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1.  Musculoskeletal Complications of Hemophilia 
HSS Journal  2009;6(1):37-42.
The most important clinical strategy for management of patients with hemophilia is the avoidance of recurrent hemarthroses by means of continuous, intravenous hematological prophylaxis. When only intravenous on-demand hematological treatment is available, frequent evaluations are necessary for the early diagnosis and treatment of episodes of intra-articular bleeding. The natural history of the disease in patients with poorly controlled intra-articular bleeding is the development of chronic synovitis and, later, multi-articular hemophilic arthropathy. Once arthropathy develops, the functional prognosis is poor. Treatment of these patients should be conducted through a comprehensive program by a multidisciplinary hemophilia unit. Although continuous prophylaxis can avoid the development of the orthopedic complications of hemophilia still seen in the twenty-first century, such a goal has not, so far, been achieved even in developed countries. Therefore, many different surgical procedures such as arthrocentesis, radiosynoviorthesis (radiosynovectomy) (yttrium-90, rhenium-186), tendon lengthenings, alignment osteotomies, joint arthroplasties, removal of pseudotumours, and fixation of fractures are still frequently needed in the care of these patients.
doi:10.1007/s11420-009-9140-9
PMCID: PMC2821487  PMID: 19921342
hemophilia; orthopedic surgery; musculo-skeletal complications
2.  Review of antihemophilic factor injection for the routine prophylaxis of bleeding episodes and risk of joint damage in severe hemophilia A 
Individuals with severe factor VIII deficiency experience recurrent hemorrhages and develop progressive joint damage. Large retrospective, nonrandomized studies of patient cohorts followed over decades show that factor prophylaxis initiated at an early age before the onset of recurrent bleeding reduces the incidence of hemophilic arthropathy. Two recent prospective, multicenter, randomized trials conducted in Europe (the ESPRIT study) and the USA (the Joint Outcome Study) confirm the efficacy of prophylaxis in the prevention of hemarthroses and arthropathy. Regular prophylaxis initiated in early childhood enhances the quality of life for patients with severe hemophilia and reduces the risk of inhibitor development. The substantial costs of such preventative therapy may be offset by the reduced expenditures that the care of degenerative joint disease in adult hemophilia patients would otherwise require.
PMCID: PMC2835555  PMID: 20234780
hemophilia; factor VIII; prophylaxis; arthropathy; bleeding
3.  Vascular Remodeling Underlies Re-bleeding In Hemophilic Arthropathy 
American journal of hematology  2015;90(11):1027-1035.
Hemophilic arthropathy is a debilitating condition that can develop as a consequence of frequent joint bleeding despite adequate clotting factor replacement. The mechanisms leading to repeated spontaneous bleeding are unknown. We investigated synovial, vascular, stromal and cartilage changes in response to a single induced hemarthrosis in the FVIII-deficient mouse. We found soft tissue hyperproliferation with marked induction of neoangiogenesis and evolving abnormal vascular architecture. While soft tissue changes were rapidly reversible, abnormal vascularity persisted for months and, surprisingly, was also seen in uninjured joints. Vascular changes in FVIII-deficient mice involved pronounced remodeling with expression of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA), Endoglin (CD105) and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as alterations of joint perfusion as determined by in vivo imaging. Vascular architecture changes and pronounced expression of α-SMA appeared unique to hemophilia, as these were not found in joint tissue obtained from mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and from patients with the same conditions. Evidence that vascular changes in hemophilia were significantly associated with bleeding and joint deterioration was obtained prospectively by dynamic in vivo imaging with musculoskeletal ultrasound and power Doppler of 156 joints (elbows, knees and ankles) in a cohort of 26 patients with hemophilia at baseline and during painful episodes. These observations support the hypothesis that vascular remodeling contributes significantly to bleed propagation and development of hemophilic arthropathy. Based on these findings, the development of molecular targets for angiogenesis inhibition may be considered in this disease.
doi:10.1002/ajh.24133
PMCID: PMC4618067  PMID: 26257191
Hemophilia; arthropathy; neoangiogenesis; vascular remodeling; hemarthrosis
4.  Optimal management of hemophilic arthropathy and hematomas 
Journal of Blood Medicine  2014;5:207-218.
Hemophilia is a hematological disorder characterized by a partial or complete deficiency of clotting factor VIII or IX. Its bleeding complications primarily affect the musculoskeletal system. Hemarthrosis is a major hemophilia-related complication, responsible for a particularly debilitating chronic arthropathy, in the long term. In addition to clotting factor concentrates, usually prescribed by the hematologist, managing acute hemarthrosis and chronic arthropathy requires a close collaboration between the orthopedic surgeon and physiotherapist. This collaboration, comprising a coagulation and musculoskeletal specialist, is key to effectively preventing hemarthrosis, managing acute joint bleeding episodes, assessing joint function, and actively treating chronic arthropathy. This paper reviews, from a practical point of view, the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of hemarthrosis and chronic hemophilia-induced arthropathy for hematologists, orthopedic surgeons, and physiotherapists.
