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1.  Prevalence, Characteristics, and In-Hospital Outcomes of Metabolic Syndrome among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in the United Arab Emirates 
Objective:
To evaluate clinical profiles, management and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Methods:
MetS was defined according to the criteria for its diagnosis by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI). Participants were admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 as part of the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE) project. We compared baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and in-hospital outcomes stratified by MetS status.
Results:
Of 1259 patients with ACS in the UAE (mean age: 52 ± 11 years, 88.8% males), the majority (n = 851, 67.6%) had MetS. MetS patients were more frequently males (86.4 vs 13.6%; P < 0.001). They were more obese (waist circumference and BMI, P < 0.001) as compared with non-MetS patients. MetS was more frequently associated with hypertension (51.1 vs 37.7%; P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (45.6 vs 24.3%; P < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, certain MetS criteria rather than MetS itself were associated with higher in-hospital mortality and heart failure. Paradoxically, hypertension was associated with lower in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions:
Prevalence of MetS among patients with ACS in our study population was high. Certain MetS criteria were associated with higher in-hospital mortality and heart failure.
doi:10.2174/1874192401206010081
PMCID: PMC3414714  PMID: 22888374
acute coronary syndrome; Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events; metabolic syndrome; Middle East; obesity; United Arab Emirates.
2.  Characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure in the United Arab Emirates 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:534.
Background
Heart failure (HF) is a serious complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics, management and in-hospital outcomes of coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with HF in the United Arab Emirates.
Findings
The study was selected from the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE), a prospective multi-national, multicenter registry of patients hospitalized with ACS in six Middle East countries. The present analysis was focused on participants admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 and were analyzed in terms of HF (Killip class II/III and IV) on admission. Of 1691 patients (mean age: 52.6 ± 11.7 years; 210 Females, 1481 Males) with ACS, 356 (21%) had an admission diagnosis of HF (Killip class II/III and IV). HF patients were less frequently males (19.2% vs. 34.3%; P < 0.001). HF was more frequently associated with hypertension (64.3% vs. 43.9%; P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (49.4% vs. 31.8%; P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (DM) (51.1% vs. 36.2%; P < 0.001). HF was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR = 11.821; 95% CI: 5.385-25.948; P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, age, hyperlipidemia, heart rate and DM were associated with higher in-hospital HF.
Conclusions
HF is observed in about 1 in 5 patients with ACS in the UAE and is associated with a significant increase in in-hospital mortality and other adverse outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-534
PMCID: PMC3527184  PMID: 23014157
Heart failure; Acute coronary syndrome; United Arab Emirates
3.  Obesity hypoventilation syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea patients in the United Arab Emirates: a retrospective cross-sectional study 
JRSM Short Reports  2013;4(12):2042533313510156.
Objectives
To estimate the frequency of symptoms of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to evaluate comorbidities associated with OHS.
Design
Retrospective study based on patients' medical records and on further sleep tests performed in the study centre during the inclusion visit.
Setting
Respiratory Care Unit and Sleep Disorder Centre of the Zayed Military Hospital United Arab Emirates.
Participants
All patients referred to the study centre for a suspicion of sleep-disordered breathing.
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of OSA and OSA + OHS and comorbidities in patients with OSA and OHS.
Results
A total of 212 adult patients participated in the study. Of these, 107 patients (50.5% [43.8–57.1% CI 95%]) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for OSA, and the majority were men (79.4%). Among patients with OSA, 18 patients (16.8% [10.8–25.1% CI 95%]) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for OHS. In this group, women were more frequently affected than men (31.8% [7/22] vs. 12.9% [11/85], respectively; p = 0.03) and tended to be older than affected men, with a mean age of 55 ± 10.6 years versus 46 ± 13 for men. After adjustment for gender, OHS was significantly associated with hypertension (OR = 3.5; p = 0.03), diabetes mellitus (OR = 4.6; p = 0.02), ischaemic heart disease (OR = 5.1; p = 0.04) and pulmonary hypertension (OR = 16.1; p = 0.001).
Conclusion
OHS is a common condition in obese patients in the UAE and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities and diabetes.
doi:10.1177/2042533313510156
PMCID: PMC3899737  PMID: 24475348
obesity; Pickwickian syndrome; obstructive sleep apnoea; hyperpnoea syndrome; pulmonary hypertension; obstructive lung disease; restrictive lung disease
4.  Epidemiology, morbidity and mortality from fall-related injuries in the United Arab Emirates 
Background
Unintentional falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a significant burden on victims, families, and societies. We aimed to study the mechanism, risk factors, and outcome of hospitalized patients with fall-related injuries in order to propose preventive measures.
Methods
Fall-related injured patients who were admitted to Al Ain Hospital, United Arab Emirates (UAE) for more than 24 hours or who died after arrival to the hospital, were studied over 3 years. Demography, location and time of injury, affected body regions, hospital and ICU stay, and outcome were analyzed.
