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1.  Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms 
With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.
doi:10.5041/RMMJ.10169
PMCID: PMC4222424  PMID: 25386351
Calreticulin; essential thrombocythemia; myeloproliferative neoplasms; primary myelofibrosis
2.  Loss of wild-type Jak2 allele enhances myeloid cell expansion and accelerates myelofibrosis in Jak2V617F knock-in mice 
Leukemia  2014;28(8):1627-1635.
JAK2V617F is the most common mutation found in Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Although a majority of MPN patients carry heterozygous JAK2V617F mutation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 9p involving the JAK2 locus has been observed in ~30% of MPN patients. JAK2V617F homozygosity via 9pLOH has been associated with more severe MPN phenotype. However, the contribution of 9pLOH in the pathogenesis of MPNs remains unclear. To investigate the roles of wild-type JAK2 (JAK2 WT) and JAK2V617F alleles in the development of MPNs, we have utilized conditional Jak2 knock-out and Jak2V617F knock-in mice and generated heterozygous, hemizygous and homozygous Jak2V617F mice. Whereas heterozygous Jak2V617F expression results in a polycythemia vera-like MPN in mice, loss of Jak2 WT allele in hemizygous or homozygous Jak2V617F mice results in markedly increased white blood cells, neutrophils, reticulocytes and platelets in the peripheral blood, and significantly larger spleen size compared with heterozygous Jak2V617F mice. Hemizygous or homozygous Jak2V617F mice also exhibit accelerated myelofibrosis compared with mice expressing heterozygous Jak2V617F. Together, these results suggest that loss of Jak2 WT allele increases the severity of the MPN. Thus, the Jak2 WT allele functions as a negative regulator of MPN induced by Jak2V617F.
doi:10.1038/leu.2014.52
PMCID: PMC4117831  PMID: 24480985
Myeloproliferative neoplasms; myelofibrosis; JAK2; JAK2V617F
3.  The C allele of JAK2 rs4495487 is an additional candidate locus that contributes to myeloproliferative neoplasm predisposition in the Japanese population 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:6.
Background
Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) characterized in most cases by a unique somatic mutation, JAK2 V617F. Recent studies revealed that JAK2 V617F occurs more frequently in a specific JAK2 haplotype, named JAK2 46/1 or GGCC haplotype, which is tagged by rs10974944 (C/G) and/or rs12343867 (T/C). This study examined the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the JAK2 locus on MPNs in a Japanese population.
Methods
We sequenced 24 JAK2 SNPs in Japanese patients with PV. We then genotyped 138 MPN patients (33 PV, 96 ET, and 9 PMF) with known JAK2 mutational status and 107 controls for a novel SNP, in addition to two SNPs known to be part of the 46/1 haplotype (rs10974944 and rs12343867). Associations with risk of MPN were estimated by odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression.
Results
A novel locus, rs4495487 (T/C), with a mutated T allele was significantly associated with PV. Similar to rs10974944 and rs12343867, rs4495487 in the JAK2 locus is significantly associated with JAK2-positive MPN. Based on the results of SNP analysis of the three JAK2 locus, we defined the "GCC genotype" as having at least one minor allele in each SNP (G allele in rs10974944, C allele in rs4495487, and C allele in rs12343867). The GCC genotype was associated with increased risk of both JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative MPN. In ET patients, leukocyte count and hemoglobin were significantly associated with JAK2 V617F, rather than the GCC genotype. In contrast, none of the JAK2 V617F-negative ET patients without the GCC genotype had thrombosis, and splenomegaly was frequently seen in this subset of ET patients. PV patients without the GCC genotype were significantly associated with high platelet count.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that the C allele of JAK2 rs4495487, in addition to the 46/1 haplotype, contributes significantly to the occurrence of JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative MPNs in the Japanese population. Because lack of the GCC genotype represents a distinct clinical-hematological subset of MPN, analyzing JAK2 SNPs and quantifying JAK2 V617F mutations will provide further insights into the molecular pathogenesis of MPN.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-6
PMCID: PMC3277458  PMID: 22251709
JAK2 V617F; SNP; myeloproliferative neoplasms
4.  Correlations between Janus Kinase 2 V617F Allele Burdens and Clinicohematologic Parameters in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(6):385-391.
Background
This study evaluated potential correlations between the allele burden of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation and clinicohematologic characteristics in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).
Methods
Clinical and hematologic features were reviewed for 103 MPN patients, including patients with polycythemia vera (PV, 22 patients), essential thrombocythemia (ET, 64 patients), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF, 17 patients). JAK2 V617F allele status and allele burdens were measured by allele-specific PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively.
Results
The JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in 95.5%, 68.8%, and 52.9% of PV, ET, and PMF patients, respectively. JAK2 V617F-positive ET patients were significantly older and exhibited higher neutrophil fractions, a higher frequency of thrombotic events, and a higher myelofibrosis rate than JAK2 V617F-negative patients (P <0.05). PV patients carried the highest mean T allele burden (66.0%±24.9%) compared with ET (40.5%±25.2%) and PMF patients (31.5%±37.0%) (P =0.00). No significant correlations were detected between V617F allele burden and patient age, white blood cell count, Hb, Hct, or the platelet count for PV, ET, or PMF patients. ET patients with organomegaly had a higher JAK2 V617F allele burden (53.4%±23.7%) than patients without organomegaly (35.6%±24.3%) (P =0.03).
