The aim of this study was to assess the existence of possible cross-protection between Trypanosoma congolense strains of low and extreme virulence circulating in the same trypanosomiasis focus. Groups of six mice were infected using one of three strains of low virulence and challenged with one of three strains of extreme virulence. A group of six mice was used as control for each strain of low and extreme virulence. The results showed that mice infected with one of the strains of extreme virulence developed high parasitaemia and a significant drop of the PCV compared to mice infected with a strain of low virulence and challenged with one of the strains of extreme virulence. With an exception of one strain of extreme virulence (strain F), the survival time of mice infected with the strains of extreme virulence was shorter compared to mice infected with strains of low virulence and subsequently challenged with a strain of extreme virulence. These results suggest that in an area where trypanosomes of various virulence profiles circulate, livestock infected with T. congolense strains of low virulence can be protected against the adverse effects of extremely virulent T. congolense strains.
Trypanosoma congolense; Cross-protection; Virulence; Mouse; Zambia
This study aimed to provide the foundation for an integrative approach to the identification of the mechanisms underlying the response to infection with Trypanosoma congolense, and to identify pathways that have previously been overlooked. We undertook a large-scale gene expression analysis study comparing susceptible A/J and more tolerant C57BL/6 mice. In an initial time course experiment, we monitored the development of parasitaemia and anaemia in every individual. Based on the kinetics of disease progression, we extracted total RNA from liver at days 0, 4, 7, 10 and 17 post infection and performed a microarray analysis. We identified 64 genes that were differentially expressed in the two strains in non-infected animals, of which nine genes remained largely unaffected by the disease. Gene expression profiling at stages of low, peak, clearance and recurrence of parasitaemia suggest that susceptibility is associated with high expression of genes coding for chemokines (e.g. Ccl24, Ccl27 and Cxcl13), complement components (C1q and C3) and interferon receptor alpha (Ifnar1). Additionally, susceptible A/J mice expressed higher levels of some potassium channel genes. In contrast, messenger RNA levels of a few immune response, metabolism and protease genes (e.g. Prss7 and Mmp13) were higher in the tolerant C57BL/6 strain as compared to A/J.
microarray; gene expression; African trypanosomiasis; parasite infection; host response; susceptibility
The socioeconomic implications of trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa and the limitations of its current control regimes have stimulated research into alternative control methods. Considering the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its potential to enhance immunity against protozoan parasites, we examined the effects of intraperitoneally delivered TGF-β1 in C57BL/6 mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense, the hemoprotozoan parasite causing nagana in cattle. A triple dose of 10 ng TGF-β1 significantly reduced the first parasitemic peak and delayed mortality of infected mice. Furthermore, exogenous TGF-β1 significantly decreased the development of trypanosome-induced anemia and splenomegaly. The apparent TGF-β1-induced antitrypanosome protection, occurring mainly during the early stage of infection, correlated with an enhanced parasite antigen-specific Th1 cell response characterized by a skewed type I cytokine response and a concomitant stronger antitrypanosome immunoglobulin G2a antibody response. Infected TGF-β1-pretreated mice exhibited a significant reduction in the trypanosome-induced hyperexpansion of B cells. Furthermore, evidence is provided herein that exogenous TGF-β1 activates macrophages that may contribute to parasite control. Collectively, these data indicate that exogenous TGF-β1 is immunostimulative, inducing partial protection against T. congolense infection, possibly through mechanisms involving innate immune responses.
Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular protozoan parasites of the blood stream of artiodactyls and are one of the main constraints on cattle production in Africa. In cattle, anaemia is the key feature of disease and persists after parasitaemia has declined to low or undetectable levels, but treatment to clear the parasites usually resolves the anaemia.
The progress of anaemia after Trypanosoma congolense infection was followed in three mouse strains. Anaemia developed rapidly in all three strains until the peak of the first wave of parasitaemia. This was followed by a second phase, characterized by slower progress to severe anaemia in C57BL/6, by slow recovery in surviving A/J and a rapid recovery in BALB/c. There was no association between parasitaemia and severity of anaemia. Furthermore, functional T lymphocytes are not required for the induction of anaemia, since suppression of T cell activity with Cyclosporin A had neither an effect on the course of infection nor on anaemia. Expression of genes involved in erythropoiesis and iron metabolism was followed in spleen, liver and kidney tissues in the three strains of mice using microarrays. There was no evidence for a response to erythropoietin, consistent with anaemia of chronic disease, which is erythropoietin insensitive. However, the expression of transcription factors and genes involved in erythropoiesis and haemolysis did correlate with the expression of the inflammatory cytokines Il6 and Ifng.
