Postoperative intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a frequent occurrence in critically ill patients operated on for severe abdominal trauma, secondary peritonitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. IAH may progress to abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with new-onset organ dysfunction. Early recognition of IAH and interventions that prevent the development of ACS may preserve vital organ functions and increase the probability of survival. The best method to prevent postoperative ACS is to leave the abdomen open during the operation. The decision to leave the abdomen open is usually based on the surgeon's judgment without intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements during the operation. Because significant morbidity and mortality are associated with the open abdomen, the measurement of IAP immediately after the fascial closure, when feasible, could offer an objective method for determining the optimal IAP threshold for leaving the abdomen open. The management of the open abdomen requires a temporary abdominal closure (TAC) system that would ideally prevent the development of ACS and facilitate later primary fascia closure. Among several TAC systems, the most promising are those that provide negative pressure to the wound or continuous fascial traction or both.
The last several decades have seen many advances in the recognition and prevention of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and its precursor, intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). There has also been a relative explosion of knowledge in the critical care, trauma, and surgical populations, and the inception of a society dedicated to its understanding, the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS). However, there has been almost no recognition or appreciation of the potential presence, influence, and management of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), IAH, and ACS in pregnancy. This review highlights the importance and relevance of IAP in the critically ill parturient, the current lack of normative IAP values in pregnancy today, along with a review of the potential relationship between IAH and maternal diseases such as preeclampsia-eclampsia and its potential impact on fetal development. Finally, current IAP measurement guidelines are questioned, as they do not take into account the gravid uterus and its mechanical impact on intra-vesicular pressure.
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; pregnancy; preeclampsia-eclampsia.
Several decades ago, the beneficial effects of goal-directed therapy, which include decompressive laparotomy (DL) and open abdomen procedures in cases of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in children, were proven in the context of closures of abdominal wall defects and large-for-size organ transplantations. Different neonatologic and pediatric disease patterns are also known to be capable of increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Nevertheless, a considerable knowledge transfer regarding such risk factors has hardly taken place. When left undetected and untreated, IAH threatens to evolve into abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), which is accompanied by a mortality rate of up to 60% in children. Therefore, the present study looks at the recognition and knowledge of IAH/ACS among German pediatric intensivists.
In June 2010, a questionnaire was mailed to the heads of pediatric intensive care units of 205 German pediatric hospitals.
The response rate was 62%. At least one case of IAH was reported by 36% of respondents; at least one case of ACS, by 25%. Compared with adolescents, younger critically ill children appeared to develop IAH/ACS more often. Routine measurements of IAP were said to be performed by 20% of respondents. Bladder pressure was used most frequently (96%) to assess IAP. Some respondents (17%) only measured IAP in cases of organ dysfunction and failure. In 2009, the year preceding this study, 21% of respondents claimed to have performed a DL. Surgical decompression was indicated if signs of organ dysfunction were present. This was also done in cases of at least grade III IAH (IAP > 15 mmHg) without organ impairment.
Although awareness among pediatricians appears to have been increasing over the last decade, definitions and guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of IAH/ACS are not applied uniformly. This variability could express an ever present lack of awareness and solid prospective data.
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; children; intensive care unit; questionnaire; decompressive laparotomy.
Studies have documented the impact of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on virtually every organ. However, it still remains strangely underdiagnosed. The aims of the study were to assess, in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy, whether intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, to evaluate the effects of IAH, and to identify hidden cases of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Materials and Methods:
The study comprised
197 patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. IAP was measured preoperatively and then postoperatively at 0, 6, and 24 hours. Duration of hospital stay, occurrence of burst abdomen, and mortality were noted as outcomes.
At admission, incidence of IAH was 80%. No significant association was found between IAP and occurrence of burst abdomen (P > 0.1). IAP was found to be a significant predictor of mortality in patients undergoing laparotomy (P < 0.001). Elevated IAP was found to affect all the organ systems adversely. The incidence of post-op ACS was 3.05% in the general population and 13.16% in trauma patients. The mortality rate for this subgroup was 100%.