Conclusions
The JAK2 V617F mutational status and its allele burden correlate with the clinicohematologic phenotypes of ET patients, including older age, higher neutrophil count, and greater rates of organomegaly, thrombotic events, and myelofibrosis. For PV and PMF patients, larger-scale studies involving more MPN patients are needed.
doi:10.3343/alm.2012.32.6.385
PMCID: PMC3486931  PMID: 23130336
Janus kinase 2; Allele; Myeloproliferative neoplasm
5.  MPLW515L Is a Novel Somatic Activating Mutation in Myelofibrosis with Myeloid Metaplasia  
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(7):e270.
Background
The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF). Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR).
Methods and Findings
DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L) in 9% (4/45) of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9–4.0 × 10 12/L), marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis.
Conclusions
Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) exhibits certain features of human MF, including extramedullary hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, and megakaryocytic proliferation. Further analysis of positive and negative regulators of the JAK-STAT pathway is warranted in JAK2V617F-negative MPD.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF) is one of a group of chronic blood disorders, known as chronic myeloproliferative disorders. These disorders sometimes turn into acute leukemia. The main abnormality in myelofibrosis is for the bone marrow to become filled with fibrous (scar) tissue (hence the name myelofibrosis), which stops it from producing normal blood cells efficiently. In addition, the white blood cells that remain are abnormal (that is, metaplastic). The clinical effect of these abnormalities are that patients are anemic (they have low numbers of red cells), are more likely to get infections because of the abnormal white cells which cannot fight infections normally, and may bleed more easily because of a lack of the platelets that help the blood to clot. Scientists who study this disorder believe that the disease starts from just one abnormal cell, which divides to replace all the other cells—that is, all the abnormal cells are part of one clone.
Why Was This Study Done?
In two similar diseases, polycythemia vera (in which the bone marrow produces too many red blood cells) and essential thrombocytosis (in which the bone marrow produces too many platelets), and in some patients with MF, scientists have found genetic changes which seem to trigger these diseases. However, there are some patients with MF in which no abnormal gene has been found. The scientists here wanted to look at other genes to see if they could find any changes that might trigger MF.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
They decoded the DNA sequence of three genes that are known to be involved in how blood cells develop for 45 patients with MF. They looked at DNA from white blood cells, and also from normal cheek cells for comparison. They found that in four of the 45 patients the DNA in the bone marrow, but not the cheek, carried a mutation in a gene for the thrombopoietin receptor (also called MPL). This gene is necessary for the cells that make platelets to grow correctly. The mutation was not present in any samples from patients with diseases related to MF, nor in 270 normal samples. The mutation that was identified was at position 515 in the MPL gene sequence, hence the name MPLW515L—the W and the L are the shorthand way of indicating exactly which change occurred. The change meant that the gene became abnormally active. The researchers tested the effect of the abnormal gene by putting it into cells grown in culture in the laboratory; they found that it made the cells grow more than was normal. In addition, when cells with the abnormal gene were put into mice, the mice developed a blood disorder similar to that seen in humans with MF.
What Do These Findings Mean?
It seems likely that the genetic change that has been identified here is responsible for the MF that develops in some patients. The MPL gene is known to be part of a pathway of genes that control how certain blood cells develop. However, it is not yet clear exactly how the genetic change found here causes the blood cells to grow abnormally, or how it causes the other clinical effects of MF. Further work will also need to be done to see if it is possible to develop drugs that can act on this gene mutation, or on the other genes that it affects so as to return the cells to normal.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030270.
• MedlinePlus, a Web site of the US National Library of Health, has pages of information on myelofibrosis and related diseases
• The National Cancer Institute, which funds research into many cancers, has information for patients on myelofibrosis, including information on clinical trials
• The MPD Foundation has information for patients with myelofibrosis and related diseases
Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via a mutation - MPLW515L- in the thrombopoietin receptor seems to have a role in the pathogenesis of some patients with myelofibrosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030270
PMCID: PMC1502153  PMID: 16834459
6.  Intrinsic resistance to JAK2 inhibition in myelofibrosis 
Purpose
Recent results have demonstrated that myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are strongly associated with constitutive activation of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase. However, JAK2 inhibitors currently approved or under development for treating myeloproliferative neoplasms do not selectively deplete the malignant clone, and the inhibition of activity of the drug target (JAK2) has not been rigorously evaluated in clinical studies. Therefore in this study we developed an in vitro assay to gain insight into how effectively JAK2 activity is inhibited in patient samples.
Experimental Design
We treated primary cells from normal donors and patients with MPN with JAK2 inhibitors and measured phosphorylation of downstream targets STAT5 and STAT3 by flow cytometry. Obtained results were next correlated with JAK2 V617F allele burden and plasma cytokines level.
Results
We observed a dose-dependent decrease in pSTAT5 and pSTAT3 in ex vivo treated granulocytes. However, phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5 in cells from patients with myelofibrosis was significantly less inhibited when compared to cells from patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and normal donors. Sensitivity to inhibition did not correlate with JAK2 V617F clonal burden. Mixing studies using plasma from patients with myelofibrosis did not transfer resistance to sensitive cells. Likewise, no single cytokine measured appeared to account for the observed pattern of resistance. Taken together these observations suggest that there are cell intrinsic mechanisms that define a priori resistance to JAK2 inhibition in myelofibrosis, and the lesion is localized upstream of STAT3 and STAT5.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1907
PMCID: PMC3618591  PMID: 23386690
JAK2 inhibition; myeloproliferative neoplasms; biomarkers; phospho-specific flow cytometry
7.  A highly specific q-RT-PCR assay to address the relevance of the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F expression levels and control genes in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms 
Annals of Hematology  2013;93(4):609-616.
In Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms, the quantification of the JAK2V617F transcripts may provide some advantages over the DNA allele burden determination. We developed a q-RT-PCR to assess the JAK2WT and JAK2V617F mRNA expression in 105 cases (23 donors, 13 secondary polycythemia, 22 polycythemia vera (PV), 38 essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 9 primary myelofibrosis (PMF)). Compared with the standard allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO)-PCR technique, our assay showed a 100 % concordance rate detecting the JAK2V617F mutation in 22/22 PV (100 %), 29/38 (76.3 %) ET, and 5/9 (55.5 %) PMF cases, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.01 %. Comparing DNA and RNA samples, we found that the JAK2V617F mutational ratios were significantly higher at the RNA level both in PV (p = 0.005) and ET (p = 0.001) samples. In PV patients, JAK2WT expression levels positively correlated with the platelets (PLTs) (p = 0.003) whereas a trend to negative correlation was observed with the Hb levels (p = 0.051). JAK2V617F-positive cases showed the lowest JAK2WT and ABL1 mRNA expression levels. In all the samples, the expression pattern of beta-glucoronidase (GUSB) was more homogeneous than that of ABL1 or β2 microglobulin (B2M). Using GUSB as normalizator gene, a significant increase of the JAK2V617F mRNA levels was seen in two ET patients at time of progression to PV. In conclusion, the proposed q-RT-PCR is a sensitive and accurate method to quantify the JAK2 mutational status that can also show clinical correlations suggesting the impact of the residual amount of the JAK2WT allele on the Ph− MPN disease phenotype. Our observations also preclude the use of ABL1 as a housekeeping gene for these neoplasms.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00277-013-1920-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00277-013-1920-0
PMCID: PMC3945640  PMID: 24173087
Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms; JAK2WT level; JAK2V617F level; Housekeeping gene; q-RT-PCR
8.  mTOR Inhibitors Alone and in Combination with JAK2 Inhibitors Effectively Inhibit Cells of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54826.
Background
Dysregulated signaling of the JAK/STAT pathway is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), usually associated with JAK2V617F mutation. Recent clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors showed significant improvements in splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms in patients with myelofibrosis but meaningful molecular responses were not documented. Accordingly, there remains a need for exploring new treatment strategies of MPN. A potential additional target for treatment is represented by the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that has been found constitutively activated in MPN cells; proof-of-evidence of efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 has been obtained recently in a Phase I/II trial in patients with myelofibrosis. The aim of the study was to characterize the effects in vitro of mTOR inhibitors, used alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors, against MPN cells.
Findings
Mouse and human JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and primary hematopoietic progenitors from MPN patients were challenged with an allosteric (RAD001) and an ATP-competitive (PP242) mTOR inhibitor and two JAK2 inhibitors (AZD1480 and ruxolitinib). mTOR inhibitors effectively reduced proliferation and colony formation of cell lines through a slowed cell division mediated by changes in cell cycle transition to the S-phase. mTOR inhibitors also impaired the proliferation and prevented colony formation from MPN hematopoietic progenitors at doses significantly lower than healthy controls. JAK2 inhibitors produced similar antiproliferative effects in MPN cell lines and primary cells but were more potent inducers of apoptosis, as also supported by differential effects on cyclinD1, PIM1 and BcLxL expression levels. Co-treatment of mTOR inhibitor with JAK2 inhibitor resulted in synergistic activity against the proliferation of JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and significantly reduced erythropoietin-independent colony growth in patients with polycythemia vera.
Conclusions/Significance
These findings support mTOR inhibitors as novel potential drugs for the treatment of MPN and advocate for clinical trials exploiting the combination of mTOR and JAK2 inhibitor.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054826
PMCID: PMC3561413  PMID: 23382981
9.  JAK2V617F-negative ET Patients do not display constitutively active JAK/STAT signaling 
Experimental hematology  2007;35(11):1695-1703.
Objective
Presence of the JAK2V617F mutation in only 40-60% of patients with Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) underscores the heterogeneity of this myeloproliferative disorder (MPD). Several distinct mutations, either in JAK2 (exon 12) or in c-Mpl (W515L) have been described in subsets of other MPDs, Polycythemia vera (PV) and Idiopathic Myelofibrosis (IMF). Analogous to JAK2V617F, these mutations cause constitutive JAK2 and STAT activation. It has therefore been proposed that constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT pathway underlies the molecular etiology of all MPDs. We investigated the alternative hypothesis that distinct alterations, separate from the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway, underlie a subset of JAK2V617F-negative ET.
Methods
cDNA microarrays and qRT-PCR were used to compare gene expression in 40 ET patients with and without the JAK2V617F mutation.
Results
Unsupervised clustering of gene expression patterns in ET patients revealed two distinct subclasses of patients. These subclasses differed in presence or absence of the JAK2V617F mutation. Patients lacking the JAK2V617F mutation displayed significantly lower expression of the JAK/STAT target genes Pim-1 and SOCS2. In addition, JAK2V617F-negative patients showed lower levels of STAT3 phosphorylation.
Conclusions
These data demonstrate that a large proportion of JAK2V617F–negative ET patients do not display constitutive JAK/STAT signaling. Hence, we propose that alterations in different signal transduction pathways can lead to the clinical phenotype of ET. Elucidation of novel ET-inducing changes will facilitate both a molecular classification of ET and the development of rationally designed therapies.
doi:10.1016/j.exphem.2007.07.004
PMCID: PMC2270411  PMID: 17764814
Essential Thrombocythemia; myeloproliferation; microarrays; signal transduction
10.  Prognostic significance of ASXL1, JAK2V617F mutations and JAK2V617F allele burden in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms 
Journal of Blood Medicine  2015;6:157-175.