The innate immune response appears to be the major contributor to the inflammation associated with anaemia since suppression of T cells with CsA had no observable effect. Several transcription factors regulating haematopoiesis, Tal1, Gata1, Zfpm1 and Klf1 were expressed at consistently lower levels in C57BL/6 mice suggesting that these mice have a lower haematopoietic capacity and therefore less ability to recover from haemolysis induced anaemia after infection.
Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular and intravascular blood parasites that cause debilitating acute or chronic disease in cattle and other domestic animals. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil) has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for trypanosomiasis in livestock since 1955. As in livestock, treatment of infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice with Berenil leads to rapid control of parasitemia and survival from an otherwise lethal infection. The molecular and biochemical mechanisms of action of Berenil are still not very well defined and its effect on the host immune system has remained relatively unstudied. Here, we investigated whether Berenil has, in addition to its trypanolytic effect, a modulatory effect on the host immune response to Trypanosoma congolense.
BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally with T. congolense, treated with Berenil and the expression of CD25 and FoxP3 on splenic cells was assessed directly ex vivo. In addition, serum levels and spontaneous and LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by splenic and hepatic CD11b+ cells were determined by ELISA. Berenil treatment significantly reduced the percentages of CD25+ cells, a concomitant reduction in the percentage of regulatory (CD4+Foxp3+) T cells and a striking reduction in serum levels of disease exacerbating pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-12, TNF and IFN-γ. Furthermore, Berenil treatment significantly suppressed spontaneous and LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by splenic and liver macrophages and significantly ameliorated LPS-induced septic shock and the associated cytokine storm.
Collectively, these results provide evidence that in addition to its direct trypanolytic effect, Berenil also modulates the host immune response to the parasite in a manner that dampen excessive immune activation and production of pathology-promoting pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that this drug may also be beneficial for treatment of disease conditions caused by excessive production of inflammatory cytokines.
Four medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Bombax buonopozense, Terminalia avicennioides and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides traditionally used for treatment of sleeping sickness in Nupeland were investigated for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity. Methanol extracts of different parts of each plant (stem barks and fruits) were obtained and evaluated for their in vivo antitrypanosomal activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of each plant were performed by standard procedures. Methanol extracts of A. nilotica (stem bark), B. buonopozense (stem bark), T. avicennioides (round fruit) and Z. zanthoxyloides (stem bark) were effective on trypanosomes. The extracts of A. nilotica and B. buonopozense exhibited antitrypanosomal effects at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively. Doses were able to clear the parasites from circulation within 6 and 7 days of treatment respectively with prolonging survival period of up to 30 days. While the extracts of T. avicennioides and Z. zanthoxyloides showed trypanostatic effects and could not clear the parasites completely. The methanol extracts of these plants contain metabolites that are associated with antitrypanosomal effects; therefore, these medicinal plants may be sources of new compounds that may be active against T. b. brucei. This study has also justified the claim that some medicinal plants of Nupeland possess antitrypanosomal activity and could be useful in the management of trypanosomiasis.
