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1.  Intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis 
Critical Care  2005;9(4):R452-R457.
Introduction
Abdominal compartment syndrome has been described in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, but its clinical impact remains unclear. We therefore studied patient factors associated with the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), the incidence of organ failure associated with IAH, and the effect on outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
Methods
We studied all patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of SAP in a 4 year period. The incidence of IAH (defined as intra-abdominal pressure ≥ 15 mmHg) was recorded. The occurrence of organ dysfunction during ICU stay was recorded, as was the length of stay in the ICU and outcome.
Results
The analysis included 44 patients, and IAP measurements were obtained from 27 patients. IAH was found in 21 patients (78%). The maximum IAP in these patients averaged 27 mmHg. APACHE II and Ranson scores on admission were higher in patients who developed IAH. The incidence of organ dysfunction was high in patients with IAH: respiratory failure 95%, cardiovascular failure 91%, and renal failure 86%. Mortality in the patients with IAH was not significantly higher compared to patients without IAH (38% versus 16%, p = 0.63), but patients with IAH stayed significantly longer in the ICU and in the hospital. Four patients underwent abdominal decompression because of abdominal compartment syndrome, three of whom died in the early postoperative course.
Conclusion
IAH is a frequent finding in patients admitted to the ICU because of SAP, and is associated with a high occurrence rate of organ dysfunction. Mortality is high in patients with IAH, and because the direct causal relationship between IAH and organ dysfunction is not proven in patients with SAP, surgical decompression should not routinely be performed.
doi:10.1186/cc3754
PMCID: PMC1269467  PMID: 16137360
2.  Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review 
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function.
doi:10.1186/1752-2897-8-2
PMCID: PMC3925290  PMID: 24499574
Intra-abdominal pressure; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Abdominal perfusion pressure
3.  Vacuum-assisted closure device enhances recovery of critically ill patients following emergency surgical procedures 
Critical Care  2009;13(6):R194.
Introduction
Critically ill surgical patients frequently develop intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) leading to abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with subsequent high mortality. We compared two temporary abdominal closure systems (Bogota bag and vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device) in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) control.
Methods
This prospective study with a historical control included 66 patients admitted to a medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care referral center (Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy) from January 2006 to April 2009. The control group included patients consecutively treated with the Bogota bag (Jan 2006-Oct 2007), whereas the prospective group was comprised of patients treated with a VAC. All patients underwent abdominal decompressive surgery. Groups were compared based upon their IAP, SOFA score, serial arterial lactates, the duration of having their abdomen open, the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) along with length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality. Data were collected from the time of abdominal decompression until the end of pressure monitoring.
Results
The Bogota and VAC groups were similar with regards to demography, admission diagnosis, severity of illness, and IAH grading. The VAC system was more effective in controlling IAP (P < 0.01) and normalizing serum lactates (P < 0.001) as compared to the Bogota bag during the first 24 hours after surgical decompression. There was no significant difference between the SOFA scores. When compared to the Bogota, the VAC group had a faster abdominal closure time (4.4 vs 6.6 days, P = 0.025), shorter duration of MV (7.1 vs 9.9 days, P = 0.039), decreased ICU length of stay (LOS) (13.3 vs 19.2 days, P = 0.024) and hospital LOS (28.5 vs 34.9 days; P = 0.019). Mortality rate did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Conclusions
Patients with abdominal compartment syndrome who were treated with VAC decompression had a faster abdominal closure rate and earlier discharge from the ICU as compared to similar patients treated with the Bogota bag.
doi:10.1186/cc8193
PMCID: PMC2811940  PMID: 19961614
4.  Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Mechanically Ventilated Patients 
Background. We aimed to describe the incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and related outcome in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients. Methods. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and gastric residual volumes were measured at least twice daily. IAH was defined as a mean daily value of IAP ≥ 12 mmHg. Results. 398 patients were monitored for all together 2987 days. GI symptom(s) occurred in 80.2% patients. 152 (38.2%) patients developed IAH. Majority (93.4%) of patients with IAH had GI symptoms. The more severe IAH was associated with the higher number of concomitant GI symptoms (P < .001). 142 (35.7%) patients developed both IAH and at least one GI symptom at any time in ICU, and in 77 patients they occurred simultaneously on the same day. This subgroup had the highest ICU mortality (21.8%). In contrast, the small group of patients presenting only IAH, but not GI symptoms (10 patients), had no lethal outcome. Three patients (4.4%) died without showing either IAH or GI symptoms. Conclusions. GI symptoms and IAH often, but not always, occur together. The patients having IAH solely without developing GI symptoms have rather good outcome.
