Abdominal compartment syndrome has been described in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, but its clinical impact remains unclear. We therefore studied patient factors associated with the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), the incidence of organ failure associated with IAH, and the effect on outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
We studied all patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of SAP in a 4 year period. The incidence of IAH (defined as intra-abdominal pressure ≥ 15 mmHg) was recorded. The occurrence of organ dysfunction during ICU stay was recorded, as was the length of stay in the ICU and outcome.
The analysis included 44 patients, and IAP measurements were obtained from 27 patients. IAH was found in 21 patients (78%). The maximum IAP in these patients averaged 27 mmHg. APACHE II and Ranson scores on admission were higher in patients who developed IAH. The incidence of organ dysfunction was high in patients with IAH: respiratory failure 95%, cardiovascular failure 91%, and renal failure 86%. Mortality in the patients with IAH was not significantly higher compared to patients without IAH (38% versus 16%, p = 0.63), but patients with IAH stayed significantly longer in the ICU and in the hospital. Four patients underwent abdominal decompression because of abdominal compartment syndrome, three of whom died in the early postoperative course.
IAH is a frequent finding in patients admitted to the ICU because of SAP, and is associated with a high occurrence rate of organ dysfunction. Mortality is high in patients with IAH, and because the direct causal relationship between IAH and organ dysfunction is not proven in patients with SAP, surgical decompression should not routinely be performed.
To update the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) consensus definitions and management statements relating to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
We conducted systematic or structured reviews to identify relevant studies relating to IAH or ACS. Updated consensus definitions and management statements were then derived using a modified Delphi method and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines, respectively. Quality of evidence was graded from high (A) to very low (D) and management statements from strong RECOMMENDATIONS (desirable effects clearly outweigh potential undesirable ones) to weaker SUGGESTIONS (potential risks and benefits of the intervention are less clear).
In addition to reviewing the consensus definitions proposed in 2006, the WSACS defined the open abdomen, lateralization of the abdominal musculature, polycompartment syndrome, and abdominal compliance, and proposed an open abdomen classification system. RECOMMENDATIONS included intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement, avoidance of sustained IAH, protocolized IAP monitoring and management, decompressive laparotomy for overt ACS, and negative pressure wound therapy and efforts to achieve same-hospital-stay fascial closure among patients with an open abdomen. SUGGESTIONS included use of medical therapies and percutaneous catheter drainage for treatment of IAH/ACS, considering the association between body position and IAP, attempts to avoid a positive fluid balance after initial patient resuscitation, use of enhanced ratios of plasma to red blood cells and prophylactic open abdominal strategies, and avoidance of routine early biologic mesh use among patients with open abdominal wounds. NO RECOMMENDATIONS were possible regarding monitoring of abdominal perfusion pressure or the use of diuretics, renal replacement therapies, albumin, or acute component-parts separation.
Although IAH and ACS are common and frequently associated with poor outcomes, the overall quality of evidence available to guide development of RECOMMENDATIONS was generally low. Appropriately designed intervention trials are urgently needed for patients with IAH and ACS.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-013-2906-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Intra-abdominal hypertension; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Critical care; Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation; Evidence-based medicine; World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
AIM: To study retrospectively the influence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with early acute pancreatitis (AP) (during the first week after admission) on physiological functions, and the association of the presence of IAH/ACS and outcome.
METHODS: Patients (n = 74) with AP recruited in this study were divided into two groups according to intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) determined by indirect measurement using the transvesical route via Foley bladder catheter during the first week after admission. Patients (n = 44) with IAP ≥ 12 mmHg were assigned in IAH group, and the remaining patients (n = 30) with IAP < 12 mmHg in normal IAP group. For analysis of the influence of IAH/ACS on organ function and outcome, the physiological parameters and the occurrence of organ dysfunction during intensive care unit (ICU) stay were recorded, as were the incidences of pancreatic infection and in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: IAH within the first week after admission was found in 44 patients (59.46%). Although the APACHE II scores on admission and the Ranson scores within 48 h after hospitalization were elevated in IAH patients in early stage, they did not show the statistically significant differences from patients with normal IAP within a week after admission (16.18 ± 3.90 vs 15.70 ± 4.25, P = 0.616; 3.70 ± 0.93 vs 3.47 ± 0.94, P = 0.285, respectively). ACS in early AP was recorded in 20 patients (27.03%). During any 24-h period of the first week after admission, the recorded mean IAP correlated significantly with the Marshall score calculated at the same time interval in IAH group (r = 0.635, P < 0.001). Although ACS patients had obvious amelioration in physiological variables within 24 h after decompression, the incidences of pancreatitic infection, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death in the patients with ACS were significantly higher than that in other patients without ACS (pancreatitic infection: 60.0% vs 7.4%, P < 0.001; septic shock: 70.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001; MODS: 90.0% vs 31.5%, P < 0.001; mortality: 75.0% vs 3.7%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: IAH/ACS is a frequent finding in patients admitted to the ICU because of AP. Patients with IAP at approximately 10-12 mmHg and early signs of changes in physiologic variables should be seriously considered for urgent decompression to improve survival.