Antitrypanosomal activity; Ethnomedicinal plants; Nupeland; Sleeping sickness; Trypanosomiasis; Trypanostatic effect
The frequency of trypanosomes resistant to diminazene aceturate at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight was investigated for populations of Trypanosoma congolense IL 3274 which reappeared in infected mice after intraperitoneal treatment with diminazene aceturate at the same dosage. At inoculum sizes of 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) trypanosomes per mouse, the relapse populations were used to initiate infections in five groups of 100 mice each by the intravenous route. Immediately after infection, 50 mice in each group were treated intraperitoneally with diminazene aceturate at the aforementioned dosage; the other 50 mice functioned as untreated controls. Thereafter, all animals were monitored for 100 days for the presence of trypanosomes. In each group, trypanosomes were detected in 50 of 50 control mice, indicating 100% infectivity for all five inoculum sizes. In contrast, in the groups of 50 mice infected with 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5) and 10(6) trypanosomes and treated with diminazene aceturate, trypanosomes were detected in 4, 11, 13, 28, and 39 of 50 mice, respectively. By logistic regression, a good fit was found between the number of mice identified as parasitemic and the inoculum sizes. Maximum likelihood estimates for the proportions of trypanosomes resistant to diminazene aceturate at 25 mg/kg of body weight for the inoculum of 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) organisms were 8.335 x 10(-4), 2.485 x 10(-4), 3.02 x 10(-5), 8.3 x 10(-6), and 1.6 x 10(-6), respectively. These finding indicate that the majority of the relapse trypanosomes were susceptible the the drug dosage used for selecting the population and that, surprisingly, the calculated proportion of organisms which survived drug exposure varied inversely with the inoculum size. Further experiments with mice indicated that the inverse relationship did not result from alterations in the pharmacokinetics of the drug with different inoculum sizes. The data therefore suggest that parasite inoculum size and drug dosage are important factors in estimating the apparent frequency of diminazene-resistant trypanosomes in populations of T. congolense occurring in vivo.
The anti-trypanosomal effects of aqueous extract of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum were evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The anti-trypanosomal activity of the extract against Trypanosoma brucei was investigated in-vitro. The survival and motility of the trypanosomes were completely inhibited within two hours of incubation in various concentrations of the extract. Parasite survival time was concentration dependent being longer in lower (25 and 12.5 mg/ml) than higher (100, 75 and 50 mg/ml) concentrations of the extract. The in-vivo anti-trypanosomal effect of the leaf extract of the leaf extract was investigated in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with the extract. The infected rats treated with the extract had less dramatic clinical manifestations and mortality, survived longer and higher PCV values than their untreated counterparts, however, parasitaemia was not significantly reduced. The results suggest that the folkloric medicinal application of the aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum has no possible pharmacological basis.
Anti-trypanosomal; Leaf; Ocimum gratissimum; Rats
Resistance to isometamidium was increased 94-fold in a clone of Trypanosoma congolense (clone IL 1180) by repeated subcurative treatment of infected mice for 11 months. This was associated with 3.4-, 33-, and 4.2-fold increases in resistance to diminazene, homidium, and quinapyramine, respectively. Both T. congolense IL 1180 and the resistant derivative were able to undergo cyclical development in Glossina morsitans centralis tsetse flies, producing hypopharyngeal infection rates of 40.0 and 39.8%, respectively.
Organic extracts of the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. yielded ten antitrypanosomal terpenoids. Three of these (1 – 3), are novel and are derivatives of nimbolide and nimbin. They were extracted from chloroform fraction of methanol extract. These compounds were found to exhibit strong antitrypanosomal activities against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense with MIC values ranging of 6.9, 15.6 and 7.8 µg/ml respectively and were more active than Cymerlarsan ( a standard drug), which had an MIC value of 187.5 µg/ml when tested against T. b. rhodesiense The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including; NMR, MS, UV and IR.
Meliaceae; limonoids; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Azadirachta indica; antitrypanosomal activity
Antitrypanosomal activity of chloroform extract of Senna villosa leaves was evaluated in the sub acute phase of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Oral doses of 3.3, 6.6 and 13.2 µg/g were tested during 15 days on infected mice BALB/c, beginning treatment 40 days after infection to evaluate specifically the antitrypanosomal activity over the amastigote form of the parasite. Two different amount of parasites (100 and 500) were inoculated to 25 mice for each doses tested. At the end of the assay the animals were sacrificed and cardiac and skeletal tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) for identification and quantification of amastigote nest. In mice infected with 100 parasites, a significant reduction in the number of amastigote nest was observed in cardiac tissue of treated animals at all doses evaluated (p<0.05). An important reduction of amastigote nest was also observed in treated animals and infected with 500 parasites in comparison with no treated mice or treated with allopurinol.
