Interaction with excess unilamellar phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles resulted in depletion of as much as 90% of the cholesterol from the membrane of intact vesicular stomatitis (VS) virus. The cholesterol depletion was not significantly influenced by the proteolytic removal of virion glycoprotein spikes, but it was temperature dependent. Cholesterol depletion caused substantial reduction in anisotropy of the VS virion membrane as measured by fluorescence depolarization of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene; residual adsorbed vesicles represent a significant factor in this apparent increase in virion membrane fluidity. Interaction with PC vesicles resulted in a substantial loss of VS viral infectivity as measured by plating efficiency on L-cell monolayers. Reduction in infectivity appeared to be related to temperature-dependent depletion of virion cholesterol by PC vesicles. Interaction of VS virions with cholesterol-containing PC vesicles resulted in significantly less decline in infectivity, but attempts to restore cholesterol and infectivity to depleted VS virions were unsuccessful. Depletion of virion cholesterol apparently results through collision with PC vesicles rather than movement of cholesterol monomers or micelles through the aqueous phase, because PC vesicle-virion interaction in the presence of cholesterol oxidase did not result in substantial oxidation of translocated cholesterol.
Complement appears to be involved in the destruction of platelets in certain clinical disorders, such as quinidine purpura and post-transfusion purpura. In both disorders, the classical complement sequence is activated by antigen-antibody complexes. It has been suggested that the terminal components of the complement sequence insert into the hydrophobic core of cell surface membranes and that this process leads to cell lysis. Fluidity is a fundamental property of lipids within the membrane's hydrophobic core. To examine the interaction of complement with membranes, we investigated the effect of complement activation on the fluidity of human platelet membranes. Complement was fixed to platelets using a post-transfusion purpura antibody, and membrane lipid fluidity was assessed in terms of fluorescence anisotropy using two fluorescent probes, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 9-(12-anthroyl) stearic acid. Microviscosity, expressed in poise, was derived from the fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene.
Post-transfusion purpura antibody plus complement made platelet membranes more fluid as evidenced by a 21% decrease in anisotropy and a 35% decrease in microviscosity of platelets at 37°C, and this was associated with platelet lysis (51Cr release). Complement damage to platelets was accompanied by a 10-15% increase in ΔE, the fusion activation energy for microviscosity, indicating that complement not only decreased membrane microviscosity but also made membrane lipids less ordered. These changes were consistent and rapid, with platelet lysis and the reduction in microviscosity being half-maximal by 6 min. They were prevented by inactivation of complement with heat or with EDTA, and they were not observed when C5-deficient plasma was used as the complement source. Qualitatively similar changes in platelet membrane fluidity were observed when complement was fixed to platelets by a quinidine-dependent anti-platelet antibody rather than by post-transfusion purpura antibody. Post-transfusion purpura antibody plus complement also decreased the microviscosity of isolated platelet membranes. Moreover, the lipids extracted from platelets lysed by complement had a 22% decrease in microviscosity (P < 0.01), with no associated changes in the amount of cholesterol relative to phospholipid or in the amounts of the various phospholipids.
These studies demonstrate that lipids within the hydrophobic core of platelet membranes damaged by complement become more fluid, and this is associated with platelet lysis. These findings are consistent with the concept that the insertion of the terminal complement components into the platelet membrane bilayer perturbs lipid-lipid interactions within the membrane's hydrophobic core.
Changes in the dynamic behavior of membrane lipids of mammalian cells induced by adsorption of animal viruses were quantitatively monitored by fluorescence polarization analysis with the aid of the fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene embedded in the surface membrane lipid core of intact cells. Adsorption of encephalomyocarditis, West Nile, and polyoma viruses to hamster (baby hamster kidney) and mouse (3T3) cells is accompanied by a rapid and significant increase in the degree of fluidity of membrane lipids of the infected cells. These changes in membrane fluidity, which are virus dose dependent, are inhibited by low temperature and by treatment of the cells before-hand with compounds known to block viral receptors on the cell surface. It is suggested that increase in membrane lipid fluidity, induced by the adsorption of virions, is an early event in the process of cell-virus interactions.
Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is a potent procarcinogen with selectivity for the colon. To determine whether alterations in the lipid composition and fluidity of rat colonic brush border membranes existed before the development of DMH-induced colon cancer, rats were injected s.c. with this agent (20 mg/kg body weight per wk) or diluent for 5, 10, and 15 wk. Animals were killed at these time periods and brush border membranes were prepared from proximal and distal colonocytes of each group. The "static" and "dynamic" components of fluidity of each membrane were then assessed, by steady-state fluorescence polarization techniques using limiting hindered fluorescence anisotropy and order parameter values of the fluorophore 1,6 diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and fluorescence anisotropy values of DL-2-(9-anthroyl) stearic acid and DL-12-(9-anthroyl) stearic acid, respectively. Membrane lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. Phospholipid methylation activity in these membranes was also measured using S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor. The results of these studies demonstrate that: the lipid composition and both components of fluidity of proximal DMH-treated and control membranes and their liposomes were similar at all time periods examined; at 5, 10, and 15 wk the "dynamic component of fluidity" of distal DMH-treated membranes and their liposomes was found to be higher, similar, and lower, respectively, than their control counterparts; the "static component of fluidity" of distal DMH-treated membranes and their liposomes, however, was similar to control preparations at all three time periods; and alterations in the lipid composition and phospholipid methylation activities appeared to be responsible for these differences in the "dynamic component of fluidity" at these various time periods.
The effect of nedocromil sodium on the plasma membrane fluidity of
polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated by measuring
steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of
1-[4-trimethylammonium-phenyl]-6-phenyl- 1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH)
incorporated in the membrane. Our results show that nedocromil
sodium 300 μM significantly decreased membrane fluidity of PMNs.
The decrease in membrane fluidity of PMNs induced by fMLP was
abolished in the presence of nedocromil sodium. These data suggest
that nedocromil sodium interferes with the plasma membranes of PMNs
and modulates their activities.
The effect of cetirizine on plasma membrane fluidity and
heterogeneity of human eosinophils, neutrophils, platelets and
lymphocytes was investigated using a fluorescence technique.
Membrane fluidity and heterogeneity were studied by measuring the
steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence decay of 1-(4-
trimethylammonium-phenyl)-6-phenyl-1, 3, 5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH)
incorporated in the membrane. The results demonstrate that
cetirizine (1 μg/ml) induced a significant increase in the
Hpid order in the exterior part of the membrane and a decrease in
membrane heterogeneity in eosinophils, neutrophils and platelets.
Moreover, cetirizine blocked the PAF induced changes in membrane
fluidity in these cells. Cetirizine did not influence significantly
the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. These data may partially explain
the effect ofcetirizine on inflammatory cell activities.
Fluorescence polarisation of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was used to study the lymphocyte membrane in rheumatoid arthritis. The increase of polarisation value in the patients (n = 27) compared with healthy controls (n = 32) suggests a decrease of membrane fluidity. Moreover, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were positively correlated with lymphocyte fluorescence polarisation values (r = 0.66 and r = 0.76 respectively). The results suggest that the changes in lymphocyte membrane fluidity could be involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis.
A long-standing question in bacterial chemotaxis is whether repellents are sensed by receptors or whether they change a general membrane property such as the membrane fluidity and this change, in turn, is sensed by the chemotaxis system. This study addressed this question. The effects of common repellents on the membrane fluidity of Escherichia coli were measured by the fluorescence polarization of the probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in liposomes made of lipids extracted from the bacteria and in membrane vesicles. Glycerol, indole, and L-leucine had no significant effect on the membrane fluidity. NiSO4 decreased the membrane fluidity but only at concentrations much higher than those which elicit a repellent response in intact bacteria. This indicated that these repellents are not sensed by modulating the membrane fluidity. Aliphatic alcohols, on the other hand, fluidized the membrane, but the concentrations that elicited a repellent response were not equally effective in fluidizing the membrane. The response of intact bacteria to alcohols was monitored in various chemotaxis mutants and found to be missing in mutants lacking all the four methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) or the cytoplasmic che gene products. The presence of any single MCP was sufficient for the expression of a repellent response. It is concluded (i) that the repellent response to aliphatic alcohols can be mediated by any MCP and (ii) that although an increase in membrane fluidity may take part in a repellent response, it is not the only mechanism by which aliphatic alcohols, or at least some of them, are effective as repellents. To determine whether any of the E. coli repellents are sensed by periplasmic receptors, the effects of repellents from various classes on periplasm-void cells were examined. The responses to all the repellents tested (sodium benzoate, indole, L-leucine, and NiSO4) were retained in these cells. In a control experiment, the response of the attractant maltose, whose receptor is periplasmic, was lost. This indicates that these repellents are not sensed by periplasmic receptors. In view of this finding and the involvement of the MCPs in repellent sensing, it is proposed that the MCPs themselves are low-affinity receptors for the repellents.