Results
882 patients were studied, 82% were males, and 22% were less than 19 years old. Majority were from the Indian subcontinent. The most common location for fall injuries was work. Patients injured at work were older and mainly non-UAE nationals (p < 0.0001) when compared with those injured at home. Patients falling from height, when compared with those falling from same level, were older (p = 0.017), had more males (p < 0.001), were mainly from the Indian subcontinent (p < 0.001), had higher ISS (p = 0.011) and longer total hospital stay (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Falls are a major health problem in the UAE. Falls at work can be prevented by safety education tailored to different ethnic groups, and proper legislation and regulation. Environmental modification using evidence-based architectural design may prevent falls among vulnerable risk groups.
doi:10.1186/s13049-014-0051-5
PMCID: PMC4237903  PMID: 25178823
Falls; Elderly; Injury; Prevention; United Arab Emirates
5.  Clinical profile, management, and outcome in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest: insights from a 20-year registry 
Background
There is limited information regarding the clinical characteristics and outcome of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Middle Eastern patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in patients admitted following OHCA at a single center in the Middle East over a 20-year period.
Methods
The data used for this hospital-based study were collected for patients hospitalized with OHCA in Doha, Qatar, between 1991 and 2010. Baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes were studied in comparison with the rest of the admissions.
Results
A total of 41,453 consecutive patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 987 (2.4%) had a diagnosis of OHCA. Their average age was 57±15 years, and 72.7% were males, 56.5% were Arabs, and 30.9% were South Asians. When compared with the rest of the admissions taken as a reference, patients with OHCA were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (42.8% versus 39.1%, respectively, P=0.02), prior myocardial infarction (21.8% versus 19.2%, P=0.04), and chronic renal failure (7.4% versus 3.9%, P=0.001), but were less likely to have dyslipidemia (16.9% versus 25.4%, P=0.001). Further, 52.6% of patients had preceding symptoms, the most common of which was chest pain (27.2%) followed by dyspnea (24.8%). An initially shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia) was present in 25.1% of OHCA patients, with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction documented in 30.0%. Severely reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction ≤35%) was present in 53.2% of OHCA patients; 42.9% had cardiogenic shock requiring use of inotropes at presentation. An intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted in 3.6% of cases. Antiarrhythmic medications were used in 27.4% and thrombolytic therapy in 13.9%, and 10.8% underwent a percutaneous coronary procedure (coronary angiography ± percutaneous coronary intervention). The in-hospital mortality rate was 59.8%.
Conclusion
OHCA was associated with higher incidences of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, and chronic kidney disease as compared with the remaining admissions. Approximately half of the patients had no preceding symptoms. In-hospital mortality was high (59.8%), but similar to the internationally published data.
doi:10.2147/IJGM.S60992
PMCID: PMC4096450  PMID: 25031544
out of hospital cardiac arrest; cardiogenic shock; in-hospital mortality
6.  Type 2 diabetes care for patients in a tertiary care setting in UAE: a retrospective cohort study 
JRSM Short Reports  2012;3(10):67.
Objective
We aimed to examine the quality of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) care in Al-Ain, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Design
A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2010.
Setting
A diabetes centre located in a tertiary care hospital in Al-Ain, UAE.
Participants
People with T2DM receiving care from the diabetes centre.
Results
382 Emirates patients with T2DM were included in the analysis. Overall in 2010, proportions of people with T2DM reaching the following targets were: glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 41%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) 72%, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) 47% and 73%, respectively. There was a significant improvement from 2008 to 2010, respectively, in the mean for the following: (1) HbA1c (8.5% [95% confidence interval, CI: 8.33–8.67] versus 7.5% [95% CI: 7.36–7.63]); (2) LDL (2.60 mmol/L [95% CI: 2.51–2.70] versus 2.27 mmol/L [95% CI: 2.21–2.33]); and (3) SBP (133.1 mmHg [95% CI: 131.7–134.4] versus 131.0 [95% CI: 130.1–131.9]). Glycaemic and lipid control were similar in men and women; however, HbA1c levels in men and women aged 60+ years were significantly lower by (0.7% [P = 0.01] versus 0.8% [P < 0.001], respectively) than for those aged between 18 and 39 years.
Conclusion
This study demonstrates that there is encouraging progress in diabetes care in Al-Ain, UAE as reflected by the overall improvement in the mean of HbA1c, LDL and SBP, and the increase in the number of people reaching the target for the same indicators from 2008 to 2010. The results however show that there is scope for additional enhancement of care, especially for better glycaemic control among young patients and better SBP control among men.
doi:10.1258/shorts.2012.012064
PMCID: PMC3499960  PMID: 23162680
7.  Rationale, Design, Methodology and Hospital Characteristics of the First Gulf Acute Heart Failure Registry (Gulf CARE) 
Background:
There is paucity of data on heart failure (HF) in the Gulf Middle East. The present paper describes the rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE).
