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1.  Influence of Cationic Lipid Composition on Gene Silencing Properties of Lipid Nanoparticle Formulations of siRNA in Antigen-Presenting Cells 
Molecular Therapy  2011;19(12):2186-2200.
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are currently the most effective in vivo delivery systems for silencing target genes in hepatocytes employing small interfering RNA. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are also potential targets for LNP siRNA. We examined the uptake, intracellular trafficking, and gene silencing potency in primary bone marrow macrophages (bmMΦ) and dendritic cells of siRNA formulated in LNPs containing four different ionizable cationic lipids namely DLinDAP, DLinDMA, DLinK-DMA, and DLinKC2-DMA. LNPs containing DLinKC2-DMA were the most potent formulations as determined by their ability to inhibit the production of GAPDH target protein. Also, LNPs containing DLinKC2-DMA were the most potent intracellular delivery agents as indicated by confocal studies of endosomal versus cytoplamic siRNA location using fluorescently labeled siRNA. DLinK-DMA and DLinKC2-DMA formulations exhibited improved gene silencing potencies relative to DLinDMA but were less toxic. In vivo results showed that LNP siRNA systems containing DLinKC2-DMA are effective agents for silencing GAPDH in APCs in the spleen and peritoneal cavity following systemic administration. Gene silencing in APCs was RNAi mediated and the use of larger LNPs resulted in substantially reduced hepatocyte silencing, while similar efficacy was maintained in APCs. These results are discussed with regard to the potential of LNP siRNA formulations to treat immunologically mediated diseases.
doi:10.1038/mt.2011.190
PMCID: PMC3242662  PMID: 21971424
2.  Nanometer-scale siRNA carriers incorporating peptidomimetic oligomers: physical characterization and biological activity 
Synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides can trigger the RNA interference pathway and lead to selective gene silencing. Despite considerable enthusiasm and investment, formidable challenges remain that may deter translating this breakthrough discovery into clinical applications. In particular, the development of efficient, nontoxic, nonimmunogenic methods for delivering siRNA in vivo has proven to be exceptionally challenging. Thorough analysis of the relationship between the structure and function of siRNA carrier systems, both in isolation and in complex with RNA, will facilitate the design of efficient nonviral siRNA delivery vehicles. In this study, we explore the relationship between the physicochemical characteristics and the biological activity of “lipitoid” compounds as potent siRNA delivery vehicles. Lipitoids are cationic peptidomimetic oligomers incorporating a peptoid and a phospholipid moiety. Lipitoids can associate with siRNA oligonucleotides and self-assemble into spherical lipitoid-based nanoparticles (LNPs), with dimensions that are dependent upon the medium and the stoichiometric ratio between the cationic monomers of the lipitoid and anionic siRNA oligonucleotides. The morphology, gene silencing efficiency, and cytotoxicity of the siRNA-loaded LNPs are similarly sensitive to the stoichiometry of the complexes. The medium in which the LNPs are formed affects the assembled cargo particles’ characteristics such as particle size, transfection efficiency, and stability. Formation of the LNPs in the biological, serum-free medium OptiMEM resulted in LNPs an order of magnitude larger than LNPs formed in water, and were twice as efficient in siRNA transfection compared to LNPs formed in water. Inhibitor studies were conducted to elucidate the efficiency of lysosomal escape and the uptake mechanism of the siRNA-loaded LNPs. Our results suggest that these lipitoid-based, siRNA-loaded spherical LNPs are internalized through a lipid raft-dependent and dynamin-mediated pathway, circumventing endosomal and lysosomal encapsulation. The lipitoid-siRNA nanospheres proved to be suitable platforms for investigating the critical parameters determining the efficiency of transfection agents, revealing the necessity for conducting characterization studies in biological media. The investigation of the LNP internalization pathway points to an alternative uptake route that bypasses the lysosome, explaining the surprisingly high efficiency of LNPs and suggesting that the uptake mechanism should be probed rather than assumed for the next generation of rationally designed transfection agents.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S57449
PMCID: PMC4026564  PMID: 24872690
lipitoid; siRNA delivery; therapeutic oligonucleotides; peptoid
3.  Designing siRNA That Distinguish between Genes That Differ by a Single Nucleotide 
PLoS Genetics  2006;2(9):e140.
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the guides that direct RNA interference (RNAi), provide a powerful tool to reduce the expression of a single gene in human cells. Ideally, dominant, gain-of-function human diseases could be treated using siRNAs that specifically silence the mutant disease allele, while leaving expression of the wild-type allele unperturbed. Previous reports suggest that siRNAs can be designed with single nucleotide specificity, but no rational basis for the design of siRNAs with single nucleotide discrimination has been proposed. We systematically identified siRNAs that discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of two disease genes: the human Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene, which contributes to the progression of hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through the gain of a toxic property, and the huntingtin (HTT) gene, which causes Huntington disease when its CAG-repeat region expands beyond approximately 35 repeats. Using cell-free RNAi reactions in Drosophila embryo lysate and reporter assays and microarray analysis of off-target effects in cultured human cells, we identified positions within an siRNA that are most sensitive to mismatches. We also show that purine:purine mismatches imbue an siRNA with greater discriminatory power than other types of base mismatches. siRNAs in which either a G:U wobble or a mismatch is located in the “seed” sequence, the specialized siRNA guide region responsible for target binding, displayed lower levels of selectivity than those in which the mismatch was located 3′ to the seed; this region of an siRNA is critical for target cleavage but not siRNA binding. Our data suggest that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of many genes that differ by just a single nucleotide.