Background
Despite insights into the genetic basis of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs), a significant proportion of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients present with no known MPN disease alleles. There were no previous studies investigating the impact of ASXL1 mutations in Ph-negative MPNs in Turkey. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic significance of ASXL1 mutations in Turkish MPN patients. We also aimed to determine the prognostic significance of JAK2V617F allele burden and the relationship of JAK2V617F mutation with ASXL1 mutations in Ph-negative MPNs.
Methods
About 184 patients from a single center diagnosed with Ph-negative MPNs were screened for ASXL1, JAK2V617F mutations, and JAK2V617F allele burden: 107 ET and 77 PMF.
Results
A total of 29 ASXL1 mutations were detected in 24.7% of PMF and 8.4% of ET patients. ASXL1-mutated ET patients showed a trend toward an increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events and higher total leukocyte counts. ASXL1-mutation in PMF was associated with older age and a higher prevalence of bleeding complications. In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was significantly reduced in ASXL1-mutated PMF patients. In multivariate analysis, Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System-plus high-risk category and ASXL1 mutation status were independently associated with shorter survival in PMF. In PMF, mutational status and allele burden of JAK2V617F showed no difference in terms of OS and leukemia-free survival.
Conclusion
We conclude that ASXL1 mutations are molecular predictors of short OS in PMF.
doi:10.2147/JBM.S78826
PMCID: PMC4459634  PMID: 26082670
Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs); ASXL1; JAK2V617F; JAK2V617F allele burden
11.  The Burden of JAK2V617F Mutated Allele in Turkish Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms 
Background
Studies regarding the impact of JAK2V617F allele burden on phenotypic properties and clinical course in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs) have reported variable results. We aimed to analyze the association of mutated JAK2V617F allele burden with laboratory characteristics and clinical phenotype in Turkish patients (107 essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 77 primary myelofibrosis (PMF)).
Methods
Peripheral blood samples of 184 patients with Ph-negative MPNs were analyzed for JAK2V617F allele status and burden. JAK2 MutaScreen assay (Ipsogen, Luminy Biotech, Marseille, France) was used to detect the JAK2V617F status and quantitative JAK2V617F allele burdens in genomic DNA using TaqMan allelic discrimination.
Results
Frequency of JAK2V617F-positive patients with high mutation load (allele burden > 50%) was higher in PMF compared to ET (23.4% and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.001). We found significant association between ET patients with high JAK2V617F allele burden and lower hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct), higher LDH levels and more prevalent massive splenomegaly (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.012 and P = 0.015, respectively). ET patients with high mutation load displayed higher prevalence of bleeding compared to low mutation load and wild-type mutational status (P = 0.003). Rate of DVT was significantly higher in ET patients with mutant allele burden in upper half compared to lower half and wild-type (P = 0.029). We observed significant association between PMF patients with high JAK2V617F allele burden and higher Hgb, Hct levels and leukocyte counts (P = 0.003, P = 0.021 and P = 0.001, respectively).
Conclusions
Our study demonstrated JAK2V617F allele burden correlates with clinical features in ET and PMF. We conclude quantification of JAK2V617F mutation contributes to the workup of Ph-negative MPNs.
doi:10.14740/jocmr2047w
PMCID: PMC4285062  PMID: 25584101
Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms; Essential thrombocythemia; Primary myelofibrosis; JAK2V617F allele burden; JAK2V617F allele status
12.  The allele burden of JAK2 V617F can aid in differential diagnosis of Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasm 
Blood research  2013;48(2):128-132.
Background
We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using the allele burden of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F as a criterion for discriminating 3 subtypes of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (Ph-MPN): polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF).
Methods
We collected 70 peripheral blood (PB) and 81 bone marrow (BM) samples from patients diagnosed with Ph-MPN. Real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) assays were performed for each sample. We compared the allele burden of JAK2 V617F for each subtype of Ph-MPN and determined the concordance rates of the results between the 2 tests.
Results
The JAK2 V617F allele burden differed significantly among the 3 disease categories in both PB (P=0.045) and BM (P=0.011) samples. Subsequent subgroup analysis revealed that the median allele burden of JAK2 V617F for ET (21.71% for PB and 24.95% for BM) was significantly lower than that for PV (56.88% for PB, P=0.047; 72.66% for BM, P=0.003) and PMF (56.16% for PB, P=0.050; 59.04% for BM, P=0.049). Concordance rate between the RQ-PCR and ARMS data was 90.7%. Of the 14 discrepant cases, 12 were RQ-PCR(+)/ARMS(-) and 2 were RQ-PCR(-)/ARMS(+).
Conclusion
The allele burden of JAK2 V617F was significantly lower for ET than that for PV or PMF in both PB and BM samples. The JAK2 V617F allele burden is a diagnostic tool for differentiating PV or PMF from ET.
doi:10.5045/br.2013.48.2.128
PMCID: PMC3698398  PMID: 23826582
Allele; Discrimination; Janus Kinase 2; Mutation; Myeloproliferative disorders; Real-time polymerase chain reaction
13.  In Vitro Megakaryocyte Differentiation and Proplatelet Formation in Ph-Negative Classical Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Distinct Patterns in the Different Clinical Phenotypes 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(6):e21015.