Materials and Methods:
Gulf CARE is a prospective, multicenter, multinational registry of patients >18 year of age admitted with diagnosis of acute HF (AHF). The data collected included demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, precipitating factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with AHF. In addition, data about hospital readmission rates, procedures and mortality at 3 months and 1-year follow-up were recorded. Hospital characteristics and care provider details were collected. Data were entered in a dedicated website using an electronic case record form.
Results:
A total of 5005 consecutive patients were enrolled from February 14, 2012 to November 13, 2012. Forty-seven hospitals in 7 Gulf States (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, United Gulf Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain) participated in the project. The majority of hospitals were community hospitals (46%; 22/47) followed by non-University teaching (32%; 15/47 and University hospitals (17%). Most of the hospitals had intensive or coronary care unit facilities (93%; 44/47) with 59% (28/47) having catheterization laboratory facilities. However, only 29% (14/47) had a dedicated HF clinic facility. Most patients (71%) were cared for by a cardiologist.
Conclusions:
Gulf CARE is the first prospective registry of AHF in the Middle East, intending to provide a unique insight into the demographics, etiology, management and outcomes of AHF in the Middle East. HF management in the Middle East is predominantly provided by cardiologists. The data obtained from this registry will help the local clinicians to identify the deficiencies in HF management as well as provide a platform to implement evidence based preventive and treatment strategies to reduce the burden of HF in this region.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.132137
PMCID: PMC4062990  PMID: 24949181
Acute heart failure; gulf; heart failure; middle east
8.  The prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety in a sample of diabetic patients in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 
BMC Family Practice  2010;11:80.
Background
Type 2 diabetes is very prevalent in the Gulf region, particularly in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which has the second highest prevalence in the world. Factors contributing to this include changes in diet, adoption of sedentary lifestyles, and the consequent increase in rates of obesity. These changes are primarily due to rapid economic development and affluence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and its correlates in diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates.
Methods
Patients diagnosed with diabetes attending diabetes mini-clinics in the primary health care centres or hospitals of Sharjah were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Patients were interviewed using structured questionnaires to gather data on socio-demographics, lifestyle factors, diabetes complications, and medication usage. The K6 was administered as a screening tool for mental health concerns.
Results
Three hundred and forty-seven participants completed the interview. The majority of participants were females (65.4%) and the mean age was 53.2 (sd = 14.6). Approximately 12.5% of patients obtained a score of 19 or above (cut-off score) on the K6, indicating possible mental health concerns. Twenty-four percent had diabetes complications, mainly in the form of retinopathy, peripheral vascular disease and peripheral neuropathy. A significant relationship was found between scores on the K6, these complications of diabetes and the use of oral hypoglycemic and lipid lowering therapies.
Conclusions
The results of this study demonstrate a strong correlation between mental health status and diabetic complications. In particular, patients who are depressed tended to have poorer self-care, more severe physical symptoms and were less likely to adhere to prescribed care regimens. These findings raise the possibility that improving the mental health as part of a comprehensive management plan for diabetes may improve the overall long term outcomes of these patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2296-11-80
PMCID: PMC2987911  PMID: 20973956
9.  Gender Disparities in the Presentation, Management and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55508.
Background
Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008–2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; P<0.001), more overweight (BMI: 28.1±6.6 vs. 26.7±5.1; P<0.001), and more likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Fewer women than men received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers or statins at discharge. They also underwent fewer invasive procedures including angiography (27.0% vs. 34.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.5% vs. 15.6%; P<0.001) and reperfusion therapy (6.9% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001) than men. Women were at higher unadjusted risk for in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4.0%, P<0.001) and heart failure (HF) (18% vs. 11.8%, P<0.001). Both 1-month and 1-year mortality rates were higher in women than men (11% vs. 7.4% and 17.3% vs. 11.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Both baseline and management differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities.
Conclusions/Significance
Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055508
PMCID: PMC3566183  PMID: 23405162
10.  Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e52857.
Introduction
Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes.
Methods
A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE) during 2006–2007, and their knowledge attitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument.
Results
Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA1c levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA1c.
Conclusions
The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052857
PMCID: PMC3544806  PMID: 23341913
11.  Relationship Between Admitting Nonfasting Blood Glucose and In-Hospital Mortality Stratified by Diabetes Mellitus Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Oman 
Background and Objectives:
Hyperglycemia in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. We evaluated the relationship between admitting (nonfasting) blood glucose and in-hospital mortality in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with ACS in Oman.
Patients and Methods:
Data were analyzed from 1551 consecutive patients admitted to 15 hospitals throughout Oman, with the final diagnosis of ACS during May 8, 2006 to June 6, 2006 and January 29, 2007 to June 29, 2007, as part of Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events. Admitting blood glucose was divided into four groups, namely, euglycemia (≤7 mmol/l), mild hyperglycemia (>7-<9 mmol/l), moderate hyperglycemia (≥9-<11 - mmol/l), and severe hyperglycemia (≥11 mmol/l).
