956
IMNCI; pre-service; Ethiopia
13.  Diagnostic agreement between a primary care physician and a teledermatologist for common dermatological conditions in North India 
Background:
Primary care physicians (PCPs) encounter a large number of patients with dermatological diseases. However, delivering appropriate management is a challenge considering the inadequate dermatology training offered during the undergraduate medical curriculum. Teledermatology is the clinical evaluation of skin lesions by dermatologists and allows patients to be diagnosed and treated from a distant site. It is seen as a potential solution to the shortage of specialists and providing equitable service in remote areas.
Aim:
The study was aimed at estimating the diagnostic agreement of common dermatological conditions between a PCP and a teledermatologist.
Materials and Methods:
Consecutive patients with dermatological ailments who attended a primary health care clinic were recruited into the study, examined by the PCP and offered a diagnosis. The clinical images and patients’ history were collected and transferred to a dermatologist at a tertiary center who also made a diagnosis. Agreement between diagnosis made by the PCPs and the teledermatologist was measured using kappa (κ) statistics.
Results:
Overall agreement between the diagnoses made by a PCP and the dermatologist was found to be 56%. Poor κ agreement (<0.4) was seen in the diagnosis of psoriasis and eczema.
Conclusion:
Teledermatology can supplement specialist dermatology service in remote areas. There was poor agreement in the diagnosis of psoriasis, classifying various types of eczematous conditions and fungal infections. Scarce manpower in dermatology at the primary health care level compounded by the burden of skin ailments necessitates training of PCPs in common dermatological conditions.
doi:10.4103/2229-5178.148927
PMCID: PMC4314882  PMID: 25657912
Dermatologist; diagnostic agreement; primary care physician
14.  Students sitting medical finals—ready to be house officers? 
An initial survey of students approaching qualification and the preregistration house officer year revealed anxiety about competence in several important clinical skills. A questionnaire study was then undertaken to assess, first, the extent to which students had attained the skills required for the preregistration year and, second, the amount of training in these skills provided during the preregistration year. 122 medical students taking their final examinations were asked about training and practice in eight core clinical skills, and 84 graduates from the same school, approaching the end of their preregistration year, were asked about postgraduate training in these skills.
The response rate of each group was 100%. Of the eight skills studied, most had been performed few times by the students at qualification. Less than half the current preregistration house officers could recall training being given in any of the skills studied. There were no significant differences in house-officer training between teaching hospitals and district general hospitals. Regarding needlestick injuries, nearly two-thirds of preregistration house officers were unable to recall any training at either undergraduate or postgraduate level.
These results suggest that training in clinical skills can be improved. Training is already changing with use of clinical skills laboratories and logbooks. We also recommend mandatory needlestick training both in undergraduate programmes and in induction courses for preregistration house officers.
PMCID: PMC1282206  PMID: 11581346
15.  High Prevalence of tuberculosis infection among medical students in Makerere University, Kampala: results of a cross sectional study 
Background
Uganda’s Ministry of Health registered a 12% increase in new Tuberculosis (TB) cases between 2001 and 2005. Of these, 20% were from Kampala district and most from Mulago national referral hospital where the largest and the oldest medical school is found. Medical students are likely to have an increased exposure to TB infection due to their training in hospitals compared to other university students. The study compared the prevalence of TB infection and associated factors among undergraduate medical and veterinary students in Makerere University, Uganda.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study with 232 medical and 250 veterinary undergraduate students. Socio-demographic and past medical history data was collected using questionnaires. A tuberculin skin test was performed on the volar aspect of the left forearm. An induration ≥10 mm in diameter after 48-72 hrs was considered positive. Logistic regression was used to determine association of independent variables with TB infection.
Results
The prevalence of TB infection was higher in medical students (44.8%, 95% C.I= 38.4-51.3%) compared to veterinary students (35.2%, 95% C.I = 29.3-41.1%). The significant predictors of TB infection were: being a medical student (aOR=1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.31), male sex (aOR=1.75, 95% CI = 1.17-2.63), history of contact with a confirmed TB case (aOR=1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.31) and residing at home (aOR=2.08, 95% CI = 1.20-3.61). Among the medical students, having gone to a day compared to boarding high school (aOR=2.31, 95% CI = 1.06-5.04), involvement in extracurricular clinical exposure (aOR=3.39 95% CI = 1.60-7.16), male sex, residence at home, and history of contact with a TB case predicted TB infection.