Background
Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders that include primary myelofibrosis (PMF), polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). Although the pathogenesis of MPNs is still incompletely understood, an involvement of the megakaryocyte lineage is a distinctive feature.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We analyzed the in vitro megakaryocyte differentiation and proplatelet formation in 30 PMF, 8 ET, 8 PV patients, and 17 healthy controls (CTRL). Megakaryocytes were differentiated from peripheral blood CD34+ or CD45+ cells in the presence of thrombopoietin. Megakaryocyte output was higher in MPN patients than in CTRL with no correlation with the JAK2 V617F mutation. PMF-derived megakaryocytes displayed nuclei with a bulbous appearance, were smaller than ET- or PV-derived megakaryocytes and formed proplatelets that presented several structural alterations. In contrast, ET- and PV-derived megakaryocytes produced more proplatelets with a striking increase in bifurcations and tips compared to both control and PMF. Proplatelets formation was correlated with platelet counts in patient peripheral blood. Patients with pre-fibrotic PMF had a pattern of megakaryocyte proliferation and proplatelet formation that was similar to that of fibrotic PMF and different from that of ET.
Conclusions/Significance
In conclusion, MPNs are associated with high megakaryocyte proliferative potential. Profound differences in megakaryocyte morphology and proplatelet formation distinguish PMF, both fibrotic and prefibrotic, from ET and PV.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021015
PMCID: PMC3115954  PMID: 21698292
14.  JAK2 V617F mutation in myelodysplastic syndrome, myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis, and acute myeloid leukemia 
Background
The JAK2 V617F mutation has been noted in the cases of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis patients. This mutation occurs less frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other hematologic diseases, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); myelodysplatic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U); and refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (RARS-T).
Methods
Patients diagnosed with hematologic diseases other than MPN who visited Seoul St Mary's Hospital from January 2007 to February 2010 were selected. A total of 43 patients were enrolled in this study: 12 MDS, 9 MDS/MPN-U, 7 RARS-T, and 15 AML patients. The diseases were diagnosed according to the 2008 WHO classification criteria. Data obtained from JAK2 V617F mutation analysis and cytogenetic study as well as complete blood count and clinical data were analyzed.
Results
Of the 43 patients, 6 (13.9%) harbored the JAK2 V617F mutation. The incidence of the JAK2 V617F mutation in each patient group was as follows: 8.3% (1/12), MDS; 22.2% (2/9), MDS/MPN-U; 14.3% (1/7), RARS-T; and 13.3%, (2/15) AML. The platelet count was higher than 450×109/L in 3 of the 6 patients (50%) harboring the JAK2 V617F mutation, and it was in the normal range in the remaining 3 patients. Among the 6 patients, 1 MDS and 1 MDS/MPN-U patients had the 46,XX,del(20)(q11.2) karyotype.
Conclusion
The JAK2 V617F mutation is associated with an increased platelet count in MDS, MDS/MPN-U, RARS-T, and AML patients. Cytogenetic abnormalities of del(20)(q11.2) occurred in 1/3 of patients with the JAK2 V617F mutation but further studies are required to confirm this association.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.1.46
PMCID: PMC2983014  PMID: 21120162
JAK2 V617F; MDS; MDS/MPN-U; RARS-T; AML
15.  Analysis of genomic aberrations and gene expression profiling identifies novel lesions and pathways in myeloproliferative neoplasms 
Blood Cancer Journal  2011;1(11):e40-.
Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with distinct clinical features and are associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. To identify genomic anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders, we profiled 87 MPN patients using Affymetrix 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Aberrations affecting chr9 were the most frequently observed and included 9pLOH (n=16), trisomy 9 (n=6) and amplifications of 9p13.3–23.3 (n=1), 9q33.1–34.13 (n=1) and 9q34.13 (n=6). Patients with trisomy 9 were associated with elevated JAK2V617F mutant allele burden, suggesting that gain of chr9 represents an alternative mechanism for increasing JAK2V617F dosage. Gene expression profiling of patients with and without chr9 abnormalities (+9, 9pLOH), identified genes potentially involved in disease pathogenesis including JAK2, STAT5B and MAPK14. We also observed recurrent gains of 1p36.31–36.33 (n=6), 17q21.2–q21.31 (n=5) and 17q25.1–25.3 (n=5) and deletions affecting 18p11.31–11.32 (n=8). Combined SNP and gene expression analysis identified aberrations affecting components of a non-canonical PRC2 complex (EZH1, SUZ12 and JARID2) and genes comprising a ‘HSC signature' (MLLT3, SMARCA2 and PBX1). We show that NFIB, which is amplified in 7/87 MPN patients and upregulated in PV CD34+ cells, protects cells from apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2011.39
PMCID: PMC3256752  PMID: 22829077
myeloproliferative neoplasms; JAK2V617F; NFIB; SNP
16.  Detection of JAK2 V617F mutation increases the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms 
Oncology Letters  2014;9(2):735-738.