The effects of various insecticides on the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes and cross-resistance were investigated in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using strains that were both resistant and susceptible to avermectin. The resistant strain of P. xylostella, AV-R, developed 1078-fold resistance to avermetins with a high level of cross-resistance to the analogs of avermectins, ivermectin and emamectin benzoate. It had more than 1000 times greater resistance when compared with the avermectin-susceptible strain, XH-S. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity was measured by detecting fluorescence polarization using DPH (1,6-Diphenyl -1,3,5-hexatriene) as the fluorescence probe. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate, ivermectin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate decreased the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes in the XH-S strain at 25°C. However, fipronil and acephate did not change the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane when the concentration of these insecticides was 1×10-4 mol/L. Membrane fluidity increased as the temperature increased. The thermotropic effect on the polarization value of DPH increased as the insecticide concentration was increased. There was a significant difference of mitochondrial membrane fluidity between both XH-S and AV-R when temperature was less than 25°C and no difference was observed when the temperature was more than 25°C. The low-dose abamectin (0.11 mg/L) in vivo treatment caused a significant change of membrane fluidity in the XH-S strain and no change in the AV-R strain. However, a high-dose abamectin (11.86 mg/L) resulted in 100% mortality of the XH-S strain. In vivo treatment may cause a significant change of membrane fluidity in the AV-R strain
insecticide resistance; fluorescence polarization; cross-resistance
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that may cause adverse effects by inhibiting pulmonary surfactant. To gain further insights in this potential mechanism of toxicity, we investigated the interaction of PFOS potassium salt with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) – the major component of pulmonary surfactant – using steady-state fluorescence anisotropy spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). In addition, we investigated the interactions of two structurally related compounds, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and octanesulfonic acid (OS) potassium salt, with DPPC. In the fluorescence experiments a linear depression of the main phase transition temperature of DPPC (Tm) and an increased peak width was observed with increasing concentration of all three compounds, both using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene p-toluenesulfonate (TMA-DPH) as fluorescent probes. PFOS caused an effect on Tm and peak width at much lower concentrations because of its increased tendency to partition onto DPPC bilayers, i.e., the partition coefficients decrease in the K(PFOS) > K(PFOA) ≫ K(OS). Similar to the fluorescence anisotropy measurements, all three compounds caused a linear depression in the onset of the main phase transition temperature and a significant peak broadening in the DSC experiments, with PFOS having the most pronounced effect of the peak width. The effect of PFOS and other fluorinated surfactants on DPPC in both mono- and bilayers may be one mechanism by which these compounds causes adverse biological effects.
PFOS; PFOA; DSC; DPPC; DPH; TMA-DPH
Viable Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in medium containing growth-inhibiting concentrations of ethanol produce a metabolite that relieves growth inhibition. This autoconditioning of the medium by yeasts is due to the formation of small amounts (0.01%, vol/vol) of acetaldehyde. The effect is duplicated precisely in fresh medium by the addition of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde does not increase the yield of or accelerate ethanol production by the organism. Ethanol-induced modifications of membrane order in the plasma membranes, as measured by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, were not resolved by exogenously added acetaldehyde.