Conclusion
Medical students have a higher prevalence of TB infection than veterinary students probably due to increased exposure during training. There is a need to emphasize TB infection control measures in hospitals and the general community.
doi:10.1186/0778-7367-71-7
PMCID: PMC3642000  PMID: 23601111
Tuberculosis infection; Medical students; Veterinary students; Tuberculin skin test; Uganda; Prevalence
16.  An Objective Evaluation of Clinical Signs Used to Assess Sedation with Intravenous Diazepam 
Anesthesia Progress  1980;27(1):18-20.
In the majority of dental schools there are insufficient numbers of clinical patients for all students to receive optimal experience in intravenous sedation. This investigation was carried out to assess whether the signs and symptoms for intravenous sedation taught to the undergraduates were sufficiently objective to ensure that this clinical deficiency was not detrimental to competency of the graduating student. The signs of ptosis, altered speech and blurred vision were used by both experienced dentists and novice students to assess the level of intravenous sedation. Blurred vision was found to be unreliable while altered speech was more accurate than ptosis. The more experienced the operator the earlier the signs were observed.
The “Guidelines for the Teaching of Pain and Anxiety Control in Dentistry” were initially formulated by the American Dental Association in 1971 and revised in 19781 while similar guidelines were accepted by the House of Delegates of the Association of the Canadian Faculties of Dentistry in 19752 Both of these documents outlined the course of instructions necessary for the teaching of all modalities of pain and apprehension control at the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education level. Implementation of these guidelines at the undergraduate level has proven to be particularly difficult in the area of intravenous sedation because of the lack of suitable patients. This has resulted in many students graduating, having had little practical experience in sedating a patient with an intravenous drug. It is the hope of educators in this field that lectures, seminars, and demonstrations given to dental students are sufficient to overcome this deficiency.
Since the most critical clinical aspect of intravenous sedation is titrating the amount of drug required without overdosing or underdosing the patient, it was decided to investigate this ability in students with no clinical experience with intravenous diazepam. Although many drugs and techniques are advocated3,4,5 it was decided to limit the study to intravenous diazepam as it may be used alone and has a high therapeutic index.
With the introduction of diazepam to clinical practice the symptomatology of the drug was established and described by clinicians.6,7 Objective methods of measuring recovery from diazepam have been described by several authors8,9,10 but the signs and symptoms used to assess the initial level of sedation have been subjective. This can be attributed to the fact that sedation is an ill-defined clinical effect and can, therefore, only be calibrated by individual arbitary signs. The most frequently used signs for intravenous diazepam sedation are ptosis, also referred to as “the Verrill sign,”11 altered speech and blurred vision.7 This investigation was designed to test the reliability of these signs and to examine the variability of observations between clinicians and students.
PMCID: PMC2515966  PMID: 6933870
17.  Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism 
BMC Medical Education  2012;12:115.
Background
Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education.
Methods
Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA). Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5) were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning.
Results
The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship). Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions.
Conclusions
Students identify the need for strong positive role models in their learning environment, and for effective evaluation of the professionalism of students and teachers. Medical school leaders must facilitate development of these components within the MD education and faculty development programs as well as in clinical milieus where student learning occurs.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-115
PMCID: PMC3537482  PMID: 23153359
Professionalism; Curriculum; Undergraduate medical education; Learning environment
18.  Student perception about working in rural Nepal after graduation: a study among first- and second-year medical students 
Background
The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a developing country in South Asia with a population of 29.8 million. In September 2011, there were 18 medical schools with 14 being in the private sector. KIST Medical College is a private school in Lalitpur district. The present study was conducted to obtain information on student perceptions about working in rural Nepal after graduation.
Methods
The study was conducted among first- and second-year undergraduate medical students using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the authors using inputs from the literature and their experiences of teaching medical students. Year of study, gender, method of financing of medical education, place of family residence and occupation of parents were noted. Participant responses were analysed, grouped together and the number of respondents stating a particular response was noted.