Acute pancreatitis; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Intra-abdominal pressure; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Organ dysfunction
Although intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill adults, it remains unknown if prevention or treatment of these conditions improves patient outcomes. We sought to identify evidence-based risk factors for IAH and ACS in order to guide identification of the source population for future IAH/ACS treatment trials and to stratify patients into risk groups based on prognosis.
We searched electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database from 1950 until January 21, 2013) and reference lists of included articles for observational studies reporting risk factors for IAH or ACS among adult ICU patients. Identified risk factors were summarized using formal narrative synthesis techniques alongside a random effects meta-analysis.
Among 1,224 citations identified, 14 studies enrolling 2,500 patients were included. The 38 identified risk factors for IAH and 24 for ACS could be clustered into three themes and eight subthemes. Large volume crystalloid resuscitation, the respiratory status of the patient, and shock/hypotension were common risk factors for IAH and ACS that transcended across presenting patient populations. Risk factors with pooled evidence supporting an increased risk for IAH among mixed ICU patients included obesity (four studies; odds ratio (OR) 5.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.92 to 13.58), sepsis (two studies; OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.23), abdominal surgery (four studies; OR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.85), ileus (two studies; OR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.98), and large volume fluid resuscitation (two studies; OR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.63). Among trauma and surgical patients, large volume crystalloid resuscitation and markers of shock/hypotension and metabolic derangement/organ failure were risk factors for IAH and ACS while increased disease severity scores and elevated creatinine were risk factors for ACS in severe acute pancreatitis patients.
Although several IAH/ACS risk factors transcend across presenting patient diagnoses, some appear specific to the population under study. As our findings were somewhat limited by included study methodology, the risk factors reported in this study should be considered candidate risk factors until confirmed by a large prospective multi-centre observational study.
There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for gastrointestinal failure in critically ill patients. In the present study we tested whether the occurrence of food intolerance (FI) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), combined in a 5-grade scoring system for assessment of gastrointestinal function (the Gastrointestinal Failure [GIF] score), predicts mortality. The prognostic value of the GIF score alone and in combination with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is evaluated, and the incidence and outcome of gastrointestinal failure is described relative to the GIF score.
A total of 264 subsequently hospitalized patients, who were mechanically ventilated on admission and stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for longer than 24 hours, were prospectively studied. GIF score was documented daily as follows: 0 = normal gastrointestinal function; 1 = enteral feeding with under 50% of calculated needs or no feeding 3 days after abdominal surgery; 2 = FI or IAH; 3 = FI and IAH; and 4 = abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Admission parameters and mean GIF and SOFA scores for the first 3 days were used to predict ICU outcome.
FI developed in 58.3%, IAH in 27.3%, and both together in 22.7% of patients. The mean GIF score for the first 3 days in the ICU was identified as an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio = 3.02, 95% confidence interval = 1.63 to 5.59; P < 0.001). The GIF score integrated into the SOFA score allowed better prediction of ICU mortality than did the SOFA score alone, and was an independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 1.74; P < 0.001). The development of gastrointestinal failure (FI plus IAH) was associated with significantly higher ICU and 90-day mortality.
The GIF score is useful for classifying information on the gastrointestinal system. The mean GIF score during the first 3 days in the ICU had high prognostic value for ICU mortality. Development of gastrointestinal failure is associated with significantly impaired outcome.
Conservative treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) may be associated with development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), deterioration of visceral perfusion and increased risk of multiple organ dysfunction. Fluid balance is essential for maintenance of adequate organ perfusion and control of the third space. Timely application of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH) may help in balancing fluid replacement and removal of cytokines from the blood and tissue compartments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether CVVH can be recommended as a constituent of conservative treatment in patients with SAP who suffer IAH.
A retrospective analysis of 10 years' experience with low-flow CVVH application in patients with SAP who develop IAH was. In all patients, measurement of the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was done indirectly through the urinary bladder. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was calculated for severity assessment, and necrotizing forms were verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Dynamics of IAP were analysed in parallel with signs of systemic inflammation, dynamics of C-reactive protein and cumulative fluid balance. All variables, complication rate and outcomes were analysed in the whole group and in patients with IAH (CVVH and no-CVVH groups).