The Janus kinase (JAK)2 gene, which is located on chromosome 9p24, is involved in the signaling transduction pathways of the hematopoietic and immune system. Mutations in the JAK2 gene have served as disease markers for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of the JAK2 gene mutation in 140 clinical samples, and to evaluate its clinical significance in MPNs and other hematological diseases. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood leukocytes or bone marrow karyocytes of 140 clinical samples, which included 130 patients with various types of hematological disease and 10 control patients. In addition, exons 12 and 14 of the JAK2 gene were analyzed by direct sequencing and the mutation rates of various MPN subtypes were evaluated. Of the 140 samples, exons 12 and 14 were tested in 74 samples, however, exon 14 only was tested in 66 samples. No mutations were identified in exon 12. The V617F mutation rate in polycythemia vera was 82.1% (23/28), and the mutation rates in essential thrombocythemia histiocytosis, primary myelofibrosis and other MPNs were 53.1% (17/32), 40.0% (4/10) and 60.0% (6/10), respectively. Therefore, the total mutation rate of the JAK2 gene in MPN was 62.5% (50/80). For non-MPN hematological diseases, four V617F mutations were detected in samples of leukocytosis of unknown origin (4/12), however, no JAK2 V617F mutations were identified in the 10 controls. Therefore, JAK2 V617F mutations may present a novel marker for diagnosis of MPNs. Furthermore, the direct sequencing method appeared to be satisfactory for the clinical gene testing of hematological samples.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2801
PMCID: PMC4301535  PMID: 25624900
Janus kinase 2 gene; V617F; gene test; direct sequencing; myeloproliferative neoplasms
17.  A germline JAK2 SNP is associated with predisposition to the development of JAK2V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms 
Nature genetics  2009;41(4):455-459.
Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) characterized by multilineage clonal hematopoiesis1–5. Given that the identical somatic activating mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase gene (JAK2V617F) is observed in most individuals with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis6–10, there likely are additional genetic events that contribute to the pathogenesis of these phenotypically distinct disorders. Moreover, family members of individuals with MPN are at higher risk for the development of MPN, consistent with the existence of MPN predisposition loci11. We hypothesized that germline variation contributes to MPN predisposition and phenotypic pleiotropy. Genome-wide analysis identified an allele in the JAK2 locus (rs10974944) that predisposes to the development of JAK2V617F-positive MPN, as well as three previously unknown MPN modifier loci. We found that JAK2V617F is preferentially acquired in cis with the predisposition allele. These data suggest that germline variation is an important contributor to MPN phenotype and predisposition.
doi:10.1038/ng.342
PMCID: PMC3676425  PMID: 19287384
18.  Allelic Expression Imbalance of JAK2 V617F Mutation in BCR-ABL Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e52518.
The discovery of a single point mutation in the JAK2 gene in patients with BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) has not only brought new insights and pathogenesis, but also has made the diagnosis of MPNs much easier. Although, to date, several mechanisms for the contribution of single JAK2V617F point mutation to phenotypic diversity of MPNs have been suggested in multiple studies, but it is not clear how a unique mutation can cause the phenotypic diversity of MPNs. In this study, our results show that allelic expression imbalance of JAK2 V617F mutant frequently occurs and contributes to phenotypic diversity of BCR-ABL-negative MPNs. The proportion of JAK2 V617F mutant allele was significantly augmented in RNA levels as compared with genomic DNA differently by distinct MPNs subtypes. In detail, preferential expression of JAK2 mutant allele showed threefold increase from the cDNA compared with the genomic DNA from patients with essential thrombocythemia and twofold increase in polycythemia vera. In conclusion, allelic expression imbalance of JAK2 V617F mutant proposes another plausible mechanism for the contribution of single JAK2 point mutation to phenotypic diversity of MPNs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052518
PMCID: PMC3551963  PMID: 23349688
19.  Improved Diagnosis of the Transition to JAK2V617F Homozygosity: The Key Feature for Predicting the Evolution of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86401.
Most cases of BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis are associated with JAK2V617F mutations. The outcomes of these cases are critically influenced by the transition from JAK2V617F heterozygosity to homozygosity. Therefore, a technique providing an unbiased assessment of the critical allele burden, 50% JAK2V617F, is highly desirable. In this study, we present an approach to assess the JAK2V617F burden from genomic DNA (gDNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA) using one-plus-one template references for allele-specific quantitative-real-time-PCR (qPCR). Plasmidic gDNA and cDNA constructs encompassing one PCR template for JAK2V617F spaced from one template for JAK2Wild Type were constructed by multiple fusion PCR amplifications. Repeated assessments of the 50% JAK2V617F burden within the dynamic range of serial dilutions of gDNA and cDNA constructs resulted in 52.53±4.2% and 51.46±4.21%, respectively. The mutation-positive cutoff was estimated to be 3.65% (mean +2 standard deviation) using 20 samples from a healthy population. This qPCR approach was compared with the qualitative ARMS-PCR technique and with two standard methods based on qPCR, and highly significant correlations were obtained in all cases. qPCR assays were performed on paired gDNA/cDNA samples from 20 MPN patients, and the JAK2V617F expression showed a significant correlation with the allele burden. Our data demonstrate that the qPCR method using one-plus-one template references provides an improved assessment of the clinically relevant transition of JAK2V617F from heterozygosity to homozygosity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086401
PMCID: PMC3903535  PMID: 24475114
20.  Proliferation and Survival Signaling from Both Jak2-V617F and Lyn Involving GSK3 and mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 in PVTL-1 Cell Line Newly Established from Acute Myeloid Leukemia Transformed from Polycythemia Vera 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84746.