doi:10.1155/2011/982507
PMCID: PMC3087429  PMID: 21547094
5.  Abdominal compartment syndrome 
The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was first described in surgical patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, trauma, bleeding, or infection, but in recent years it has also been described in patients with other pathologies such as burn injury and sepsis and in medical patients. This F1000 Medicine Report is intended to provide critical care physicians a clear insight into the current state of knowledge regarding intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS, and will focus primarily on the recent literature as well as on the definitions and recommendations published by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The definitions regarding increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) will be listed, followed by a brief but comprehensive overview of the different mechanisms of organ dysfunction associated with IAH. The gold standard measurement technique for IAP as well as recommendations for organ function support in patients with IAH and options for medical and surgical treatment of IAH and ACS will be discussed.
doi:10.3410/M1-86
PMCID: PMC2948339  PMID: 20948692
6.  Abdominal compartment syndrome – Intra-abdominal hypertension: Defining, diagnosing, and managing 
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are increasingly recognized as potential complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ACS and IAH affect all body systems, most notably the cardiac, respiratory, renal, and neurologic systems. ACS/IAH affects blood flow to various organs and plays a significant role in the prognosis of the patients. Recognition of ACS/IAH, its risk factors and clinical signs can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated. Moreover, knowledge of the pathophysiology may help rationalize the therapeutic approach. We start this article with a brief historic review on ACS/IAH. Then, we present the definitions concerning parameters necessary in understanding ACS/IAH. Finally, pathophysiology aspects of both phenomena are presented, prior to exploring the various facets of ACS/IAH management.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.82224
PMCID: PMC3132369  PMID: 21769216
Abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal hypertension; intra-abdominal pressure
7.  Intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and pregnancy: a review 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S5.
The last several decades have seen many advances in the recognition and prevention of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and its precursor, intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). There has also been a relative explosion of knowledge in the critical care, trauma, and surgical populations, and the inception of a society dedicated to its understanding, the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS). However, there has been almost no recognition or appreciation of the potential presence, influence, and management of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), IAH, and ACS in pregnancy. This review highlights the importance and relevance of IAP in the critically ill parturient, the current lack of normative IAP values in pregnancy today, along with a review of the potential relationship between IAH and maternal diseases such as preeclampsia-eclampsia and its potential impact on fetal development. Finally, current IAP measurement guidelines are questioned, as they do not take into account the gravid uterus and its mechanical impact on intra-vesicular pressure.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S5
PMCID: PMC3390298  PMID: 22873421
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; pregnancy; preeclampsia-eclampsia.
8.  The secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: not just another post-traumatic complication 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2008;51(5):399-405.
The secondary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as the presence of organ dysfunction with concurrent intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in a scenario lacking primary intraperitoneal injury or intervention. This state appears to be related to visceral, abdominal wall and retroperitoneal edema and ascites induced by resuscitation. Despite a diverse range of associated causes such as pancreatitis, intra-abdominal sepsis, cardiac arrest, thermal injury and extraperitoneal trauma, this class of ACS is characterized by the presence of shock requiring aggressive fluid resuscitation. Secondary ACS is an extreme condition along a continuum of raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) that is pathoneumonic when associated with new overt organ failure. When IAP is above normal but is not associated with organ failure, IAH is diagnosed. Because these conditions are common among critically ill patients, the measurement of IAP is crucial. It is unclear whether preventing IAH reduces progression to ACS or influences outcomes. When overt ACS is confirmed, immediate surgical decompression of the patient's abdomen via a standard laparotomy is usually required. Because many disease processes resulting in critical illness require aggressive fluid resuscitation as a primary therapy, it is likely that secondary ACS is much more common than previously believed. Further study is needed.
PMCID: PMC2556543  PMID: 18841232
9.  Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory function and hemodynamics in patients with acute respiratory failure with and without intra-abdominal hypertension: a pilot study 
Critical Care  2009;13(5):R160.