IAP is a significant predictor of mortality in patients undergoing laparotomy. IAH has detrimental effects on various organ systems. A more frequent monitoring with prompt decompression may be helpful in decreasing the mortality rate. Further studies are required to establish a screening protocol in patients undergoing laparotomy to detect and manage cases of IAH and ACS.
Abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal hypertension; intra-abdominal pressure
Although the World Society for Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in its guidelines recommends midaxillary line (MAL) as zero reference level in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements in aiming at standardizing the technique, evidence supporting this suggestion is scarce. The aim of this study is to study if the zero reference position influences bladder pressure measurements as estimate for IAP.
The IAP of 100 surgical patients was measured during the first 24 h of admission to the surgical intensive care unit of General Calixto Garcia Hospital in Havana (Cuba) following laparotomy. The period was January 2009 to January 2010. The IAP was measured twice with a six-hour interval using the transurethral technique with a priming volume of 25 ml. IAP was first measured with the zero reference level placed at MAL (IAPMAL), followed by a second measurement at the level of the symphysis pubis (SP) after 3 minutes (IAPSP). Correlations were made between IAP and body mass index (BMI), type of surgery, gender, and age.
Mean IAPMAL was 8.5 ± 2.8 mmHg vs. IAPSP 6.5 ± 2.8 mmHg (p < 0.0001). The bias between measurements was 2.0 ± 1.5, 95% confidence interval of 1.4 to 3.0, upper limit of 4.9, lower limit of -0.9, and a percentage error of 35.1%. IAPMAL was consistently higher than IAPSP regardless of the type of surgery. The BMI correlated with IAP values regardless of the zero reference level (R2 = 0.4 and 0.3 with IAPMAL and IAPSP respectively, p < 0.0001).
The zero reference level has an important impact on IAP measurement in surgical patients after laparotomy and can potentially lead to over or underestimation. Further anthropometric studies are needed with regard to the relative MAL and SP zero reference position in relation to the theoretical ideal reference level at midpoint of the abdomen. Until better evidence is available, MAL remains the recommended zero reference position due to its best anatomical localization at iliac crest.
intra-abdominal pressure; measurement; bladder pressure; zero reference; midaxillary line; symphysis pubis; laparotomy.
To compare and contrast the pathophysiology of ovarian hyperstimualtion syndrome (OHSS) with known syndromes of increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and to explore the relationship of increased IAP with symptom severity in OHSS.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Correlation of OHSS symptoms with IAP; effects of paracentesis on IAP in patients with OHSS.
Academic Research Institution.
OHSS involves a rapid accumulation of volume (from 1.5–17 liters) in the peritoneal cavity that can lead to organ dysfunction, including respiratory impairment and oliguria. In published reports of 20 moderate-to-severe OHSS patients in whom IAP was measured, IAP was found to be elevated to a pathologic range. The increased IAP indicates that OHSS may be considered a compartment syndrome and meets criteria for abdominal compartment syndrome in advanced cases. For this reason, management of OHSS should include reduction of pressure by paracentesis to avoid morbidity and syndrome progression. In addition, measurement of IAP may help to classify the stage of OHSS.
IAP was found to be elevated in the few cases of OHSS in which it was measured, substantiating the conclusion that OHSS may be considered a compartment syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology of increased intrabdominal pressure is useful in the management of OHSS.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS); abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); intraabdominal pressure (IAP); intraabdominal hypertension (IAH); paracentesis
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome associated with multi-system effects of elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in critically ill children. It has a 90-100% mortality rate if not recognized and treated promptly. Measuring IAP helps identify patients developing intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which allows for timely intervention before progression to ACS. IAP helps identify ACS and guides its medical and surgical management. IAP is often measured by the bedside nurse in the intensive care unit. Pediatric critical care nurses (PCCN) play a key role in managing critically ill patients and recognizing potential causes for clinical deterioration such as ACS therefore should be knowledgeable about this entity.