From the total of 130 patients, 75 were treated with application of CVVH and 55 without CVVH. Late hospitalization was associated with application of CVVH. Infection was observed in 28.5% of cases regardless of the type of treatment received, with a similar necessity for surgical intervention. IAH was observed in 68.5% of patients, and they had significantly higher SOFA scores compared to patients with normal IAP. CVVH treatment resulted in negative cumulative fluid balance starting from day 5 in patients with IAH, whereas without this treatment, fluid balance remained increasingly positive after a week. Finally, application of CVVH resulted in a lower infection rate and shorter hospital stay, 26.7% vs. 37.9%, and a median of 32 (interquartile range (IQR) = 60 to 12) days vs. 24 (IQR = 34 to 4) days, p = 0.05, comparing CVVH vs. no-CVVH group. Mortality rate reached 11.7% in the CVVH group and 13.8% in the no-CVVH group.
Early application of CVVH facilitates negative fluid balance and reduction of IAH in patients with SAP; it is not associated with increased infection or mortality rate and may reduce hospital stay.
Several decades ago, the beneficial effects of goal-directed therapy, which include decompressive laparotomy (DL) and open abdomen procedures in cases of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in children, were proven in the context of closures of abdominal wall defects and large-for-size organ transplantations. Different neonatologic and pediatric disease patterns are also known to be capable of increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Nevertheless, a considerable knowledge transfer regarding such risk factors has hardly taken place. When left undetected and untreated, IAH threatens to evolve into abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), which is accompanied by a mortality rate of up to 60% in children. Therefore, the present study looks at the recognition and knowledge of IAH/ACS among German pediatric intensivists.
In June 2010, a questionnaire was mailed to the heads of pediatric intensive care units of 205 German pediatric hospitals.
The response rate was 62%. At least one case of IAH was reported by 36% of respondents; at least one case of ACS, by 25%. Compared with adolescents, younger critically ill children appeared to develop IAH/ACS more often. Routine measurements of IAP were said to be performed by 20% of respondents. Bladder pressure was used most frequently (96%) to assess IAP. Some respondents (17%) only measured IAP in cases of organ dysfunction and failure. In 2009, the year preceding this study, 21% of respondents claimed to have performed a DL. Surgical decompression was indicated if signs of organ dysfunction were present. This was also done in cases of at least grade III IAH (IAP > 15 mmHg) without organ impairment.
Although awareness among pediatricians appears to have been increasing over the last decade, definitions and guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of IAH/ACS are not applied uniformly. This variability could express an ever present lack of awareness and solid prospective data.
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; children; intensive care unit; questionnaire; decompressive laparotomy.
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. The present study analyzed the clinical significance of IAH in surgical patients with severe sepsis.
This was a prospective study carried out in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured three times a day via a urinary catheter filled with 25 mL of saline. IAH was defined as an IAP ≥ 12 mmHg, and the peak IAP was recorded as the IAP for the day. Data were analyzed in terms of IAH development and the IAH duration.
Of the 46 patients enrolled in the study, 42 developed IAH while in the SICU. The development of IAH aggravated the clinical outcomes; such as longer SICU stay, requirement of ventilator support, and delayed initiation of enteral feeding (EF). The IAH duration showed a significant correlation with pulmonary, renal, and cardiovascular function, and enteral feeding. The IAH duration was an independent predictor of 60-day mortality (odds ratio: 1.196; p = 0.014).
The duration of IAH is a more important prognostic factor than the development of IAH; thus every effort should be made to reduce the IAH duration in critically ill patients.
Severe sepsis; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Intra-abdominal pressure; Enteral feeding, abdominal perfusion pressure
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have detrimental effects on all organ systems and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Intra-bladder measurement of the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is currently the gold standard. However, IAH is not always indicative of intestinal ischemia, which is an early and rapidly developing complication. Sensitive biomarkers for intestinal ischemia are needed to be able to intervene before damage becomes irreversible. Gut wall integrity loss, including epithelial cell disruption and tight junctions breakdown, is an early event in intestinal damage. Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein (I-FABP) is excreted in urine and blood specifically from damaged intestinal epithelial cells. Claudin-3 is a specific protein which is excreted in urine following disruption of intercellular tight junctions. This study aims to investigate if I-FABP and Claudin-3 can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying patients at risk for IAP-related complications.
In a multicenter, prospective cohort study 200 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with at least two risk factors for IAH as defined by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) will be included. Patients in whom an intra-bladder IAP measurement is contra-indicated or impossible and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases that may affect I-FABP levels will be excluded. The IAP will be measured using an intra-bladder technique. During the subsequent 72 hours, the IAP measurement will be repeated every six hours. At these time points, a urine and serum sample will be collected for measurement of I-FABP and Claudin-3 levels. Clinical outcome of patients during their stay at the intensive care unit will be monitored using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score.
Successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the eventual role of the biomarkers I-FABP and Claudin-3 in predicting the risk of IAP-associated adverse outcome. This may aid early (surgical) intervention.
The trial is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR4638).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13049-015-0088-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome; Biomarker; Critical care medicine; Intensive Care Unit; Intestinal integrity; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Intra-abdominal pressure; Risk factors
Studies have documented the impact of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on virtually every organ. However, it still remains strangely underdiagnosed. The aims of the study were to assess, in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy, whether intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, to evaluate the effects of IAH, and to identify hidden cases of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Materials and Methods:
The study comprised
197 patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. IAP was measured preoperatively and then postoperatively at 0, 6, and 24 hours. Duration of hospital stay, occurrence of burst abdomen, and mortality were noted as outcomes.
At admission, incidence of IAH was 80%. No significant association was found between IAP and occurrence of burst abdomen (P > 0.1). IAP was found to be a significant predictor of mortality in patients undergoing laparotomy (P < 0.001). Elevated IAP was found to affect all the organ systems adversely. The incidence of post-op ACS was 3.05% in the general population and 13.16% in trauma patients. The mortality rate for this subgroup was 100%.
IAP is a significant predictor of mortality in patients undergoing laparotomy. IAH has detrimental effects on various organ systems. A more frequent monitoring with prompt decompression may be helpful in decreasing the mortality rate. Further studies are required to establish a screening protocol in patients undergoing laparotomy to detect and manage cases of IAH and ACS.
Abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal hypertension; intra-abdominal pressure
Critically ill surgical patients frequently develop intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) leading to abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) with subsequent high mortality. We compared two temporary abdominal closure systems (Bogota bag and vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device) in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) control.
This prospective study with a historical control included 66 patients admitted to a medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care referral center (Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy) from January 2006 to April 2009. The control group included patients consecutively treated with the Bogota bag (Jan 2006-Oct 2007), whereas the prospective group was comprised of patients treated with a VAC. All patients underwent abdominal decompressive surgery. Groups were compared based upon their IAP, SOFA score, serial arterial lactates, the duration of having their abdomen open, the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) along with length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality. Data were collected from the time of abdominal decompression until the end of pressure monitoring.
The Bogota and VAC groups were similar with regards to demography, admission diagnosis, severity of illness, and IAH grading. The VAC system was more effective in controlling IAP (P < 0.01) and normalizing serum lactates (P < 0.001) as compared to the Bogota bag during the first 24 hours after surgical decompression. There was no significant difference between the SOFA scores. When compared to the Bogota, the VAC group had a faster abdominal closure time (4.4 vs 6.6 days, P = 0.025), shorter duration of MV (7.1 vs 9.9 days, P = 0.039), decreased ICU length of stay (LOS) (13.3 vs 19.2 days, P = 0.024) and hospital LOS (28.5 vs 34.9 days; P = 0.019). Mortality rate did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Patients with abdominal compartment syndrome who were treated with VAC decompression had a faster abdominal closure rate and earlier discharge from the ICU as compared to similar patients treated with the Bogota bag.
The occurrence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), as well as its promoting factors in cardiac surgery, has been poorly explored. The aim of the present study was to characterize intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) variations in patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures, and to identify the risk factors for IAH in this setting.
All consecutive adult patients requiring postoperative intensive care unit admission for >24 h were enrolled. Demographic data, pre-existing comorbidities, type and duration of surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) use and duration, perioperative IAP, organ function and fluid balance were recorded. IAH was defined as a sustained increase in IAP >12 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression and stepwise analyses identified the baseline and perioperative variables associated with IAH.
Of 69 patients, 22 (31.8%) developed IAH. In the logistic model, baseline IAP, high central venous pressure, vasoactive drugs administration, positive fluid balance, AKI, CPB, total sequential organ failure assessment score and age were all promoting factors for IAH (Hosmer–Lemeshow χ2 = 7.23; P = 0.843). Baseline IAP, high central venous pressure and positive fluid balance were independent risk factors for IAH in the stepwise analysis. The ROC curve analysis, obtained by plotting the occurrence of IAH vs the IAP baseline value, showed an AUC of 0.75 (SE 0.064; 99% CI 0.62–0.87; P < 0.0001). The best IAP cut-off value was at 8 mmHg (sensitivity 63% and specificity 76%). Considering on- and off-pump surgery groups, fluid balance and vasoactive drugs use were significantly higher in the on-pump group. Linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation (P = 0.0001) between IAP changes and fluid balance only in the on-pump group.