Antiprotozoal; Senna villosa; Trypanosoma cruzi; amastigote
Over a period of 208 days a quinapyramine-resistant population was derived in vivo from a quinapyramine-susceptible clone of Trypanosoma congolense: IL 1180. While the dose of quinapyramine sulfate required to cure 50% of mice infected with the parental clone was 0.23 mg/kg of body weight, the 50% curative dose for the resistant derivative, IL 1180/Stabilate 12, was greater than 9.6 mg/kg. This approximately 40-fold increase in resistance to quinapyramine was shown to be associated with an 8-fold increase in resistance to isometamidium, a 28-fold increase in resistance to homidium, and a 5.5-fold increase in resistance to diminazene. Cross-resistance to homidium and diminazene was also demonstrated in goats. Two clones derived from the drug-resistant derivative underwent cyclical development in Glossina morsitans centralis, producing mature infection rates of 39.6 and 23.9%. Thus, induction of resistance to quinapyramine in T. congolense IL 1180 was associated with cross-resistance to isometamidium, homidium, and diminazene and did not compromise the population's ability to undergo full cyclical development in tsetse flies.
Diabetes mellitus has remained a significant contributor to morbidities and mortalities in our environment despite all efforts to curb the trend. Regrettably, conventional, orthodox hypoglycemic agents have remained unaffordable. Consequently the need for available and affordable alternatives cannot be overemphasized.
To determine the effect of the methanolic seed extracts of Buchhlozia coriacea, on blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus.
Hyperglycemia was induced by the injection of 120 mg/kg intrapetoneally (i.p.) of alloxan monohydrate freshly dissolved in distilled water. Three doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) per os, of the extracts were administered in the study. The activity was compared with reference standard drug, glibenclamide (2 mg/kg, p.o.) and negative control.
Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic mice with the crude extracts of B. coriacea seed brought down the raised blood glucose levels significantly (P = 0.043) in a dose-dependent manner.
B. coriacea seed was shown to possess significant antidiabetic potential.
Alloxan monohydrate; Buchhlozia coriacea; Diabetes mellitus; Glibenclamide
The pharmacokinetics of diminazene in five female Boran (Bos indicus) cattle before and then during acute and chronic phases of experimental infections with Trypanosoma congolense were investigated. A 7.0% (wt/vol) solution of diminazene aceturate (Berenil) was used in all three phases of the study and administered as a single intramuscular dose of 3.5 mg of diminazene base per kg of body weight. There were no significant differences between the values of pharmacokinetic parameters for the noninfected cattle and the values for cattle with a chronic T. congolense infection. However, the maximum concentration of the drug in plasma during the acute phase of infection (8.25 +/- 1.72 micrograms/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than that during chronic infection (5.04 +/- 0.26 micrograms/ml) and that in the noninfected state (4.76 +/- 0.76 micrograms/ml). Similarly, the time to maximum concentration of the drug in plasma when diminazene was administered during the acute phase of infection (18.00 +/- 6.71 min) was significantly (P < 0.02) shorter than that for noninfected cattle (36.00 +/- 8.22 min) and that during chronic infection (33.75 +/- 7.50 min). The volume of distribution at steady state during acute infection (1.01 +/- 0.31 liter/kg) was significantly (P < 0.01) smaller than that in the noninfected state (1.37 +/- 0.17 liter/kg) and that in chronic infection (1.51 +/- 0.24 liter/kg). Eight hours after the drug had been administered, the concentration-time data profiles for each of the three study phases were very similar. Mean concentrations of diminazene in plasma 48 h after administration of the drug were 0.43 +/- 0.07 microgram/ml in noninfected cattle, 0.43 +/- 0.11 microgram/ml during the acute phase of trypanosome infection, and 0.44 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml during the chronic phase of the infection. Results of the present study indicate that the area under the concentration-time curve for diminazene in trypanosome-infected cattle did not differ significantly for noninfected cattle. It, therefore, appears that the total amount of diminazene attained and maintained in the plasma of cattle is not significantly altered during infection with T. congolense.