doi:10.2147/JBM.S50644
PMCID: PMC4207585  PMID: 25378964
hemophilia; arthropathy; hemarthrosis; hematoma; physiotherapy; target joint
5.  Advances in bypassing agent therapy for hemophilia patients with inhibitors to close care gaps and improve outcomes 
In the past, patients with hemophilia and inhibitors have had less-than-optimal treatment and have experienced more orthopedic complications than patients without inhibitors. Bypassing agents offer the potential to close treatment gaps between inhibitor and noninhibitor patients by helping the former better attain key treatment goals, including: facilitating early initiation of treatment and hemostatic control in hemarthroses; providing effective treatment in serious hemorrhagic episodes; and performance of major surgery. Effective treatment with a bypassing agent minimizes joint and/or muscle damage and potentially can serve as an effective prophylactic agent to minimize the number of hemarthroses experienced per year, thereby mitigating the development of arthropathy. The reported efficacy of the currently available bypassing agents ranges from approximately 50–80% (50–64% in controlled studies) for plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC) and 81–91% (in controlled studies) for recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), including use in major orthopedic surgery. Both bypassing agents have undergone key improvements in their formulation and/or properties in recent years. The nanofiltered, vapor-heated formulation of pd-aPCC has diminished the risk of acquiring blood-borne viral infections and the room temperature stable formulation of rFVIIa allows more convenient storage, increased ease to dissolve and inject, and smaller volumes, thereby increasing overall ease of administration. Use of recommended dosing has been demonstrated to provide effective hemostasis with a minimal number of injections for both agents. In this paper, we review the individual characteristics of pd-aPCC and rFVIIa and discuss clinical data from studies conducted in inhibitor patients that demonstrate the potential benefits of these bypassing agents in this difficult-to-treat population, and underscore the potential opportunities to close the gap in care between inhibitor and noninhibitor hemophilic patients.
doi:10.1177/2042098611415566
PMCID: PMC4110812  PMID: 25083214
hemophilia; inhibitors; outcomes; patient care; plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate; recombinant activated factor VII
6.  IL-6 Receptor Antagonist as Adjunctive Therapy with Clotting Factor Replacement to Protect Against Bleeding-Induced Arthropathy in Hemophilia 
Background
The major morbidity of hemophilia is bleeding induced hemophilic arthropathy (HA) which once established may not be interrupted completely even by prophylactic clotting factor replacement. Specific therapies to oppose inflammatory cytokines, including Interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor antagonists, have become important in the management of inflammatory arthritides.
Objectives
We investigated combining therapy using MR16-1, a rat IgG antibody directed against mouse IL-6 receptor (anti-IL-6R), with factor VIII (FVIII) replacement to protect against bleeding induced arthropathy in hemophilia A mice.
Methods
Three recurrent hemarthroses were induced in the knee joint capsule of factor VIII knockout mice. Treatment at the time of each hemorrhage included either: No treatment; FVIII replacement given at the time of hemorrhage; FVIII replacement at hemorrhage plus anti-IL-6R as four weekly injections; FVIII replacement with non-specific control antibody (rat IgG); anti-IL-6R alone without FVIII replacement. Six weeks following the first hemarthosis joints were harvested and histopathology was scored for synovitis, for cartilage integrity and for macrophage infiltration.
Results
Animals that received anti-IL-6R as an adjunct to FVIII replacement demonstrated the best survival and the least acute joint swelling and pathology on histologic examination of synovium and cartilage (P<0.05 for each parameter). All histopathologic parameters in the mice receiving FVIII+anti-IL-6R were limited and were comparable to findings in injured hemostatically normal mice. The major benefits of adjunctive anti-IL-6R were decreasing synovial hyperplasia, hemosiderin deposition and macrophage infiltration.
Conclusions
Short-course specific inhibition of inflammatory cytokines as an adjunct to replacement hemostasis may be an approach to minimize hemophilic joint degeneration.
doi:10.1111/jth.12176
PMCID: PMC3656980  PMID: 23413986
IL-6; anti-IL-6; anti-cytokine; hemophilia; hemarthrosis; hemophilic arthropathy; MR16-1
7.  Joint Function and Arthropathy Severity in Patients with Hemophilia 
Background: The Arnold-Hilgartner classification is one of the most popular evaluation systems for the progression hemophilic arthropathy. A previous study reported an association between arthropathy severity and arc range of motion (ROM). However, associations between arthropathy severity and angular ROM and muscle strength remain unclear. AIM: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between joint function and arthropathy severity in hemophilia. Methods: We studied the knee, ankle, and elbow joints of 31 patients with hemophilia (PWH). The condition of the affected joints was evaluated on the basis of the interview data, joint function measurements, and roentgenography of the affected joints. In assessment of joint function, we evaluated knee strength (flexor, extensor) and grip strength as well as the passive ROM of the elbow, knee, and ankle. During the interview, all patients were asked about the history of intra-articular bleeding over the past year and pain. Results: As arthropathy severity worsened, knee flexor strength, knee extensor strength, grip strength, and ROM (elbow flexion, elbow extension, knee flexion, knee extension, and ankle extension) significantly decreased. Even patients with mild arthropathies experienced knee extensor weakness and extension limitation. In addition, joint function of severe ankle arthropathy was significantly related to the history of intra-articular bleeding and pain. Conclusion: Our results suggest that physical therapy is necessary to improve joint function in PWH and mild or no arthropathy. Pain control and prophylactic hematological management are necessary for patients with severe arthropathy because intra-articular bleeding and pain significantly decrease joint function.