IAH develops in one-third of cardiac surgery patients and is strongly associated with higher baseline IAP values, higher central venous pressure, positive fluid balance, extracorporeal circulation, use of vasoactive drugs and AKI. Determinants of IAH should be accurately assessed before and after surgery, and patients presenting risk factors must be monitored properly during the perioperative period. In this context, the baseline value of IAP may be a valuable and early warning parameter for IAH occurrence.
Intra-abdominal pressure; Abdominal hypertension; Cardiac surgery; Cardiac surgical patients; Acute kidney injury
Data on intra-abdominal hypertension [IAH] and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome [ACS] due to neurological insults are limited.
This was a prospective observational study conducted between January 2010 and January 2011 in the neurological ICU [NICU]. Forty-one consecutive patients with sellar region tumors [SRT] were enrolled into the study. If conservative therapy was ineffective in patients with ACS, thoracic epidural anesthesia [EA] was performed. Primary endpoint was defined as the efficacy of conservative treatment and EA in patients with IAH and ACS; secondary endpoint, the influence of IAH and ACS on outcomes.
Of the 41 patients, 13 (31.7%) had normal intra-abdominal pressure and 28 (68.3%) developed IAH, of whom 9 (22%) had ACS (group II). On average, IAH developed on the second postoperative day, while ACS, between the third and the fifth day. Multiple organ dysfunction developed in 3 (23.1%) patients of group I and in 23 (82%) patients of group II (p = 0.0003). Ileus due to gastrointestinal dysmotility was present in 6 (46.2%) patients of group I and in all patients of group II (p = 0.0001). Significant risk factors for ileus were diencephalon dysfunction (whole group - in 33 patients (80.5%); group I - in 6 patients (46.2%); group II - in 27 patients (96.4%), p = 0.0002) and sepsis (whole group - in 8 patients (19.5%); group I - no cases; group II - in 8 patients (28.6%), p = 0.03). Conservative treatment was effective in the majority of patients (78.9%) with IAH and only in 3 (33%) patients with ACS. Thoracic EA was performed in four patients with ACS with success. Length of stay in the NICU was 6.5 ± 4.6 days in group I and 24.1 ± 25.7 (p = 0.02) days in group II. Five out of nine (55.6%) patients with ACS died. None of these patients received EA. All patients with EA had favorable outcomes.
The development of IAH is common after SRT surgery. If conservative treatment is ineffective, EA can be considered in patients with secondary ACS. Further studies are warranted.
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; epidural anesthesia; neurocritical care; sellar region tumor; ileus; postoperative complication.
Background. We aimed to describe the incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and related outcome in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients. Methods. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and gastric residual volumes were measured at least twice daily. IAH was defined as a mean daily value of IAP ≥ 12 mmHg. Results. 398 patients were monitored for all together 2987 days. GI symptom(s) occurred in 80.2% patients. 152 (38.2%) patients developed IAH. Majority (93.4%) of patients with IAH had GI symptoms. The more severe IAH was associated with the higher number of concomitant GI symptoms (P < .001). 142 (35.7%) patients developed both IAH and at least one GI symptom at any time in ICU, and in 77 patients they occurred simultaneously on the same day. This subgroup had the highest ICU mortality (21.8%). In contrast, the small group of patients presenting only IAH, but not GI symptoms (10 patients), had no lethal outcome. Three patients (4.4%) died without showing either IAH or GI symptoms. Conclusions. GI symptoms and IAH often, but not always, occur together. The patients having IAH solely without developing GI symptoms have rather good outcome.
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is considered a predisposing factor for increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), especially when positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is applied or in the presence of auto-PEEP. So far, no prospective data exists on the effect of MV on IAP. The study aims to look on the effects of MV on IAP in a group of critically ill patients with no other risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH).
An observational multicenter study was conducted on a total of 100 patients divided into two groups: 50 patients without MV and 50 patients with MV. All patients were admitted to the intensive care units of the Medical and Surgical Research Centre, the Carlos J. Finlay Hospital, the Julio Trigo University Hospital, and the Calixto García Hospital, in Havana, Cuba between July 2000 and December 2004. The IAP was measured twice daily on admission using a standard transurethral technique. IAH was considered if IAP was greater than 12 mmHg. Correlations were made between IAP and body mass index (BMI), diagnostic category, gender, age, and ventilatory parameters.
