This study aimed to assess the efficiency of the virgin fatty oil of Pistacia lentiscus (PLVFO) for burn wounds healing. It was carried out on 6 adult male New Zealand rabbits. Four burn wounds of deep third degree were made on the back of each animal. The first was not treated and served as control (CRL group); the others were covered immediately after burning procedure by 0.5g of one of the following products: Vaseline gel (VAS group), Madecassol® cream 1% (MAD group) or 1ml of PLVFO (PLVFO group). The treatments were repeated once daily until complete healing. For four days post burns, the percentage of wound contraction was assessed. Also, the different healing times were noted. The results showed that both PLVFO and Madecassol® significantly accelerated wound healing activity compared to wounds dressed with Vaseline and the untreated wounds. However, the level of wound contraction was significantly higher and the healing time was faster in PLVFO group than those of the MAD group, VAS group and CRL group. The different epithelization periods obtained in days were respectively: 30±3.94 (PLVFO group), 33.5±3.78 (MAD group), 34.66±3.88 (VAS group) and 37.16±3.54 (CRL group). We conclude that Pistacia lentiscus virgin fatty oil promotes significantly (p< 0.05) wound contraction and reduces epithelization period in rabbit model.
Virgin fatty oil; Pistacia lentiscus; burn; wound healing; rabbits
Ischemia/reperfusion leads to inflammation and oxidative stress which damages membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acids (HPUFAs) and eventually induces neuronal death. This study evaluates the effect of the administration of Pistacia lentiscus L. essential oil (E.O.), a mixture of terpenes and sesquiterpenes, on modifications of fatty acid profile and endocannabinoid (eCB) congener concentrations induced by transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in the rat frontal cortex and plasma.
Adult Wistar rats underwent BCCAO for 20 min followed by 30 min reperfusion (BCCAO/R). 6 hours before surgery, rats, randomly assigned to four groups, were gavaged either with E.O. (200 mg/0.45 ml of sunflower oil as vehicle) or with the vehicle alone.
BCCAO/R triggered in frontal cortex a decrease of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the membrane highly polyunsaturated fatty acid most susceptible to oxidation. Pre-treatment with E.O. prevented this change and led further to decreased levels of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as assessed by Western Blot. In plasma, only after BCCAO/R, E.O. administration increased both the ratio of DHA-to-its precursor, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and levels of palmytoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA).
Acute treatment with E.O. before BCCAO/R elicits changes both in the frontal cortex, where the BCCAO/R-induced decrease of DHA is apparently prevented and COX-2 expression decreases, and in plasma, where PEA and OEA levels and DHA biosynthesis increase. It is suggested that the increase of PEA and OEA plasma levels may induce DHA biosynthesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha activation, protecting brain tissue from ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion; reperfusion; DHA; COX-2; PEA; OEA; Pistacia lentiscus L.; cerebral cortex; Wistar rat
Lipid-enriched diets and oxidative stress are risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. The effects of the methanolic (ME) and cyclohexane (CHE) extracts of the Pistacia vera nut, often included in the Mediterranean diet, were studied in the rabbit model of atherosclerosis.
Methods and results
Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits received atherogenic diet (Control Group), supplemented with ME (Group ME) or CHE (Group CHE) for 3 months. Previously, a GC-MS and a UHPLC LC-DAD-ESI(-)-HRMS/MS method were developed to investigate the extracts' chemical profiles. Blood samples at baseline and monthly determined lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and liver function. The aorta, myocardium and liver were examined histologically at 3 months.
Groups ME and CHE had significantly higher HDL- and non-significantly lower LDL-cholesterol median % changes from baseline than the Control Group. Triacylglycerol was significantly higher in Group CHE vs. Control. MDA values were significantly lower in Group ME vs. Control and CHE. ALT and AST were significantly higher in Group CHE vs. Control. γ-GT was lower in Group ME vs. Control. Aortic intimal thickness was significantly less in Groups ME and CHE vs. Control; Group ME atherosclerotic lesions were significantly less extensive vs. Groups Control and CHE. Only Group CHE had significant liver fatty infiltration.