Results:
Of all, 38% (n = 584) and 62% (n = 967) of the patients were documented with and without a history of DM, respectively. Nondiabetic patients with severe hyperglycemia were associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared with those with euglycemia (13.1 vs 1.52%; P<0.001), mild hyperglycemia (13.1 vs 3.62%; P = 0.003), and even moderate hyperglycemia (13.1 vs 4.17%; P = 0.034). Even after multivariate adjustment, severe hyperglycemia was still associated with higher in-hospital mortality when compared with both euglycemia (odds ratio [OR], 6.3; P<0.001) and mild hyperglycemia (OR, 3.43; P = 0.011). No significant relationship was noted between admitting blood glucose and in-hospital mortality among diabetic ACS patients even after multivariable adjustment (all P values >0.05).
Conclusion:
Admission hyperglycemia is common in ACS patients from Oman and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality among those patients with previously unreported DM.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.81554
PMCID: PMC3123510  PMID: 21731803
Acute coronary syndrome; admission hyperglycemia; diabetes mellitus; hyperglycemia; in-hospital mortality
12.  Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional survey 
BMC Ophthalmology  2007;7:11.
Background
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of retinopathy among diabetics in Al-Ain city, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Methods
The study was part of a general cross-sectional survey carried out to assess the prevalence of diabetes (DM) complications including retinopathy among known diabetic patients in Al-Ain District, UAE. Patients were randomly selected during 2003/2004. Patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire carried out by treating doctors and underwent a complete medical assessment. All patients were examined for evidence of diabetic retinopathy by ophthalmologist and their fundi were examined using slit lamp examination and fundus photography of each eye through dilated pupils.
Results
A sample of 513 diabetic patients was selected with a mean age of 53 years (SD ± 13.01). Retinopathy was present in 19% (95% CI: 15.1–23.5%) of the study population. Most patients (74%) were not aware of their condition. The disease was more common among males (24.2 vs. 13.9%; p = 0.016), increased with increasing age (p = 0.004) and disease duration (p = 0.0001). Type I DM was a highly significantly contributing risk factor (38.3% for type 1, vs. 16.4% for type 2; p < 0.0001). Retinopathy was higher among patients with hypertension, microalbuminuria, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease and neuropathy.
Conclusion
The prevalence of DR in the UAE was (19%) and significantly affected elderly males. Regular screening to detect DR is highly recommended as with the early detection of proliferative retinopathy and timely laser photocoagulation which are known to prevent most of the diabetes related blindness.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-7-11
PMCID: PMC1913498  PMID: 17572909
13.  Gender-related differences in the presentation, management, and outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome from Oman 
Objective
To assess gender-related differences in the presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients from Oman.
Methods
Data were analyzed from 1579 consecutive ACS patients from Oman during May 8, 2006 to June 6, 2006 and January 29, 2007 to June 29, 2007, as part of Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques.
Results
In this study, 608 (39%) patients were women with mean age 62 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 13 years (p < 0.001). More women were seen in the older age groups (age <55 years: 25% vs. 43%, 55–74 years: 60% vs. 49% and >75 years: 15% vs. 8%; p < 0.001). Women had higher frequencies of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, angina, and aspirin use, but less history of smoking. Women were significantly less likely to have ischemic chest pain, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and were more likely to have dyspnea, unstable angina, ST depression and left bundle branch block. Both groups received ACS medications and cardiac catheterization equally; however, women received anticoagulants (88% vs. 79%; p < 0.001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (70% vs. 65%; p = 0.050) more and clopidogrel less (20% vs. 29%; p < 0.001). Women experienced more recurrent ischemia and heart failure but with similar in-hospital mortality (4.6% vs. 4.3%) even after adjusting for age (p = 0.500).
Conclusions
Women admitted with ACS were older than men, had more risk factors, presented differently with no difference in hospital mortality. This is similar to Gulf RACE study except for mortality. Women received anticoagulants/ACEIs /ARBs more but were under-treated with clopidogrel.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2010.09.003
PMCID: PMC3727510  PMID: 23960630
Gender-related differences; Women; Acute coronary syndrome; Oman
14.  Assessment of the direct medical costs of diabetes mellitus and its complications in the United Arab Emirates 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:679.
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and is well recognized as a major and increasing burden to the country's resources due to its severe, long term debilitating effects on individuals, families and the society at large. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct annual treatment costs of DM and its related complications among patients in Al-Ain city, UAE.
Methods
A sample of 150 DM patients were enrolled during 2004-2005, and their medical costs over the ensuing 12 months was measured, quantified, analyzed and extrapolated to the population in Al-Ain and UAE, using conventional and inference statistics. The costs were converted from UAE Dirhams to US Dollar, using the official conversion rate of US$ (1 USD = 3.68 AED).