The mean IAP in patients on MV was 6.7 ± 4.1 mmHg and significantly higher than in patients without MV (3.6 ± 2.4 mmHg, p < 0.0001). This difference was maintained regardless of gender, age, BMI, and diagnosis. The use of MV and BMI were independent predictors for IAH for the whole population, while male gender, assisted ventilation mode, and the use of PEEP were independent factors associated with IAH in patients on MV.
In this study, MV was identified as an independent predisposing factor for the development of IAH. Critically ill patients, which are on MV, present with higher IAP values on admission and should be monitored very closely, especially if PEEP is applied, even when they have no other apparent risk factors for IAH.
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are increasingly recognized as potential complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ACS and IAH affect all body systems, most notably the cardiac, respiratory, renal, and neurologic systems. ACS/IAH affects blood flow to various organs and plays a significant role in the prognosis of the patients. Recognition of ACS/IAH, its risk factors and clinical signs can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated. Moreover, knowledge of the pathophysiology may help rationalize the therapeutic approach. We start this article with a brief historic review on ACS/IAH. Then, we present the definitions concerning parameters necessary in understanding ACS/IAH. Finally, pathophysiology aspects of both phenomena are presented, prior to exploring the various facets of ACS/IAH management.
Abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal hypertension; intra-abdominal pressure
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is defined as a sustained elevation in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) greater than or equal to 12 mmHg. IAH has been shown to cause organ derangements and dysfunction in the body. Objective screening of IAH is neither done early enough nor at all thus leading to significant morbidity and mortality among surgical patients. The epidemiology and outcome of IAH among surgical patients has not been documented in Uganda. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence and outcome of intra-abdominal hypertension among patients undergoing emergency laparotomy.
Prospective observational study, conducted from January to April 2015 among patients undergoing emergency laparotomy. Inclusion criteria was; age >7 yrs, scheduled for emergency laparotomy, able to lie supine. Exclusion Criteria: pregnant, failed urethral catheterization, known cardiac, renal and respiratory disorders. Consecutive sampling was used. IAP, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, Sp02, Serum creatinine, Serum urea, and Urine output were measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 0, 6, 24 and 48 h. IAH was defined as IAP > 12 mmHg on three consecutive readings 3 min apart.
In total 192 patients were enrolled. Mean age ± SD was 14.25 (±3.16) yrs in the paediatrics and 34.4(±13.72) yrs in the adults with male preponderance 65 and 80.7 % respectively. The prevalence of IAH was 25 % paediatrics and 17.4 % adults and the cumulative incidence after surgery was 20 % paediatrics and 21 % adults. In paediatrics, IAH was associated with mortality at 0 h postoperatively, RRR = 1:24, 95 % CI (1.371–560.178), p-value 0.048. In adults, the statistically significant outcomes associated with IAH were respiratory system dysfunction RRR1:2.783, p-value 0.023, 95 % CI (1.148–6.744) preoperatively and mortality RRR 1:2.933, p-value 0.034, 95 % CI (1.017–8.464) at 6 h, RRR 1:3.769, p-value 0.033, 95 % CI (1.113–12.760) at 24 h postoperatively.
The prevalence and incidence of IAH in the paediatrics and adults group in our study population were high. IAH was associated with mortality in both adult and paediatrics groups and respiratory system dysfunction in adult group. This calls for objective monitoring of intraabdominal pressure in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy with the aim of reducing associated mortality.
Intra-abdominal pressure; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Emergency laparotomy; Mortality
The aim of this prospective study is to examine the frequency and the severity of intra-abdominal hypertension in a mixed ICU of the University hospital.
A closed system for intravesical intermittent measurement of IAP was constructed.
The frequency and the severity of IAH were examined in the period from June 2009 to December 2012 in 240 ICU patients divided into 3 groups (patients submitted to elective surgery, emergency surgery, and medical patients) in the University Hospital. In the elective surgery group there was 12.5% IAH, while in the emergency group IAH was 43.75%, and in the medical patients it was 42.5%. There was no statistical significant difference in the frequency of IAH among the mixed population of patients we examined and those studied by other authors with the same type of population.
The standardized measurement of intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental for defining intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The measurement of intra-abdominal pressure should be a part of the basic monitoring of patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension. Our point of view is that before there are indications for a surgical decompression, less invasive treatment options should be optimized.
intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; intra-abdominal pressure
This survey was designed to clarify the current understanding and clinical management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH)/abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) among intensive care physicians in tertiary Chinese hospitals. A postal twenty-question questionnaire was sent to 141 physicians in different intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 108 (76.6%) questionnaires were returned. Among these, three quarters worked in combined medical-surgical ICUs and nearly 80% had primary training in internal or emergency medicine. Average ICU beds, annual admission, ICU length of stay, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, and mortality were 18.2 beds, 764.5 cases, 8.3 d, 19.4, and 21.1%, respectively. Of the respondents, 30.6% never measured intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Although the vast majority of the ICUs adopted the exclusively transvesicular method, the overwhelming majority (88.0%) only measured IAP when there was a clinical suspicion of IAH/ACS and only 29.3% measured either often or routinely. Moreover, 84.0% used the wrong priming saline volume while 88.0% zeroed at reference points which were not in consistence with the standard method for IAP monitoring recommended by the World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. ACS was suspected mainly when there was a distended abdomen (92%), worsening oliguria (80%), and increased ventilatory support requirement (68%). Common causes for IAH/ACS were “third-spacing from massive volume resuscitation in different settings” (88%), “intra-abdominal bleeding”, and “liver failure with ascites” (52% for both). Though 60% respondents would recommend surgical decompression when the IAP exceeded 25 mmHg, accompanied by signs of organ dysfunction, nearly three quarters of respondents preferred diuresis and dialysis. A total of 68% of respondents would recommend paracentesis in the treatment for ACS. In conclusion, urgent systematic education is absolutely necessary for most intensive care physicians in China to help to establish clear diagnostic criteria and appropriate management for these common, but life-threatening, diseases.
Questionnaire; Intra-abdominal pressure; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Decompression laparotomy; Abdominal compartment syndrome
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is seldom measured by default in intensive care patients. This review summarises the current evidence on the prevalence and risk factors of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) to assist the decision-making for IAP monitoring.
IAH occurs in 20% to 40% of intensive care patients. High body mass index (BMI), abdominal surgery, liver dysfunction/ascites, hypotension/vasoactive therapy, respiratory failure and excessive fluid balance are risk factors of IAH in the general ICU population. IAP monitoring is strongly supported in mechanically ventilated patients with severe burns, severe trauma, severe acute pancreatitis, liver failure or ruptured aortic aneurysms. The risk of developing IAH is minimal in mechanically ventilated patients with positive end-expiratory pressure < 10 cmH2O, PaO2/FiO2 > 300, and BMI < 30 and without pancreatitis, hepatic failure/cirrhosis with ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding or laparotomy and the use of vasopressors/inotropes on admission. In these patients, omitting IAP measurements might be considered.
In conclusions, clear guidelines to select the patients in whom IAP measurements should be performed cannot be given at present. In addition to IAP measurements in at-risk patients, a clinical assessment of the signs of IAH should be a part of every ICU patient's bedside evaluation, leading to prompt IAP monitoring in case of the slightest suspicion of IAH development.
intra-abdominal pressure; intra-abdominal hypertension; abdominal compartment syndrome; patient monitoring; intensive care; epidemiology.
The importance of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) in cirrhotic patients with septic shock is not well studied. We evaluated the relationship between IAP and APP and outcomes of cirrhotic septic patients, and assessed the ability of these measures compared to other common resuscitative endpoints to differentiate survivors from nonsurvivors.
This study was a post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and IAP were measured every 6 h in 61 cirrhotic septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit. APP was calculated as MAP - IAP. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) was defined as mean IAP ≥ 12 mmHg, and abdominal hypoperfusion as mean APP < 60 mmHg. Measured outcomes included ICU and hospital mortality, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and ventilator- and vasopressor-free days.
IAH prevalence on the first ICU day was 82%, and incidence in the first 7 days was 97%. Compared to patients with normal IAP, IAH patients had significantly higher ICU mortality (74.0% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.005), required more RRT (78.0% vs. 45.5%, p = 0.06) and had lower ventilator- and vasopressor-free days. On a multivariate logistic regression analysis, IAH was an independent predictor of both ICU mortality (odds ratio (OR), 12.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.92 to 77.31, p = 0.008) and need for RRT (OR, 6.78; 95% CI, 1.29 to 35.70, p = 0.02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, IAP (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74, p = 0.004), APP (AUC = 0.71, p = 0.01), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (AUC = 0.71, p = 0.02), but not MAP, differentiated survivors from nonsurvivors.
IAH is highly prevalent in cirrhotic patients with septic shock and is associated with increased ICU morbidity and mortality.
liver cirrhosis; sepsis; compartment syndrome; septic shock; ascites; mortality.
Severe burns are devastating injuries that result in considerable systemic inflammation and often require resuscitation with large volumes of fluid. The result of massive resuscitation is often raised intra-abdominal pressures leading to Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the secondary abdominal compartment syndrome. The objective of this study is to conduct (1) a 10 year retrospective study to investigate epidemiological factors contributing to burn injuries in Alberta, (2) to characterize fluid management and incidence of IAH and ACS and (3) to review fluid resuscitation with a goal to identify optimal strategies for fluid resuscitation.