The aim of this study was to assess the awareness and current knowledge of ACS among PCCN.
A ten-item written questionnaire was distributed at a National Critical Care Conference in 2006 and again in 2010. Participants of the conference voluntarily completed and immediately returned the survey. Results from the two questionnaires were compared.
Sixty-two percent of 691 questionnaires were completed. The awareness of ACS improved from 69.3% in 2006 to 87.8% in 2010 (p < 0.001) among PCCN. "Years in practice" influenced awareness of ACS. Nurses working for 5-10 and > 10 years were, respectively, 2.34 and 1.89 times more likely to be aware of ACS than those working for < 5 years. Hands-on experience managing a child with ACS by PCCN also improved from 49.1% to 67.9% (p < 0.001) but remains low. The number of participants who never measured IAP fell from 27.3% to 19.1% (p = 0.101). The most common method being used to measure IAP is the bladder method. Knowledge of the definition of ACS remains poor with only 13.2% associating the definition of ACS with organ dysfunction in 2010 which was even lower than in 2006.
There is increasing awareness of ACS and experience in its management among PCCN. However, few PCCN correctly understand the definition of ACS. Since recognition of IAH and early intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, further educational efforts should be directed toward improving the knowledge and recognition of ACS by PCCN.
critical care; nurses; abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal; pressure.
An increase in abdominal pressure can lead to so-called intra–abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Multiple factors such as an increase in retroperitoneal volume due to pancreatitis, bleeding and edema as a result of pelvic fracture can lead to compartment syndrome. Prevention is better than cure in compartment syndrome. By measuring the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) through the bladder, a quick and accurate assessment of abdominal pressure is achieved. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between pelvic fracture and ACS in traumatic patients.
Materials and Methods:
This research was a descriptive–analytical study conducted on 100 patients referring to the Shiraz Nemazee Hospital in 2010. IAP was monitored every 4 h in patients suspected to be at high risk for ACS, e.g., those undergoing severe abdominal trauma and pelvic fracture. The IAP was measured via the urinary bladder using the procedure described by Kron et al. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS software.
The findings showed that ACS occurred in 28 of 100 patients. With regard to the associated injuries with abdominal trauma, 19% of all patients and 46/42% of the patients with ACS had pelvic fracture. Chi-square test revealed a significant relationship between pelvic fracture and incidence rate of ACS (P < 0.001).
According to the collected data, pelvic fracture due to a trauma can be one of the important causes of an increase in IAP and ACS. In this lethal condition, prevention is better than cure. Therefore, serial measurement of IAP through the bladder in high-risk patients (those with pelvic fracture by trauma) is recommended to the nurses to diagnose this condition and to decrease the incidence of mortality.
Abdominal compartment syndrome; pelvic fracture; trauma
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra abdominal hypertension(IAH) are common clinical findings in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). It is thought that an increased intra abdominal pressure(IAP) is associated with poor prognosis in SAP patients. But the detailed effect of IAH/ACS on different organ system is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SAP combined with IAH on hemodynamics, systemic oxygenation, and organ damage in a 12 h lasting porcine model.
Measurements and Methods
Following baseline registrations, a total of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups (6 animals in each group): SAP+IAP30 group, SAP+IAP20 group, SAP group, IAP30 group(sham-operated but without SAP) and sham-operated group. We used a N2 pneumoperitoneum to induce different levels of IAH and retrograde intra-ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate to induce SAP. The investigation period was 12 h. Hemodynamic parameters (CO, HR, MAP, CVP), urine output, oxygenation parameters(e.g., SvO2, PO2, PaCO2), peak inspiratory pressure, as well as serum parameters (e.g., ALT, amylase, lactate, creatinine) were recorded. Histological examination of liver, intestine, pancreas, and lung was performed.
Cardiac output significantly decreased in the SAP+IAH animals compared with other groups. Furthermore, AST, creatinine, SUN and lactate showed similar increasing tendency paralleled with profoundly decrease in SvO2. The histopathological analyses also revealed higher grade injury of liver, intestine, pancreas and lung in the SAP+IAH groups. However, few differences were found between the two SAP+IAH groups with different levels of IAP.