Results
The total annual direct treatment costs of DM among patients without complications in Al Ain-UAE, was US $1,605 (SD = 1,206) which is 3.2 times higher than the per capita expenditure for health care in the UAE (US$ 497) during 2004 (WHO, 2004). However, this cost increased 2.2 times with the presence of DM related complications for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.4 times for patients with macrovascular complications and 9.4 times for patients with both micro and macrovascular complications. Likewise, the annual direct hospitalization costs of DM patients increased by 3.7 times for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.6 times for patients with macrovascular complications and by 5 times for patients with both micro and macrovascualr complications. Overall, costs increased with age, diabetes duration and were higher for patients treated with insulin compared to those treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or with diet control only.
Conclusions
DM direct treatment costs increased with the presence and progression of chronic DM related complications. Hospitalisation costs constituted a large proportion and were increasingly higher with the presence and progression of DM related complications. To reduce the impact on healthcare resources, efforts should be made to prevent progression to DM complications, by implementing guidelines for diabetes care, screening for complications and better management.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-679
PMCID: PMC2988742  PMID: 21059202
15.  Prevalence, Predictors, and Impact of Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on in-Hospital Outcomes Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Middle East 
Objective:
To estimate the prevalence, predictors, and impact of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on in-hospital outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the Middle East.
Methods:
Data were collected prospectively from 6,266 consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS and enrolled in the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE). A low HDL-C was defined as a level <40 mg/Dl (1.0 mmol/L) for males and <50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) for females. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques.
Results:
The overall mean age of the cohort was 56±12 years and majority were males (77%). The overall prevalence of low HDL-C was 62%. During in-hospital stay and at discharge, the majority were on statin therapy (83%) while 10% were on other cholesterol lowering agents. After adjustment of demographic and clinical characteristics, the predictors for low HDL-C were higher body mass index (BMI), prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes mellitus, smoking and impaired renal function. Multivariable adjustment revealed that low HDL-C was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR), 1.54; 95% CI: 1.06-2.24; p=0.022) and cardiogenic shock (OR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20-2.14; p=0.001).
Conclusions:
ACS patients in the Middle East have a high prevalence of low HDL-C. Higher BMI, prior MI, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and impaired renal function were predictors of low HDL-C. Significantly higher in-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were associated with low HDL-C in men but not in women.
doi:10.2174/1874192401105010203
PMCID: PMC3178900  PMID: 21966331
High density lipoprotein cholesterol; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction; gender; Middle East.
16.  The Epidemiology of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Oman 
Objectives:
This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology and coronary risk factors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Oman.
Methods:
Data were collected through a prospective, multinational, multicentre survey of consecutive patients, hospitalised over a 5-month period in 2007 with a diagnosis of ACS, in Yemen and five Arabian Gulf countries (Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates). Here we present data of Omani patients aged ≥20 years who received a provisional diagnosis of ACS and were consequently admitted to 14 different hospitals.
Results:
There where 1,340 confirmed ACS episodes in 748 men and 592 women (median age 61 years). The overall crude incidence rate of ACS was 338.9 per 100,000 person-years (P-Y). The age-standardised rate (ASR) of ACS was 779 and 674 per 100,000 P-Y for men and women, respectively. The ASR male-to-female rate ratio was highest in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) group (2.26, 95% confidence interval ([CI], 1.63 to 3.15) followed by the non-STEMI (NSTEMI) group (1.68, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.21) and unstable angina (0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99). Unstable angina accounted for 55%, STEMI for 26% and NSTEMI for 19% of ACS cases. Among the coronary risk factors, there was a high prevalence of hypertension (68%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (36%), hyperlipidaemia (63%), and overweight/obesity (65%), with a relatively low rate of current tobacco use (11%).
Conclusion:
Our study confirms a high incidence of ACS in Omanis and supports the notion that the cardiovascular disease epidemic is also sweeping developing countries.
PMCID: PMC3616799  PMID: 23573381
Acute coronary syndrome; Incidence; Cardiovascular disease; Ischemic heart disease; Risk factors; Oman
17.  Factors affecting the motivation of healthcare professionals providing care to Emiratis with type 2 diabetes 
JRSM Short Reports  2013;4(2):14.
Objective
We aimed to identify facilitators of and barriers to healthcare professionals' motivation in a diabetes centre in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Design
A qualitative research approach was employed using semistructured interviews to assess perception of and attitudes regarding healthcare professionals' motivation in providing good quality diabetes care.
Setting
A diabetes centre located in Abu-Dhabi, UAE.
Participants
Healthcare professionals including specialist physicians, dieticians, podiatrists, health educators and nurses were recruited through purposive sampling.
Main outcome measures
After data collection, the audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis.
