We report on the validation and implementation of the HumanCytoSNP-12 array (Illumina) (HCS) in prenatal diagnosis. In total, 64 samples were used to validate the Illumina platform (20 with a known (sub) microscopic chromosome abnormality, 5 with known maternal cell contamination (MCC) and 39 normal control samples). There were no false-positive or false-negative results. In addition to the diagnostic possibilities of arrayCGH, the HCS allows detection of regions of homozygosity (ROH), triploidy and helps recognising MCC. Moreover, in two cases of MCC, a deletion was correctly detected. Furthermore we found out that only about 50 ng of DNA is required, which allows a reporting time of only 3 days. We also present a prospective pilot study of 61 fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities and a normal karyotype tested with HCS. In 4 out of 61 (6.5%) fetuses, a clinically relevant abnormality was detected. We designed and present pre-test genetic counselling information on categories of possible test outcomes. On the basis of this information, about 90% of the parents chose to be informed about adverse health outcomes of their future child at infancy and childhood, and 55% also about outcomes at an adult stage. The latter issue regarding the right of the future child itself to decide whether or not to know this information needs to be addressed.
genomic SNP array; rapid genomic array testing; whole-genome screening; pre-test genetic counselling; prenatal diagnosis
While lenalidomide (LEN) shows high efficacy in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with del[5q], responses can be also seen in patients presenting without del[5q]. We hypothesized that improved detection of chromosomal abnormalities with new karyotyping tools may better predict response to LEN.
Design and methods
We have studied clinical, molecular and cytogenetic features of 42 patients with MDS, myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), MDS/MPN overlap syndromes and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) without del[5q] by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) who underwent therapy with LEN.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping marginally increased the diagnostic yield over MC, detecting 2/42 (4.8%) additional cases with del[5q], one of whom were responded to LEN. Responses were more often observed in patients with a normal karyotype by MC (60% vs abnormal MC; 17%, p = .08) and those with gain of chromosome 8 material by either of all 3 karyotyping methods (83% vs all other chromosomal abnormalities; 44% p = .11). However, 5 out of those 6 patients received combined LEN/AZA therapy and it may also suggest those with gain of chromosome 8 material respond well to AZA. The addition of FISH or SNP-A did not improve the predictive value of normal cytogenetics by MC. Mutational analysis of TET2, UTX, CBL, EZH2, ASXL1, TP53, RAS, IDH1/2, and DNMT-3A was performed on 21 of 41 patients, and revealed 13 mutations in 11 patients, but did not show any molecular markers of responsiveness to LEN.
Normal karyotype and gain of chromosome 8 material was predictive of response to LEN in non-del[5q] patients with myeloid malignancies.
Lenalidomide; del[5q]; Metaphase cytogenetics; Fluorescence in situ hybridization; Single nucleotide polymorphism array
Near-tetraploid (model #81-103) and near-triploid (model #67-81) karyotypes are found in around 1% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Due to its rarity, these two cytogenetic subgroups are generally included in the hyperdiploid group (model # > 51). Therefore separate informations about these two subgroups are limited to a few reports. Some studies found that near-tetraploidy is relatively more frequent in higher median ages and it is associated to Frech-American-British Classification subtype L2. Although the mechanisms by which leukemic blast cells divide is still unclear, studies have suggested that hyperdiploidy, near-triploidy and near-tetraploidy do not seem to share the same mechanism.
Herewith, we present a new childhood T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia case of near-tetraploid karyotype with loss of two p53-gene copies, characterized in detail by cytogenetic and molecular studies.
We suggest that p53 is a good target gene to be screened, once p53 is one of the main effectors of cell cycle checkpoints.
T-ALL; childhood; near-tetraploidy
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematological disease close to, but separate from both myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and myelodysplastic syndromes and may show either myeloproliferative (MP-CMML) or myelodysplastic (MD-CMML) features. Not much is known about the molecular biology of this disease.
We studied a series of 30 CMML samples (13 MP- and 11 MD-CMMLs, and 6 acutely transformed cases) from 29 patients by using Agilent high density array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and sequencing of 12 candidate genes.