During short-term administration concomitantly with atherogenic diet, both P. vera extracts were beneficial on HDL-, LDL-cholesterol and aortic intimal thickness. The ME additionally presented an antioxidant effect and significant decrease of aortic surface lesions. These results indicate that P. vera dietary inclusion, in particular its ME, is potentially beneficial in atherosclerosis management.
The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of olive oil (OO), corn oil (CO), and flaxseed oil (FO), with or without supplementation of vitamins E and C, on food intake, body weight gain %, liver weight to body weight %, total lipids, liver functions, and liver histology in male rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
Forty-two rats were divided into two main groups. The first main group was fed on basal diet (BD) as a negative control group (NC). The second main group received subcutaneous injections of CCl4 in paraffin oil (50% v/v 2ml/kg) twice a week to induce chronic damage in the liver. The group was then divided into six subgroups, three of which were fed on 4% unsupplemented oils (CO, FO, and OO) as positive control for the three oils used. The rest of the groups were fed on 4% of the same oils supplemented with vitamins E and C.
The results of the flaxseed oil rat group indicate that supplementing vitamin E and C led to a significant reduction in the mean values of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and liver alanine amino transferase enzyme (ALT). Moreover, it caused an increase of the mean value of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to the negative control group (NC). The olive oil group supplemented with the same vitamins showed a significant decrease in the mean value of serum TC and significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean value of serum HDL-C as compared to NC. The results of the corn oil group supplemented with vitamins showed a significant increase in the mean value of serum HDL-C as compared to the negative control group. The histology results confirmed that the group hepatically injured with CCl4 treatment and fed on supplemented FO or OO showed apparently normal hepatocytes.
Conclusion: The most effective treatment was observed with oils supplemented with vitamins E and C. Hierarchically FO achieved the best results compared to other additives, followed by OO and finally CO showing the least effective treatment among the observed groups.
chronic liver disease; rats; vitamin E; vitamin C; lipid profile; liver functions
Recent circumstantial evidences are suggesting that an increasing number of Iranian patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis are unresponsive to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). Pistacia atlantica is native plant in Iran (central, western, and eastern regions). Gum obtained Pistacia atlantica has been reported to possess considerable in vitro antimicrobial activity. In this study, we aimed to investigate antileishmanial activity of P. atlantica.
Male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously 2×106
L. major Promastigotes (MHROM/IR/75/ER) at the base of tail in 2007. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups. in group 1 Glucantime® was administered to the BALB/c mice in regimen of 60 mg per kg of body weight for 28 days by intraperitoneal injections per day, in group 2 the gum of P. atlantica var. Kurdica were tested by rubbing of local lesions for 28 days, group 3 infected but non-treated. Comparisons of treated groups and untreated group were done by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Topically rubbing administration of gum obtained P. atlantica var. kurdica daily for 28 days like Glucantime® decreased skin lesion size in the BALB/c mice infected with L. major compared with that in the control (P< 0.01). Treatment BALB/c mice with gum obtained P. atlantica var. kurdica and Glucantime® causes decrease number of parasitologicaly positive mice (P< 0.05).
Our results show that gum obtained P. atlantica var. kurdica can be used for controlling cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major and inhibiting development of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Pistacia atlantica; L. major; Balb/c
Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus variation chia, a blend of bioactive terpenes with recognized medicinal properties, has been recently shown to exert anti-tumor growth activity through inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and inflammatory response. However, no studies have addressed its mechanisms of action at genome-wide gene expression level.
To investigate molecular mechanisms triggered by mastic oil, Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells were treated with mastic oil or DMSO and RNA was collected at five distinct time points (3-48 h). Microarray expression profiling was performed using Illumina mouse-6 v1 beadchips, followed by computational analysis. For a number of selected genes, RT-PCR validation was performed in LLC cells as well as in three human cancer cell lines of different origin (A549, HCT116, K562). PTEN specific inhibition by a bisperovanadium compound was applied to validate its contribution to mastic oil-mediated anti-tumor growth effects.