Results
Nine semistructured interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals of various professional backgrounds. Important facilitators and barriers related to patient, professional, organization and cultural factors were identified. Barriers that related to heavy workload, disjointed care, lack of patient compliance and awareness, and cultural beliefs and attitudes about diabetes were common. Key facilitators included the patient's role in achieving therapeutic outcomes as well as compliance, cooperation and communication.
Conclusion
This qualitative study provides some unique insights about factors affecting healthcare professionals' motivation in providing good quality care. To improve the motivation of healthcare professionals in the management of diabetes and therefore the quality of diabetes care, several steps are needed. Importantly, the role of primary care should be reinforced and strengthened regarding the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, privacy of the consultation time should be highly protected and regulated, and awareness of the Emirate culture and its impact on health should be disseminated to the healthcare professionals providing care to Emirates with diabetes. Also, greater emphasis should be placed on educating Emiratis with diabetes on, and involving them in, the management of their condition.
doi:10.1177/2042533313476419
PMCID: PMC3591689  PMID: 23476735
18.  A comparison of different diagnostic criteria of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients 
Critical Care  2014;18(4):R144.
Introduction
Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) proposed a new definition and classification of acute kidney injury (AKI) on the basis of the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage renal failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) criteria, but comparisons of the three criteria in critically ill patients are rare.
Methods
We prospectively analyzed a clinical database of 3,107 adult patients who were consecutively admitted to one of 30 intensive care units of 28 tertiary hospitals in Beijing from 1 March to 31 August 2012. AKI was defined by the RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO criteria. Receiver operating curves were used to compare the predictive ability for mortality, and logistic regression analysis was used for the calculation of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Results
The rates of incidence of AKI using the RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO criteria were 46.9%, 38.4%, and 51%, respectively. KDIGO identified more patients than did RIFLE (51% versus 46.9%, P = 0.001) and AKIN (51% versus 38.4%, P <0.001). Compared with patients without AKI, in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for those diagnosed as AKI by using the RIFLE (27.8% versus 7%, P <0.001), AKIN (32.2% versus 7.1%, P <0.001), and KDIGO (27.4% versus 5.6%, P <0.001) criteria, respectively. There was no difference in AKI-related mortality between RIFLE and KDIGO (27.8% versus 27.4%, P = 0.815), but there was significant difference between AKIN and KDIGO (32.2% versus 27.4%, P = 0.006). The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve for in-hospital mortality were 0.738 (P <0.001) for RIFLE, 0.746 (P <0.001) for AKIN, and 0.757 (P <0.001) for KDIGO. KDIGO was more predictive than RIFLE for in-hospital mortality (P <0.001), but there was no difference between KDIGO and AKIN (P = 0.12).
Conclusions
A higher incidence of AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO criteria. Patients diagnosed as AKI had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality than non-AKI patients, no matter which criteria were used. Compared with the RIFLE criteria, KDIGO was more predictive for in-hospital mortality, but there was no significant difference between AKIN and KDIGO.
doi:10.1186/cc13977
PMCID: PMC4227114  PMID: 25005361
19.  Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in acute coronary syndrome: a clinical analysis 
Background
Although off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery has many beneficial effects compared with on-pump surgery, switch to on-pump surgery has significantly higher risks of operative mortality. Benefits of OPCAB over on-pump surgery strategies concerning myocardial revascularization are still debatable. We have aimed to develop an "algorithm of off-pump surgical strategy" on preventing conversion to on-pump. This clinical study reports our clinical outcome of OPCAB in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Methods
Between January 2006 and December 2008, 198 patients with acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in the study. Decision of OPCAB (142 patients) or on-pump surgery (56 patients) was made according to patients' present clinical status and our surgical background. Cardiac enzymes, duration of the surgery, graft numbers, stay in intensive care unit were recorded.
Results
OPCAP group has shorter operation time (82.78 min versus 164.22 min, p < 0.001), lesser necessity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (3.5% versus 12.5%, p = 0.053), shorter duration of intensive care unit stay (p < 0.05) and hospital stay (p < 0.001) compared to on-pump patients. EuroSCORE level was lower in OPCAP group (p < 0.001). None of the patients of OPCAB group required conversion to on-pump technique.
Conclusions
The patients who admitted to the hospital with acute coronary syndrome within "golden hours" (within 6 hours after onset) had a greater chance for OPCAB surgery. This study proves that EuroSCORE is likely to be an important factor in deciding which surgical technique to use, but a further investigation is needed to verify. According to our findings, a careful evaluation of coronary angiography, hemodynamic status, quality of target coronary vessel and timing of surgery are important for OPCAB surgery to avoid conversion to on-pump. By a careful systematic evaluation of the patients as explained with this article, it can be prevent or reduce conversion to on-pump surgery during OPCAB surgery.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-5-31
PMCID: PMC2873363  PMID: 20423499
20.  Compliance of pharmacological treatment for non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes with contemporary guidelines: influence on outcomes 
Background
Although the proven efficacy of evidence-based therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases, the recommendations are not always instituted. We aimed to analyse the compliance of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients with treatment guidelines and to assess the impact of these measures in hospital death during the index hospitalization.