doi:10.1298/jjpta.Vol18_003
PMCID: PMC4691580  PMID: 26733762
Range of motion; Muscle strength; Arnold-Hilgartner classification
8.  Radiosynovectomy in the Therapeutic Management of Arthritis 
Radiosynovectomy is a well-established therapy in arthritis and involves an intra-articular injection of small radioactive particles to treat a synovitis. In Europe, frequent indications are rheumatoid and poly-arthritis. Especially in Germany radiosynovectomy is the second common therapy in Nuclear Medicine with about 40,000–60,000 treated joints per year. In Spain, USA, Turkey, Argentines and Philippines the therapy is more use in hemophilic arthritis with excellent results. Especially in developing countries with low availability of clotting factors, the radiosynovectomy represent a cost effective therapeutic option for repeated bleedings in hemophilic arthropathy. The special focus in these countries is maintaining of mobility and work ability. Often only the knee and medium joints (ankle, elbow and shoulder) are treated using yttrium-90, rhenium-186 or phosphorus-32. However, in rheumatoid arthritis most common affected joints are the fingers. For the treatment in these small joints, erbium-169 is necessary. Unfortunately, erbium-169 is only available in Europe. Further indications for radiosynovectomy are osteoarthritis and the articular effusion after joint replacement. The reported response rates in rheumatoid and poly-arthritis range from 60% to 80% depends from the stage of previous arthrosis. The best effectiveness of therapy was observed in hemophilic arthritis with response rate of 90% and significant reducing of bleeding frequency. The therapy is well-tolerated with low rate of side effects. In respect of the specific uptake of particles in the synovia and short range of beta radiation, the radiation exposure outside the joint is very low. The radiosynovectomy has efforts in comparison to surgical synovectomy: it's a minor intervention with low costs; and simultaneous treatments of multiple joints or treatment in short intervals are possible. The presented paper summarized the published papers and reports our own experiences in >15,000 treated joints.
doi:10.4103/1450-1147.150509
PMCID: PMC4337000  PMID: 25709538
Erbium-169; hemophilic arthritis; osteoarthritis; rhenium-186; rheumatoid arthritis; yttrium-90
9.  Treatment of hemophilia: a review of current advances and ongoing issues 
Journal of blood medicine  2010;1:183-195.
Replacement of the congenitally deficient factor VIII or IX through plasma-derived or recombinant concentrates is the mainstay of treatment for hemophilia. Concentrate infusions when hemorrhages occur typically in joint and muscles (on-demand treatment) is able to resolve bleeding, but does not prevent the progressive joint deterioration leading to crippling hemophilic arthropathy. Therefore, primary prophylaxis, ie, regular infusion of concentrates started after the first joint bleed and/or before the age of two years, is now recognized as first-line treatment in children with severe hemophilia. Secondary prophylaxis, whenever started, aims to avoid (or delay) the progression of arthropathy and improve patient quality of life. Interestingly, recent data suggest a role for early prophylaxis also in preventing development of inhibitors, the most serious complication of treatment in hemophilia, in which multiple genetic and environmental factors may be involved. Treatment of bleeds in patients with inhibitors requires bypassing agents (activated prothrombin complex concentrates, recombinant factor VIIa). However, eradication of inhibitors by induction of immune tolerance should be the first choice for patients with recent onset inhibitors. The wide availability of safe factor concentrates and programs for comprehensive care has now resulted in highly satisfactory treatment of hemophilia patients in developed countries. Unfortunately, this is not true for more than two-thirds of persons with hemophilia, who live in developing countries.
doi:10.2147/JBM.S6885
PMCID: PMC3262316  PMID: 22282697
bleeding; comprehensive care; clotting factor concentrates; hemophilia; inhibitors; prophylaxis; treatment
10.  Individualized prophylaxis for optimizing hemophilia care: can we apply this to both developed and developing nations? 
Thrombosis Journal  2016;14(Suppl 1):32.