Two-thirds of samples did not show any obvious alteration of aCGH profiles. In one-third we observed chromosome abnormalities (e.g. trisomy 8, del20q) and gain or loss of genes (e.g. NF1, RB1 and CDK6). RAS mutations were detected in 4 cases (including an uncommon codon 146 mutation in KRAS) and PTPN11 mutations in 3 cases. We detected 11 RUNX1 alterations (9 mutations and 2 rearrangements). The rearrangements were a new, cryptic inversion of chromosomal region 21q21-22 leading to break and fusion of RUNX1 to USP16. RAS and RUNX1 alterations were not mutually exclusive. RAS pathway mutations occurred in MP-CMMLs (~46%) but not in MD-CMMLs. RUNX1 alterations (mutations and cryptic rearrangement) occurred in both MP and MD classes (~38%).
We detected RAS pathway mutations and RUNX1 alterations. The latter included a new cryptic USP16-RUNX1 fusion. In some samples, two alterations coexisted already at this early chronic stage.
Gliomas that aggregate in families with history of malignancy may have an inheritable genetic basis. Gliomas can occur in several well known tumor syndromes. However, their occurrence in the absence of these syndromes is quite rare. High-grade gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most common and most lethal primary cancers of the central nervous system (CNS).
We present a case of two brothers both diagnosed with GBM. Both siblings underwent biopsy with debulking of the tumors by different surgeons. Only one sibling elected to undergo chemotherapy and radiation. Cytogenetic studies were possible only on one sibling and the tumor specimen revealed multiple chromosomal abnormalities, including triploidies 4, 8, 12, 22 and loss of heterozygosity of 1p, 9p, and 10. Histological samples for both tumors were similar, both revealing increased cellularity consisting of gemistocytic astrocytes, central necrosis, and microvascularization.
We present two brothers who display a rare familial relationship in the development of their GBMs. Supplementary and improved genetic studies may allow for specific treatment modalities as certain genetic abnormalities have better response to tailored treatments and carry better prognoses.
Familial glioma; genetic; loss of heterogenecity; glioblastoma
We report six persons mosaic for a chromosome anomaly. All were mentally retarded and dysmorphic. Unilateral or asymmetrical features were found in all cases, in one an unusual transverse terminal limb anomaly, and in the others various degrees of hemiatrophy of the left side of the body. Five of the subjects had skin pigmentary anomalies which were distributed in the lines of Blaschko. The abnormal cell lines found were ring chromosome 22, trisomy 22, a large acrocentric marker, a deletion of 18q, a deletion of 8q, and triploidy. In four cases the clinical diagnosis was only confirmed by skin biopsy. In one case low level mosaicism in blood was fortuitously detected because of cytogenetic fragile X screening and confirmed in a skin biopsy. The sixth case was of dynamic mosaicism of a non-mosaic deletion 18q with a chromosome 18 derived marker present in a proportion of cells. Chromosome mosaicisn may cause subtle and asymmetrical clinical features and can require repeated cytogenetic investigations. The diagnosis should be actively sought as it enables accurate genetic counselling to be given.
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE.
Holoprosencephaly; HPE; Chromosome Anomalies; Trisomy; Triploidy
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a well known genetic condition caused by a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. The great variability in the extent of the 4p deletion and the possible contribution of additional genetic rearrangements lead to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. The majority of the reports of prenatally diagnosed WHS cases are associated with large 4p deletions identified by conventional chromosome analysis; however, the widespread clinical use of novel molecular techniques such as array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) has increased the detection rate of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations associated with WHS phenotype. We provide a report of two fetuses with WHS presenting with intrauterine growth restriction as an isolated finding or combined with oligohydramnios and abnormal Doppler waveform in umbilical artery and uterine arteries. Standard karyotyping demonstrated a deletion on chromosome 4 in both cases [del(4)(p15.33) and del(4)(p15.31), respectively] and further application of a-CGH confirmed the diagnosis and offered a precise characterization of the genetic defect. A detailed review of the currently available literature on the prenatal diagnostic approach of WHS in terms of fetal sonographic assessment and molecular cytogenetic investigation is also provided.