Population and methods
All consecutive patients (pts) included in the Portuguese Registry on Acute Coronary Syndromes (ProACS) between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2011 were analysed. Compliance with Guidelines for the management of NSTE-ACS was evaluated with a 6-point therapeutic score (ThSc), comprising the treatment with: aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin, beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and statin. One point was assigned for each drug prescribed and zero if not given. The total therapeutic compliance was defined as ThSc =6 points.
Results
The final analysis comprised 14,276 pts (67.1% male; mean age 67.6±12.3 years), most of them admitted with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (77.4%). The mean value of ThSc was 4.9±1.1 and total compliance occurred in 36.7% pts. Centres with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capacity had a statistically significant higher ThSc (5.0±1.0 vs. 4.8±1.1, P<0.001) and were associated with higher total compliance [OR 1.53, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.42-1.65, P<0.001]. In-hospital mortality was 2.4% (354 deaths). Compared to pts who died, the survivors had a higher ThSc (4.9±1.1 vs. 4.2±1.3, P<0.001) and this score was independently associated with lower risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.64-0.77, P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed a good accuracy of ThSc for the occurrence of in-hospital mortality with the area under the curve (AUC) 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.84, P<0.001), sensitivity 71.6% and specificity 78.0%. Age, peripheral artery disease, Killip-Kimball class >I, electrocardiogram (ECG) with ST-segment depression and positive troponin were other independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions
In the present study, patients with NSTE-ACS who received medications recommended by guidelines had better in-hospital outcomes. These findings highlight the need to clarify the clinical recommendations and to develop approaches for quality improvement in this subset of patients.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-3652.2014.02.02
PMCID: PMC3943774  PMID: 24649420
Non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS); compliance; guidelines
21.  Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Young: Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Prognosis 
Background:
To describe the characteristics of patients ≤40 years of age hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome, analyze the risk factors and identify the variables associated with prognosis.
Methods:
Case series of patients admitted between 2003 and 2012 inclusive in a tertiary hospital (123 consecutive cases admitted between 2003 and 2012), and case-control study (369 controls selected from the general population matched for sex and age with cases, at a ratio of 3:1). Outcome variables: Mortality, likelihood of survival without readmission for heart-related problems, extent of coronary disease as determined by coronary angiography and cardiovascular risk factors.
Results:
Mean age was 35.4±4.8 years and 83.7% of the participants were men. Myocardial infarction with abnormal Q wave (48%) and single-vessel involvement (44.7%) predominated. Intrahospital mortality was 1.6%. For the 108 patients eventually included in the follow-up, likelihood of readmission-free survival after 60 months was 69.3±4.8%. In the case group 36% of the patients admitted to using cocaine. Compared to controls, the prevalence in patients was higher for smoking (74.8 vs 33.1%, p<0001), diabetes (14.6% vs 5.1%, p=0.001), low HDL-cholesterol (82.9 vs 34.1%, p<0.001) and obesity (30.0 vs 20.3%, p=0.029). Decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio=2.2, p=0.033) and smoking (odds ratio=7.8, p=0.045) were associated with readmission for coronary syndrome.
Conclusion:
Acute coronary syndrome in people younger than 40 years is associated with diabetes and unhealthy lifestyle: smoking, sedentary behavior (low HDL-cholesterol), cocaine use and obesity. The readmission rate is high, and readmission is associated with smoking and decreased ejection fraction.
doi:10.2174/1874192401408010061
PMCID: PMC4141177  PMID: 25152777
Acute coronary syndrome; prognosis; risk factors; young age.
22.  Factors affecting mortality of hospitalized chest trauma patients in United Arab Emirates 
Background
Predictors of mortality of chest trauma vary globally. We aimed to define factors affecting mortality of hospitalized chest trauma patients in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates.
Methods
The data of Al-Ain Hospital Trauma Registry were prospectively collected over a period of three years. Patients with chest trauma who were admitted for more than 24 hours in Al-Ain Hospital or who died after arrival to the hospital were included in the study. Univariate analysis was used to compare patients who died and those who survived. Gender, age, nationality, mechanism of injury, systolic blood pressure and GCS on arrival, the need for ventilatory support, presence of head injury, AIS for the chest and head, presence of injuries outside the chest, and ISS were studied. Significant factors were then entered into a backward stepwise likelihood ratio logistic regression model.
Results
474 patients having a median (range) age of 35 (1–90) years were studied. 90% were males and 18% were UAE citizens. The main mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (66%) followed by falls (23.4%). Penetrating trauma occurred in 4 patients (0.8%). 88 patients (18.6%) were admitted to the ICU. The median (range) ISS was 5 (1–43). 173 patients (36.5%) had isolated chest injury. Overall mortality rate was 7.2%. Mortality was significantly increased by low GCS (p < 0.0001), high ISS (p = 0.025), and low systolic blood pressure on arrival (p = 0.027).