Synopsis
First discovered in nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential tool in the study of mammalian gene function. RNAi directed by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 21 nt, double-stranded RNAs target complementary mRNAs for destruction. siRNAs can be introduced into mammalian cells grown in culture, or even administered intravenously to rodents or primates, where they repress production of the targeted gene product. Thus, siRNA-directed RNAi has tremendous potential as a human therapeutic strategy. Dominant genetic disorders, in which a mutant allele of a gene causes disease in the presence of a second, normal copy, might be treated with therapeutic siRNAs, provided that the siRNAs could be designed to destroy the mutant, disease-causing mRNA, while leaving the normal mRNA intact. Here, Schwarz and colleagues describe an experimentally validated strategy for the design of such siRNAs. Their design strategy should facilitate the design of siRNAs targeting dominant genetic disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020140
PMCID: PMC1560399  PMID: 16965178
4.  A Myristoylated Cell-Penetrating Peptide Bearing a Transferrin Receptor-Targeting Sequence for Neuro-Targeted siRNA Delivery 
Molecular Pharmaceutics  2014;11(2):486-495.
Many neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are characterized by aggregation of aberrant proteins and extensive oxidative stress in brain cells. As a treatment option for NDDs, RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising approach to suppress the activation of abnormal genes and negative regulators of antioxidant genes. Efficient neuro-targeted siRNA delivery requires a delicate optimization of nucleic acid carriers, quite distinct from putative pDNA carriers in regard to stable condensation and serum protection of siRNA, blood–brain barrier (BBB) bypass, effective siRNA delivery to brain cells, and functional release of bioactive siRNA at therapeutic levels. Here, we propose that a myristic acid conjugated, cell-penetrating peptide (transportan; TP), equipped with a transferrin receptor-targeting peptide (myr-TP-Tf), will lead to stable encapsulation of siRNA and targeted delivery of siRNA to brain cells overcoming the BBB. Myr-TP-Tf was successfully prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis with high purity. Myr-TP-Tf–siRNA complexes formulated at a 20:1 (peptide–siRNA) molar ratio provided prolonged siRNA stability against serum and ribonuclease treatment. Fluorescence images clearly indicated that siRNA uptake was successfully achieved by myr-TP-Tf complexes in both a murine brain endothelioma and a human glioma cell line. The luciferase assay and the human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPAP) reporter assay results demonstrated the functional gene silencing effect of myr-TP-Tf–siRNA complexes in a human glioma cell line as well as in primary murine neurons/astrocytes, supportive of successful release of bioactive siRNA into the cytosol. Finally, the transcytosis assay revealed that favorable siRNA transport via receptor-mediated transcytosis was mediated by myr-TP-Tf complexes. In summary, these data suggest that myr-TP-Tf peptides possess promising properties as a vehicle for neuro-targeted siRNA delivery. We will further study this peptide in vitro and in vivo for transport mechanism kinetics and to validate its capability to deliver siRNA to the brain, respectively.
doi:10.1021/mp400446v
PMCID: PMC3993914  PMID: 24387132
siRNA carrier; cell-penetrating peptide; blood−brain barrier (BBB); transferrin receptor; receptor-mediated transcytosis; neuro-targeting; neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs)
5.  Fusogenic-Oligoarginine Peptide-Mediated Delivery of siRNAs Targeting the CIP2A Oncogene into Oral Cancer Cells 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73348.
Despite a better understanding of the pathogenesis of oral cancer, its treatment outcome remains poor. Thus, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis of this disease. RNA interference (RNAi) appears to be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of many diseases, including oral cancer. However, an obstacle for RNAi-mediated therapies has been delivery, in particular, the retention of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in endosomes and their subsequent degradation in lysosomes, resulting in inefficient gene silencing. Thus, the current study examined the feasibility of designing and utilizing a peptide, termed 599, consisting of a synthetic influenza virus-derived endosome-disruptive fusogenic peptide sequence and a stretch of cationic cell-penetrating nona(D-arginine) residues, to deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce silencing of the therapeutic target, CIP2A, an oncoprotein overexpressed in various human malignancies including oral cancer. Increasing the 599 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio demonstrated a higher binding capacity for siRNA molecules and enhanced siRNA delivery into the cytoplasm of oral cancer cells. In fact, quantitative measurements of siRNA delivery into cells demonstrated that a 50∶1 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio could deliver 18-fold higher amounts of siRNAs compared to cells treated with siRNA alone with no significant long-term cytotoxic effects. Most importantly, the 599 peptide-mediated siRNA delivery promoted significant CIP2A mRNA and protein silencing which resulted in decreased oral cancer cell invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth. Together, these data demonstrate that a chimeric peptide consisting of a fusogenic sequence, in combination with cell-penetrating residues, can be used to effectively deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce the silencing of its target gene, potentially offering a new therapeutic strategy in combating oral cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073348
PMCID: PMC3760901  PMID: 24019920
6.  siRNA applications in nanomedicine 
The ability to specifically silence genes using RNA interference (RNAi) has wide therapeutic applications for the treatment of disease or the augmentation of tissue formation. RNAi is the sequence-specific gene silencing mediated by a 21 to 25 nucleotide double stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecule. siRNAs are incorporated into the RNAi-induced silencing complex (RISC), which mediates mRNA sequence specific binding and cleavage. Although RNAi has the potential to be a powerful therapeutic drug, its delivery remains a major limitation. The generation of nano-sized particles is being investigated to enhance the delivery of siRNA-based drugs. These nanoparticles are generally designed to overcome one or more of the barriers encountered by the siRNA when trafficked to the cytosol. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the design of delivery strategies for siRNA, focusing our attention to those strategies that have had in vivo success or have introduced novel functionality that allowed enhanced intracellular trafficking and/or cellular targeting. The review will first discuss the different barriers that must be overcome for efficient siRNA delivery. Second we will discuss the approaches for siRNA delivery by size including direct modification of siRNAs (less than 10nm), self-assembled particles based on cationic polymers and cationic lipids (100 to 300 nm), neutral liposomes (< 200 nm), and macro scale matrices that contain naked siRNA or siRNA loaded nanoparticles (> 100 μm). Last, we will briefly discuss recent in vivo therapeutic successes.