4p- syndrome; Comparative genomic hybridization array; "Greek warrior" helmet profile; Fluorescent situ hybridization; Prenatal diagnosis; Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome
Cytogenetic aberrations identified by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) have important diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic roles in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) complements MC by the ability to evaluate large numbers of both interphase and metaphase nuclei. However, clinically practical FISH strategies are limited to detection of known lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping can reveal unbalanced defects with superior resolution over MC and FISH and identify segmental uniparental disomy (UPD) undetectable by either method. Using a standardized approach, we focused our investigation on detection of -5/del(5q), -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and del(20q) in patients with MDS (N=52), MDS/myeloproliferative overlap syndromes (N=7) and acute myeloid leukemia (N=15) using MC, FISH and SNP-A karyotyping. The detection rate for del(5q) was 30%, 32% and 32% by MC, FISH, and SNP-A, respectively. No single method detected all defects, and detection rates improved when all methods were used. The rate for detection of del(5q) increased incrementally to 35% (MC+FISH), 38% (MC+SNP-A), 38% (FISH+SNP-A) and 39% (all 3 methods). Similar findings were observed for -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and -20/del(20q). We conclude that MC, FISH and SNP-A are complementary techniques that, when applied and interpreted together, can improve the diagnostic yield for identifying genetic lesions in MDS and contribute to the better description of abnormal karyotypes.
MDS; FISH; metaphase cytogenetics; SNP arrays
The introduction of prenatal screening requires rapid high-throughput diagnosis of common aneuploidies. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) allows for quick, easily automated multiplex testing of these aneuploidies in one polymerase chain reaction. We performed a large prospective study using MLPA on 4000 amniotic fluid (AF) samples including all indications and compared its value to karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MLPA can reliably determine common aneuploidies with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Moreover, some mosaic cases and structural chromosome aberrations were detected as well. In cases of a male fetus, triploidies can be detected by an aberrant pattern of probe signals, which mimics maternal cell contamination (MCC). Macroscopic blood contamination was encountered in 3.2% of the AF samples. In 20% of these samples, an MLPA pattern was found consistent with MCC, although there were no false negatives of the most common aneuploidies. As the vast majority of inconclusive results (1.7%) is due to potential MCC, we designed a protocol in which we determine whether MLPA can be performed on blood-contaminated AF samples by testing if blood is of fetal origin. Then, the number of inconclusive results could be theoretically reduced to 0.05%. We propose an alternative interpretation of relative probe signals for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis (RAD). We discuss the value of MLPA for the detection of (submicroscopic) structural chromosome anomalies. MLPA is a reliable method that can replace FISH and could be used as a stand-alone test for RAD instead of karyotyping.
MLPA; rapid aneuploidy diagnosis; chromosomal mosaicism; maternal cell contamination; copy number variations
The myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell diseases characterized by cytopenia(s), dysplasia in one or more of the major myeloid cell lines, ineffective hematopoiesis, and increased risk of development of acute myeloid leukemia. The classification and the diagnostic criteria have been redefined by the recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors – International Agency for Research on Cancer for Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. The myelodysplastic syndromes are now classified into the following categories – refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with excess blasts, myelodysplastic syndrome associated with isolated del (5q), myelodysplastic syndrome – unclassifiable, and childhood myelodysplastic syndrome. The clinicopathologic features, morphology, differential diagnosis, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, prognosis and predictive factors are presented in the light of recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors – International Agency for Research on Cancer.
myelodysplastic syndromes; leukemia
The clinical manifestations and cytogenetic details of five patients with a de novo deletion of the short arm of chromosome 8, del(8)(p23), are described. Of the four surviving children all had mild mental retardation and subtle facial anomalies; three of the five had cardiac abnormalities. The clinical features seen in these patients are compared with those of three previous single case reports with del(8)(p23), and with patients described as having the '8p-' syndrome associated with del(8)(p21). The findings in these patients suggest that major congenital anomalies, especially congenital heart defects, are frequent even in small distal 8p deletions, but facial dysmorphism may be subtle and mental retardation less severe than in those with deletions associated with more proximal breakpoints. The five patients were detected within a four year period, suggesting that this deletion syndrome is relatively frequent. The possible mechanisms for the formation of terminal deletions are discussed.