A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of burn injuries from 1999.
Age, sex, date, mechanism of injury, location of incident, on scene vitals and GCS, type of transport to hospital and routing, ISS, presenting vitals and GCS, diagnoses, procedures, complications, hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and events surrounding the injury.
One hundred and seventy five patients (79.4% M, 20.6% F) were identified as having traumatic burn injuries with a mean ISS score of 21.8 (±8.3). The mean age was 41.6 (±17.5) (range 14-94) years. Nearly half (49.7%) of patients suffered their injuries at home, 17.7% were related to industrial incidents and 14.3% were MVC related. One hundred and ten patients required ICU admission. ICU LOS 18.5 (±8.8) days. Hospital LOS 38.0 (±37.8) days. The mean extent of burn injury was 31.4 (±20.9) % TBSA. Nearly half of the patients suffered inhalational injuries (mild 12.5%, moderate 13.7%, severe 9.1%). Thirty-nine (22.2%) of patients died from their injuries. Routine IAP monitoring began in September, 2005 with 15 of 28 patients having at least two IAP measurements. The mean IAP was 16.5 (±5.7) cm H2O (range: 1-40) with an average of 58 (±97) IAP measurements per patient. Those patients with IAP monitoring had an average TBSA of 35.0 (±16.0)%, ISS of 47.5 (±7.5). The mean 48 hr fluid balance was 25.6 (±11.1)L exceeding predicted Parkland formula estimates by 86 (±32)%.
Further evaluation of IAP monitoring is needed to further characterize IAP and fluid resuscitation in patients with burn injuries.
Abdominal compartment syndrome; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Burn; Fluid resuscitation; Critical care
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra abdominal hypertension(IAH) are common clinical findings in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). It is thought that an increased intra abdominal pressure(IAP) is associated with poor prognosis in SAP patients. But the detailed effect of IAH/ACS on different organ system is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SAP combined with IAH on hemodynamics, systemic oxygenation, and organ damage in a 12 h lasting porcine model.
Measurements and Methods
Following baseline registrations, a total of 30 animals were divided into 5 groups (6 animals in each group): SAP+IAP30 group, SAP+IAP20 group, SAP group, IAP30 group(sham-operated but without SAP) and sham-operated group. We used a N2 pneumoperitoneum to induce different levels of IAH and retrograde intra-ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate to induce SAP. The investigation period was 12 h. Hemodynamic parameters (CO, HR, MAP, CVP), urine output, oxygenation parameters(e.g., SvO2, PO2, PaCO2), peak inspiratory pressure, as well as serum parameters (e.g., ALT, amylase, lactate, creatinine) were recorded. Histological examination of liver, intestine, pancreas, and lung was performed.
Cardiac output significantly decreased in the SAP+IAH animals compared with other groups. Furthermore, AST, creatinine, SUN and lactate showed similar increasing tendency paralleled with profoundly decrease in SvO2. The histopathological analyses also revealed higher grade injury of liver, intestine, pancreas and lung in the SAP+IAH groups. However, few differences were found between the two SAP+IAH groups with different levels of IAP.
Our newly developed porcine SAP+IAH model demonstrated that there were remarkable effects on global hemodynamics, oxygenation and organ function in response to sustained IAH of 12 h combined with SAP. Moreover, our model should be helpful to study the mechanisms of IAH/ACS-induced exacerbation and to optimize the treatment strategies for counteracting the development of organ dysfunction.
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function.
Intra-abdominal pressure; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Abdominal perfusion pressure
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is being increasingly reported in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) with worsened outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) as a marker of severity in the entire spectrum of acute pancreatitis and to ascertain the relationship between IAP and development of complications in patients with SAP.
IAP was measured via the transvesical route by measurements performed at admission, once after controlling pain and then every 4 hours. Data were collected on the length of the hospital stay, the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiorgan failure, the extent of necrosis, the presence of infection, pleural effusion, and mortality.
In total, 40 patients were enrolled and followed up for 30 days. The development of IAH was exclusively associated with SAP with an APACHE II score ≥8 and/or persistent SIRS, identifying all patients who were going to develop abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The presence of ACS was associated with a significantly increased extent of pancreatic necrosis, multiple organ failure, and mortality. The mean admission IAP value did not differ significantly from the value obtained after pain control or the maximum IAP measured in the first 5 days.
IAH is reliable marker of severe disease, and patients who manifest organ failure, persistent SIRS, or an Acute Physiology and Chronic health Evaluation II score ≥8 should be offered IAP surveillance. Severe pancreatitis is not a homogenous entity.
Intra-abdominal hypertension; Pancreatitis