doi:10.1002/wnan.81
PMCID: PMC4104279  PMID: 20135697
siRNA; Non-viral gene delivery; RNAi; siRNA nanoparticles; Nanomedicine
7.  TLR agonist–Stat3 siRNA conjugates: cell-specific gene silencing and enhanced antitumor immune responses 
Nature biotechnology  2009;27(10):925-932.
Efficient delivery of siRNA to specific cell populations in vivo remains a formidable challenge to its successful therapeutic application. We describe a novel siRNA-based approach – synthetically linking siRNA to an oligonucleotide TLR9 agonist – that targets and silences genes in TLR9+ myeloid cells and B cells, both of which are key components of the tumor microenvironment. Because Stat3 in tumor-associated immune cells suppresses antitumor immune responses and hinders TLR9-induced immune stimulation, we tested CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates for anti-tumor effects. When injected locally at the tumor site or systemically through an intravenous route, the CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates access tumor-associated dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, inhibit Stat3 expression, leading to activation of tumor-associated immune cells, and ultimately potent anti-tumor immune responses. Our findings demonstrate the potential of TLR agonist-siRNA conjugates for targeted gene silencing coupled with TLR stimulation and immune activation in the tumor microenvironment.
doi:10.1038/nbt.1564
PMCID: PMC2846721  PMID: 19749770
8.  Microfluidic Synthesis of Highly Potent Limit-size Lipid Nanoparticles for In Vivo Delivery of siRNA 
Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are the leading systems for in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for therapeutic applications. Formulation of LNP siRNA systems requires rapid mixing of solutions containing cationic lipid with solutions containing siRNA. Current formulation procedures employ macroscopic mixing processes to produce systems 70-nm diameter or larger that have variable siRNA encapsulation efficiency, homogeneity, and reproducibility. Here, we show that microfluidic mixing techniques, which permit millisecond mixing at the nanoliter scale, can reproducibly generate limit size LNP siRNA systems 20 nm and larger with essentially complete encapsulation of siRNA over a wide range of conditions with polydispersity indexes as low as 0.02. Optimized LNP siRNA systems produced by microfluidic mixing achieved 50% target gene silencing in hepatocytes at a dose level of 10 µg/kg siRNA in mice. We anticipate that microfluidic mixing, a precisely controlled and readily scalable technique, will become the preferred method for formulation of LNP siRNA delivery systems.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.28
PMCID: PMC3442367  PMID: 23344179
lipid nanoparticle; microfluidics; nanomedicine; siRNA; synthesis and formulation
9.  Lipid Nanoparticles for Hepatic Delivery of Small Interfering RNA 
Biomaterials  2012;33(25):5924-5934.
Clinical application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) requires safe and efficient delivery in vivo. Here, we report the design and synthesis of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for siRNA delivery based on cationic lipids with multiple tertiary amines and hydrophobic linoleyl chains. LNPs incorporating the lipid containing tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) and 3 linoleyl chain, termed TRENL3, were found to have exceptionally high siRNA transfection efficacy that was markedly superior to lipofectamine, a commercial transfection agent. In addition, inclusion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and linolenic acids in the formulation further enhanced the siRNA delivery efficiency. TRENL3 LNPs were further shown to transported siRNA into the cytosol primarily via macropinocytosis rather than clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The new LNPs have demonstrated preferential uptake by the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, thereby leading to high siRNA gene silencing activity. These data suggest potential therapeutic applications of TRENL3 mediated delivery of siRNA for liver diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.05.002
PMCID: PMC3374058  PMID: 22652024
Cationic lipids; Lipid nanoparticles; Small interfering RNA; hepatocellular carcinoma
10.  Functional Nanostructures for Effective Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Therapeutics 
Theranostics  2014;4(12):1211-1232.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA.
doi:10.7150/thno.8491
PMCID: PMC4183999  PMID: 25285170
gene delivery; gene silencing; nanoparticles; non-viral vectors; small interfering RNA (siRNA).
11.  Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA for inhibition of IL-12p40 expression in vivo 
Background
RNA interference is an evolutionary conserved immune response mechanism that can be used as a tool to provide novel insights into gene function and structure. The ability to efficiently deliver small interfering RNA to modulate gene expression in vivo may provide new therapeutic approaches to currently intractable diseases.
Methods
In vitro, siRNA targeting IL-12p40 was delivered to the murine macrophage cell line (J774A.1) encapsulated in a liposome with an IL-12 inducing agent (LPS/IFN-γ) over a number of time points. Controls included a variety of non-target specific siRNA reagents. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine production while the cells were removed for mRNA profiling.
In vivo, siRNA-targeting IL-12p40 was delivered to the murine peritoneal cavity in a therapeutic fashion, after endotoxin (LPS) challenge. Cells from the peritoneal cavity were removed by lavage and analyzed by flow cytometry. Levels of IL-12 present in lavage and in serum were also examined by ELISA.