Prophylaxis is considered optimal care for hemophilia patients to prevent bleeding and to preserve joint function thereby improving quality of life (QoL). The evidence for prophylaxis is irrefutable and is the standard of care in developed nations. Prophylaxis can be further individualized to improve outcomes and cost effectiveness. Individualization is best accomplished taking into account the bleeding phenotype, physical activity/lifestyle, joint status, and pharmacokinetic handling of specific clotting factor concentrates, all of which vary among individuals. Patient acceptance should also be considered. Assessment tools (e.g. joint status imaging and function studies/scores, QoL) for determining and monitoring risk factors and outcome, as well as population PK profiling have been developed to assist the individualization process. The determinants of optimal prophylaxis include (1) factor dose/dosing frequency, hence, cost/affordability (2) bleeding triggers (physical activity/lifestyle, chronic arthropathy and synovitis) and (3) bleeding rates. Altering one determinant results in adjustment of the other two. Thus, the trough level to protect from spontaneous bleeding can be increased in patients who have greater bleeding risks; and prophylaxis to achieve zero joint bleeds is achievable through optimal individualization. Prophylaxis in economically constrained nations is limited by the ill-affordability of clotting factor concentrates. However, at least 5 studies on children and adults from Thailand, China and India have shown superiority of low dose (~5–10 IU kg−1 2-3× per week) prophylaxis over episodic treatment in terms of bleed reduction, and quality of life, with improved physical activity, independent functioning, school attendance and community participation. In these nations, the prophylaxis goals should be for improved QoL rather than “zero bleeds” and perfect joints. Prophylaxis can still be individualized to affordability. Higher protective trough level can be achieved by using smaller doses given more frequently without an increase in consumption/cost. The bleeding trigger can also be down-regulated by avoiding unnecessary injury, and by engaging in judicious strengthening exercises appropriate to the joint status to improve balance and joint stabilization. Central to the success of prophylaxis are clinics with comprehensive care that provide the necessary professional expertise, support, and counseling, to educate patients, families, and other healthcare professionals, and to support research for improved hemophilia care.
doi:10.1186/s12959-016-0096-y
PMCID: PMC5056486  PMID: 27766058
Hemophilia; Individualized prophylaxis; Personalized prophylaxis; Pharmacokinetics; Population pharmacokinetics; Low-dose prophylaxis; Terminal half-life
11.  Treatment of hemophilia B: focus on recombinant factor IX 
Hemophilia B is a recessive X-linked bleeding disorder characterized by deficiency of the coagulation factor IX (FIX). In hemophilia B patients the severity of the bleeding phenotype is related to the degree of the FIX defect. Hemophilia B treatment has improved greatly in the last 20 years with the introduction first of plasma-derived and then of recombinant FIX concentrates. Replacement therapy may be administered through on-demand or prophylaxis regimens, but the latter treatment modality has been shown to be superior in prevention of hemophilic arthropathy and in improvement of patients’ quality of life. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the current knowledge on treatment strategies for hemophilia B, focusing on recombinant FIX products either clinically used or in development. There is only one rFIX product that is licensed to treat hemophilia B patients; from the analysis of the literature data presented in this review, the authors conclude that this rFIX product has demonstrated an excellent safety profile and excellent clinical efficacy for halting and preventing bleeds in hemophilia B patients. While prophylaxis has emerged as the best therapeutic strategy for such patients because of its ability to prevent hemophilic arthropathy and to improve patients’ quality of life, the pharmacokinetically tailored dosing of rFIX is another key point when planning hemophilia B treatment, as it allows optimization of the factor concentrate usage. Further clinical studies are needed to better assess the safety and efficacy (ie, the incidence of adverse reactions and inhibitor development) of newer rFIX products.
doi:10.2147/BTT.S31582
PMCID: PMC3575125  PMID: 23430394
recombinant FIX products; plasma-derived FIX concentrate; bleeding; blood clotting disorder; on-demand treatment; prophylaxis treatment
12.  Joint Health Status of Hemophilia Patients in Jodhpur Region 
Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which there is a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of the blood. Susceptibility to joint hemorrhage in persons with Hemophilia suggests that the routine assessment of joint health is an important aspect of clinical management and outcome studies assessing the efficacy of treatment. This prospective study was conducted to study joint health status in Hemophilia patients and draw their joint disability score by using Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Out of total 56 cases 51 (91.07 %) cases were diagnosed as hemophilia A while 5 cases (8.92 %) were diagnosed as hemophilia B. According to their factor level 44 % cases had severe 36 % had moderate and 20 % had mild disease. Knee joint was the predominant joint affected by hemarthrosis in 67.85 % cases followed by ankle joint (51.7 %) elbow joint (35.7 %), hip joint (12.5 %), shoulder joint (5.3 %) and proximal metacarpophalangeal joint (1.78 %).Out of total 37.5 % patients of hemophilia had developed target joint. Knee joint was the predominant target joint in 28.57 % cases and ankle joint was the target joint in 8.92 % cases. Maximum number of patients (40.47 %) had HJHS score of zero. The mean HJHS score was 6.78 ± 9.04. HJHS score showing significant positive correlation with age of patient (p < 0.0001). Most risky period and most aggravating development of hemophilic joint damage starts from 7 years of age. Therefore, treatment decisions, such as starting prophylaxis, should be tailored according to bleeding pattern and age of patients rather than based on the clotting factor activity levels.
doi:10.1007/s12288-014-0465-2
PMCID: PMC4465520  PMID: 26085722
Hemophilia joint health score; Heamarthrosis; Target joint
13.  Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 is a potential biological indicator of hemophilic arthropathy 
Medicine  2016;95(46):e5384.
Abstract
Hemophilic arthropathy is the most common chronic complication in patients with hemophilia. The pathogenesis of hemophilic arthropathy involves the inflammatory processes associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Determining the severity and/or progression of joint damage is crucial when evaluating the effect of treatment modalities. Identifying reliable biomarkers in the peripheral blood of patients with hemophilic arthropathy may be beneficial in clinical practice. Circulating soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, and P-selectin levels are elevated in patients with RA. Our study investigated whether these soluble adhesion molecules can be used as biological indicators in the course of joint damage in patients with hemophilia A.