The gain of function mutation JAK2-V617F is very frequently found in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and is strongly implicated in pathogenesis of these and other hematological malignancies. Here we report establishment of a new leukemia cell line, PVTL-1, homozygous for JAK2-V617F from a 73-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformed from MPN. PVTL-1 is positive for CD7, CD13, CD33, CD34, CD117, HLA-DR, and MPO, and has complex karyotypic abnormalities, 44,XX,-5q,-7,-8,add(11)(p11.2),add(11)(q23),−16,+21,−22,+mar1. Sequence analysis of JAK2 revealed only the mutated allele coding for Jak2-V617F. Proliferation of PVTL-1 was inhibited and apoptosis was induced by the pan-Jak inhibitor Jak inhibitor-1 (JakI-1) or dasatinib, which inhibits the Src family kinases as well as BCR/ABL. Consistently, the Src family kinase Lyn was constitutively activated with phosphorylation of Y396 in the activation loop, which was inhibited by dasatinib but not by JakI-1. Further analyses with JakI-1 and dasatinib indicated that Jak2-V617F phosphorylated STAT5 and SHP2 while Lyn phosphorylated SHP1, SHP2, Gab-2, c-Cbl, and CrkL to induce the SHP2/Gab2 and c-Cbl/CrkL complex formation. In addition, JakI-1 and dasatinib inactivated the mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 pathway and reduced the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3 in PVTL-1 cells, which correlated with their effects on proliferation and survival of these cells. Furthermore, inhibition of GSK3 by its inhibitor SB216763 mitigated apoptosis induced by dasatinib but not by JakI-1. Together, these data suggest that apoptosis may be suppressed in PVTL-1 cells through inactivation of GSK3 by Lyn as well as Jak2-V617F and additionally through activation of STAT5 by Jak2-V617F. It is also speculated that activation of the mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 pathway may mediate proliferation signaling from Jak2-V617F and Lyn. PVTL-1 cells may provide a valuable model system to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in evolution of Jak2-V617F-expressing MPN to AML and to develop novel therapies against this intractable condition.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084746
PMCID: PMC3880321  PMID: 24404189
21.  The mutation profile of JAK2 and CALR in Chinese Han patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms 
Mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR are highly relevant to the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We performed high resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing together with T-A cloning to elucidate the unique mutation profile of these genes, in Chinese patients with MPNs. Peripheral blood DNA samples were obtained from 80 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), 80 patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Ten PV patients were identified with diverse JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Five novel JAK2 Exon 12 mutation patterns (M532V/E543G, N533D, M535I/H538Y/K549I, E543G and D544N) were described. JAK2 V617F was detected in 140 samples (66 PV, 45 ET and 29 PMF). JAK2 Exon 12 mutations were prevalent (13%) and variable in the Chinese patients. Compared with PV patients with JAK2 V617F mutations, PV patients with JAK2 exon 12 mutations had an earlier median onset of disease (P = 0.0013). MPL W515L/K mutations were discerned in 4 ET and 3 PMF patients. Two kinds of CALR mutation, c. 1179_1230del and c. 1234_1235insTTGTC were detected in 20 ET and 16 PMF patients. A novel CALR mutation pattern (c. 1173_1223del/c. 1179_1230del) was identified in 2 PMF samples. In addition, 17 scattered point mutations in CALR c.1153 to c.1255 were also detected in 13 cases with CALR frame-shifting variations and 2 cases without CALR frame-shifting variations. Female patients showed a predisposition to CALR mutations (P = 0.0035). Chinese Ph-negative MPN patients have a unique mutation landscape in the common molecular markers of MPN diagnosis. Validation of the molecular diagnostic pipeline should be emphasized since there is a considerable ethnical diversity in the molecular profiles of Ph-negative MPNs.
doi:10.1186/s13045-014-0048-6
PMCID: PMC4223390  PMID: 25023898
22.  Biology and Clinical Management of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Development of the JAK Inhibitor Ruxolitinib 
Current Medicinal Chemistry  2012;19(26):4399-4413.
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are debilitating stem cell-derived clonal myeloid malignancies. Conventional treatments for the BCR-ABL1-negative MPN including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) have, so far, been unsatisfactory. Following the discovery of dysregulated JAK-STAT signaling in patients with MPN, many efforts have been directed toward the development of molecularly targeted therapies, including inhibitors of JAK1 and JAK2. Ruxolitinib (previously known as INCB018424; Incyte Corporation, Wilmington, Delaware, USA) is a rationally designed potent oral JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor that has undergone clinical trials in patients with PV, ET, and PMF. Ruxolitinib was approved on November 16, 2011 by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis (MF), including patients with PMF, post-PV MF, and post-ET MF. In randomized phase III studies, ruxolitinib treatment resulted in significant and durable reductions in splenomegaly and improvements in disease-related symptoms in patients with MF compared with placebo or best available therapy. The most common adverse events were anemia and thrombocytopenia, which were manageable and rarely led to discontinuation. This review addresses the cellular and molecular biology, and the clinical management of MPN.
doi:10.2174/092986712803251511
PMCID: PMC3480698  PMID: 22830345
Essential thrombocythemia; janus kinase; JAK inhibitor; JAK-STAT; myelofibrosis; myeloproliferative neoplasms; polycythemia vera; primary myelofibrosis; quality of life; ruxolitinib; splenomegaly; symptoms.
23.  Cytogenetics, JAK2 and MPL mutations in polycythemia vera, primary myelofibrosis and essential thrombocythemia 
Background
The detection of molecular and cytogenetic alterations is important for the diagnosis, prognosis and classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to detect the following mutations: JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon 12 and MPL W515K/L, besides chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, molecular and cytogenetic alterations were correlated with the leukocyte and platelet counts, hemoglobin levels and age in all patients and with the degree of fibrosis in primary myelofibrosis cases.
Methods
Twenty cases of polycythemia vera, 17 of essential thrombocythemia and 21 of primary myelofibrosis were selected in the Hematology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) between February 2008 and December 2009. The JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon 12 mutations, MPL W515K and MPL W515L mutations were investigated by real-time PCR and direct sequencing. G-band karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to detect chromosomal abnormalities.