Alterations in the lipid composition of lipid rafts have been demonstrated both in human brain and transgenic mouse models, and it has been postulated that aberrant lipid composition in lipid rafts is partly responsible for neuronal degeneration. In order to assess the impact of lipid changes on lipid raft functional properties, we have aimed at determining relevant physicochemical modifications in lipid rafts purified from frontal cortex of wild type (WT) and APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. By means of steady-state fluorescence anisotropy analyses using two lipid soluble fluorescent probes, TMA-DPH (1-[(4-trimethyl-amino)phenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) and DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene), we demonstrate that cortical lipid rafts from WT and APP/PS1 animals exhibit different biophysical behaviors, depending on genotype but also on age. Thus, aged APP/PS1 animals exhibited slightly more liquid-ordered lipid rafts than WT counterparts. Membrane microviscosity ηapp analyses demonstrate that WT lipid rafts are more fluid than APP/PS1 animals of similar age, both at the aqueous interface and hydrophobic core of the membrane. ηapp in APP/PS1 animals was higher for DPH than for TMA-DPH under similar experimental conditions, indicating that the internal core of the membrane is more viscous than the raft membrane at the aqueous interface. The most dramatic changes in biophysical properties of lipid rafts were observed when membrane cholesterol was depleted with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Overall, our results indicate that APP/PS1 genotype strongly affects physicochemical properties of lipid raft. Such alterations appear not to be homogeneous across the raft membrane axis, but rather are more prominent at the membrane plane. These changes correlate with aberrant proportions of sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and saturated fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, measured in lipid rafts from frontal cortex in this familial model of Alzheimer's Disease.
lipid rafts; membrane viscosity; membrane thermodynamics; fluorescence anisotropy; cholesterol depletion; microdomain lipid composition
The partitioning behavior of a series of perhydrocarbon nicotinic acid esters (nicotinates) between aqueous solution and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane bilayers is investigated as a function of increasing alkyl chain length. The hydrocarbon nicotinates represent putative prodrugs, derivatives of the polar drug nicotinic acid, whose functionalization provides the hydrophobic character necessary for pulmonary delivery in a hydrophobic, fluorocarbon solvent, such as perfluorooctyl bromide. Independent techniques of differential scanning calorimetry and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5 hexatriene (DPH) fluorescence anisotropy measurements are used to analyze the thermotropic phase behavior and lipid bilayer fluidity as a function of nicotinate concentration. At increasing concentrations of nicotinates over the DPPC mole fraction range examined (XDPPC = 0.6 – 1.0), all the nicotinates (ethyl (C2H5); butyl (C4H9); hexyl (C6H13); and octyl (C8H17)) partition into the lipid bilayer at sufficient levels to eliminate the pretransition, and decrease and broaden the gel to fluid phase transition temperature. The concentration at which these effects occur is chain length-dependent; the shortest chain nicotinate, C2H5, elicits the least dramatic response. Similarly, the DPH anisotropy results demonstrate an alteration of the bilayer organization in the liposomes as a consequence of the chain length-dependent partitioning of the nicotinates into DPPC bilayers. The membrane partition coefficients (logarithm values), determined from the depressed bilayer phase transition temperatures, increase from 2.18 for C2H5 to 5.25 for C8H17. The DPPC membrane/water partitioning of the perhydrocarbon nicotinate series correlates with trends in the octanol/water partitioning of these solutes, suggesting that their incorporation into the bilayer is driven by increasing hydrophobicity.