Results
In this report, we show that IL-12p40 siRNA can specifically silence macrophage expression of IL-12p40 mRNA and IL-12p70 protein in vitro. We extend this finding to demonstrate that delivery of liposome encapsulated siRNA targeting IL-12p40 to the murine peritoneal cavity can modulate an inflammatory stimulus in vivo. Furthermore, specific siRNA can be used therapeutically after endotoxin challenge to reduce both the local and systemic inflammatory response. Thus, the delivery of siRNA can be used to elicit specific non-permanent inhibition of endogenous protein expression.
Conclusion
In vitro silencing of IL-12p40 using siRNA at selected doses leads to specific knockdown of IL-12p70 protein production without inducing type I interferons. Furthermore, siRNA targeting murine IL-12p40 can be used therapeutically to counter an inflammatory response in vivo.
doi:10.1186/1476-9255-1-4
PMCID: PMC1074346  PMID: 15813981
12.  Exosomes are natural carriers of exogenous siRNA to human cells in vitro 
Background
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles of endocytic origin that are involved in cell-to-cell communication including shuttle RNA, mainly mRNA and microRNA. As exosomes naturally carry RNA between cells, these particles might be useful in gene cancer therapy to deliver therapeutic short interfering RNA (siRNA) to the target cells. Despite the promise of RNA interference (RNAi) for use in therapy, several technical obstacles must be overcome. Exogenous siRNA is prone to degradation, has a limited ability to cross cell membranes and may induce an immune response. Naturally occurring RNA carriers, such as exosomes, might provide an untapped source of effective delivery strategies.
Results
This study demonstrates that exosomes can deliver siRNA to recipient cells in vitro. The different strategies were used to introduce siRNAs into human exosomes of various origins. The delivery of fluorescently labeled siRNA via exosomes to cells was confirmed using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Two different siRNAs against RAD51 and RAD52 were used to transfect into the exosomes for therapeutic delivery into target cells. The exosome-delivered siRNAs were effective at causing post-transcriptional gene silencing in recipient cells. Moreover, the exosome-delivered siRNA against RAD51 was functional and caused the massive reproductive cell death of recipient cancer cells.
Conclusions
The results strongly suggest that exosomes effectively delivered the siRNA into the target cells. The therapeutic potential of exosome-mediated siRNA delivery was demonstrated in vitro by the strong knockdown of RAD51, a prospective therapeutic target for cancer cells. The results give an additional evidence of the ability to use human exosomes as vectors in cancer therapy, including RNAi-based gene therapy.
doi:10.1186/1478-811X-11-88
PMCID: PMC3895799  PMID: 24245560
Exosomes; RNA interference (RNAi); Drug delivery system; Cancer therapy; RAD51
13.  A Novel In Vivo siRNA Delivery System Specifically Targeting Liver Cells for Protection of ConA-Induced Fulminant Hepatitis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44138.
Background
Fulminant hepatitis progresses to acute liver failure (ALF) when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the liver's regenerative capacity. Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) appears promising in animal models of hepatitis, the approach is limited by drawbacks associated with systemic administration of siRNA. The aim of this study is to develop a hepatocyte-specific delivery system of siRNA for treatment of fulminant hepatitis.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Galactose-conjugated liposome nano-particles (Gal-LipoNP) bearing siRNA was prepared, and the particle size and zeta potential of Gal-LipoNP/siRNA complexes were measured. The distribution, cytotoxicity and gene silence efficiency were studied in vivo in a concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis model. C57BL/6 mice were treated with Gal-LipoNP Fas siRNA by i.v. injection 72 h before ConA challenge, and hepatocyte injury was evaluated using serum alanine transferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, as well as liver histopathology and TUNEL-positive hepatocytes. The galactose-ligated liposomes were capable of encapsulating >96% siRNA and exhibited a higher stability than naked siRNA in plasma. Hepatocyte-specific targeting was confirmed by in vivo delivery experiment, in which the majority of Gal-LipoNP-siRNA evaded nuclease digestion and accumulated in the liver as soon as 6 h after administration. In vivo gene silencing was significant in the liver after treatment of Gal-Lipo-siRNA. In the ConA-induced hepatitis model, serum levels of ALT and AST were significantly reduced in mice treated with Gal-lipoNP-siRNA as compared with control mice. Additionally, tissue histopathology and apoptosis showed an overall reduction of injury in the Gal-LipoNP siRNA-treated mice.
Conclusions/Significance
This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate reduction of hepatic injury by liver-specific induction of RNA interference using Gal-LipoNP Fas siRNA, highlighting a novel RNAi-based therapeutic potential in many liver diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044138
PMCID: PMC3435394  PMID: 22970170
14.  mRNA turnover rate limits siRNA and microRNA efficacy 
Based on a simple model of the mRNA life cycle, we predict that mRNAs with high turnover rates in the cell are more difficult to perturb with RNAi.We test this hypothesis using a luciferase reporter system and obtain additional evidence from a variety of large-scale data sets, including microRNA overexpression experiments and RT–qPCR-based efficacy measurements for thousands of siRNAs.Our results suggest that mRNA half-lives will influence how mRNAs are differentially perturbed whenever small RNA levels change in the cell, not only after transfection but also during differentiation, pathogenesis and normal cell physiology.