Introduction
To investigate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on respiratory function and hemodynamics in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with normal intra-abdominal pressure (IAP < 12 mmHg) and with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, defined as IAP ≥ 12 mmHg) during lung protective ventilation and a decremental PEEP, a prospective, observational clinical pilot study was performed.
Methods
Twenty patients with ALI/ARDS with normal IAP or IAH treated in the surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital were studied. The mean IAP in patients with IAH and normal IAP was 16 ± 3 mmHg and 8 ± 3 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). At different PEEP levels (5, 10, 15, 20 cmH2O) we measured respiratory mechanics, partitioned into its lung and chest wall components, alveolar recruitment, gas-exchange, hemodynamics, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI).
Results
We found that ALI/ARDS patients with IAH, as compared to those with normal IAP, were characterized by: a) no differences in gas-exchange, respiratory mechanics, partitioned into its lung and chest wall components, as well as hemodynamics and EVLWI/ITBVI; b) decreased elastance of the respiratory system and the lung, but no differences in alveolar recruitment and oxygenation or hemodynamics, when PEEP was increased at 10 and 15cmH2O; c) at higher levels of PEEP, EVLWI was lower in ALI/ARDS patients with IAH as compared with those with normal IAP.
Conclusions
IAH, within the limits of IAP measured in the present study, does not affect interpretation of respiratory mechanics, alveolar recruitment and hemodynamics.
doi:10.1186/cc8118
PMCID: PMC2784387  PMID: 19804634
10.  Analyzing intra-abdominal pressures and outcomes in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy 
Background:
Studies have documented the impact of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on virtually every organ. However, it still remains strangely underdiagnosed. The aims of the study were to assess, in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy, whether intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, to evaluate the effects of IAH, and to identify hidden cases of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Materials and Methods:
The study comprised 197 patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. IAP was measured preoperatively and then postoperatively at 0, 6, and 24 hours. Duration of hospital stay, occurrence of burst abdomen, and mortality were noted as outcomes.
Results:
At admission, incidence of IAH was 80%. No significant association was found between IAP and occurrence of burst abdomen (P > 0.1). IAP was found to be a significant predictor of mortality in patients undergoing laparotomy (P < 0.001). Elevated IAP was found to affect all the organ systems adversely. The incidence of post-op ACS was 3.05% in the general population and 13.16% in trauma patients. The mortality rate for this subgroup was 100%.
Conclusions:
IAP is a significant predictor of mortality in patients undergoing laparotomy. IAH has detrimental effects on various organ systems. A more frequent monitoring with prompt decompression may be helpful in decreasing the mortality rate. Further studies are required to establish a screening protocol in patients undergoing laparotomy to detect and manage cases of IAH and ACS.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.70747
PMCID: PMC2966562  PMID: 21063552
Abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal hypertension; intra-abdominal pressure
11.  Abdominal Decompression in Children 
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children.
doi:10.1155/2012/180797
PMCID: PMC3318199  PMID: 22482041
12.  Intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with sellar region tumors 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S2.
Background
Data on intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome [ACS] due to neurological insults are limited.
Methods
This was a prospective observational study conducted between January 2010 and January 2011 in the neurological ICU [NICU]. Forty-one consecutive patients with sellar region tumors [SRT] were enrolled into the study. If conservative therapy was ineffective in patients with ACS, thoracic epidural anesthesia [EA] was performed. Primary endpoint was defined as the efficacy of conservative treatment and EA in patients with IAH and ACS; secondary endpoint, the influence of IAH and ACS on outcomes.
Results
Of the 41 patients, 13 (31.7%) had normal intra-abdominal pressure and 28 (68.3%) developed IAH, of whom 9 (22%) had ACS (group II). On average, IAH developed on the second postoperative day, while ACS, between the third and the fifth day. Multiple organ dysfunction developed in 3 (23.1%) patients of group I and in 23 (82%) patients of group II (p = 0.0003). Ileus due to gastrointestinal dysmotility was present in 6 (46.2%) patients of group I and in all patients of group II (p = 0.0001). Significant risk factors for ileus were diencephalon dysfunction (whole group - in 33 patients (80.5%); group I - in 6 patients (46.2%); group II - in 27 patients (96.4%), p = 0.0002) and sepsis (whole group - in 8 patients (19.5%); group I - no cases; group II - in 8 patients (28.6%), p = 0.03). Conservative treatment was effective in the majority of patients (78.9%) with IAH and only in 3 (33%) patients with ACS. Thoracic EA was performed in four patients with ACS with success. Length of stay in the NICU was 6.5 ± 4.6 days in group I and 24.1 ± 25.7 (p = 0.02) days in group II. Five out of nine (55.6%) patients with ACS died. None of these patients received EA. All patients with EA had favorable outcomes.