In this work we demonstrated that exposure of Lewis lung carcinomas to mastic oil caused a time-dependent alteration in the expression of 925 genes. GO analysis associated expression profiles with several biological processes and functions. Among them, modifications on cell cycle/proliferation, survival and NF-κB cascade in conjunction with concomitant regulation of genes encoding for PTEN, E2F7, HMOX1 (up-regulation) and NOD1 (down-regulation) indicated some important mechanistic links underlying the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of mastic oil. The expression profiles of Hmox1, Pten and E2f7 genes were similarly altered by mastic oil in the majority of test cancer cell lines. Inhibition of PTEN partially reversed mastic oil effects on tumor cell growth, indicating a multi-target mechanism of action. Finally, k-means clustering, organized the significant gene list in eight clusters demonstrating a similar expression profile. Promoter analysis in a representative cluster revealed shared putative cis-elements suggesting a common regulatory transcription mechanism.
Present results provide novel evidence on the molecular basis of tumor growth inhibition mediated by mastic oil and set a rational basis for application of genomics and bioinformatic methodologies in the screening of natural compounds with potential cancer chemopreventive activities.
Nigella sativa or Black seed (N. sativa L.) is traditionally used for several ailments in many Middle Eastern countries. It is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranuculacea family with many beneficial properties as antitumor, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antibacterial. This work attempted to study the effect of N. sativa seeds powder and oil on atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits in comparison with simvastatin (ST). Twenty-five adult New Zealand male white rabbits, weighing 1.5–2.5 kg, were divided into five groups; normal group (NC, n = 5) and four hypercholesterolemic groups (n = 20): a positive control (PC) and three HC groups force fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg Kg−1 body weight of N. sativa powder (NSP), 500 mg Kg−1 body N. sativa oil (NSO) and 10 mg Kg−1 ST for 8 weeks. Feeding HC rabbits with N. sativa either in powder or oil forms was shown to significantly reduce (P < .05) total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and enhance high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels after treatment for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks compared to the PC group. Plaque formation was significantly inhibited while the intima: media ratio was significantly reduced in the NSP and NSO supplemented groups compared to the PC group. In conclusion, treatment of HC rabbits with N. sativa seeds powder or oil showed hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic cardioprotective properties.
Fat increment (0.05% cholesterol, chol) in standard diet promoted a significant increase in serum and sperm membrane chol, which ultimately altered membrane-coupled sperm specific functions: osmotic resistance, acrosomal reaction, and sperm capacitation in White New Zealand rabbits. These changes were also associated with a reduction in motility percentage and appearance of abnormal sperm morphology. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary olive oil (OO, 7% v/w) administration to several male hypercholesterolemic rabbits (hypercholesterolemic rabbits, HCR) with altered fertility parameters. These HCR males were achieved by feeding normal rabbits with a high-fat diet (0.05% chol). HCR were associated with a modest non-significant increase in body weight (standard diet, 4.08±0.17 Kg, versus high-fat diet, 4.37±0.24 Kg). Hypercholesterolemic rabbits presented a marked decrease in semen volume, sperm cell count, and percentage of sperm motility, associated with a significant increase in sperm cell abnormalities. Moreover, sperm capacitation measured by the characteristic phosphorylated protein pattern in and induced acrosomal reaction were also altered suggesting sperm dysfunction. However, the administration of OO (for 16 weeks) to rabbits that were fed with 50% of the high-fat diet normalized serum chol. Curiously, OO supply succeeded to attenuate the seminal and sperm alterations observed in HCR group. Administration of OO alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters. These data suggest that OO administration to HCR male rabbits recovers the loss of semen quality and sperm functionality.
Functional constipation is a common and challenging problem in pediatrics. Fecal disimpaction prior to maintenance therapy is recommended to ensure successful treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and patient's compliance of the two methods of paraffin oil administration (oral and rectal route) with the purpose of disimpaction in treatment of children with functional constipation.
A total of 80 children (49 males and 31 females) aged 1–12 years, with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria, whose rectal examination confirmed fecal impaction were divided into two groups randomly. Group I received 3 ml/kg/day paraffin oil orally and group II received 3ml/kg/day paraffin oil rectally during 3 consequent days. Successful treatment was defined as no detectable fecal impaction in rectal examination after at most 72 hours. Patient compliance and family satisfaction also was evaluated using a scored questionnaire.