perhydrocarbon nicotinate; DPPC bilayers; prodrug; membrane partition coefficient
The microviscosity and fluidity of erythrocyte ghost membranes from lead workers and control subjects was measured by fluorescence polarisation using the fluorophore, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Increased lead was associated with a significant decrease in the average microviscosity of resealed and unsealed erythrocyte membranes. Since DPH fluorescence reflects the organisation of lipids in the central core of the membrane, two aspects of phospholipid metabolism were investigated. Phospholipids were extracted from red blood cell ghost membranes and identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The ratio of phosphatidyl choline to phosphatidyl ethanolamine, an established correlate of membrane fluidity, was significantly increased in lead workers. This is attributed to the known increases in red blood cell cholesterol in lead workers and the structural incompatibility of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and cholesterol, which result in a compensatory increase of phosphatidyl choline. Erythrocyte ghost membranes from control subjects were resealed with the intermediates in phospholipid synthesis that increase with a lead inhibited decrease in red blood cell pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase. Membrane fluidity was not modified by incubation with cytidine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, cytidine diphosphate choline, or cytidine diphosphate ethanolamine. Alterations in the microviscosity of the lipid regions of the hydrophobic core of the erythrocyte membrane bilayer and in the phospholipid composition of the membrane may be defects which contribute to the clinical and biochemical instability of the red blood cell on exposure to lead.
The effects of ethanol on the fluidity of Escherichia coli plasma membranes were examined by using a variety of fluorescent probes: 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, perylene, and a set of n-(9-anthroyloxy) fatty acids. The anthroyloxy fatty acid probes were used to examine the fluidity gradient across the width of the plasma membrane and artificial membranes prepared from lipid extracts of plasma membranes. Ethanol caused a small decrease in the polarization of probes primarily located near the membrane surface. In comparison, hexanol decreased the polarization of probes located more deeply in the membrane. Temperature had a large effect on probes located at all depths. The effects of ethanol on E. coli membranes from cells grown with or without ethanol were also examined. Plasma membranes isolated from cells grown in the presence of ethanol were more rigid than those from control cells. In contrast to plasma membranes, artificial membranes prepared from lipid extracts of ethanol-grown cells were more fluid than those from control cells. These differences are explained by analyses of membrane composition. Membranes from cells grown in the presence of ethanol are more rigid than those from control cells due to a decrease in the lipid-to-protein ratio. This change more than compensates for the fluidizing effect of ethanol and the ethanol-induced increase in membrane C18:1 fatty acid which occurs during growth. Our results suggest that the regulation of the lipid-to-protein ratio of the plasma membrane may be an important adaptive response of E. coli to growth in the presence of ethanol.
The structures of the intact synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMVs) isolated from bovine cerebral cortexs, and the outer and the inner monolayer separately, were evaluated with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl)propane (Py-3-Py) as fluorescent reporters and trinitrophenyl groups as quenching agents. The methanol increased bulk rotational and lateral mobilities of SPMVs lipid bilayers. The methanol increased the rotational and lateral mobilities of the outer monolayers more than of the inner monolayers. n-(9-Anthroyloxy)stearic acid (n-AS) were used to evaluate the effect of the methanol on the rotational mobility at the 16, 12, 9, 6, and 2 position of aliphatic chains present in phospholipids of the SPMVs outer monolayers. The methanol decreased the anisotropy of the 16-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitic acid (16-AP), 12-(9-anthroyloxy)stearic acid (12-AS), 9-(9-anthroyloxy)stearic acid (9-AS), and 6-(9-anthroyloxy)stearic acid (6-AS) in the SPMVs outer monolayer but it increased the anisotropy of 2-(9-anthroyloxy)stearic acid (2-AS) in the monolayers. The magnitude of the increased rotational mobility by the methanol was in the order at the position of 16, 12, 9, and 6 of aliphatic chains in phospholipids of the outer monolayers. Furthermore, the methanol increased annular lipid fluidity and also caused membrane proteins to cluster. The important finding is that was far greater increase by methanol in annular lipid fluidity than increase in lateral and rotational mobilities by the methanol. Methanol alters the stereo or dynamics of the proteins in the lipid bilayers by combining with lipids, especially with the annular lipids. In conclusion, the present data suggest that methanol, in additions to its direct interaction with proteins, concurrently interacts with membrane lipids, fluidizing the membrane, and thus inducing conformational changes of proteins known to be intimately associated with membranes lipids.