Conclusion
The development of IAH is common after SRT surgery. If conservative treatment is ineffective, EA can be considered in patients with secondary ACS. Further studies are warranted.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S2
PMCID: PMC3390302  PMID: 22873418
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; epidural anesthesia; neurocritical care; sellar region tumor; ileus; postoperative complication.
13.  Should we measure intra-abdominal pressures in every intensive care patient? 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S9.
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is seldom measured by default in intensive care patients. This review summarises the current evidence on the prevalence and risk factors of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) to assist the decision-making for IAP monitoring.
IAH occurs in 20% to 40% of intensive care patients. High body mass index (BMI), abdominal surgery, liver dysfunction/ascites, hypotension/vasoactive therapy, respiratory failure and excessive fluid balance are risk factors of IAH in the general ICU population. IAP monitoring is strongly supported in mechanically ventilated patients with severe burns, severe trauma, severe acute pancreatitis, liver failure or ruptured aortic aneurysms. The risk of developing IAH is minimal in mechanically ventilated patients with positive end-expiratory pressure < 10 cmH2O, PaO2/FiO2 > 300, and BMI < 30 and without pancreatitis, hepatic failure/cirrhosis with ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding or laparotomy and the use of vasopressors/inotropes on admission. In these patients, omitting IAP measurements might be considered.
In conclusions, clear guidelines to select the patients in whom IAP measurements should be performed cannot be given at present. In addition to IAP measurements in at-risk patients, a clinical assessment of the signs of IAH should be a part of every ICU patient's bedside evaluation, leading to prompt IAP monitoring in case of the slightest suspicion of IAH development.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S9
PMCID: PMC3390289  PMID: 22873425
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; patient monitoring; intensive care; epidemiology.
14.  Prophylactic open abdomen in patients with postoperative intra-abdominal hypertension 
Critical Care  2010;14(1):111.
Postoperative intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a frequent occurrence in critically ill patients operated on for severe abdominal trauma, secondary peritonitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. IAH may progress to abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with new-onset organ dysfunction. Early recognition of IAH and interventions that prevent the development of ACS may preserve vital organ functions and increase the probability of survival. The best method to prevent postoperative ACS is to leave the abdomen open during the operation. The decision to leave the abdomen open is usually based on the surgeon's judgment without intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements during the operation. Because significant morbidity and mortality are associated with the open abdomen, the measurement of IAP immediately after the fascial closure, when feasible, could offer an objective method for determining the optimal IAP threshold for leaving the abdomen open. The management of the open abdomen requires a temporary abdominal closure (TAC) system that would ideally prevent the development of ACS and facilitate later primary fascia closure. Among several TAC systems, the most promising are those that provide negative pressure to the wound or continuous fascial traction or both.
doi:10.1186/cc8207
PMCID: PMC2875490  PMID: 20156323
15.  Intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome: updated consensus definitions and clinical practice guidelines from the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome 
Intensive Care Medicine  2013;39(7):1190-1206.
Purpose
To update the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) consensus definitions and management statements relating to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Methods
We conducted systematic or structured reviews to identify relevant studies relating to IAH or ACS. Updated consensus definitions and management statements were then derived using a modified Delphi method and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines, respectively. Quality of evidence was graded from high (A) to very low (D) and management statements from strong RECOMMENDATIONS (desirable effects clearly outweigh potential undesirable ones) to weaker SUGGESTIONS (potential risks and benefits of the intervention are less clear).