Our newly developed porcine SAP+IAH model demonstrated that there were remarkable effects on global hemodynamics, oxygenation and organ function in response to sustained IAH of 12 h combined with SAP. Moreover, our model should be helpful to study the mechanisms of IAH/ACS-induced exacerbation and to optimize the treatment strategies for counteracting the development of organ dysfunction.
AIM: To study retrospectively the influence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with early acute pancreatitis (AP) (during the first week after admission) on physiological functions, and the association of the presence of IAH/ACS and outcome.
METHODS: Patients (n = 74) with AP recruited in this study were divided into two groups according to intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) determined by indirect measurement using the transvesical route via Foley bladder catheter during the first week after admission. Patients (n = 44) with IAP ≥ 12 mmHg were assigned in IAH group, and the remaining patients (n = 30) with IAP < 12 mmHg in normal IAP group. For analysis of the influence of IAH/ACS on organ function and outcome, the physiological parameters and the occurrence of organ dysfunction during intensive care unit (ICU) stay were recorded, as were the incidences of pancreatic infection and in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: IAH within the first week after admission was found in 44 patients (59.46%). Although the APACHE II scores on admission and the Ranson scores within 48 h after hospitalization were elevated in IAH patients in early stage, they did not show the statistically significant differences from patients with normal IAP within a week after admission (16.18 ± 3.90 vs 15.70 ± 4.25, P = 0.616; 3.70 ± 0.93 vs 3.47 ± 0.94, P = 0.285, respectively). ACS in early AP was recorded in 20 patients (27.03%). During any 24-h period of the first week after admission, the recorded mean IAP correlated significantly with the Marshall score calculated at the same time interval in IAH group (r = 0.635, P < 0.001). Although ACS patients had obvious amelioration in physiological variables within 24 h after decompression, the incidences of pancreatitic infection, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death in the patients with ACS were significantly higher than that in other patients without ACS (pancreatitic infection: 60.0% vs 7.4%, P < 0.001; septic shock: 70.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001; MODS: 90.0% vs 31.5%, P < 0.001; mortality: 75.0% vs 3.7%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: IAH/ACS is a frequent finding in patients admitted to the ICU because of AP. Patients with IAP at approximately 10-12 mmHg and early signs of changes in physiologic variables should be seriously considered for urgent decompression to improve survival.
Acute pancreatitis; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Intra-abdominal pressure; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Organ dysfunction
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children.
The secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as the presence of organ dysfunction with concurrent intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in a scenario lacking primary intraperitoneal injury or intervention. This state appears to be related to visceral, abdominal wall and retroperitoneal edema and ascites induced by resuscitation. Despite a diverse range of associated causes such as pancreatitis, intra-abdominal sepsis, cardiac arrest, thermal injury and extraperitoneal trauma, this class of ACS is characterized by the presence of shock requiring aggressive fluid resuscitation. Secondary ACS is an extreme condition along a continuum of raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) that is pathoneumonic when associated with new overt organ failure. When IAP is above normal but is not associated with organ failure, IAH is diagnosed. Because these conditions are common among critically ill patients, the measurement of IAP is crucial. It is unclear whether preventing IAH reduces progression to ACS or influences outcomes. When overt ACS is confirmed, immediate surgical decompression of the patient's abdomen via a standard laparotomy is usually required. Because many disease processes resulting in critical illness require aggressive fluid resuscitation as a primary therapy, it is likely that secondary ACS is much more common than previously believed. Further study is needed.
Acute pancreatitis leads to abdominal hypertension and compartment syndrome. Weeks after the episodes pancreatic fluids sometimes organize to pseudocysts, fluid collections by or in the gland.
Aims of the present study were to evaluate the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) induced by large pancreatic pseudocysts and to examine the effect of their transcutaneous drainage on IAP.