What determines how strongly an mRNA responds to a microRNA or an siRNA? We know that properties of the sequence match between the small RNA and the mRNA are crucial. However, large-scale validations of siRNA efficacies have shown that certain transcripts remain recalcitrant to perturbation even after repeated redesign of the siRNA (Krueger et al, 2007). Weak response to RNAi may thus be an inherent property of the mRNA, but the underlying factors have proven difficult to uncover.
siRNAs induce degradation by sequence-specific cleavage of their target mRNAs (Elbashir et al, 2001). MicroRNAs, too, induce mRNA degradation, and ∼80% of their effect on protein levels can be explained by changes in transcript abundance (Hendrickson et al, 2009; Guo et al, 2010). Given that multiple factors act simultaneously to degrade individual mRNAs, we here consider whether variable responses to micro/siRNA regulation may, in part, be explained simply by the basic dynamics of mRNA turnover. If a transcript is already under strong destabilizing regulation, it is theoretically possible that the relative change in abundance after the addition of a novel degrading factor would be less pronounced compared with a stable transcript (Figure 1). mRNA turnover is achieved by a multitude of factors, and the influence of such factors on targetability can be explored. However, their combined action, including yet unknown factors, is summarized into a single property: the mRNA decay rate.
First, we explored the theoretical relationship between the pre-existing turnover rate of an mRNA, and its expected susceptibility to perturbation by a small RNA. We assumed a basic model of the mRNA life cycle, in which the rate of transcription is constant and the rate of degradation is described by first-order kinetics. Under this model, the relative change in steady-state expression level will become smaller as the pre-existing decay rate grows larger, independent of the transcription rate. This relationship persists also if we assume various degrees of synergy and antagonism between the pre-existing factors and the external factor, with increasing synergism leading to transcripts being more equally targetable, regardless of their pre-existing decay rate.
We next generated a series of four luciferase reporter constructs with destabilizing AU-rich elements (AREs) of various strengths incorporated into their 3′ UTRs. To evaluate how the different constructs would respond to perturbation, we performed co-transfections with an siRNA targeted at the coding region of the luciferase gene. This reduced the signal of the non-destabilized construct to 26% compared with a control siRNA. In contrast, the most destabilized construct showed 42% remaining reporter activity, and we could observe a dose–response relationship across the series.
The reporter experiment encouraged an investigation of this effect on real-world mRNAs. We analyzed a set of 2622 siRNAs, for which individual efficacies were determined using RT–qPCR 48 h post-transfection in HeLa cells (www.appliedbiosystems.com). Of these, 1778 could be associated with an experimentally determined decay rate (Figure 4A). Although the overall correlation between the two variables was modest (Spearman's rank correlation rs=0.22, P<1e−20), we found that siRNAs directed at high-turnover (t1/2<200 min) and medium-turnover (2001000 min) transcripts (P<8e−11 and 4e−9, respectively, two-tailed KS-test, Figure 4B). While 41.6% (498/1196) of the siRNAs directed at low-turnover transcripts reached 10% remaining expression or better, only 16.7% (31/186) of the siRNAs that targeted high-turnover mRNAs reached this high degree of silencing (Figure 4B). Reduced targetability (25.2%, 100/396) was also seen for transcripts with medium-turnover rate.
Our results based on siRNA data suggested that turnover rates could also influence microRNA targeting. By assembling genome-wide mRNA expression data from 20 published microRNA transfections in HeLa cells, we found that predicted target mRNAs with short and medium half-life were significantly less repressed after transfection than their long-lived counterparts (P<8e−5 and P<0.03, respectively, two-tailed KS-test). Specifically, 10.2% (293/2874) of long-lived targets versus 4.4% (41/942) of short-lived targets were strongly (z-score <−3) repressed. siRNAs are known to cause off-target effects that are mediated, in part, by microRNA-like seed complementarity (Jackson et al, 2006). We analyzed changes in transcript levels after transfection of seven different siRNAs, each with a unique seed region (Jackson et al, 2006). Putative ‘off-targets' were identified by mapping of non-conserved seed matches in 3′ UTRs. We found that low-turnover mRNAs (t1/2 >1000 min) were more affected by seed-mediated off-target silencing than high-turnover mRNAs (t1/2 <200 min), with twice as many long-lived seed-containing transcripts (3.8 versus 1.9%) being strongly (z-score <−3) repressed.
In summary, mRNA turnover rates have an important influence on the changes exerted by small RNAs on mRNA levels. It can be assumed that mRNA half-lives will influence how mRNAs are differentially perturbed whenever small RNA levels change in the cell, not only after transfection but also during differentiation, pathogenesis and normal cell physiology.
The microRNA pathway participates in basic cellular processes and its discovery has enabled the development of si/shRNAs as powerful investigational tools and potential therapeutics. Based on a simple kinetic model of the mRNA life cycle, we hypothesized that mRNAs with high turnover rates may be more resistant to RNAi-mediated silencing. The results of a simple reporter experiment strongly supported this hypothesis. We followed this with a genome-wide scale analysis of a rich corpus of experiments, including RT–qPCR validation data for thousands of siRNAs, siRNA/microRNA overexpression data and mRNA stability data. We find that short-lived transcripts are less affected by microRNA overexpression, suggesting that microRNA target prediction would be improved if mRNA turnover rates were considered. Similarly, short-lived transcripts are more difficult to silence using siRNAs, and our results may explain why certain transcripts are inherently recalcitrant to perturbation by small RNAs.
doi:10.1038/msb.2010.89
PMCID: PMC3010119  PMID: 21081925
microRNA; mRNA decay; RNAi; siRNA
15.  RNA interference-mediated gene silencing in murine T cells: in vitro and in vivo validation of proinflammatory target genes 
Background
T cells play a central role in many inflammatory diseases, hence the identification and validation of T cell-specific target genes will increase the understanding of T cell function in pathologic inflammatory situations. RNA interference (RNAi), with its ability to induce specific gene silencing in mammalian cells, represents a powerful technology to investigate and validate the function of pharmaceutical target genes in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to systematically explore RNAi-mediated gene-silencing of known T cell-specific model signaling molecules in primary murine T cells in vitro and in vivo.