Results
In addition to reviewing the consensus definitions proposed in 2006, the WSACS defined the open abdomen, lateralization of the abdominal musculature, polycompartment syndrome, and abdominal compliance, and proposed an open abdomen classification system. RECOMMENDATIONS included intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement, avoidance of sustained IAH, protocolized IAP monitoring and management, decompressive laparotomy for overt ACS, and negative pressure wound therapy and efforts to achieve same-hospital-stay fascial closure among patients with an open abdomen. SUGGESTIONS included use of medical therapies and percutaneous catheter drainage for treatment of IAH/ACS, considering the association between body position and IAP, attempts to avoid a positive fluid balance after initial patient resuscitation, use of enhanced ratios of plasma to red blood cells and prophylactic open abdominal strategies, and avoidance of routine early biologic mesh use among patients with open abdominal wounds. NO RECOMMENDATIONS were possible regarding monitoring of abdominal perfusion pressure or the use of diuretics, renal replacement therapies, albumin, or acute component-parts separation.
Conclusion
Although IAH and ACS are common and frequently associated with poor outcomes, the overall quality of evidence available to guide development of RECOMMENDATIONS was generally low. Appropriately designed intervention trials are urgently needed for patients with IAH and ACS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-013-2906-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00134-013-2906-z
PMCID: PMC3680657  PMID: 23673399
Intra-abdominal hypertension; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Critical care; Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation; Evidence-based medicine; World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
16.  Abdominal compartment syndrome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in early stage 
AIM: To study retrospectively the influence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with early acute pancreatitis (AP) (during the first week after admission) on physiological functions, and the association of the presence of IAH/ACS and outcome.
METHODS: Patients (n = 74) with AP recruited in this study were divided into two groups according to intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) determined by indirect measurement using the transvesical route via Foley bladder catheter during the first week after admission. Patients (n = 44) with IAP ≥ 12 mmHg were assigned in IAH group, and the remaining patients (n = 30) with IAP < 12 mmHg in normal IAP group. For analysis of the influence of IAH/ACS on organ function and outcome, the physiological parameters and the occurrence of organ dysfunction during intensive care unit (ICU) stay were recorded, as were the incidences of pancreatic infection and in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: IAH within the first week after admission was found in 44 patients (59.46%). Although the APACHE II scores on admission and the Ranson scores within 48 h after hospitalization were elevated in IAH patients in early stage, they did not show the statistically significant differences from patients with normal IAP within a week after admission (16.18 ± 3.90 vs 15.70 ± 4.25, P = 0.616; 3.70 ± 0.93 vs 3.47 ± 0.94, P = 0.285, respectively). ACS in early AP was recorded in 20 patients (27.03%). During any 24-h period of the first week after admission, the recorded mean IAP correlated significantly with the Marshall score calculated at the same time interval in IAH group (r = 0.635, P < 0.001). Although ACS patients had obvious amelioration in physiological variables within 24 h after decompression, the incidences of pancreatitic infection, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death in the patients with ACS were significantly higher than that in other patients without ACS (pancreatitic infection: 60.0% vs 7.4%, P < 0.001; septic shock: 70.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001; MODS: 90.0% vs 31.5%, P < 0.001; mortality: 75.0% vs 3.7%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: IAH/ACS is a frequent finding in patients admitted to the ICU because of AP. Patients with IAP at approximately 10-12 mmHg and early signs of changes in physiologic variables should be seriously considered for urgent decompression to improve survival.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3541
PMCID: PMC2716618  PMID: 18567084
Acute pancreatitis; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Intra-abdominal pressure; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Organ dysfunction
17.  Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on liver function assessed with the LiMON in critically ill patients 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2011;54(3):161-166.
Background
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Our aim was to assess the effects of IAH on liver function using the noninvasive liver function monitoring system LiMON and to assess the prognostic value of IAP in critically ill patients.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of critically ill patients who were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The IAP and indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR) measurements were made within 24 hours after admission to the ICU and repeated 12 hours later. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured via a Foley bladder catheter, and ICG elimination tests were conducted concurrently using the LiMON.
Results
We included 30 critically ill patients (17 women and 13 men aged 28–89 yr) in our analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the baseline IAP values were significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (19.38 [standard deviation; SD 2.08] v. 13.07 [SD 0.99]). The twelfth-hour IAP values were higher than baseline measurements among nonsurvivors (21.50 [SD 1.96]) and lower than baseline measurements among survivors (11.71 [SD 1.54]); the difference between groups was significant (p < 0.001). The baseline ICG-PDR values were significantly lower among nonsurvivors than survivors (10.86 [SD 3.35] v. 24.51 [SD 6.78]), and the twelfth-hour ICG-PDR values were decreased in all groups; the difference between groups was significant (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Our results suggest that measurement of ICG-PDR with the LiMON is a good predictor of the effects of IAP on liver function and, thus, can be recommended for the evaluation of critically ill patients.
doi:10.1503/cjs.042709
PMCID: PMC3104306  PMID: 21443832
18.  Clinical review: Intra-abdominal hypertension: does it influence the physiology of prone ventilation? 
Critical Care  2010;14(4):232.