Annular lipid fluidity; Membrane protein clustering; Methanol; Neuronal membranes; Transbilayer lateral and rotational mobility
Adaptation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a sterol-requiring Mycoplasma sp., to growth in a serum-free medium supplemented with cholesterol in decreasing concentrations and with various saturated or unsaturated fatty acids enabled us to control both the cholesterol levels and the membrane fatty acid composition. An estimate of the membrane physical state from fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene indicated that the membrane lipids of native M. gallisepticum were highly ordered. Elongation of the saturated fatty acid chains from 14 to 18 carbon atoms caused only a small increase in the membrane lipid ordering, whereas the introduction of a cis double bond reduced it significantly. Lipid-phase transitions were observed in low-cholesterol-adapted organisms, whose membrane lipids were still highly ordered at the growth temperature.
The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol) using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease) and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; p<0.01). The presence of alcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology) was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations.
Acanthocytic red cells in patients with abetalipoproteinemia are morphologically similar to the red cells in spur cell anemia. Fluidity of membrane lipids is decreased in spur cells due to their excess cholesterol content. Acanthocyte membranes have an increased content of sphingomyelin and a decreased content of lecithin. To assess the effect of this abnormality of acanthocyte membrane lipid composition on membrane fluidity, we studied red cells from five patients with abetalipoproteinemia and four obligate heterozygote family members.
Membrane fluidity was measured in terms of microviscosity (¯η) at 37°C, assessed by means of the fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. It was increased from 3.2±0.1 poise in normals to 4.01-4.14 poise in acanthocytes. This was associated with an increase in the sphingomyelin/lecithin ratio from 0.84±0.08 in normals in 1.45-1.61 in acanthocytes. The ¯η of acanthocyte membranes was not influenced by the degree of vitamin E deficiency. Similar changes in ¯η were observed in liposomes prepared from red cell lipids. Heterozygotes had normal sphingomyelin/lecithin ratios and normal values for ¯η. The flow activation energy for viscosity, a measure of the degree of order in the hydrophobic portion of the membrane, was decreased from 8.3 kcal/mole in normal red cells to 7.2 kcal/mole in acanthocytes, indicating that acanthocyte membrane lipids are more ordered. Variations in the sphingomyelin/lecithin mole ratio of liposomes prepared from brain sphingomyelin and egg lecithin with equimolar cholesterol caused similar changes in both ¯η and activation energy. The deformability of acanthocytes, assessed by means of filtration through 3-μm filters, was decreased.
These studies indicate that the increased sphingomyelin/lecithin ratio of acanthocytes is responsible for their decreased membrane fluidity. As in spur cells and in red cells enriched with cholesterol in vitro, this decrease in membrane fluidity occurs coincidentally with an abnormality in cell contour and an impairment in cell deformability.
Nisin interacts with target membranes in four sequential steps: binding, insertion, aggregation, and pore formation. Alterations in membrane composition might influence any of these steps. We hypothesized that cold temperatures (10°C) and surfactant (0.1% Tween 20) in the growth medium would influence Listeria monocytogenes membrane lipid composition, membrane fluidity, and, as a result, sensitivity to nisin. Compared to the membranes of cells grown at 30°C, those of L. monocytogenes grown at 10°C had increased amounts of shorter, branched-chain fatty acids, increased fluidity (as measured by fluorescence anisotropy), and increased nisin sensitivity. When 0.1% Tween 20 was included in the medium and the cells were cultured at 30°C, there were complex changes in lipid composition. They did not influence membrane fluidity but nonetheless increased nisin sensitivity. Further investigation found that these cells had an increased ability to bind radioactively labeled nisin. This suggests that the modification of the surfactant-adapted cell membrane increased nisin sensitivity at the binding step and demonstrates that each of the four steps can contribute to nisin sensitivity.
The effect of cholesterol on the activity of the branched-chain amino acid transport system of Streptococcus cremoris was studied in membrane vesicles of S. cremoris fused with liposomes made of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, soybean phosphatidylethanolamine, and various amounts of cholesterol. Cholesterol reduced both counterflow and proton motive force-driven leucine transport. Kinetic analysis of proton motive force-driven leucine uptake revealed that the Vmax decreased with an increasing cholesterol/phospholipid ratio while the Kt remained unchanged. The leucine transport activity decreased with the membrane fluidity, as determined by steady-state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene incorporated into the fused membranes, suggesting that the membrane fluidity controls the activity of the branched-chain amino acid carrier.