Results
Of the 200 students, 185 (92.5%) participated with 95 being from the first year and 90 from the second. Most students were self-financing and from urban areas. Regarding the question of working in rural Nepal after graduation, 134 (72.4%) said they will work after their undergraduate course. Students preferred to work in the government or nongovernmental sector. Student felt doctors are reluctant to serve in rural Nepal due to inadequate facilities, low salary, less security, problems with their professional development, less equipment in health centres, decreased contact with family and difficulties in communicating with an illiterate, rural population. About 43% of respondents felt medical education does not adequately prepare them for rural service. Repeated rural exposure, postings in rural hospitals and health centres, and training students to diagnose and treat illness with less technology were suggested. The median monthly salary expected was 60 000 Nepalese rupees (US$ 820) and was significantly higher among first-year students.
Conclusions
The majority of respondents were in favour of working in rural Nepal after graduation. They wanted facilities in rural areas and health centres to be improved. Changes in the education system were suggested. Providing relatively better facilities for rural doctors compared with urban doctors and reorienting medical education for producing doctors for rural Nepal can be considered. Further studies are required in other private medical schools.
doi:10.1186/1478-4491-10-27
PMCID: PMC3464161  PMID: 22938089
Curriculum changes; Developing countries; Financing; Medical students; Nepal; Rural service; Scholarship; Self-financing
19.  Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria 
Background
Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge.
Methods
One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students.
Results
The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67 ± 3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24 ± 3.24, 10.76 ± 3.50 and 9.01 ± 3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p = 0.000), domain 3 (p = 0.029), domain 4 (p = 0.000) and total score (p = 0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r = 0.319, p = 0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r = 0.372, p = 0.000). The total score is also positively correlated with the number of credit hours of lectures in psychiatry/abnormal psychology (r = 0.324, p = 0.000) and the number of credit hours of lectures in paediatrics (r = 0.372, p = 0.000). The field of study also influenced knowledge about childhood autism (p = 0.000).
Conclusion
Peculiar situation in this environment as signified by inadequate human resources needed in the area of clinical psychology training often times necessitates employing first degree graduates in psychology into clinical positions. This calls for additional exposure of the undergraduate psychology students to training curriculum aimed at improving their early recognition of symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in this environment.
doi:10.1186/1824-7288-36-44
PMCID: PMC2894024  PMID: 20540799
20.  Analysis of internet use behaviors among clinical medical students in China 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:67.
Background
The availability of internet-based information resources is increasing and the appropriate use of such resources is an important subject for clinical medical students. The aims of this study were to investigate the behaviors of clinical medical students regarding the use of internet-based activities, to analyze the behavior and characteristics of the students’ information demands, and to discuss the behaviors and time preferences related to internet use of students with different levels of education.
Methods
Librarians obtained real-time feedback from 999 clinical medical students to record online activities. The data was recorded in a standard form and then analyzed statistically.
Results
There were significant differences in the use of the internet for learning activities among the different groups of clinical medical students (P < 0.0001). Learning accounted for 73.5% of all internet use for doctoral candidates, 47.6% of internet use for master’s candidates, 28.7% of internet use for seven-year undergraduate students, and 14.1% of use for five-year undergraduate students. There was also a significant difference in the proportions of leisure and e-commerce activities among the student groups (P < 0.0001), with five-year students displaying the highest total proportion of these activities (59.4% and 18.8%). Internet use for entertainment activities was the same for all groups of clinical medical students. Time of day of internet use was consistent across all student groups, but internet use differed by day of the week (P < 0.01). There was no difference among the time of day of internet use for learning, leisure and entertainment activities during a single day (P > 0.05), but e-commerce activities varied according to time of day (P < 0.05). Learning and e-commerce activities by clinical medical students did not vary by day of the week (P > 0.05), but the distributions of leisure and entertainment activities were different according to day of the week (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
A stronger demand for learning is associated with a higher academic level of clinical medical students. Differences exist among student groups regarding internet use behaviors and internet use during different time periods.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-67
PMCID: PMC3976031  PMID: 24690437
21.  Comparison of midwifery students’ satisfaction with direct observation of procedural skills and current methods in evaluation of procedural skills in Mashhad Nursing and Midwifery School 
Background:
The clinical evaluation, as one of the most important elements in medical education, must measure students’ competencies and abilities. The implementation of any assessment tool is basically dependent on the acceptance of students. This study tried to assess midwifery students’ satisfaction with Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) and current clinical evaluation methods.