Surra is an animal pathogenic protozoan infection, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, that develops into a fatal wasting disease. Control measures rely on diagnosis and treatment. However, with the continuous emergence of drug resistance, this tactic is failing, and the pressing need for new chemotherapeutic agents is becoming critical. With the introduction of novel aromatic diamidines, a new category of antitrypanosomal drugs was discovered. Nevertheless, their efficacy within a T. evansi-infected mouse model was not known. In total, 30 compounds previously selected based on their in vitro activity were tested in a T. evansi mouse model of infection. Six of the compounds were capable of curing T. evansi-infected mice at drug doses as low as 0.5 and 0.25 mg/kg of body weight administered for 4 consecutive days, and they were more effective than the standard drugs suramin, diminazene, and quinapyramine. After all selection criteria were applied, three diamidine compounds (DB 75, DB 867, and DB 1192) qualified as lead compounds and were considered to have the potential to act as preclinical candidates against T. evansi infection.
The effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces on haematology and pathological changes in some selected organs during experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection of rats were investigated. Three groups of rats were intraperitoneally infected with T. congolense (Karu stock). One group was administered with the aqueous extract and another given a solution of vitamin C in drinking water; the remaining infected group was left untreated. Data from these groups were compared with those of two groups of healthy rats, one of which was similarly treated with the aqueous extract. The experiment was terminated three weeks, post-infection (pi). The uninfected and infected rats administered the extract consumed the equivalent of 9.94 mg - and 9.61 mg ascorbic acid / 100g / day during the experiment. Consumption of the extract significantly (p<0.01) retarded the rate of weight gain in both healthy and infected rats; even though the feed-intake was not significantly affected. After two weeks of infection the extract and vitamin C kept the parasitaemia significantly (p<0.01) lower than the untreated infected group. The anaemia in the untreated infected group was significantly (p<0.01) more severe than that of the corresponding extract- or vitamin-treated groups. Trypanosoma congolense infection caused significant (p<0.01) decreases in serum total proteins and albumin; serum and organ ascorbic acid as well as significant (p<0.01) elevation of serum alanine amino transferase levels in untreated rats. Consumption of the extract or vitamin C, however, prevented these disease-induced anomalies in the treated infected rats. Serum creatinine and urea levels were not affected by infection but the extract elevated these parameters significantly (p<0.01) above infection levels. It was concluded that consumption of the extract ameliorated the pathological changes in blood and organs of T. congolense-infected rats.
Trypanosoma congolense; Anaemia; organ pathology; Hibiscus sabdariffa
The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300 mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.
Trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma congolense is a major constraint to animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, the treatment of the disease is impaired by the spread of drug resistance. Resistance to diminazene aceturate (DA) in T. congolense is linked to a mutation modifying the functioning of a P2-type purine-transporter responsible for the uptake of the drug. Our objective was to verify if the mutation was linked or not to drug pressure.
Thirty-four T. congolense isolates sampled from tsetse or wildlife were screened for the DA-resistance linked mutation using DpnII-PCR-RFLP. The results showed 1 sensitive, 12 resistant and 21 mixed DpnII-PCR-RFLP profiles. This suggests that the mutation is present on at least one allele of each of the 33 isolates. For twelve of the isolates, a standard screening method in mice was used by (i) microscopic examination, (ii) trypanosome-specific 18S-PCR after 2 months of observation and (iii) weekly trypanosome-specific 18S-PCR for 8 weeks. The results showed that all mice remained microscopically trypanosome-positive after treatment with 5 mg/kg DA. With 10 and 20 mg/kg, 8.3% (n = 72) and 0% (n = 72) of the mice became parasitologically positive after treatment. However, in these latter groups the trypanosome-specific 18S-PCR indicated a higher degree of trypanosome-positivity, i.e., with a unique test, 51.4% (n = 72) and 38.9% (n = 72) and with the weekly tests 79.2% (n = 24) and 66.7% (n = 24) for 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively.
The widespread presence of the DA-resistance linked mutation in T. congolense isolated from wildlife suggests that this mutation is favourable to parasite survival and/or its dissemination in the host population independent from the presence of drug. After treatment with DA, those T. congolense isolates cause persisting low parasitaemias even after complete elimination of the drug and with little impact on the host's health.