Results
We demonstrate that siRNA delivery and subsequent silencing of T cell specific genes is substantially increased, if murine T cells were activated prior siRNA transfection. Silencing of ZAP70, p56Lck as well as PLC-γ1 protein expression resulted in impaired function of T cells in vitro. Furthermore, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) was ameliorated in vivo after adoptive transfer of ZAP70-silenced T cells.
Coclusion
The combination of RNAi-mediated gene silencing and adoptive transfer of gene-silenced T cells, thus, may allow the identification and analysis of T cell-specific targets for therapeutic intervention. Additionally, this model system may represent an alternative to conventional time consuming and cost intensive gene targeting approaches.
doi:10.1186/1478-811X-6-3
PMCID: PMC2517589  PMID: 18684324
16.  Low-weight polyethylenimine cross-linked 2-hydroxypopyl-β-cyclodextrin and folic acid as an efficient and nontoxic siRNA carrier for gene silencing and tumor inhibition by VEGF siRNA 
Background
Targeted delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been regarded as one of the most important technologies for the development of siRNA therapeutics. However, the need for safe and efficient delivery systems is a barrier to further development of RNA interference therapeutics. In this work, a nontoxic and efficient siRNA carrier delivery system of low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI-600 Da) cross-linked with 2-hydroxypopyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and folic acid (FA) was synthesized for biomedical application.
Methods
The siRNA carrier was prepared using a simple method and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The siRNA carrier nanoparticles were characterized in terms of morphology, size and zeta potential, stability, efficiency of delivery, and gene silencing efficiency in vitro and in vivo.
Results
The siRNA carrier was synthesized successfully. It showed good siRNA binding capacity and ability to protect siRNA. Further, the toxicity of the carrier measured in vitro and in vivo appeared to be negligible, probably because of degradation of the low molecular weight PEI and HP-β-CD in the cytosol. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy confirmed that the FA receptor-mediated endocytosis of the FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA complexes was greater than that of the HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA complexes in FA receptor-enriched HeLa cells. The FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA complexes also demonstrated excellent gene silencing efficiency in vitro (in the range of 90%), and reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression in the presence of 20% serum. FA-HP-β-CD-PEI/siRNA complexes administered via tail vein injection resulted in marked inhibition of tumor growth and reduced VEGF protein expression in the tumors.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the FA-HP-β-CD-PEI complex is a nontoxic and highly efficient gene carrier with the potential to deliver siRNA for cancer gene therapy effectively in vitro and in vivo.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S42440
PMCID: PMC3678862  PMID: 23766646
polyethyleneimine; 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; folic acid; siRNA carrier; vascular endothelial growth factor; gene silencing
17.  Dual Functional RNA Nanoparticles Containing Phi29 Motor pRNA and Anti-gp120 Aptamer for Cell-type Specific Delivery and HIV-1 Inhibition 
Methods (San Diego, Calif.)  2011;54(2):284-294.
The potent ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit the expression of complementary RNA transcripts is being exploited as a new class of therapeutics for diseases including HIV. However, efficient delivery of siRNAs remains a key obstacle to successful application. A targeted intracellular delivery approach for siRNAs to specific cell types is highly desirable. HIV-1 infection is initiated by the interactions between viral glycoprotein gp120 and cell surface receptor CD4, leading to fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane. Once HIV infects a cell it produces gp120 which is displayed at the cell surface. We previously described a novel dual inhibitory anti-gp120 aptamer-siRNA chimera in which both the aptamer and the siRNA portions have potent anti-HIV activities. We also demonstrated that gp120 can be used for aptamer mediated delivery of anti-HIV siRNAs.
Here we report the design, construction and evaluation of chimerical RNA nanoparticles containing a HIV gp120-binding aptamer escorted by the pRNA of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor. We demonstrate that pRNA-aptamer chimeras specifically bind to and are internalized into cells expressing HIV gp120. Moreover, the pRNA-aptamer chimeras alone also provide HIV inhibitory function by blocking viral infectivity. The Ab′ pRNA-siRNA chimera with 2′-F modified pyrimidines in the sense strand not only improved the RNA stability in serum, but also was functionally processed by Dicer, resulting in specific target gene silencing. Therefore, this dual functional pRNA-aptamer not only represents a potential HIV-1 inhibitor, but also provides a cell-type specific siRNA delivery vehicle, showing promise for systemic anti-HIV therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2010.12.039
PMCID: PMC3107903  PMID: 21256218
RNAi; Anti-gp120 aptamer; nanobiotechnology; bionanotechnology; nanotechnology; AIDS Treatment; viral DNA packaging; nanomotors
18.  Tracking in vitro and in vivo siRNA electrotransfer in tumor cells 
RNA interference-mediated gene silencing offers the potential of targeted inhibition of disease-relevant genes. In vivo delivery of RNAi reagents can be obtained by a variety of approaches. Physical delivery methods appear safer and lack side effects. Electro-permeabilization is one of the non-viral methods successfully used to transfer small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vitro and in vivo. A promising approach may be, very little is known about the fundamental processes mediating siRNA transfer. In this study, we have investigated cellular delivery pathways involved in electro-delivery of siRNAs by a direct fluorescence imaging method. An Alexa-labeled siRNA was electro-transferred into murine melanoma cells stably-expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) target reporter gene. The silencing of eGFP gene expression was quantified by time-lapsed fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescently-labeled siRNAs were found distributed homogeneously in cytoplasm 48 hours after electro-transfer, apparently by diffusion. Furthermore, siRNAs showed homogeneous distribution in vivo 48 hrs after intra-tumoral injection followed by electro- permeabilization. Histological fluorescence microscopy showed that siRNAs were mostly localized in the cytoplasm. Overall, this study shows that electro-permeabilization facilitates cytoplasmic distribution of siRNA, both in cultured cells and in vivo. This method offers a potential therapeutic tool to facilitate direct siRNA penetration into solid tumors.