Twenty seven patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst were included. Nine patients with pseudocysts greater than 1l (group A) had CT drainage and eighteen (volume less than 1l) were the control group. The measurements of group A were taken 6 hours before and every morning after the drainage, while for group B, two measurements were performed, one at the day of the initial CT and one 7 days after. Abdominal compliance (Cabd) was calculated. Data were analyzed using student's t-test.
Baseline IAP for group A was 9.3 mmHg (S.D. 1.7 mmHg), while the first post-drainage day (PDD) IAP was 5.1 mmHg (S.D. 0.7 mmHg). The second PDD IAP was 5.6 mmHg (S.D. 0.8 mmHg), the third 6.4 mmH (S.D. 1.2 mmHg)g, the fourth 6.9 mmHg (S.D. 1.6 mmHg), the fifth 7.9 mmHg (S.D. 1.5 mmHg), the sixth 8.2 mmHg (S.D. 1.4 mmHg), and the seventh 8.2 mmHg (S.D. 1.5 mmHg). Group B had baseline IAP 8.0 mmHg (S.D. 1.2 mmHg) and final 8.2 mmHg (S.D. 1.4 mmHg). Cabd after drainage was 185.6 ml/mmHg (SD 47.5 ml/mmHg).
IAP values were reduced between the baseline and all the post-drainage measurements in group A. IAPs seem to stabilize after the 5th post-drainage day. Baseline IAP was higher in group A than in group B, while the two values, at day 7, were equivalent.
The drainage of large pancreatic pseudocyst reduces IAP. Moreover, the IAP seems to rise shortly after the drainage again, but in a way that it remains inferior to the initial value. More chronic changes to the IAP are related to abdominal cavity's properties and have to be further studied.
The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was first described in surgical patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, trauma, bleeding, or infection, but in recent years it has also been described in patients with other pathologies such as burn injury and sepsis and in medical patients. This F1000 Medicine Report is intended to provide critical care physicians a clear insight into the current state of knowledge regarding intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS, and will focus primarily on the recent literature as well as on the definitions and recommendations published by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The definitions regarding increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) will be listed, followed by a brief but comprehensive overview of the different mechanisms of organ dysfunction associated with IAH. The gold standard measurement technique for IAP as well as recommendations for organ function support in patients with IAH and options for medical and surgical treatment of IAH and ACS will be discussed.
Background. Intravesical pressure (IAPivp) measurement is considered to be the gold standard for assessment of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). This study evaluated a new minimally invasive IAP monitoring device (CiMON) against three other devices in a wide range of clinically relevant IAP and in different body positions in healthy pigs. Methods. The CiMON catheter (IAPCiM) and another balloon-tipped catheter (IAPspie) were positioned into the stomach. Fluid-filled catheters were used for direct intraperitoneal (IAPdir) and IAPivp measurement. Both in supine and 25° head-of-bed positions, IAP was increased from baseline to 30 mmHg. At every IAP level, 4 IAP measurements were recorded simultaneously. Mean differences and the limits of agreement were calculated. Results. Bias between IAPCiM and IAPspie was nearly zero with very good agreement, both in supine and 25° position. In supine position, IAPCiM slightly overestimated IAPivp and IAPdir by 1.5 and 2.1 mmHg with reasonable agreement. In 25° position, IAPCiM underestimated IAPivp and IAPdir by 1.0 and 0.5 mmHg, again with reasonable agreement. Conclusions. Agreement between IAPCiM and IAPspie was very good, while good-to-moderate agreement exists between IAPCiM and IAPdir or IAPivp. Simplicity, continuous monitoring, and the combination with a feeding tube should lead to further clinical studies, evaluating this new CiMON device.
Hospital mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains high. Some of these patients develop increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which may contribute to organ dysfunction. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of increased IAP in patients with SAP and to assess the development of organ dysfunction and factors associated with high IAP.
During 2001–2003 a total of 59 patients with severe acute pancreatitis were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Helsinki University Hospital. IAP was measured by the intravesical route in 37 patients with SAP. Data from these patients were retrospectively reviewed.