Prone ventilation (PV) is a ventilatory strategy that frequently improves oxygenation and lung mechanics in critical illness, yet does not consistently improve survival. While the exact physiologic mechanisms related to these benefits remain unproven, one major theoretical mechanism relates to reducing the abdominal encroachment upon the lungs. Concurrent to this experience is increasing recognition of the ubiquitous role of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in critical illness, of the relationship between IAH and intra-abdominal volume or thus the compliance of the abdominal wall, and of the potential difference in the abdominal influences between the extrapulmonary and pulmonary forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present paper reviews reported data concerning intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in association with the use of PV to explore the potential influence of IAH. While early authors stressed the importance of gravitationally unloading the abdominal cavity to unencumber the lung bases, this admonition has not been consistently acknowledged when PV has been utilized. Basic data required to understand the role of IAP/IAH in the physiology of PV have generally not been collected and/or reported. No randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses considered IAH in design or outcome. While the act of proning itself has a variable reported effect on IAP, abundant clinical and laboratory data confirm that the thoracoabdominal cavities are intimately linked and that IAH is consistently transmitted across the diaphragm - although the transmission ratio is variable and is possibly related to the compliance of the abdominal wall. Any proning-related intervention that secondarily influences IAP/IAH is likely to greatly influence respiratory mechanics and outcomes. Further study of the role of IAP/IAH in the physiology and outcomes of PV in hypoxemic respiratory failure is thus required. Theories relating inter-relations between prone positioning and the abdominal condition are presented to aid in designing these studies.
doi:10.1186/cc9099
PMCID: PMC2945095  PMID: 20804560
19.  Moderate intra-abdominal hypertension is associated with an increased lactate-pyruvate ratio in the rectus abdominis muscle tissue: a pilot study during laparoscopic surgery 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S14.
Background
The development of intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU is an independent predictor of mortality. In an attempt to find an early, clinically relevant metabolic signal of modest IAH, we investigated abdominal wall metabolite concentrations in a small group of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesized that elevated intra-abdominal pressure [IAP] due to pneumoperitoneum leads to an increased lactate/pyruvate [L/P] ratio in the rectus abdominis muscle [RAM], indicating anaerobic metabolism.
Method
Six patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic gastric fundoplication were studied. Two hours before surgery, a microdialysis catheter (CMA 60, CMA Small Systems AB, Solna, Sweden) was inserted into the RAM under local anaesthesia. Catheter placement was confirmed by ultrasound. The microdialysis perfusion rate was set at 0.3 μL/min. Dialysate was collected hourly prior to pneumoperitoneum, during pneumoperitoneum, and for 2 h after pneumoperitoneum resolution. IAP was maintained at 12 to 13 mmHg during the surgery. The glucose, glycerol, pyruvate and lactate contents of the dialysate were measured.
Results
The median (interquartile range) L/P ratio was 10.3 (7.1 to 15.5) mmol/L at baseline. One hour of pneumoperitoneum increased the L/P ratio to 16.0 (13.6 to 35.3) mmol/L (p = 0.03). The median pneumoperitoneum duration was 86 (77 to 111) min. The L/P ratio at 2 h post-pneumoperitoneum was not different from that at baseline (p = 1.0). No changes in glycerol or glucose levels were observed.
Conclusions
IAH of 12 to 13 mmHg, even for a relatively short duration, is associated with metabolic changes in the abdominal wall muscle tissue of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. We suggest that tissue hypoperfusion occurs even during a modest increase in IAP, and intramuscular metabolic monitoring could therefore serve as an early warning sign of deteriorating tissue perfusion.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S14
PMCID: PMC3390303  PMID: 22873415
microdialysis; intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; lactate-to-pyruvate ratio; muscle ischemia; early clinical sign
20.  Intra-Abdominal Pressure in the Early Phase of Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Canary in a Coal Mine? Results from a Rigorous Validation Protocol 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(6):731-738.