Patients with hemophilia A (mild, moderate, and severe) were enrolled. The plasma levels of sVCAM-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin in patients with hemophilia A and control were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Joint damages were evaluated using Pettersson scores.
No statistically significant differences were observed in E-selectin and P-selectin levels between patients and controls. The sVCAM-1 level was significantly higher in patients with hemophilia A than in controls. The differences remained significant in patients with severe hemophilia A but not in patients with mild or moderate hemophilia A. The degree of hemophilic arthropathy was evaluated using Pettersson scores, and a score higher than 5 indicated marked arthropathy. Patients with more than 1 joint with marked arthropathy showed significantly higher sVCAM-1 levels.
sVCAM-1 levels in patients with hemophilia A are associated with the severity of hemophilic arthropathy.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000005384
PMCID: PMC5120929  PMID: 27861372
E-selectin; hemophilia A; P-selectin; sVCAM-1
14.  Descriptive Epidemiology of Hemophilia and Other Coagulation Disorders in Mansoura, Egypt: Retrospective Analysis. 
Hemophilia represent the most severe inherited bleeding disorder (INB), it’s thought to affect inviduals from all geographical areas in equal frequency. In Egypt which has a population of approximately (80million) consanguineous marriage are frequent, therefore autosomal recessive coagulation disorders reach a higher prevalence than in many other countries.
The primary aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of hemophilia in Mansoura, Egypt, as based on retrospective analysis of clinical records Mansoura University Children Hospital between years 2000 and 2008. The second aim was to assess the orthopedic complications and occurrence of hepatitis C in those patients and relate this status to the type of replacement therapy received prior to the study.
The study included 72 children with hematological disorders registered from 2000 to 2008 in MUCH. The hemophilic patient was defined as a person with physician-diagnosed hemophilia A or B and a measured factor VIII or IX activity level of 30% or less. Persons with acquired inhibitors of FVIII or FIX excluded. Severity level was categorized as mild if the factor activity level was 6–30%, moderate if 1–5% and severe if <1% of normal.
The severe presentation represents the majority in 76.7% followed by moderate severity in 17.2%.The commonest IBDs was hemophilia A affecting 44 patients, followed by Hemophilia B affecting 15 patients. The rare types were Factor XI deficiency, Factor V deficiency, Factor VII deficiency and combined FVIII, FIX and FX deficiency. The commonest orthopedic manifestation needing therapy was found among hemophilia A representing 8.3%. Hepatitis C viremia detected by PCR was found in 11.1% of patients. The bleeding complications as hematoma or hemarthrosis were the common complications. Nevertheless, 44.4% of patients had no complications, From this study we can conclude that the most common IBDs in our locality is hemophilia A followed by hemophilia B. The common presenting symptom was bleeding following male circumcision. Hepatitis C infection and arthropathy represented the main complications. The discovery of IBDs in young age children with proper supportive therapy could prevent arthropathy. Proper screening of blood and blood products reduce the risk of viral hepatitis and HIV acquisition.
doi:10.4084/MJHID.2010.025
PMCID: PMC3033150  PMID: 21415978
15.  Orthopedic disorders of the knee in hemophilia: A current concept review 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2016;7(6):370-375.
The knee is frequently affected by severe orthopedic changes known as hemophilic arthropathy (HA) in patients with deficiency of coagulation factor VIII or IX and thus this manuscript seeks to present a current perspective of the role of the orthopedic surgeon in the management of these problems. Lifelong factor replacement therapy (FRT) is optimal to prevent HA, however adherence to this regerous treatment is challenging leading to breakthrough bleeding. In patients with chronic hemophilic synovitis, the prelude to HA, radiosynovectomy (RS) is the optimal to ameliorate bleeding. Surgery in people with hemophilia (PWH) is associated with a high risk of bleeding and infection, and must be performed with FRT. A coordinated effort including orthopedic surgeons, hematologists, physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians, physiotherapists and other team members is key to optimal outcomes. Ideally, orthopedic procedures should be performed in specialized hospitals with experienced teams. Until we are able to prevent orthopedic problems of the knee in PWH will have to continue performing orthopedic procedures (arthrocentesis, RS, arthroscopic synovectomy, hamstring release, arthroscopic debridement, alignment osteotomy, and total knee arthroplasty). By using the aforementioned procedures, the quality of life of PWH will be improved.
doi:10.5312/wjo.v7.i6.370
PMCID: PMC4911520  PMID: 27335812
Hemophilia; Knee; Orthopedic problems; Prevention; Surgical treatment
16.  Clinical and functional evaluation of the joint status of hemophiliac adults at a Brazilian blood center 
Background
Hemophilia is a potentially disabling condition as hemophilic arthropathy develops early in life and is progressive, especially in patients treated in an on-demand regime.
Objective
This study aimed to describe the structural joint status and the functional independence score of hemophiliac adults and correlate structural damage with the functional deficits found in these patients.
Methods
Hemophiliacs at the Juiz de Fora Regional Blood Center - HEMOMINAS Foundation, aged 18 years and over and treated in an on-demand regime, were clinically evaluated in respect to structural joint damage using the World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale (WFH-PE) and functional deficits using the Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia (FISH). The Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlation between the two scores.