Materials and Methods:
This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the university hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects comprised 67 undergraduate midwifery students selected by convenience sampling and allocated to control and intervention groups according to the training transposition. Current method was performed in the control group, and DOPS was conducted in the intervention group. The applied tools included DOPS rating scales, logbook, and satisfaction questionnaires with clinical evaluation methods. Validity and reliability of these tools were approved. At the end of training, students’ satisfaction with the evaluation methods was assessed by the mentioned tools. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics.
Results:
Satisfaction mean scores of midwifery students with DOPS and current methods were 76.7 ± 12.9 and 62.6 ± 14.7 (out of 100), respectively. DOPS students’ satisfaction mean score was significantly higher than the score obtained in current method (P < 0.000). The most satisfactory domains in the current method were “consistence with learning objectives” (71.2 ± 14.9) and “objectiveness” in DOPS (87.9 ± 15.0). In contrast, the least satisfactory domains in the current method were “interested in applying the method” (57.8 ± 26.5) and “number of assessments for each skill” (58.8 ± 25.9) in DOPS method.
Conclusions:
This study showed that DOPS method is associated with greater students’ satisfaction. Since the students’ satisfaction with the current method was also acceptable, we recommend combining this new clinical evaluation method with the current method, which covers its weaknesses, to promote the students’ satisfaction with clinical evaluation methods in a perfect manner.
PMCID: PMC3748577  PMID: 23983736
Clinical competence; clinical evaluation; direct observation of procedural skills; documentation; evaluation studies; Iran; logbook; personal satisfaction; students’ satisfaction
22.  Patient-based Cultural Competency Curriculum for Pre-Health Professionals 
Family medicine  2008;40(10):726-733.
Background and Objectives
The diverse US population requires medical cultural competency education for health providers throughout their pre-professional and professional years. We present a curriculum to train pre-health professional undergraduates by combining classroom education in the humanities and cross-cultural communication skills with volunteer clinical experiences at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) hospital.
Methods
The course was open to a maximum of 15 UCLA junior and senior undergraduate students with a pre-health or humanities major and was held in the spring quarters of 2002–2004. The change in students' knowledge of cultural competency was evaluated using the Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture Quiz (QCQ) and through students' written assignments and evaluations.
Results
Trainees displayed a statistically significant improvement in scores on the QCQ. Participants' written assignments and subjective evaluations confirmed an improvement in awareness and a high motivation to continue learning at the graduate level.
Conclusions
This is the first evaluated undergraduate curriculum that integrates interdisciplinary cultural competency training with patient volunteering in the medical field. The didactic, volunteering, and writing components of the course comprise a broadly applicable tool for training future health care providers at other institutions.
PMCID: PMC3092584  PMID: 18979261
23.  Peer-Assisted Learning and Orthopaedic Evaluation Psychomotor Skills 
Journal of Athletic Training  2007;42(1):113-119.
Context: Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education to provide evidence for PAL's current use or for its use as a pedagogic tool.
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of intentional, formal PAL on the performance of psychomotor skills and to identify students' perceptions of PAL.
Design: Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design.
Setting: Athletic Training Research and Education Laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-one undergraduate students (27 athletic training majors, 24 nonmajors).
Intervention(s): Review sessions led by either an Approved Clinical Instructor or peer tutor.
Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed pretest and posttest performance scores (number of correct skills) and the amount of time to complete the psychomotor skills in 3 categories of orthopaedic evaluation of the hand and wrist for subjects assigned to either a peer tutor or an Approved Clinical Instructor review group. Using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey, we evaluated the perceptions of students assigned to the peer-tutor group regarding the benefits of, and preferences for, PAL.