Results
Chromosomal abnormalities were observed only in polycythemia vera (11.8%) and primary myelofibrosis cases (17.6%), without correlation to clinical data. Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The JAK2 V617F mutation was observed in polycythemia vera (90%), primary myelofibrosis (42.8%) and essential thrombocythemia (47%). Patients with JAK2 V617F-negative polycythemia vera had lower platelet and leukocyte counts compared to V617F-positive polycythemia vera (p-value = 0.0001 and p-value = 0.023, respectively). JAK2 V617F-positive and MPL W515L-positive primary myelofibrosis cases had a higher degree of fibrosis than V617F-negative cases (p-value = 0.022). JAK2 exon 12 mutations were not detected in polycythemia vera patients. The MPL W515L mutation was observed in one case of primary myelofibrosis and in one of essential thrombocythemia. The MPL W515K mutation was not found in patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis. The MPL W515L-positive patient with primary myelofibrosis had more severe anemia than other patients with primary myelofibrosis.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates that karyotyping for JAK2 and MPL mutations is useful in the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The precise pathogenetic contribution of these alterations is still unclear. However, this study adds more information about the pathophysiology of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis.
doi:10.5581/1516-8484.20110116
PMCID: PMC3459377  PMID: 23049357
Myeloproliferative disorders; Cytogenetic analysis; Karyotype; Molecular biology, Thrombocythemia, essential; Polycythemia vera
24.  Genetic association between germline JAK2 polymorphisms and myeloproliferative neoplasms in Hong Kong Chinese population: a case–control study 
BMC Genetics  2014;15:147.
Background
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of haematological malignancies that can be characterised by a somatic mutation (JAK2V617F). This mutation causes the bone marrow to produce excessive blood cells and is found in polycythaemia vera (~95%), essential thrombocythaemia and primary myelofibrosis (both ~50%). It is considered as a major genetic factor contributing to the development of these MPNs. No genetic association study of MPN in the Hong Kong population has so far been reported. Here, we investigated the relationship between germline JAK2 polymorphisms and MPNs in Hong Kong Chinese to find causal variants that contribute to MPN development. We analysed 19 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the JAK2 locus in 172 MPN patients and 470 healthy controls. Three of these 19 SNPs defined the reported JAK2 46/1 haplotype: rs10974944, rs12343867 and rs12340895. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls by logistic regression adjusted for sex and age. Permutation test was used to correct for multiple comparisons. With significant findings from the 19 SNPs, we then examined 76 additional SNPs across the 148.7-kb region of JAK2 via imputation with the SNP data from the 1000 Genomes Project.
Results
In single-marker analysis, 15 SNPs showed association with JAK2V617F-positive MPNs (n = 128), and 8 of these were novel MPN-associated SNPs not previously reported. Exhaustive variable-sized sliding-window haplotype analysis identified 184 haplotypes showing significant differences (P < 0.05) in frequencies between patients and controls even after multiple-testing correction. However, single-marker alleles exhibited the strongest association with V617F-positive MPNs. In local Hong Kong Chinese, rs12342421 showed the strongest association signal: asymptotic P = 3.76 × 10−15, empirical P = 2.00 × 10−5 for 50,000 permutations, OR = 3.55 for the minor allele C, and 95% CI, 2.59-4.87. Conditional logistic regression also signified an independent effect of rs12342421 in significant haplotype windows, and this independent effect remained unchanged even with the imputation of additional 76 SNPs. No significant association was found between V617F-negative MPNs and JAK2 SNPs.
Conclusion
With a large sample size, we reported the association between JAK2V617F-positive MPNs and 15 tag JAK2 SNPs and the association of rs12342421 being independent of the JAK2 46/1 haplotype in Hong Kong Chinese population.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12863-014-0147-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12863-014-0147-y
PMCID: PMC4293821  PMID: 25526816
Myeloproliferative neoplasms; Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2); V617F mutation; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Genetic susceptibility
25.  JAK2 Inhibitors: What’s the true therapeutic potential? 
Blood reviews  2010;25(2):53-63.
Physicians treating patients with the classic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs) (polycythemia vera [PV], essential thrombocythemia [ET] and primary myelofibrosis [PMF]) traditionally had few therapeutic drugs available. Spurred by the discovery of activating mutation of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase (JAK2 V617F mutation) in patients with Ph-negative MPNs several years ago, several JAK2 inhibitors were synthesized and are currently undergoing clinical trials in patients with PMF, PV and ET. Initial results from these studies have shown that these drugs can markedly reduce spleen size and alleviate constitutional symptoms, increase weight and improve exercise capacity in MF patients, thus improve quality of their life, which is significant clinical benefit. In ET and PV JAK2 inhibitor therapy may efficiently control blood cell count, as well as improve splenomegaly and control disease related symptoms. JAK2 inhibitors are a novel class of agents with promising results for treating patients with MF, PV and ET. In this article we will review the current evidence regarding the role of JAK2 mutations in the pathogenesis of Ph-negative MPNs and summarize results from the most recent clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors in these disorders. JAK2 inhibitors are a novel class of agents with promising results for treating patients with MF, PV and ET.
doi:10.1016/j.blre.2010.10.004
PMCID: PMC4406394  PMID: 21095048
Polycythemia vera; Essential thrombocythemia; Myelofibrosis; JAK2 inhibitor; JAK2 V617F

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