Results
Thirty-nine patients were evaluated. The mean age was 36.8 years. Target joints were detected in 69.2% of patients studied. The mean Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score were 16.87 and 25.64, respectively. Patients with mild hemophilia showed no significant joint involvement. Patients with severe or moderate hemophilia had similar results regarding structural damage (p-value < 0.001) and functional deficits (p-value = 0.001). There was statistical significance in the correlation between the two scores (r = -0.850; p-value = 0.01).
Conclusions
The World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia may be useful to clinically assess structural joint damage and functional deficits in hemophiliacs as the tools are inexpensive and easy to administer and may be able to detect hemophilic arthropathy, which results from recurrent hemarthrosis and is common in the population studied.
doi:10.5581/1516-8484.20130010
PMCID: PMC3621631  PMID: 23580880
Hemophilia A; Hemophilia B; Joint diseases; Disability evaluation; Hemarthrosis
17.  MicroRNA-15b Modulates Molecular Mediators of Blood Induced Arthropathy in Hemophilia Mice 
The development of arthropathy is a major co-morbidity in patients with hemophilia. The present study was designed to study the role of a microRNA biomarker (miR-15b) in the development of joint disease. To investigate the expression profile of miR-15b during the development of arthropathy, we first isolated and studied small RNA from the acute and chronic hemarthrosis model of hemophilia A mice. We observed that miR-15b was consistently repressed (~1- to 4-fold) from the onset of joint bleeding (1, 3, 7 and 24 h) until six bleeding episodes (up to 90 days). To test if reconstitution of miR-15b modulates biomarkers of joint damage in a chronic hemarthrosis model, we administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) 5-miR-15b vector intra-articularly alone or in combination with systemic administration of AAV2-factor VIII. miR-15b overexpression downregulated markers of angiogenesis and hypoxia (vascular epithelial growth factor α (VEGF-α) and hypoxia inducing factor 2α (HIF-2α), ~70% and ~34%, respectively) in the affected joints. In addition, the co-administration of miR-15b and factor VIII vectors reduced the levels of the chondrodegenerative matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 3, 9 and 14 (~14% to 60%) in the injured joints. These data demonstrate for the first time the role of a miR-15b in the development of hemophilic arthropathy and has implications in development of miR based therapies for joint disease.
doi:10.3390/ijms17040492
PMCID: PMC4848948  PMID: 27070581
microRNA; factor VIII; hemophilia A; murine model
18.  The Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and X-Ray in the Evaluation of Response to Radiosynovectomy in Patients with Hemophilic Arthropathy 
Objective: We aimed to assess the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and X-Ray in the evaluation of response to radiosynovectomy (RS) in patients with hemophilic arthropathy.
Material and Methods: Eleven patients who suffered from hemophilic arthropathy with a mean age of 11.7 (range between 7-15) were included in this study. 148-185 MBq Yttrium 90 silicate (Y-90) was administered intraarticularly to ten knee joints and one patient was treated with intraarticular 74 MBq Rhenium 186 (Re-186) injection into his ankle. Before radiosynovectomy, plain anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the target joints were obtained by standard technique. The follow-up MRI and X-ray studies of the patients were done 6 months after RS. Pettersson hemophilic arthropathy scales were utilized to stage the condition of the joints on plain X-ray and classification of the investigated joints on MRI were done according to Denver score. The clinical assessment of the efficacy of the RS was made with the comparison of the average bleedings before and after the intervention.
Results: During the 6-month follow-up period after RS, an improvement in number of hemarthrosis 75% or greater compared with the prior six months occurred in six joints (54.5%). The Pettersson scores worsened in 1/11 (9%), remained unchanged in 9/11 (81.8%), and improved in 1/11 (9%) joints. At the 6-month follow-up, the MRI score worsened in one (9%) and was unchanged in 10/11 joints (90.9%).
Conclusion: MRI is a more sensitive tool than plain radiography for evaluating and follow-up of joint disease in persons with hemophilia, but both methods don’t show correlation with the therapeutic response
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4274/MIRT.25
PMCID: PMC3590945  PMID: 23487524
Radiosynovectomy; hemophilic arthropathy; magnetic resonance imaging; therapy response
19.  Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement 
Introduction
While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of hemophilia, a very high prevalance of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with hemophilia. The current study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of hemophilic mice resulting from hemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology.
Methods
Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint hemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous Factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after hemorrhage. Mice were euthanized two-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging.
Results
Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number, and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci, and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration.
Conclusion
Knee joint hemorrhage resulted in acute changes of adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding.
doi:10.1111/hae.12399
PMCID: PMC4396845  PMID: 24712867
Factor VIII; Hemarthrosis; bone density; Joint degradation; Mineralization; MicroCT
20.  Treatment of Hemophilic Ankle Arthropathy with One-Step Arthroscopic Bone Marrow–Derived Cells Transplantation 
Cartilage  2015;6(3):150-155.