Trypanosomosis is responsible for the death of 3 million heads of cattle yearly, with 50 million animals at risk in sub-Saharan Africa. DA, a commonly used drug against the disease, was marketed decades ago. Drug resistance is reported in 21 African countries. A common argument about the origin of drug resistance is the selection by the drug of rare individuals that are naturally resistant and the propagation of those individuals in the population because of the competitive advantage they have when exposed to drug. When the drug pressure decreases, the wild-type individuals regain their supremacy. The principal objective of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of trypanosomes resistant to DA in a population that was never exposed to the drug. Our results showing a high prevalence of drug resistance in environments free of any drug pressure is thought provoking and suggests that ceasing the use of DA will not allow for a return to a DA-sensitive population of trypanosomes. Drug resistance in animal trypanosomes thus present a pattern different from what is observed with Plasmodium sp. (causative agent of malaria) where a complete stoppage in the use of the chloroquine allows for a return to drug sensitivity.
The in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of the ethanol extract of Senna occidentalis leaf were investigated. The crude extract exhibited an in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei as it completely eliminated parasites’ motility within 10 minutes postincubation with 6.66 mg/ml of effective extract concentration. The extract was further used to treat experimentally T. brucei brucei infected rats at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, beginning on day 5 post infections (p.i.). At the termination of the experiment on Day 11 p.i., the extract significantly (P < 0.05) kept the parasitemia lower than was recorded in the infected untreated rats. All the infected animals developed anemia, the severity of which was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by the extract treatment. The infection caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases as well as serum urea and creatinine levels. However, treatment of infected animals with the extract significantly (P < 0.05) prevented the trypanosome-induced increase in these biochemical indices. Furthermore, the T. brucei infection caused hepatomegaly and splenomegaly that were significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by the extract administration. It was concluded that orally administered ethanol extract of S. occidentalis leaf possessed anti-T. brucei brucei activity and could ameliorate the disease-induced anemia and organ damage.
Anemia; antitrypanosomal effect; Senna occidentalis; Trypanosoma brucei brucei
The mechanisms of genetic resistance or "trypanotolerance" to infection with Trypanosoma congolense were investigated in two strains of mice. One strain C57BL, is outstandingly resistant to most stabilates of T. congolense and can survive for over 80 days, whereas CFLP, in common with most other strains, generally succumbs in less than 20 days. Evaluation of several pathophysiological and immunological parameters showed that after infection both strains initially developed similar levels of parasitemia, anemia, biochemical derangement, and immunosuppression. The most outstanding difference was after day 8 postinfection, when the susceptible strain (CFLP) sustained high levels of parasitemia (10(9) trypanosomes per ml) until death 2 to 4 days later, whereas the resistant strain (C57BL) showed a marked decrease to less than 10(6) trypanosomes per ml by day 10 postinfection. Clear evidence that this was associated with the presence of trypanocidal antibody in the resistant mice was provided by the results of an infectivity neutralization test on serum collected from each strain at 10 days postinfection. Chronically infected C57BL mice showed declining waves of parasitemia and a slow restoration of most hematological and biochemical indexes to near normal levels by 80 days postinfection, although at this stage they remained immunosuppressed.
We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2), the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies.
Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters.
We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.
Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice infected intraperitoneally with 5 × 106 Trypanosoma congolense survive for more than 30 days. C57BL/6 mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS−/−) and infected with 103 or 5 × 106 parasites do not control the parasitemia and survive for only 14 ± 7 or 6.8 ± 0.1 days, respectively. Bloodstream trypanosomes of iNOS−/− mice infected with 5 × 106 T. congolense had a significantly higher ratio of organisms in the S+G2+M phases of the cell cycle than trypanosomes in WT mice. We have reported that IgM anti-VSG-mediated phagocytosis of T. congolense by macrophages inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthesis via CR3 (CD11b/CD18). Here, we show that during the first parasitemia, but not at later stages of infection, T. congolense-infected CD11b−/− mice produce more NO and have a significantly lower parasitemia than infected WT mice. We conclude that induced NO contributes to the control of parasitemia by inhibiting the growth of the trypanosomes.