PMCID: PMC2737239  PMID: 19771237
Electro-permeabilization; electro-poration; RNAi; tumors; fluorescence microscopy
19.  Targeting Stat3 in the myeloid compartment drastically improves the in vivo antitumor functions of adoptively transferred T cells 
Cancer research  2010;70(19):7455-7464.
Improving effector T cell functions is highly desirable for preventive or therapeutic interventions of diverse diseases. Stat3 in the myeloid compartment constrains Th-1 type immunity, dampening natural and induced antitumor immune responses. We have recently developed an in vivo siRNA delivery platform by conjugating a TLR9 agonist with siRNA that efficiently targets myeloid and B cells. Here we show that either ablating the Stat3 alleles in the myeloid compartment and B cells combined with CpG triggering or administrating the CpG-Stat3siRNA conjugates drastically augments effector functions of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. Specifically, we demonstrate that both approaches are capable of increasing dendritic cell and CD8+ T cell engagement in tumor draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, both approaches can significantly activate the transferred CD8+ T cells in vivo, upregulating effector molecules such as perforin, granzyme B and IFN-γ. Intravital multiphoton microscopy reveals that Stat3 silencing combined with CpG triggering greatly increases killing activity and tumor infiltration of transferred T cells. These results suggest the use of CpG-Stat3siRNA, and possibly other Stat3 inhibitors, as a potent adjuvant to improve T cell therapies.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0736
PMCID: PMC3058618  PMID: 20841481
20.  Targeted Delivery of siRNA-Generating DNA Nanocassettes Using Multifunctional Nanoparticles 
Molecular therapy using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) has shown promise in the development of novel therapeutics. Various formulations have been used for in vivo delivery of siRNAs. However, the stability of short double-stranded RNA molecules in the blood and efficiency of siRNA delivery into target organs or tissues following systemic administration have been the major issues that limit applications of siRNA in human patients. In this study, multifunctional siRNA delivery nanoparticles are developed that combine imaging capability of nanoparticles with urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-targeted delivery of siRNA expressing DNA nanocassettes. This theranostic nanoparticle platform consists of a nanoparticle conjugated with targeting ligands and double-stranded DNA nanocassettes containing a U6 promoter and a shRNA gene for in vivo siRNA expression. Targeted delivery and gene silencing efficiency of firefly luciferase siRNA nanogenerators are demonstrated in tumor cells and in animal tumor models. Delivery of survivin siRNA expressing nanocassettes into tumor cells induces apoptotic cell death and sensitizes cells to chemotherapy drugs. The ability of expression of siRNAs from multiple nanocassettes conjugated to a single nanoparticle following receptor-mediated internalization should enhance the therapeutic effect of the siRNA-mediated cancer therapy.
doi:10.1002/smll.201201973
PMCID: PMC3674124  PMID: 23292656
21.  Targeted CRM197-PEG-PEI/siRNA Complexes for Therapeutic RNAi in Glioblastoma 
Pharmaceuticals  2011;4(12):1591-1606.
RNA interference (RNAi) allows the specific knockdown of tumor relevant genes. To induce RNAi, the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is of crucial importance. This is particularly challenging for their therapeutic applications in vivo. Low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (PEI) is safe and efficient for nucleic acid delivery including small RNA molecules, based on its ability to electrostatically complex siRNA molecules, thereby protecting them from nuclease degradation. The nanoscale PEI/siRNA complexes are endocytosed by cells prior to intracellular complex release from the lysosome and cytoplasmic release of the siRNAs from the complexes. Chemical modification and ligand decoration of the complexes aim at introducing target tissue specificity and further increased efficacy of PEI-mediated siRNA delivery. CRM197 is a mutated, non-toxic diphtheria toxin (DT) that binds to the membrane-bound precursor of HB-EGF-like growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor highly expressed in glioblastoma cells. Likewise, the growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN/HB-GAM/HARP) is overexpressed in glioblastoma and is rate limiting for tumor growth, thus representing an attractive target gene for therapeutic knockdown approaches. PEGylation of PEI was performed to reduce the surface charge, and by CRM197 coupling we prepared a modified PEI for siRNA delivery into glioblastoma cells. The novel PEI conjugates were analyzed for their complexation efficiency and optimal mixing ratios, and complexes were physicochemically characterized regarding stability, size and zeta potential. The biological activity of the complexes was confirmed in cell culture by reporter gene knockdown. For the therapeutic treatment of subcutaneous human gliobastoma xenografts in athymic nude mice, we systemically injected the modified PEI/siRNA complexes targeting PTN. Antitumor effects based on PTN knockdown demonstrated the advantage of tumor-targeted CRM197-PEG-PEI/siRNA over untargeted PEG-PEI polyplexes. Thus, we establish targeted CRM197-PEG-PEI-based complexes for siRNA delivery in vivo, and show therapeutic effects of CRM197-PEG-PEI/siRNA-mediated knockdown of PTN.