Objective
Ankle arthropathy is a frequent and invalidating manifestation of hemophilia. Arthrodesis is the gold standard surgical procedure in end-stage disease, with many drawbacks in young patients. Recent literature has shown increase interest in regenerative procedures in hemophilic arthropathy, which may be desirable to delay or even avoid arthrodesis. The aim of this article is to present five cases of osteochondral lesions in ankle hemophilic arthropathy treated with a regenerative procedure: bone marrow–derived cells transplantation (BMDCT).
Design
We report five hemophilic patients (four cases with hemophilia type A; one case with hemophilia type B) who have undergone BMDCT treatment, synovectomy, and arthroscopic debridement, with the use of autologous platelet-rich fibrin, to treat osteochondral lesions in hemophilic ankle arthropathy. The patients, included within this retrospective study, were clinically and radiologically evaluated with serial follow-ups, using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores, radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Results
The mean preoperative AOFAS score was 35. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, the mean postoperative AOFAS score was 81, which included three patients returning back to sporting activities. The MRI Mocart score demonstrated signs of regeneration of chondral and bony tissue. No progression of joint degeneration was shown radiographically.
Conclusion
BMDCT is a promising regenerative treatment for osteochondral lesions in mild ankle hemophilic arthropathy, which may be useful to delay or even avoid ankle arthrodesis. Nevertheless, longer follow-ups and a larger case series are required.
doi:10.1177/1947603515574286
PMCID: PMC4481389  PMID: 26175860
ankle; hemophilia; regenerative technique; one-step
21.  Perioperative management of hemophilia patients receiving total hip and knee arthroplasty: a complication report of two cases 
It has been recognized that perioperative hemostasis management after joint-replacement surgery for hemophilia patients is complicated and cumbersome, due to the necessity of rigorous monitoring for clotting-factor levels throughout the infusion. Between 2005 and 2014, we examined seven patients with hemophilia A (ten joints: six hips and four knees) receiving total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) for hemophilic arthropathy. One male patient (31 years old) showed an intra-articular hematoma formation after THA (case 1). In another male patient (46 years old) receiving TKA, the postoperative trough factor VIII level became lower significantly than reference levels (80%–100% for the 5–10 postoperative days) recommended by the guidelines from the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis, despite sufficient coagulant based on the guidelines being administered (case 2). In the latter patient, deep infection and hematoma formation were observed postoperatively. In this article, we provide a detailed clinical report regarding these two complication cases at the early postoperative periods, and the management of bleeding control for hemophilia patients is discussed.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S89816
PMCID: PMC4576891  PMID: 26396523
hemophilia A; arthroplasty; clotting factor VIII levels; hematoma; infection
22.  Comprehensive clinical and statistical analysis of hemophilia in Korea. 
A Total of 498 cases of hemophilia which were reported by sixteen medical centers in Korea were reviewed and analyzed. Hemophilia A comprised 425 cases (85.3%) and the remaining 73 cases (14.7%) were hemophilia B. One case was female and all other cases were male. There were known hemophilia patients in the family in 43.0% of cases and the involved members were brothers, maternal cousins, maternal uncles, and maternal grandfathers in descending order of frequency. The major symptoms of the patients were hemorrhagic, such as easy bruising and hemarthrosis followed by prolonged bleeding after trauma and soft tissue hematoma. The incidence of hemarthrosis increased significantly with age. The pediatric age group below the age of 15 consisted of 67.1% of the cases. According to the age at diagnosis, half (54.2%) of the severe cases were diagnosed before the age of 1 year. APTT was prolonged over 40 seconds in all cases and 291 cases showed severe prolongation over 80 seconds. Of 498 cases 273 cases (54.8%) belonged to the severe form (factor VII or IX level, less then 1%), whereas 182 cases (36.5%) and 43 cases (8.7%) belonged to the moderate (factor VIII or IX, 2-5%) and mild form (factor VIII or IX, 6-25%), respectively, Chronic arthropathy was present in 236 cases (49.6%), and the incidence increased significantly with age. The management of chronic arthropathy most commonly employed was rehabilitation in 25.4% of cases, but in 50.8% no management was given at all. The involved joints in descending order of frequency were knees, elbows and ankles. The complications were intracranial hemorrhage, Gl bleeding and nerve palsy in 48, 24, and 13 cases, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3053653  PMID: 3079565
23.  THE PATHOGENESIS OF HEMOPHILIA  
It has been possible to duplicate in the hemophilic dog four of the major experiments which have suggested in humans an "anticephalin" hypothesis for the pathogenesis of hemophilia. The experiments in the dog have been considerably extended, as compared with the human experiments, by a variety of techniques. I. Asbestos was placed in contact with hemophilic dog plasma, and the clotting time became shorter. When transfused, this plasma had no effect on the defective prothrombin utilization of hemophilic dogs, in contrast to untreated normal plasma. II. The ionic strength of native dog plasma and dog plasma citrated (38 per cent sodium citrate) then recalcified (0.2 M CaCl2) were calculated. The ionic strength of the native plasma was approximately 0.15 while that of the citrated plasma was approximately 0.21. Conductivity and freezing point determinations on the plasmas described above were consistent with the idea that the ionic