Response to the treatment in both groups was with 92.5% and 82.5% in group I and II, respectively. So, there was no significant difference between the two methods of therapy. Family satisfying and compliance were obviously more achieved in group 1 (87.5% vs 57.5%) than in Group 2 (P<0.001). No parents in group I complained about type of treatment while 12.5% of parents in group II were unsatisfied with the mode of paraffin oil administration. The most common side effect of paraffin oil in both groups was anal oil seepage (27.5%). Nausea and abdominal pain were more common side effects in group 1 and 2 respectively.
It seems that using paraffin oil per oral route in comparison with rectal route could be a preferred option for disimpaction in children causing less anxiety to the family.
Fecal impaction; Constipation; Chronic constipation; Functional Colonic Diseases; Paraffin oil
To investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) without other highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acid (EFA) metabolism and fatty acid composition in mammals, a stable isotope tracer technique was used in adult rats fed diets with or without 1.3% of algal DHA in a base diet containing 15% of linoleic acid and 3% of alpha-linolenic acid over 8 weeks. The rats were administered orally a mixed oil containing 48 mg/kg body weight of deuterated linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids and euthanized at 4, 8, 24, 96, 168, 240, 360 and 600 h after administration of the isotopes. Fatty acid compositions and the concentrations of deuterated precursors and their respective metabolites were determined in rat liver, plasma, heart and brain as a function of time. DHA, docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the n-3 EFA family were significantly increased in all organs tested in the DHA-fed group, ranging from 5 to 200% greater in comparison with the control group. The accumulation of the metabolites, deuterated-DHA and deuterated-docosapentaenoic acid n-6 were greatly decreased by 1.5 to 2.5 fold in the dietary DHA group. In summary, feeding preformed DHA led to a marked increase in n-3 HUFA content of rat organs at the expense of n-6 HUFA and also prevented the accumulation of newly synthesized deuterated end products. This is the first study which has isolated the effects of DHA on the de novo metabolism on both the n-6 and n-3 EFA pathways.
alpha-linolenic acid; linoleic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; docosapentaenoic acid; essential fatty acid; stable isotope; GC/MS; metabolism
Nutritional status may have significant importance for the immune system, and particularly, unsaturated fatty acids may serve as modulators of immune functions. Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that fatty acids are involved in the reduction of the inflammatory processes that occur in diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system. At the same time, an increase in susceptibility to infection has also been reported. The importance of immune system modulation by dietary lipids in the presence of an intracellular bacterial pathogen, such as Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated in the present study. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups which were each fed a low-fat (2.5% by weight) diet, an olive oil (OO; 20% by weight) diet, a fish oil (FO; 20% by weight) diet, or a hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO; 20% by weight) diet for 4 weeks. In each group, lymphocye proliferation was measured, and a reduction in the stimulation index was observed in the FO and HCO groups. Cytotoxicity exerted by L. monocytogenes was increased in the groups fed diets containing OO and FO after 6 h of incubation with the bacterium. An important increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was found in the groups fed the HCO diet after 12 h of incubation with L. monocytogenes. Finally, invasion and adhesion factors were not modified substantially by the action of dietary lipids, although these factors were reduced in cells from mice fed an FO diet. These results underline the importance of several dietary lipids as biological modulators of immune functions and their crucial role in the alteration of host natural resistance.
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. A high-fat diet, rich in saturated fatty acids and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, is said to be an important cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
In this experimental study, 40 male rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups of five to receive normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet, normal diet plus ghee, normal diet plus olive oil, normal diet plus hydrogenated oil, hypercholesterolemic diet plus ghee, hypercholesterolemic diet plus olive oil, and hypercholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil. They received rabbit chow for a period of 12 weeks. At the start and end of the study, fasting blood samples were taken from all animals to measure biochemical factors including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, aorta, left and right coronary arteries were dissected at the end of the study to investigate fatty streak formation (FSF). Data was analyzed in SPSS at a significance level of 0.05.