Maximal IAP, APACHE II score, maximal SOFA score, maximal creatinine, age and maximal lactate were significantly higher in nonsurvivors. There was a significant correlation of the maximal IAP with the maximal SOFA, APACHE II, maximal creatinine, maximal lactate, base deficit and ICU length of stay. Patients were divided into quartiles according to the maximal IAP. Maximal IAP was 7–14, 15–18, 19–24 and 25–33 mmHg and the hospital mortality rate 10%, 12.5%, 22.2% and 50% in groups 1–4, respectively. A statistically significant difference was seen in the maximal SOFA, ICU length of stay, maximal creatinine and lactate values. The mean ICU-free days in groups 1–4 were 45.7, 38.8, 32.0 and 27.5 days, respectively. The difference between groups 1 and 4 was statistically significant.
In patients with SAP, increased IAP is associated with development of early organ failure reflected in increased mortality and fewer ICU-free days. Frequent measurement of IAP during intensive care is important in optimizing abdominal perfusion pressure and recognizing patients potentially benefitting from decompressive laparotomy.
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is being increasingly reported in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) with worsened outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) as a marker of severity in the entire spectrum of acute pancreatitis and to ascertain the relationship between IAP and development of complications in patients with SAP.
IAP was measured via the transvesical route by measurements performed at admission, once after controlling pain and then every 4 hours. Data were collected on the length of the hospital stay, the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiorgan failure, the extent of necrosis, the presence of infection, pleural effusion, and mortality.
In total, 40 patients were enrolled and followed up for 30 days. The development of IAH was exclusively associated with SAP with an APACHE II score ≥8 and/or persistent SIRS, identifying all patients who were going to develop abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The presence of ACS was associated with a significantly increased extent of pancreatic necrosis, multiple organ failure, and mortality. The mean admission IAP value did not differ significantly from the value obtained after pain control or the maximum IAP measured in the first 5 days.
IAH is reliable marker of severe disease, and patients who manifest organ failure, persistent SIRS, or an Acute Physiology and Chronic health Evaluation II score ≥8 should be offered IAP surveillance. Severe pancreatitis is not a homogenous entity.
Intra-abdominal hypertension; Pancreatitis
Critically ill surgical patients frequently develop intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) leading to abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with subsequent high mortality. We compared two temporary abdominal closure systems (Bogota bag and vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device) in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) control.
This prospective study with a historical control included 66 patients admitted to a medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care referral center (Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy) from January 2006 to April 2009. The control group included patients consecutively treated with the Bogota bag (Jan 2006-Oct 2007), whereas the prospective group was comprised of patients treated with a VAC. All patients underwent abdominal decompressive surgery. Groups were compared based upon their IAP, SOFA score, serial arterial lactates, the duration of having their abdomen open, the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) along with length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality. Data were collected from the time of abdominal decompression until the end of pressure monitoring.
The Bogota and VAC groups were similar with regards to demography, admission diagnosis, severity of illness, and IAH grading. The VAC system was more effective in controlling IAP (P < 0.01) and normalizing serum lactates (P < 0.001) as compared to the Bogota bag during the first 24 hours after surgical decompression. There was no significant difference between the SOFA scores. When compared to the Bogota, the VAC group had a faster abdominal closure time (4.4 vs 6.6 days, P = 0.025), shorter duration of MV (7.1 vs 9.9 days, P = 0.039), decreased ICU length of stay (LOS) (13.3 vs 19.2 days, P = 0.024) and hospital LOS (28.5 vs 34.9 days; P = 0.019). Mortality rate did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Patients with abdominal compartment syndrome who were treated with VAC decompression had a faster abdominal closure rate and earlier discharge from the ICU as compared to similar patients treated with the Bogota bag.
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic, musculoskeletal/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention in order to optimize outcome. The history, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this disorder is outlined.
compartment; abdomen; syndrome; hypertension
To investigate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on respiratory function and hemodynamics in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with normal intra-abdominal pressure (IAP < 12 mmHg) and with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, defined as IAP ≥ 12 mmHg) during lung protective ventilation and a decremental PEEP, a prospective, observational clinical pilot study was performed.