strength of the citrated plasma was significantly higher. The biphasic dilution curve, to which much significance has been attached in arriving at the "anticephalin" hypothesis, can be produced readily in the dog. Diluting dog plasma with "iso-ionic" or "hyper-ionic" NaCl solution abolished the biphasic phenomenon. Dilution with distilled water exaggerated the biphasic curve. These experiments suggest that the biphasic curve is an artifact of uncontrolled ionic strength. III. The prothrombin utilization rates of undiluted whole hemophilic dog blood and hemophilic dog blood diluted 1:2 with 0.85 per cent NaCl were found to be the same. IV. Ether extraction of both normal and hemophilic dog plasma removed fibrinogen and reduced somewhat the concentration of prothrombin. In treated normal plasma AHF was reduced to the level of untreated hemophilic plasma, thus producing a quasi-hemophilic plasma. Defibrination and ether extraction of both normal and hemophilic dog plasma "generated" clotting activity which shortened the clotting time of hemophilic plasma and was active in the thromboplastin generation test. The activity "generated" by defibrination and ether extraction of dog plasma was adsorbed by a BaSO4 suspension and shown, therefore, not to be the anti-hemophilic factor (AHF). Transfusion of ether-extracted normal or hemophilic dog plasma into hemophilic dogs had no effect on the prothrombin utilization rate, unlike untreated normal plasma which had a marked effect. Thus, four of the main lines of evidence supporting the "anticephalin" hypothesis were duplicated in the dog. However, by extending the experiments it was found that all were explainable on bases other than the presence of "anticephalin." Such an hypothesis is not necessary, therefore, to explain the pathogenesis of canine hemophilia. The apparent identity of hemophilia in the two species suggests that the hypothesis is also not applicable to humans.
PMCID: PMC2136750  PMID: 13449237
24.  Primary prophylaxis in children with haemophilia 
Blood Transfusion  2008;6(Suppl 2):s4-s11.
Starting from the clinical observations that moderate haemophiliacs experienced only few bleeding episodes and rarely developed significant joint deterioration (haemophilic arthropathy), and the pioneer experience in Sweden, prophylaxis (i. e. the regular and long-term administration of clotting factor concentrate in order to prevent bleeding) has been practiced for more than forty years in severe haemophilia and is currently recommended as the first choice of treatment by the World Health Organisation and World Federation of Hemophilia and by many national medical/scientific organizations. Observational studies clearly established the superiority of prophylaxis over on-demand treatment in reducing the risk of arthropathy, also showing that starting prophylaxis earlier in life and after very few joint bleeds was associated with better joint outcomes, and led to the current definitions of primary (started before the age of 2 yrs and after no more than one joint bleed) and secondary prophylaxis. More recently, evidences from randomized trials, which were previously lacking in this setting, were also provided.
This review summarizes available data from which current clinical practice of primary (and early secondary) prophylaxis in children with severe haemophilia was drawn. Open issues concerning optimal regimens and barriers to the implementation of prophylaxis are also discussed.
doi:10.2450/2008.0030-08
PMCID: PMC2652217  PMID: 19105503
bleeding; children; haemophilia; prophylaxis; treatment
25.  Diagnostic evaluation of our patients with hemophilia A: 17-year experience 
Aim:
Hemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder resulting from factor VIII deficiency and is a group of diseases characterized by intra-articular and intramuscular bleeding. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the treatment outcomes, demographic and clinical characteristics of our patients who were treated and followed up for last 17 years in our pediatric hematology unit with a diagnosis of Hemophilia A.
Material and Methods:
The medical records of 83 patients who were diagnosed with Hemophilia A and followed up between 1997 and 2014 in our hospital’s pediatric hematology clinic were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic data, prophylaxis state, development of inhibitors and clinical characteristics of the patients were evaluated.
Results:
When the complaints at presentation were examined, it was found that 27 (32%) patients had hemarthrosis, 24 (29%) patients had ecchymosis and hematoma, 13 (16%) patients had prolonged bleeding after trauma or cut, 10 (12%) patients had gingival, mouth or nose bleeding, 4 (5%) patients had prolonged bleeding after circumcision, 4 (5%) patients had gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 (1%) patient had hematuria. Fifty (60%) patients were considered severe hemophilia A, 20 (24%) patients were considered moderate hemophilia A and 13 (16%) patients were considered mild hemophilia A according to factor activity. Among severe hemophilia A patients, primary prophylaxis was being administered in 2 (2%) patients and secondary prophylaxis was being administered in 40 (48%) patients. Inhibitor positivity was found in 8 (10%) of these patients. It is found that hemophilic artropathy developed in 17 patients and 8 of these 17 patients had undergone radioisotope synovectomy.
Conclusions:
Treatment of severe bleeding in hemophilia A patients should be performed in hospital and the presence of inhibitor must be investigated in cases of uncontrolled bleeding where adequate doses of factor concentrates have been administered for treatment. In order to decrease the development of inhibitor, prophlaxis should be suggested to patients rather than repetetive treatment when bleeding occurs. The radioactive synovectomy should not be overlooked in countries like ours in which factors can not be used adequately.
doi:10.5152/tpa.2015.2516
PMCID: PMC4523992  PMID: 26265893
Bleeding; hemophilia; inhibitor

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