In rabbits under normal diet, ghee significantly increased TC, LDL, and HDL compared to the beginning (P < 0.01) and also to the other two types of fat (P < 0.05). Moreover, normal diet plus olive oil significantly enhanced FSF in left coronary arteries and aorta compared to normal diet plus ghee. In groups receiving hypercholesterolemic diets, ghee significantly increased HDL and CRP (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased FBS (P < 0.01). The hypecholesterolemic diet plus olive oil significantly increased HDL (P < 0.01). Supplementation of hypecholesterolemic diet with ghee significantly increased HDL and FBS in comparison with hydrogenated oil. Significant increase of FBS was also detected with the use of ghee compared to olive oil. Ghee also significantly reduced FSF in left and right coronary arteries compared to olive oil. FSF in left coronary arteries was significantly lower in the hypecholesterolemic diet plus ghee group compared to the hypecholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil group.
According to the achieved results, future clinical trial studies and investigation of other risk factors such as inflammatory factors are required.
Fatty Streak; Ghee; Hypercholesterolemic; Olive Oil
Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a newly developed MR contrast agent. After intravenous injection, Gd-EOB-DTPA is gradually taken up by the hepatocytes and eventually excreted via the biliary pathway without any change to its chemical structure. Because of these characteristics, it can be used as a tracer for quantitative liver function testing. The purpose of this study is to develop a noninvasive method of quantitation of the hepatic function using Gd-EOB-DTPA through the deconvolution analysis.
Materials and Methods
Adult New Zealand white rabbits (n = 10, average body weight = 3.5 kg) were used in the present study. Hepatic injury was induced to by the intragastric administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) three times a week for three weeks. Liver enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alanine aminotransferase, ALT) levels and the plasma indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of ICG (ICG R15), was checked before and after the three-week administration of CCl4. At the end of experimental period, an observer "blinded" to the treatment given the rabbits performed the histological examination. MRI studies were performed before and after the three-week administration of CCl4 on a 1.5 T scanner using a human extremity coil. After intravenous bolus injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.3 mL of Gd-EOB-DTPA freshly prepared in 2.7 mL of normal saline) through the ear vein, the 250 axial single level dynamic MR images were obtained using a fast low angle shot (FLASH, TR/TE = 11/4.2 msec, flip angle = 15, acquisition time 1 second, slice thickness = 5 mm, matrix = 128×128, field of view = 120 mm) sequence with 1.5 sec time intervals. The time-intensity curves were obtained at the abdominal aorta and the liver parenchyma that was devoid of blood vessels. Deconvolution analysis of the aortic (input function) and hepatic parenchymal (output function) time-intensity curves was performed with a modified Fourier transform technique to calculate the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF). The presence and type of hepatic injury were determined by the histopathologic examination and statistical analysis of the changes of the hepatic enzyme levels, the ICG R15 and Gd-EOB-DTPA HEF values between the time before and after CCl4 administration with Wicoxon signed rank test. Correlation between the Gd-EOB-DTPA HEF and the change of the ICG R15 were analyzed with Pearson's correlation coefficient.
Histopathologic examination showed findings that were compatible with hepatic fibrosis caused by chronic liver injury. The initial blood biochemical studies before the administration of carbon tetrachloride showed that the mean AST and ALT levels were 39.8±5.2 IU/L and 59.1±11.7 IU/L, respectively. The AST and ALT levels increased to 138.4±50.5 IU and 172.0±71.6 IU/L, respectively, after the three week administration of CCl4. The ALT and AST levels were significantly increased after the three weeks of CCl4 administration (p = 0.018). The ICG R15 values were 4.47±2.08% and 19.43±3.98% before and after three-week administration of CCl4, respectively. The ICG R15 values were significantly increased after hepatic injury (p = 0.018). After normalizing the HEF as 100% in each rabbit before CCl4 administration, the deconvoluted curve after CCl4 administration revealed less hepatocyte extraction efficiency with a mean value of 77.7±3.6. There was a significant correlation between the HEF and changes of the ICG R15 by the Pearson correlation coefficient assessment (correlation coefficient = -0.965, p = 0.000).
The Gd-EOB-DTPA HEF could be calculated from deconvolution analysis of aortic and hepatic parenchymal time-intensity curves obtained by dynamic MRI. The Gd-EOB-DTPA HEF was well correlated with changes of the ICG R15, which is the most common parameter used in the quantitative estimation of the hepatic function. The Gd-EOB-DTPA HEF is a direct, noninvasive technique for the quantitative evaluation of liver function. It could be a promising alternative for the determination of noninvasive hepatic function in those patients with liver disease.