The relative roles of phospholipid fatty acyl chain length and phospholipid fatty acyl chain unsaturation in the determination of rat renal brush border membrane order were examined using multilamellar liposomes. Exposure of brush border membranes to sphingomyelinase resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrement in sphingomyelin content. Liposomes prepared from lipid extracts of these membranes were reconstituted to defined phosphatidylcholine (PC)/sphingomyelin (SPH) ratios with pure synthetic PCs of defined chain length and degrees of unsaturation. Mixed-acid PCs from bovine liver, egg, and the rat renal brush border membrane were also examined. The steady state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) at 37 degrees C was used to reflect acyl chain packing. The steady state anisotropy of DPH in liposomes isolated from the rat renal brush border membrane averaged 0.205 +/- 0.001, n = 8. When liposomes were reconstituted to PC/SPH ratios of 1.1, 1.6, and 2.4 with saturated PCs of acyl chain length 16 to 22, differences in anisotropy between groups were not observed. However, when PCs containing unsaturated or mixed-acid fatty acyl chains were introduced, anisotropy decreased in a concentration dependent fashion. These data suggest that phospholipid fatty acyl chain unsaturation, but not acyl chain length, has a powerful influence on renal brush border membrane order and the PC/SPH ratio is an important determinant of renal membrane order by virtue of the unsaturated fatty acids normally present with these phospholipids.
Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the inoculum.
By in silico analysis, we have identified two putative proviruses in the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, and under special conditions of A. pernix growth, we were able to induce their replication. Both viruses were isolated and characterized. Negatively stained virions of one virus appeared as pleomorphic spindle-shaped particles, 180 to 210 nm by 40 to 55 nm, with tails of heterogeneous lengths in the range of 0 to 300 nm. This virus was named Aeropyrum pernix spindle-shaped virus 1 (APSV1). Negatively stained virions of the other virus appeared as slightly irregular oval particles with one pointed end, while in cryo-electron micrographs, the virions had a regular oval shape and uniform size (70 by 55 nm). The virus was named Aeropyrum pernix ovoid virus 1 (APOV1). Both viruses have circular, double-stranded DNA genomes of 38,049 bp for APSV1 and 13,769 bp for APOV1. Similarities to proteins of other archaeal viruses were limited to the integrase and Dna1-like protein. We propose to classify APOV1 into the family Guttaviridae.
The purpose of this study is to investigated the mechanism of pharmacological action of local anesthetic and provide the basic information about the development of new effective local anesthetics. Fluorescent probe techniques were used to evaluate the effect of lidocaine·HCl on the physical properties (transbilayer asymmetric lateral and rotational mobility, annular lipid fluidity and protein distribution) of synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV) isolated from bovine cerebral cortex, and liposomes of total lipids (SPMVTL) and phospholipids (SPMVPL) extracted from the SPMV. An experimental procedure was used based on selective quenching of 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl)propane (Py-3-Py) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) by trinitrophenyl groups, and radiationless energy transfer from the tryptophans of membrane proteins to Py-3-Py. Lidocaine·HCl increased the bulk lateral and rotational mobility of neuronal and model membrane lipid bilayes, and had a greater fluidizing effect on the inner monolayer than the outer monolayer. Lidocaine·HCl increased annular lipid fluidity in SPMV lipid bilayers. It also caused membrane proteins to cluster. The most important finding of this study is that there is far greater increase in annular lipid fluidity than that in lateral and rotational mobilities by lidocaine·HCl. Lidocaine·HCl alters the stereo or dynamics of the proteins in the lipid bilayers by combining with lipids, especially with the annular lipids. In conclusion, the present data suggest that lidocaine, in addition to its direct interaction with proteins, concurrently interacts with membrane lipids, fluidizing the membrane, and thus inducing conformational changes of proteins known to be intimately associated with membrane lipid.
Annular lipid fluidity; Lidocaine·HCl; Membrane protein clustering; Neuronal and model membranes; Transbilayer lateral and rotational mobility