doi:10.3390/ph4121591
PMCID: PMC4060103
siRNA; RNA interference; RNAi; CRM197; HB-EGF; polyethylenimine; PEI; targeted delivery; pleiotrophin; glioblastoma; therapeutic siRNA delivery
22.  Delivery Systems for the Direct Application of siRNAs to Induce RNA Interference (RNAi) In Vivo 
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful method for specific gene silencing which may also lead to promising novel therapeutic strategies. It is mediated through small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) which sequence-specifically trigger the cleavage and subsequent degradation of their target mRNA. One critical factor is the ability to deliver intact siRNAs into target cells/organs in vivo. This review highlights the mechanism of RNAi and the guidelines for the design of optimal siRNAs. It gives an overview of studies based on the systemic or local application of naked siRNAs or the use of various nonviral siRNA delivery systems. One promising avenue is the the complexation of siRNAs with the polyethylenimine (PEI), which efficiently stabilizes siRNAs and, upon systemic administration, leads to the delivery of the intact siRNAs into different organs. The antitumorigenic effects of PEI/siRNA-mediated in vivo gene-targeting of tumor-relevant proteins like in mouse tumor xenograft models are described.
doi:10.1155/JBB/2006/71659
PMCID: PMC1559929  PMID: 17057369
23.  Lipid Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNA to Silence Neuronal Gene Expression in the Brain 
Manipulation of gene expression in the brain is fundamental for understanding the function of proteins involved in neuronal processes. In this article, we show a method for using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to efficiently silence neuronal gene expression in cell culture and in the brain in vivo through intracranial injection. We show that neurons accumulate these LNPs in an apolipoprotein E–dependent fashion, resulting in very efficient uptake in cell culture (100%) with little apparent toxicity. In vivo, intracortical or intracerebroventricular (ICV) siRNA-LNP injections resulted in knockdown of target genes either in discrete regions around the injection site or in more widespread areas following ICV injections with no apparent toxicity or immune reactions from the LNPs. Effective targeted knockdown was demonstrated by showing that intracortical delivery of siRNA against GRIN1 (encoding GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)) selectively reduced synaptic NMDAR currents in vivo as compared with synaptic AMPA receptor currents. Therefore, LNP delivery of siRNA rapidly manipulates expression of proteins involved in neuronal processes in vivo, possibly enabling the development of gene therapies for neurological disorders.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.65
PMCID: PMC3889191  PMID: 24301867
24.  Influence of Polyethylene Glycol Lipid Desorption Rates on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of siRNA Lipid Nanoparticles 
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) encapsulating short interfering RNAs that target hepatic genes are advancing through clinical trials, and early results indicate the excellent gene silencing observed in rodents and nonhuman primates also translates to humans. This success has motivated research to identify ways to further advance this delivery platform. Here, we characterize the polyethylene glycol lipid (PEG-lipid) components, which are required to control the self-assembly process during formation of lipid particles, but can negatively affect delivery to hepatocytes and hepatic gene silencing in vivo. The rate of transfer from LNPs to plasma lipoproteins in vivo is measured for three PEG-lipids with dialkyl chains 14, 16, and 18 carbons long. We show that 1.5 mol % PEG-lipid represents a threshold concentration at which the chain length exerts a minimal effect on hepatic gene silencing but can still modify LNPs pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Increasing the concentration to 2.5 and 3.5 mol % substantially compromises hepatocyte gene knockdown for PEG-lipids with distearyl (C18) chains but has little impact for shorter dimyristyl (C14) chains. These data are discussed with respect to RNA delivery and the different rates at which the steric barrier disassociates from LNPs in vivo.
doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.66
PMCID: PMC3894582  PMID: 24345865
drug delivery; hepatocyte; lipid nanoparticles; polyethylene glycol; siRNA; prenatal diagnosis
25.  Cationic Lipid Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Delivery of siRNA and miRNA to Murine Liver Tumor 
Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine  2013;9(8):10.1016/j.nano.2013.05.007.
miR-122, a liver-specific tumor suppressor microRNA, is frequently downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LNP-DP1, a cationic lipid nanoparticle formulation, was developed as a vehicle to restore deregulated gene expression in HCC cells by miR-122 delivery. LNP-DP1 consists of 2-dioleyloxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-aminopropane (DODMA), egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and cholesterol-polyethylene glycol. In vitro, LNP-DP1-mediated transfection of a miR-122 mimic to HCC cells downregulated miR-122 target genes by >95%. In vivo, siRNAs/miRNAs encapsulated in LNP-DP1 were preferentially taken up by hepatocytes and tumor cells in a mouse HCC model. The miR-122 mimic in LNP-DP1 was functional in HCC cells without causing systemic toxicity. To demonstrate its therapeutic potential, LNP-DP1 encapsulating miR-122 mimic was intratumorally injected and resulted in ~50% growth suppression of HCC xenografts within 30 days, which correlated well with suppression of target genes and impairment of angiogenesis. These data demonstrate the potential of LNP-DP1-mediated microRNA delivery as a novel strategy for HCC therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.nano.2013.05.007
PMCID: PMC3815988  PMID: 23727126
Cationic lipid nanoparticle; miR-122; microRNA; HCC

Results 1-25 (1199851)