Background/Aims
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is being increasingly reported in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) with worsened outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) as a marker of severity in the entire spectrum of acute pancreatitis and to ascertain the relationship between IAP and development of complications in patients with SAP.
Methods
IAP was measured via the transvesical route by measurements performed at admission, once after controlling pain and then every 4 hours. Data were collected on the length of the hospital stay, the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiorgan failure, the extent of necrosis, the presence of infection, pleural effusion, and mortality.
Results
In total, 40 patients were enrolled and followed up for 30 days. The development of IAH was exclusively associated with SAP with an APACHE II score ≥8 and/or persistent SIRS, identifying all patients who were going to develop abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The presence of ACS was associated with a significantly increased extent of pancreatic necrosis, multiple organ failure, and mortality. The mean admission IAP value did not differ significantly from the value obtained after pain control or the maximum IAP measured in the first 5 days.
Conclusions
IAH is reliable marker of severe disease, and patients who manifest organ failure, persistent SIRS, or an Acute Physiology and Chronic health Evaluation II score ≥8 should be offered IAP surveillance. Severe pancreatitis is not a homogenous entity.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.6.731
PMCID: PMC3848541  PMID: 24312716
Intra-abdominal hypertension; Pancreatitis
21.  The Effect of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension Incorporating Severe Acute Pancreatitis in a Porcine Model 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33125.
Introduction
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra abdominal hypertension(IAH) are common clinical findings in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). It is thought that an increased intra abdominal pressure(IAP) is associated with poor prognosis in SAP patients. But the detailed effect of IAH/ACS on different organ system is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SAP combined with IAH on hemodynamics, systemic oxygenation, and organ damage in a 12 h lasting porcine model.
Measurements and Methods
Following baseline registrations, a total of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups (6 animals in each group): SAP+IAP30 group, SAP+IAP20 group, SAP group, IAP30 group(sham-operated but without SAP) and sham-operated group. We used a N2 pneumoperitoneum to induce different levels of IAH and retrograde intra-ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate to induce SAP. The investigation period was 12 h. Hemodynamic parameters (CO, HR, MAP, CVP), urine output, oxygenation parameters(e.g., SvO2, PO2, PaCO2), peak inspiratory pressure, as well as serum parameters (e.g., ALT, amylase, lactate, creatinine) were recorded. Histological examination of liver, intestine, pancreas, and lung was performed.
Main Results
Cardiac output significantly decreased in the SAP+IAH animals compared with other groups. Furthermore, AST, creatinine, SUN and lactate showed similar increasing tendency paralleled with profoundly decrease in SvO2. The histopathological analyses also revealed higher grade injury of liver, intestine, pancreas and lung in the SAP+IAH groups. However, few differences were found between the two SAP+IAH groups with different levels of IAP.
Conclusions
Our newly developed porcine SAP+IAH model demonstrated that there were remarkable effects on global hemodynamics, oxygenation and organ function in response to sustained IAH of 12 h combined with SAP. Moreover, our model should be helpful to study the mechanisms of IAH/ACS-induced exacerbation and to optimize the treatment strategies for counteracting the development of organ dysfunction.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033125
PMCID: PMC3293917  PMID: 22403734
22.  Effect of mechanical ventilation on intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients without other risk factors for abdominal hypertension: an observational multicenter epidemiological study 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S22.
Background
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is considered a predisposing factor for increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), especially when positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is applied or in the presence of auto-PEEP. So far, no prospective data exists on the effect of MV on IAP. The study aims to look on the effects of MV on IAP in a group of critically ill patients with no other risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH).
Methods
An observational multicenter study was conducted on a total of 100 patients divided into two groups: 50 patients without MV and 50 patients with MV. All patients were admitted to the intensive care units of the Medical and Surgical Research Centre, the Carlos J. Finlay Hospital, the Julio Trigo University Hospital, and the Calixto García Hospital, in Havana, Cuba between July 2000 and December 2004. The IAP was measured twice daily on admission using a standard transurethral technique. IAH was considered if IAP was greater than 12 mmHg. Correlations were made between IAP and body mass index (BMI), diagnostic category, gender, age, and ventilatory parameters.