Liver, MR; Liver, contrast media; Magnetic resonance (MR), contrast media
Hempseed is a novel functional food that contains several health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PUFAs, such as those found in flaxseed and fish, have been shown to protect the heart against arrhythmias following ischemia/reperfusion.
To investigate the potential of dietary hempseed as a cardioprotective agent against global ischemia and subsequent reperfusion by assessing several measurements of cardiac performance: QT interval duration, left ventricular pressure, arrhythmia incidence and arrhythmia duration.
Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed one of six diets: a control diet; or one supplemented with 10% hempseed, 10% delipidated hempseed, 0.5% cholesterol, 0.5% cholesterol plus 10% hempseed or 5% coconut oil. After eight weeks on their respective diets, the hearts were excised and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 45 min of reperfusion. Electrocardiogram traces were recorded throughout the experiment and were subsequently analyzed for QT interval duration, left ventricular pressure, arrhythmia incidence and arrhythmia duration. Plasma and cardiac tissue were analyzed for fatty acid content and composition.
Cholesterol-fed animals exhibited significantly higher PUFA levels in their plasma, but this did not directly translate into higher PUFA levels in their cardiac fractions. There were no significant differences among the groups in the incidence or duration of ischemia-derived arrhythmias. During reperfusion, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of fibrillation in the hearts obtained from cholesterol-fed and hempseed- plus cholesterol-fed rabbits compared with the hearts from delipidated hempseed-fed rabbits.
Dietary hempseed induced limited beneficial effects on cardiac function during ischemia/reperfusion challenge. The present study does not support the use of dietary hempseed to protect the heart during ischemic insult in this experimental model.
Functional food; Ischemia; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Reperfusion
Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway.
Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet) for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet). Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks.
The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected.
These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.
There is increasing data implicating Chlamydia
pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and
antibiotics may theoretically be useful to prevent secondary vascular
complications. Three groups of New Zealand White specific-pathogen-free
rabbits, fed cholesterol-free chow, were inoculated via the nasopharynx
on three occasions, 2 weeks apart, with C. pneumoniae.
Group I (n = 23) rabbits were untreated; group II
(n = 24) rabbits were treated with azithromycin at 30
mg/kg of body weight daily for 3 days and then once every 6 days,
starting 5 days after first inoculation and continuing until sacrifice
(early treatment); and group III (n = 24) rabbits were
treated with the same dose of azithromycin but initiated 2 weeks after
the last inoculation. All animals were sacrificed at 10 to 11 weeks
after initial inoculation and examined for signs of atherosclerosis of
the aorta. Eight (34.8%) untreated rabbits developed early signs of
atherosclerosis, whereas only one (4.2%) in the early-treatment group
had such signs (P = 0.02). However, eight rabbits
(33.3%) of the delayed-treatment group had atherosclerotic changes of
the aorta and no significant reduction compared to untreated rabbits.
Early treatment of C. pneumoniae-infected rabbits with
azithromycin was highly effective (87%) in preventing atherosclerotic
changes, but delayed treatment was ineffective. It is possible that
longer or more aggressive antibiotic treatment may be needed to reverse
preformed lesions or that antibiotics may not be of value once lesions
The pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a major pest of pistachio trees, Pistacia vera L. (Sapindalis: Anacardiaceae) throughout pistachio-producing regions in Iran. Different density levels of A. pistaciae nymphs were maintained on pistachio trees by different insecticide dosages to evaluate the relationship between nymph density and yield loss (weight of 1000 nuts). Psylla nymph densities were monitored weekly by counting nymphs on pistachio terminal leaflets. There was a significant reduction in weight of 1000 nuts as seasonal averages of nymphs increased. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between nymph density and weight of 1000 nuts. The economic injury levels varied as a function of market values, management costs, insecticide efficiency and yield loss rate and ranged from 7.7 to 30.7 nymphal days per terminal leaflet, based on weight of 1000 nuts.