Results: Differences in the pretest-posttest skill scores were noted in both groups (P < .05). No differences in the posttest skills scores or the times to perform the skills were seen between the groups. The Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey revealed that most (n = 19, 70.4%) of the subjects felt less anxious when practicing psychomotor skills with peer tutors than with the laboratory instructor, and many students (n = 12, 44.4%) felt more self-confident when practicing psychomotor skills with a peer tutor.
Conclusions: Peer-assisted learning appears to be a valid method for improving athletic training psychomotor skills. Peers can be resources for practicing clinical skills and report benefiting from the collaboration. Peer-assisted learning should be deliberately integrated into athletic training education programs to enhance student learning and collaboration.
PMCID: PMC1896071  PMID: 17597952
athletic training education; peer education; peer teaching; clinical instruction; athletic training students
24.  An Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical-Placement Hours 
Journal of Athletic Training  2002;37(4 suppl):S-229-S-235.
Objective: To establish a time profile to determine how athletic training students use their time in clinical placements and to determine the effects of academic standing, sex, sport type, and risk of injury associated with a sport during athletic training students' clinical placements on instructional, clinical, unengaged, managerial, and active learning time.
Design and Setting: Subjects were enrolled in clinical placements within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics, intramural sports, and a local high school. Students were individually videotaped for approximately 4 hours.
Subjects: A total of 20 undergraduate athletic training students (17 women, 3 men) from a Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP)-accredited athletic training education program.
Measurements: We created a conceptual behavioral time framework to examine athletic training students' use of clinical-placement time with the performance domains associated with the 1999 National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Role Delineation Study. Students' use of time was analyzed with the Behavior Evaluation Strategies and Taxonomies software.
Results: Students spent 7% of their overall clinical-placement time in instructional activities, 23% in clinical activities, 10% in managerial activities, and 59% in unengaged activities. Using multiple 3 × 3 factorial analyses of variance, we found that advanced students were engaged in significantly more active learning and clinical time compared with novice and intermediate students. Students assigned to sports in which injuries predominately occur in the upper extremities (upper extremity sports) spent significantly more clinical-placement time unengaged compared with students assigned to sports in which injuries predominantly occur in the lower extremities (lower extremity sports) or in both upper and lower extremities (mixed extremity sports).
Conclusions: In this exploratory study, we examined only the clinical-placement component of 1 athletic training program; therefore, it may not be accurate to generalize the results for all CAAHEP-accredited programs. However, these results can be used by athletic training educators to examine the amount of time students are actually engaged in specific domains of athletic training, to determine the domains in which skills are most commonly being performed, to identify the relationships between the students and clinical instructors or supervisors, and to develop clinical placements in which students learn and practice clinical and educational competencies.
PMCID: PMC164430  PMID: 12937550
engaged time; clinical behaviors; active learning time
25.  Learning physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions: what happens and why? 
Lack of published studies on students’ practice behaviour of physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions inspired this study into what activities medical students undertake to improve their skills and factors influencing this. Six focus groups of a total of 52 students from Years 1–3 using a pre-established interview guide. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. The interview guide was based on questionnaire results; overall response rate for Years 1–3 was 90% (n = 875). Students report a variety of activities to improve their physical examination skills. On average, students devote 20% of self-study time to skill training with Year 1 students practising significantly more than Year 3 students. Practice patterns shift from just-in-time learning to a longitudinal selfdirected approach. Factors influencing this change are assessment methods and simulated/real patients. Learning resources used include textbooks, examination guidelines, scientific articles, the Internet, videos/DVDs and scoring forms from previous OSCEs. Practising skills on fellow students happens at university rooms or at home. Also family and friends were mentioned to help. Simulated/real patients stimulated students to practise of physical examination skills, initially causing confusion and anxiety about skill performance but leading to increased feelings of competence. Difficult or enjoyable skills stimulate students to practise. The strategies students adopt to master physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions are self-directed. OSCE assessment does have influence, but learning takes place also when there is no upcoming assessment. Simulated and real patients provide strong incentives to work on skills. Early patient contacts make students feel more prepared for clinical practice.
doi:10.1007/s10459-011-9312-5
PMCID: PMC3378843  PMID: 21710301
Undergraduate; Medical students; Practical; Physical examination skills; Clinical skills

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