Twenty patients with ALI/ARDS with normal IAP or IAH treated in the surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital were studied. The mean IAP in patients with IAH and normal IAP was 16 ± 3 mmHg and 8 ± 3 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). At different PEEP levels (5, 10, 15, 20 cmH2O) we measured respiratory mechanics, partitioned into its lung and chest wall components, alveolar recruitment, gas-exchange, hemodynamics, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI).
We found that ALI/ARDS patients with IAH, as compared to those with normal IAP, were characterized by: a) no differences in gas-exchange, respiratory mechanics, partitioned into its lung and chest wall components, as well as hemodynamics and EVLWI/ITBVI; b) decreased elastance of the respiratory system and the lung, but no differences in alveolar recruitment and oxygenation or hemodynamics, when PEEP was increased at 10 and 15cmH2O; c) at higher levels of PEEP, EVLWI was lower in ALI/ARDS patients with IAH as compared with those with normal IAP.
IAH, within the limits of IAP measured in the present study, does not affect interpretation of respiratory mechanics, alveolar recruitment and hemodynamics.
Background. The sparse reporting of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in the pediatric literature may reflect inadequate awareness and recognition among pediatric healthcare providers (HCP). Purpose. To assess awareness of ACS, knowledge of the definition and intraabdominal pressure (IAP) measurement techniques used among pediatric HCP. Method. A written survey distributed at two pediatric critical care conferences. Results. Forty-seven percent of 1107 questionnaires were completed. Participants included pediatric intensivists, pediatric nurses, and others. Seventy-seven percent (n = 513) of participants had heard of ACS. Only 46.8% defined ACS correctly. The threshold IAP value used to define ACS was variable among participants. About one-quarter of participants (83/343), had never measured IAP. Conclusion. Twenty-three percent of HCP surveyed were unaware of ACS. Criteria used to define ACS were variable. Focused education on recognition of ACS and measuring IAP should be promoted among pediatric HCP.
Drainage of ascitic fluid is a common practice in order to relief the respiratory discomfort of patients.
To determine the relation between the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and extracted volume of the ascitic fluid, in order to calculate abdominal compliance (Cabd).
Settings and Design:
A study was designed at AHEPA University Hospital and analysed with prospectively collected data.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen patients with tension ascites that had transcutaneous drainage with a wide catheter. The ascitic fluid removed was measured, while the IAP and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for dyspnea were recorded before and 15 min after the puncture. Cabd was calculated.
The data were analysed with descriptive statistics, paired Student's t-test and Pearson coefficiency.
The predrainage IAP was 18.26 mmHg (SD 1.67 mmHg), while the postdrainage was 14.46 mmHg (SD 1.34 mmHg) (P<0.001). The mean volume of ascitic fluid removed was 1624 mL (SD 861 mL). Cabd after drainage was 414.01 mL/mmHg (SD 139.15 mL/mmHg). A linear correlation was found between ascitic fluid removal and IAP variations. The dyspnea VAS score was 7.5 (SD=0.8) before the drainage and 4.3 (SD=1.0) after the drainage (P<0.001).
The drainage of ascitic fluid reduces IAP, facilitating in this way respiration. Moreover, IAP variation seems to be in linear relation with the volume of ascitic fluid removed. This linear relation between IAP and volume may probably predict the Cabd quite accurately and vice versa. However, larger studies are necessary to safely draw predicting ΔIAP – ΔV (Cabd) diagrams, and determine the optimal ascitic fluid removal to achieve best comforting of the patient and slower fluid reformation.
Abdominal compartment; abdominal compliance; ascitic fluid drainage; intra-abdominal pressure
The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring using the FoleyManometer (Holtech Medical, Charlottenlund, Denmark) increases the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI).
A retrospective database review was conducted.