We document high rates of triploidy in aspen (Populus tremuloides) across the western USA (up to 69% of genets), and ask whether the incidence of triploidy across the species range corresponds with latitude, glacial history (as has been documented in other species), climate, or regional variance in clone size. Using a combination of microsatellite genotyping, flow cytometry, and cytology, we demonstrate that triploidy is highest in unglaciated, drought-prone regions of North America, where the largest clone sizes have been reported for this species. While we cannot completely rule out a low incidence of undetected aneuploidy, tetraploidy or duplicated loci, our evidence suggests that these phenomena are unlikely to be significant contributors to our observed patterns. We suggest that the distribution of triploid aspen is due to a positive synergy between triploidy and ecological factors driving clonality. Although triploids are expected to have low fertility, they are hypothesized to be an evolutionary link to sexual tetraploidy. Thus, interactions between clonality and polyploidy may be a broadly important component of geographic speciation patterns in perennial plants. Further, cytotypes are expected to show physiological and structural differences which may influence susceptibility to ecological factors such as drought, and we suggest that cytotype may be a significant and previously overlooked factor in recent patterns of high aspen mortality in the southwestern portion of the species range. Finally, triploidy should be carefully considered as a source of variance in genomic and ecological studies of aspen, particularly in western U.S. landscapes.
Amniocentesis was carried out at 17 weeks gestation in a 27-year-old woman, following an abnormal maternal serum screening (MSS) test. MSS test was carried out primarily to estimate the risk of trisomy for chromosome 21. The maternal serum markers used were alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and unconjugated estriol (uE3), together with maternal age. The fetus was identified as screen-positive for Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18), with low uE3, normal AFP and hCG levels. The calculated risk for trisomy 18 was more than 1:50. To identify any possible chromosomal abnormality, cytogenetic investigation was carried out on the amniotic fluid sample. The fetus’s karyotype showed triploidy with 69, XXX chromosome complement in all the metaphase spreads obtained from three different cultures, using GTG banding technique. Upon termination of the fetus, gross abnormalities indicative of triploidy were present in the fetus.
Abnormal maternal serum screening test; prenatal diagnosis; triploidy
The pleomorphic cytology of the HT-1 cell line is described. Cytochemical studies indicated the presence of glycogen and lysosomes in these cells. Cytogenetic studies demonstrated the presence of a large telocentric chromosome (M1) and two minute chromosomes (M2) not found in normal hamster cells. A cloned line was isolated which did not contain these marker chromosomes. All cells were hyperdiploid with chromosome number around triploidy, although none was a true triploid. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of “nuclear bodies”, “dense bodies” and “interchromatinic granules” which have been previously described in viral induced malignancies. A few of the cells contained in their cytoplasm structures of approximately 700 [unk] in diameter which bore some resemblance to immature virus particles. Both light and electron microscopy demonstrated some nuclei lacking chromatin aggregates. This is interpreted to mean that the total genetic material of these nuclei was dispersed as free DNA not linked with histone to form chromatin aggregates.
Chromosomal deletions are common molecular events in myeloid malignancies. Heterozygous deletions may contain a tumor suppressor gene that undergoes homozygous inactivation or may contain one or more genes that alter the disease phenotype through haploinsufficiency. The most common karyotypic abnormalitity in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is deletion of chromosome 5q. A subset of patients with del(5q) as a sole cytogenetic abnormality have a consistent set of clinical features, termed the 5q- syndrome. While no tumor suppressor genes have been identified on 5q that are homozygously inactivated, recent studies have highlighted several genes and micro RNAs (miRNAs) that cause the phenotype of the 5q- syndrome through allelic insufficiency. For example, deletion of one allele of the RPS14 gene causes a severe defect in erythropoiesis, analogous to the congenital syndrome Diamond Blackfan anemia, which is itself caused by mutations that inactivate one allele of a ribosomal gene. Loss of one allele of miR-145 and miR-146a causes an increase in megakaryocyte production and may contribute to the clonal advantage of cells with del(5q). The functional approaches used to dissect the molecular basis of the 5q deletion in MDS have the potential to identify key genes and therapeutic targets within other chromosomal deletions in hematologic malignancies.
myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); 5q deletion; 5q-; haploinsufficiency; RPS14; p53; miR-145; Diamond Blackfan anemia
Fifty-four abortuses from women who conceived within six months of discontinuing oral contraceptives were collected over a 2½-year period. Chromosome analysis of the abortuses showed an increase in triploidy which was highly significant statistically when compared with a control series. Triploidy is virtually always lethal early in embryonic life. Tetraploidy was also increased, but the numbers were too small for analysis. The chromosome disorders which are compatible with livebirth (trisomy and X-monosomy) were not increased in the post-oral-contraceptive abortuses. It is suggested that there is a temporary hormonal imbalance in some women after they discontinue oral contraceptives. This could affect the timing of fertilization. Triploidy could arise at the first or second meiotic division of the ovum or at fertilization. Abortuses are a valuable source of information relating to congenital defects.