pistachio psylla; economic damage; yield loss; decision making
1. The serum of rabbits which have been previously treated with a single dose of ethylhydrocuprein (optochin) exerts a bactericidal action on, and, later, inhibits the growth of pneumococci in the test-tube. 2. These actions are most evident in the serum of rabbits when the base (optochin base) is given in oil subcutaneously; somewhat less when the hydrochloride of the drug is given in water subcutaneously; slight when the base is given in oil intramuscularly; and least evident, or absent, when the hydrochloride in water is introduced directly into the stomach. To get these effects by the intravenous route, toxic doses must be given, and, even with toxic non-fatal doses, the effects do not last long. 3. In the case of the base given in oil subcutaneously to rabbits in a dosage of 0.1 gram per kilo of body weight, the bactericidal action of the serum is at its maximum about one hour after administration, and it passes into an inhibitory effect about four hours after the drug has been given. 4. In man the same inhibitory and bactericidal actions of the serum are present when a single dose of 0.5 gram of the hydrochloride of the drug is given by the mouth or subcutaneously, but the bactericidal action is not so marked as in rabbits. 5. When the optochin concentration in the serum has, apparently,. diminished to a certain point in relation to the number of pneumococci present, the pneumococci which have survived the bactericidal action for a few hours acquire the power of growing freely.
Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae) is used as a folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders in Pakistan. The effect of a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens (LPCE) was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats.
To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of LPCE, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups. Animals of group 1 (control) had free access to food and water. Group II received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 1 ml of silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg b.w.) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas groups IV and V were given 1 ml of LPCE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI received 1 ml of LPCE (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week for 4 weeks. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were measured in liver homogenates. DNA damage, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology were studied in liver samples. Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Phytochemical composition in LPCE was determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
LPCE inhibited lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum induced by CCl4. GSH contents were increased as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD, GST, GSR, GSH-Px) when altered due to CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Similarly, absolute liver weight, relative liver weight and the number of hepatic lesions were reduced with co-administration of LPCE. Phyochemical analyses of LPCE indicated that it contained catechin, kaempferol, rutin, hyperoside and myricetin.
These results indicated that Launaea procumbens efficiently protected against the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in rats, possibly through the antioxidant effects of flavonoids present in LPCE.
Launaea procumbens; Hepatic injuries; Flavonoids; Antioxidant enzymes; Carbon tetrachloride
Recently, it has been reported that α-tocopherol (α-Toc) is effective for amelioration of liver damage. However, it is unknown whether other vitamin E analogs are effective. In this study, we investigated the effects of γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in rats with fatty liver. Rats fed a vitamin E-deficient diet for four weeks were divided into eight groups: Control, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), α-Toc, α-Toc + CCl4, γ-Toc, γ-Toc + CCl4, T3 mix, T3 mix + CCl4. After a 24 h fast, the rats were administered 20 mg of each of the vitamin E analogs, respectively. Moreover, the CCl4 group were given 0.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil preparation containing CCl4 6 h after vitamin E administration. We measured the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and the contents of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (T-Chol) and vitamin E analogs in the liver. Also, we determined the hepatic expression of mRNA for inflammatory cytokines. The liver TG content in the γ-Toc + CCl4 and T3 mix + CCl4 groups was decreased in comparison with the CCl4 group. Moreover, ALT activity in the T3 mix + CCl4 group was significantly lower than CCl4 group. These findings suggest that γ-Toc and T3 are effective for amelioration of fatty liver.
γ-tocopherol; tocotrienol; fatty liver; carbon tetrachloride
Theoretical models predict that the relative importance of facilitation and competition may vary inversely across gradients of abiotic stress. However, these predictions have not been thoroughly tested in the field, especially in semi-arid environments. In this study, we evaluated how the net effect of the tussock grass Stipa tenacissima on the shrub Pistacia lentiscus varied across a gradient of abiotic stress in semi-arid Mediterranean steppes. We fitted the relationship between accumulated rainfall and the relative neighbour index (our measures of abiotic stress and of the net effect of S. tenacissima on P. lentiscus, respectively), which varied across this gradient, to a quadratic model. Competitive interactions dominated at both extremes of the gradient. Our results do not support established theory. Instead, they suggest that a shift from facilitation to competition under high abiotic stress conditions is likely to occur when the levels of the most limiting resource are so low that the benefits provided by the facilitator cannot overcome its own resource uptake.
High consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as sunflower oil has been associated to beneficial effects in plasma lipid profile, but its role on inflammation and insulin resistance is not fully elucidated yet. We evaluated the effect of sunflower oil supplementation on inflammatory state and insulin resistance condition in HFD-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 male mice (8 weeks) were divided in four groups: (a) control diet (CD), (b) HFD, (c) CD supplemented with n-6 (CD + n-6), and (d) HFD supplemented with n-6 (HFD + n-6). CD + n-6 and HFD + n-6 were supplemented with sunflower oil by oral gavage at 2 g/Kg of body weight, three times per week. CD and HFD were supplemented with water instead at the same dose. HFD induced whole and muscle-specific insulin resistance associated with increased inflammatory markers in insulin-sensitive tissues and macrophage cells. Sunflower oil supplementation was not efficient in preventing or reducing these parameters. In addition, the supplementation increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and tissues. Lipid profile, on the other hand, was improved with the sunflower oil supplementation in animals fed HFD. In conclusion, sunflower oil supplementation improves lipid profile, but it does not prevent or attenuate insulin resistance and inflammation induced by HFD in C57BL/6 mice.
Fish oil, a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, has never been used as the sole source of lipid in clinical practice for fear of development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as it lacks the believed requisite levels of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. The objectives of this study were to establish biochemical standards for fish oil as the sole fat and to test the hypothesis that fish oil contains adequate amounts of omega-6 fatty acids to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency.
Forty mice were divided into two groups that were either pair fed or allowed to eat ad libitum. In each group, four subgroups of five mice were fed 1%, 5%, and 10% fish oil diets by weight or a control soybean diet for nine weeks. Blood was collected at four time points and fatty acid analysis was performed. Food intake and weight status were monitored.
All groups but the pair fed 1% fish oil group gained weight and the 5% fish oil group showed the highest caloric efficiency in both pair fed and ad libitum groups. Fatty acid profiles for the 1% fish oil group displayed clear essential fatty acid deficiency, 5% fish oil appeared marginal, and 10% and soybean oil diets were found to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency.
Fish oil enhances growth through higher caloric efficiency. We established a total omega-6 fatty acid requirement of between 0.30% and 0.56% of dietary energy, approximately half of the conventionally believed 1% as linoleic acid. This can presumably be attributed to the fact that fish oil contains not only a small amount of linoleic acid, but also arachidonic acid, which has greater efficiency to meet omega-6 fatty acid requirements.
menhaden oil; fish oil; omega-3 fatty acid; omega-6 fatty acid; triene-tetraene ratio; essential fatty acid deficiency; arachidonic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid
The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the serum pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and renal toxicity of amphotericin B (AmpB) following administration of a single intravenous dose (1 mg/kg of body weight) of Fungizone (FZ) and a heat-treated form of FZ (HFZ) to New Zealand White female rabbits. FZ solutions were heated at 70°C for 20 min to produce HFZ. Blood samples were obtained before drug administration and serially thereafter. After collection of the 48-h blood sample, each rabbit was humanely sacrificed and the right kidney, spleen, lungs, liver, and heart were harvested for AmpB analysis. Serum creatinine levels were measured before and 10 h after drug administration. AmpB concentrations in the serum and tissues were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. FZ administration to rabbits resulted in a greater-than-50% increase in serum creatinine concentrations compared to baseline. However, HFZ administration resulted in no difference in serum creatinine concentrations compared to baseline. The AmpB area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) after HFZ administration was significantly lower than the AmpB AUC in rabbits administered FZ. However, AmpB systemic total body clearance was significantly greater in rabbits administered HFZ than in rabbits administered FZ without any differences in volume of distribution at steady state. Kidney tissue AmpB concentrations, although not significantly different, were greater in rabbits administered FZ than in rabbits administered HFZ. Likewise, lung and spleen AmpB concentrations, although not significantly different, were greater in rabbits administered FZ than in rabbits administered HFZ. However, liver AmpB concentrations were significantly lower in rabbits administered FZ than in rabbits administered HFZ. No significant differences in heart AmpB concentration between rabbits administered FZ and those given HFZ were found. These findings suggest that the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and renal toxicity of AmpB are modified following administration of HFZ. HFZ could be an improved low-cost AmpB drug delivery system that has a potentially higher therapeutic index than FZ.