Results
The mean IAP in patients on MV was 6.7 ± 4.1 mmHg and significantly higher than in patients without MV (3.6 ± 2.4 mmHg, p < 0.0001). This difference was maintained regardless of gender, age, BMI, and diagnosis. The use of MV and BMI were independent predictors for IAH for the whole population, while male gender, assisted ventilation mode, and the use of PEEP were independent factors associated with IAH in patients on MV.
Conclusions
In this study, MV was identified as an independent predisposing factor for the development of IAH. Critically ill patients, which are on MV, present with higher IAP values on admission and should be monitored very closely, especially if PEEP is applied, even when they have no other apparent risk factors for IAH.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S22
PMCID: PMC3527157  PMID: 23281625
23.  Gastrointestinal Failure score in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study 
Critical Care  2008;12(4):R90.
Introduction
There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for gastrointestinal failure in critically ill patients. In the present study we tested whether the occurrence of food intolerance (FI) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), combined in a 5-grade scoring system for assessment of gastrointestinal function (the Gastrointestinal Failure [GIF] score), predicts mortality. The prognostic value of the GIF score alone and in combination with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is evaluated, and the incidence and outcome of gastrointestinal failure is described relative to the GIF score.
Methods
A total of 264 subsequently hospitalized patients, who were mechanically ventilated on admission and stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for longer than 24 hours, were prospectively studied. GIF score was documented daily as follows: 0 = normal gastrointestinal function; 1 = enteral feeding with under 50% of calculated needs or no feeding 3 days after abdominal surgery; 2 = FI or IAH; 3 = FI and IAH; and 4 = abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Admission parameters and mean GIF and SOFA scores for the first 3 days were used to predict ICU outcome.
Results
FI developed in 58.3%, IAH in 27.3%, and both together in 22.7% of patients. The mean GIF score for the first 3 days in the ICU was identified as an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio = 3.02, 95% confidence interval = 1.63 to 5.59; P < 0.001). The GIF score integrated into the SOFA score allowed better prediction of ICU mortality than did the SOFA score alone, and was an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 1.74; P < 0.001). The development of gastrointestinal failure (FI plus IAH) was associated with significantly higher ICU and 90-day mortality.
Conclusion
The GIF score is useful for classifying information on the gastrointestinal system. The mean GIF score during the first 3 days in the ICU had high prognostic value for ICU mortality. Development of gastrointestinal failure is associated with significantly impaired outcome.
doi:10.1186/cc6958
PMCID: PMC2575570  PMID: 18625051
24.  Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical 
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.
doi:10.1155/2012/151650
PMCID: PMC3290801  PMID: 22454763
25.  Temporal differences in the development of organ dysfunction based on two different approaches to induce experimental intra-abdominal hypertension in swine 
Annals of Intensive Care  2012;2(Suppl 1):S16.
Background
Intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] occurs frequently among critically ill patients and is associated with increased mortality and organ failure. Two porcine models of IAH that cause abdominal compartment syndrome [ACS] with organ dysfunction were created. We investigated whether the two methods used to create IAH - CO2 pneumoperitoneum or adding volume to the intra-abdominal space - exerted different impacts on the temporal development of organ dysfunction.
Methods
Twenty-four 40-kg female pigs were allocated to four groups: 25 mmHg IAH with CO2 pneumoperitoneum (n = 8), >20 mmHg IAH caused by addition of volume (n = 8), and two corresponding sham groups (each n = 4). The two sham groups were later pooled into one control group (n = 8). The animals were monitored for 12 h. Repeated serial measurements were taken of group differences over time and analyzed using analysis of variance.
Results
Thirty-eight percent of the animals (n = 3) in each intervention group died near the end of the 12-h experiment. Both intervention groups experienced kidney impairment: increased creatinine concentration (P <0.0001), anuria (P = 0.0005), hyperkalemia (P <0.0001), decreased abdominal perfusion pressure, and decreased dynamic lung compliance. CO2 pneumoperitoneum animals developed hypercapnia (P <0.0001) and acidosis (P <0.0001).
Conclusions
Both methods caused ACS and organ dysfunction within 12 h. Hypercapnia and acidosis developed in the CO2 pneumoperitoneum group.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-S1-S16
PMCID: PMC3390305  PMID: 24266989
multiple organ failure; multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; swine; acute kidney injury; acidosis; abdomen.

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