Concurrent hematologic malignancies are relatively rare. We encountered a case of concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and T lymphoblastic lymphoma. The bone marrow chromosome analysis showed the karyotype 46, XY, t(5;12)(q33;p13), which indicated presence of PDGFRB gene translocations. Therefore, this disease belongs to the new WHO category of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with abnormalities in PDGFRA, PDGFRB and FGFR1 genes. Although such genetic mutations are prone to multi-lineage differentiation, the present case is in fact the first report of concurrent AML and T lymphoblastic lymphoma involving PDGFRB mutations. The patient was treated with cytarabine and daunomycin in combination with high dose dexamethasone. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed after successful remission induction for both entities. The patient eventually died of chronic graft-versus-host-disease related infection. Based on such an experience, we suggest the decision of stem cell transplantation should be weighed carefully against the risks, especially when tyrosine kinase inhibitors are safe and potentially effective in dealing with such entities.
Acute myeloid leukemia; T lymphoblastic lymphoma; PDGFR genes; Chromosomal translocation; Transplantation
Two types of acquired loss of heterozygosity are possible in cancer: deletions and copy-neutral uniparental disomy (UPD). Conventionally, copy number losses are identified using metaphase cytogenetics while detection of UPD is accomplished by microsatellite and copy number analysis and as such, is not often used clinically. Recently, introduction of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays have allowed for the systematic and sensitive detection of UPD in hematological malignancies and other cancers. In this study, we have applied 250K SNP array technology to detect previously cryptic chromosomal changes, particularly UPD, in a cohort of 301 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), overlap MDS/myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), MPD, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We show that UPD is a common chromosomal defect in myeloid malignancies, particularly in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML; 48%) and MDS/MPD-unclassifiable (38%). Furthermore, we demonstrate that mapping minimally overlapping segmental UPD regions can help target the search for both known and unknown pathogenic mutations, including newly identified missense mutations in the proto-oncogene c-Cbl in 7/12 patients with UPD11q. Acquired mutations of c-Cbl E3 ubiquitin ligase may explain the pathogenesis of a clonal process in a subset of MDS/MPD, including CMML.
Prognosis is known to be better in cases with isolated chromosomal abnormalities than in those with complex karyotypes. Accordingly, del(20q) as an isolated abnormality must be distinguished from cases in which it is associated with other chromosomal rearrangements for a better stratification of prognosis. We report a case of an isolated del(20q) abnormality with additional genomic aberrations identified using whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping. A 39-yr-old man was diagnosed with AML without maturation. Metaphase cytogenetic analysis (MC) revealed del(20)(q11.2) as the isolated abnormality in 100% of metaphase cells analyzed, and FISH analysis using D20S108 confirmed the 20q deletion in 99% of interphase cells. Using FISH, other rearrangements such as BCR/ABL1, RUNX1/RUNX1T1, PML/RARA, CBFB/MYH11, and MLL were found to be negative. SNP-A identified an additional copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) in the 11q13.1-q25 region. Furthermore, SNP-A allowed for a more precise definition of the breakpoints of the 20q deletion (20q11.22-q13.31). Unexpectedly, the terminal regions showed gain on chromosome 20q. The patient did not achieve complete remission; 8 months later, he died from complications of leukemic cell infiltrations into the central nervous system. This study suggests that a presumably isolated chromosomal abnormality by MC may have additional genomic aberrations, including CN-LOH, which could be associated with a poor prognosis. SNP-A-based karyotyping may be helpful for distinguishing true isolated cases from cases in combination with additional genomic aberrations not detected by MC.
Deletion; Chromosome 20; Isolated; AML; Cytogenetics; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Array
This is a case report of a previously undescribed 20q chromosomal deletion (del(20q)) in marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). A 54-year-old Caucasian male presented with an enlarging neck mass and multiple violaceous skin nodules over his chest. Biopsy of the neck mass and cervical lymph nodes revealed MZL. Cytogenetic evaluation of both lymph node and bone marrow tissue revealed del(20q). This was an unexpected finding, as del(20q) is associated with myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms and rarely seen in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and T-cell lymphoma, but has not previously been described in MZL. We describe the case presentation and histologic findings and discuss the significance of this novel finding.