The study was conducted in the 12-bed medical intensive care unit of ZNA Stuivenberg Hospital (Antwerp, Belgium), a tertiary hospital.
There were 5,890 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit of which 1,097 patients underwent intrabladder pressure (IBP) monitoring as estimate for IAP.
Crude and adjusted UTI rates were compared among patients undergoing IAP measurements with three different intrabladder methods: a modified homemade technique, a FoleyManometer with 35 ml reservoir, and a FoleyManometer low volume (FoleyManometerLV) with less than 10 ml priming volume.
Measurements and results
Four consecutive time periods of 24 months were defined and compared with regard to IAP measurement: period 1 (2000-2001), during which IAP monitoring was not used routinely (which serves as a control group), was compared with period 2 (2002-2003), using a modified homemade technique; period 3 (2004-2005), introducing the FoleyManometer; and finally period 4 (2006-2007), in which the FoleyManometerLV was introduced. The incidence of IBP measurements increased from 1.4% in period 1 to 45.4% in period 4 (p < 0.001). At the same time, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (version 2) (SAPS-II) increased significantly from 24.4 ± 21.5 to 34.9 ± 18.7 (p < 0.001) together with the percentage of ventilated patients from 18.6% to 40.7% (p < 0.001). In total, 1,097 patients had IAP measurements via the bladder. The UTI rates were adjusted for disease severity by multiplying each crude rate with the ratio of control versus study patient SAPS-II probability of mortality. Crude and adjusted UTI rates per 1,000 catheter days (CD) were on average 16.1 and 12.8/1,000 CD, respectively, and were not significantly different between the four time periods.
Intrabladder pressure monitoring as estimate for IAP either via a closed transducer technique or the closed FoleyManometer technique seems safe and does not alter the risk of UTI in critically ill patients.
intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal compartment syndrome; abdominal hypertension; FoleyManometerLV; intensive care; intravesical pressure; intrabladder pressure; urinary tract infection
We report two cases of extraperitoneal compression of the intra-abdominal space resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with overt renal failure, which responded to operative decompression of the extra-peritoneal spaces. This discussion includes patient presentation, clinical course, diagnosis, interventions, and outcomes. Data was collected from the patient's electronic medical record and a radiology database. ACS appears to be a rare but completely reversible complication of both retroperitoneal hematoma (RH) and rectus sheath hematoma (RSH). In patients with large RH or RSH consideration of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring combined with aggressive operative drainage after correction of the coagulopathy should be considered. These two cases illustrate how a relatively benign pathology can result in increased IAP, organ failure, and ultimately ACS. Intervention with decompressive laparotomy and evacuation of clot resulted in return to normal physiologic function.
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is most commonly measured via the bladder with the patient in the supine position. In the ICU, patients are nursed with the head of the bed elevated at 30° (HOB30) to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study investigated whether gastric pressure at HOB30 can be used as a surrogate measure of IAP via the bladder in the supine position.
A prospective observational study was conducted in a single-centre intensive care unit. A total of 20 patients were included. IAP was recorded simultaneously via the bladder catheter (bladder pressure, IBP) and via nasogastric tube (gastric pressures, IGP) in the supine and HOB30 position. Each patient had three sets of IAP measurements performed at least 4 h apart.
In the supine position, mean IBP was 12.3 ± 4.5 mmHg compared to IGP of 11.8 ± 4.7 mmHg. The bias between the two groups was 0.5 and precision of 3.7 (LA, -6.8 to 7.5 mmHg). At 30 degrees, mean IBP was 15.8 ± 4.9 mmHg compared to IGP of 13.1 ± 6.1 mmHg. The bias between both groups was 2.7 with a precision of 5.5 (LA, -8.0 to 13.5). Comparing IBP in the supine position with IGP at 30° showed a bias of -0.8 and precision of 5.6 (LA, -10.1 to 11.6 mmHg).
IAP measured via a nasogastric tube was less influenced by changing the body position from supine to HOB30 than was bladder pressure.
intra-abdominal hypertension; intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal compartment syndrome; gastric pressure; body position