BALB/c mice are highly susceptible while C57BL/6 are relatively resistant to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to regulate the pathogenesis of experimental T. congolense infection, their exact role remains controversial. We wished to determine whether Tregs contribute to distinct phenotypic outcomes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and if so how they operate with respect to control of parasitemia and production of disease-exacerbating proinflammatory cytokines.
BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally (i.p) with 103
T. congolense clone TC13 and both the kinetics of Tregs expansion and intracellular cytokine profiles in the spleens and livers were monitored directly ex vivo by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were injected with anti-CD25 mAb prior or post T. congolense infection or adoptively (by intravenous route) given highly enriched naïve CD25+ T lymphocytes prior to T. congolense infection and the inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels and survival were monitored. In contrast to a transient and non significant increase in the percentages and absolute numbers of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Tregs) in C57BL/6 mouse spleens and livers, a significant increase in the percentage and absolute numbers of Tregs was observed in spleens of infected BALB/c mice. Ablation or increasing the number of CD25+ cells in the relatively resistant C57BL/6 mice by anti-CD25 mAb treatment or by adoptive transfer of CD25+ T cells, respectively, ameliorates or exacerbates parasitemia and production of proinflammatory cytokines.
Collectively, our results show that regulatory T cells contribute to susceptibility in experimental murine trypanosomiasis in both the highly susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant C57BL/6 mice.
BALB/c mice are highly susceptible while C57BL/6 is relatively resistant to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Acute death observed in infected BALB/c mice is usually associated with the excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those caused by parasites. However, the role of Tregs in the pathogenesis of T. congolense infection remains unclear. We were interested in addressing the following questions: Do Tregs contribute to the distinct phenotypic outcomes observed in T. congolense-infected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice? If so, where and how do they operate with respect to parasitemia and cytokine response? By selectively altering the numbers of these cells either by targeted depletion with monoclonal antibody or adoptive transfer of highly enriched naïve CD25+ cells prior to infection, we show that Tregs impairs efficient parasite control and impacts on production of disease-exacerbating proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, our findings suggest that Tregs contribute to enhanced susceptibility to experimental T. congolense infection in mice.
A series of novel aromatic derivatives based on the structure of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) was examined for trypanocidal activities in human and veterinary trypanosomes of African origin. One agent, CGP 40215A, a bicyclic analog of MGBG which also resembles the diamidines diminazene (Berenil) and pentamidine, was curative of infections by 19 isolates of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies as well as a Trypanosoma congolense isolate. Several of these isolates were resistant to standard trypanocides. Curative doses were < or = 25 mg/kg of body weight/day for 3 days in these acute laboratory model infections. In addition, CGP 40215A also cured a model central nervous system infection in combination with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; Ornidyl, eflornithine). Curative combinations were 14 days of oral 2% DFMO (approximately 5 g/kg/day) plus 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg/day for 3 or 7 days given by intraperitoneal injection or with a miniosmotic pump. Combinations were most effective if CGP 40215A was given in the second half or at the end of the DFMO regimen. MGBG has modest activity as an inhibitor of trypanosome S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]. 130 microM), while CGP 40215A was a more active inhibitor (IC50, 20 microM). Preincubation of trypanosomes with CGP 40215A for 1 h caused a reduction in spermidine content (36%) and an increase in putrescine content (20%), indicating that one possible mechanism of its action may be inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis.
BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections, whereas C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant. Infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice die of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Because interleukin-17 (IL-17) and Th17 cells regulate inflammatory responses, we investigated their role in the pathogenesis of experimental African trypanosomiasis in mice. We show that the production of IL-17 by spleen and liver cells and the serum IL-17 level increased after T. congolense infection in mice. Interestingly, infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice produced more IL-17 and had more Th17 cells than infected relatively resistant C57BL/6 mice. Paradoxically, neutralization of IL-17 with anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibody in vivo induced higher parasitemia in both the susceptible and the relatively resistant mice. Interestingly, anti-IL-17 antibody-treated mice had higher serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and the production of IL-10 and nitric oxide by liver cells was markedly decreased. Moreover, recombinant IL-17-treated mice exhibited significantly faster parasite control and lower peak parasitemia compared to control mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the IL-17/Th17 axis plays a protective role in murine experimental African trypanosomiasis.