Trisomy 14 is a rare recurrent cytogenetic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms; however, its clinicopathologic features have not been well described. We report the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic features of 16 cases of myeloid neoplasms with isolated trisomy 14. Our results show that cases with isolated trisomy 14 encompass a heterogenous group of myeloid neoplasms including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 44%), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (31%), and acute myeloid leukemia (25%). The patients are usually elder (median age 71 years), and there is a male predominance (82%). Multilineage dysplasia is noted in all cases. Oncogenic mutations of genes involved in cell proliferation and/or survival rarely occur. Compared with cases of MDS with diploid karyotype, patients of MDS with isolated trisomy 14 demonstrate a similar overall survival and rate of leukemia transformation.
Treatment options for patients with lower risk non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who fail erythroid stimulating agents are restricted to one of the hypomethylating drugs with an expected response rate of ~50%. Ezatiostat HCl, an agent with the potential for producing multi-lineage responses in this population is currently in clinical investigation phase. This case report describes a 77 year old male who received less than two cycles of therapy with ezatiostat HCl which had to be aborted due to intolerable side effects, but which produced a sustained normalization of all three blood counts. This trilineage response has now lasted for more than a year. Interestingly, the patient began with a del(5q) abnormality and responded briefly to lenalidomide. Upon relapse of the anemia, a bone marrow showed the disappearance of the del(5q) but the appearance of a new clonal abnormality t(2;3). Given that the patient had a complete cytogenetic response to a truncated exposure to lenalidomide followed by a trilineage response to an even briefer course of ezatiostat HCl suggests a potential role for ezatiostat HCl in del(5q) patients who relapse following lenalidomide.
Overgrowth syndromes are a heterogeneous group of conditions including endocrine hormone disorders, several genetic syndromes and other disorders with unknown etiopathogenesis. Among genetic causes, chromosomal deletions and duplications such as dup(4)(p16.3), dup(15)(q26qter), del(9)(q22.32q22.33), del(22)(q13) and del(5)(q35) have been identified in patients with overgrowth. Most of them, however, remain undetectable using banding karyotype analysis. In this study, we report on the analysis using a 1-Mb resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of 93 patients with either a recognizable overgrowth condition (ie, Sotos syndrome or Weaver syndrome) or an unclassified overgrowth syndrome. Five clinically relevant imbalances (three duplications and two deletions) were identified and the pathogenicity of two additional anomalies (one duplication and one deletion) is discussed. Altered segments ranged in size from 0.32 to 18.2 Mb, and no recurrent abnormality was identified. These results show that array-CGH provides a high diagnostic yield in patients with overgrowth syndromes and point to novel chromosomal regions associated with these conditions. Although chromosomal deletions are usually associated with growth retardation, we found that the majority of the imbalances detected in our patients are duplications. Besides their importance for diagnosis and genetic counseling, our results may allow to delineate new contiguous gene syndromes associated with overgrowth, pointing to new genes, the deregulation of which may be responsible for growth defect.
array-CGH; overgrowth disorders; oncogenes; chromosome imbalance; tumor-suppressor genes
Females carry a better prognosis than men for many cancer types. We hypothesized that chromosomal changes, in particular numerical alterations of the sex chromosomes or the presence of near-triploidy may contribute to these gender differences.
To characterize the influence of gender a literature search was performed for survival data of 27 tumor types. All entities were categorized by the strength of evidence for differences in survival between females and males. To test our hypothesis the Mitelman database of chromosomal alterations was evaluated for the major tumor types occurring in both women and men. Numerical gonosome alterations were documented and mean chromosome numbers were converted into histograms to provide insight into the ploidy level of 37 cancer types.
In general, a survival advantage of women could be shown for most, but not all cancer types. In addition, 36.859 karyograms were analyzed. Numerical gonosome alterations were more frequent in males than females indicating a potential link with gender differences in survival. Neartriploidy was a common phenomenon in many cancer types suggesting that it represents a metastable condition of the cancer genome. It was not related to gender differences in survival. However, the extent of triploidy and aneuploidy was associated with poor prognosis in carcinomas. There was no single case in the Mitelman database with normal chromosome number (n = 46) that did not carry at least one structural or numerical aberration.
Our study highlights the importance of chromosomal changes in tumor formation and progression. In addition, it suggests potential associations with gender specific differences in survival.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13402-011-0013-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Gender; Aneuploidy; Chromosomal chaos; Prognosis