Conclusion
Chest trauma is associated with a significant mortality in Al-Ain City. This was significantly related to the severity of head injury, injury severity score, and hypotension on arrival.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-8-57
PMCID: PMC3621679  PMID: 23547845
Chest; Thorax; Trauma; Injury; Mortality
23.  Gender differences in management and outcome in non‐ST‐elevation acute coronary syndrome 
Heart  2006;93(11):1357-1362.
Objective
To study gender differences in management and outcome in patients with non‐ST‐elevation acute coronary syndrome.
Design, setting and patients
Cohort study of 53 781 consecutive patients (37% women) from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS‐HIA), with a diagnosis of either unstable angina pectoris or non‐ST‐elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were admitted to intensive coronary care units in Sweden, between 1998 and 2002, and followed for 1 year.
Main outcome measures
Treatment intensity and in‐hospital, 30‐day and 1‐year mortality.
Results
Women were older (73 vs 69 years, p<0.001) and more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have a history of myocardial infarction or revascularisation. After adjustment, there were no major differences in acute pharmacological treatment or prophylactic medication at discharge.
Revascularisation was, however, even after adjustment, performed more often in men (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.21). After adjustment, there was no significant difference in in‐hospital (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13) or 30‐days (OR 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15) mortality, but at 1 year being male was associated with higher mortality (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19).
Conclusion
Although women are somewhat less intensively treated, especially regarding invasive procedures, after adjustment for differences in background characteristics, they have better long‐term outcomes than men.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.102012
PMCID: PMC2016903  PMID: 17085528
24.  The molecular epidemiology of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteraemia in a tertiary referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates 2000–2004 
Background
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is recognised as an important cause of nosocomial infection, especially in immunocompromised patients, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment of S. maltophilia infection presents a therapeutic challenge. The precise modes of transmission of S. maltophilia in the hospital environment are not known and such knowledge is essential to target interventions to prevent spread. There are few published data on the patterns of nosocomial infection in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A recent study showed that S. maltophilia is an established cause of bloodstream infection in Tawam Hospital in the UAE. Little is known about its epidemiology in the hospital.
Methods
We describe the clinical characteristics of 25 episodes of S. maltophilia bacteraemia which occurred from 2000–2004. The strains were characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results
All episodes were hospital-acquired and malignancy and central venous catheters were predisposing factors. Catheter-associated infection comprised 88% infection. Catheter removal was important for the successful management of catheter-associated infection. The results of PFGE suggested that there were as many strains as patients. S. maltophilia strains isolated from the same patient had indistinguishable PFGE profiles.
Conclusion
PFGE is a valid and reproducible typing method for S. maltophilia. The precise sources and modes of spread of S. maltophilia in the hospital are still not known. Knowledge that person to person transmission was not a major mode of transmission enabled infection control interventions for S. maltophilia to be targeted more effectively.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-5-32
PMCID: PMC1774578  PMID: 17194302
25.  Associations between ST depression, four year mortality, and in-hospital revascularisation in unselected patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes 
Heart  2003;89(5):490-495.
Objective: To determine the associations between changes on the presenting ECG, in-hospital revascularisation, and four year mortality in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.
Design: Prospective evaluation of all consecutive patients admitted in 1993 to the Green Lane Hospital coronary care unit, Auckland, New Zealand. Late follow up was undertaken at a median of 52 months. The ECGs were analysed after the hospital admission.
Setting: Tertiary referral centre with direct local coronary care unit admissions.
Interventions: Patients underwent physician recommended in-hospital revascularisation or initial conservative management.
Results: The four year survival was 88% in the 115 patients who underwent revascularisation (65 (19%) percutaneous and 53 (16%) surgical revascularisation), compared with 75% in 316 patients managed conservatively (p = 0.024). Four year survival for patients undergoing revascularisation versus initial conservative management with respect to ECG groups was: no ECG changes (n = 101), 97% v 92% (p = 0.35); T wave inversion or 0.5 mm ST depression (n = 108), 89% v 78% (p = 0.18); ST depression ≥ 1 mm (n = 122), 80% v 58% (p = 0.014); χ2 = 29, p < 0.001 for the linear trend across the groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of four year mortality were: age (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.08; p = 0.0046); ECG group (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.95; p = 0.043); radiological pulmonary oedema (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.18 to 7.05; p = 0.025); and revascularisation (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.90; p = 0.023).
Conclusions: Among unselected patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, in-hospital revascularisation is associated with decreased mortality at up to four years after admission. This association appears greater in patients with ST depression of ≥ 1 mm on the presenting ECG.
PMCID: PMC1767628  PMID: 12695448
mortality; revascularisation; acute coronary syndrome

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