Caries and gingivitis are the most prevalent oral infectious diseases of humans and are due to the accumulation of dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) on the tooth surface and at the gingival margin, respectively. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that many natural components of foods and beverages inhibit the adhesion of and/or exert activity against oral bacteria. These biological activities have mainly been attributed to the polyphenol fraction. In order to explore the possibility that diet can alter the dental plaque community, in this study we evaluated the composition of the microbiota of supra- and subgingival plaque samples collected from 75 adult subjects with different drinking habits (drinkers of coffee, red wine, or water for at least 2 years) by analyzing the microbial population through the separation of PCR-amplified fragments using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The mean numbers of bands of the DGGE profiles from all three categories were evaluated. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of plaque collected from the control group (water drinkers), and this group showed the highest number of bands (supragingival plaque, 18.98 ± 3.16 bands; subgingival plaque, 18.7 ± 3.23 bands). The coffee and wine drinker groups generated the lowest numbers of bands for both supragingival plaque (coffee drinkers, 8.25 ± 3.53 bands; wine drinkers, 7.93 ± 2.55 bands) and subgingival plaque (coffee drinkers, 8.3 ± 3.03 bands; wine drinkers, 7.65 ± 1.68 bands). The differences between coffee drinkers or wine drinkers and the control group (water drinkers) were statistically significant. A total of 34 microorganisms were identified, and the frequency of their distribution in the three subject categories was analyzed. A greater percentage of subjects were positive for facultative aerobes when supragingival plaque was analyzed, while anaerobes were more frequent in subgingival plaque samples. It is noteworthy that the frequency of identification of anaerobes was significantly reduced when the frequencies for coffee and wine drinkers were compared with the frequencies for subjects in the control group. The DGGE profiles of the organisms in both plaque samples from all groups were generated and were used to construct dendrograms. A number of distinct clusters of organisms from water, coffee, and wine drinkers were formed. The clustering of some of the DGGE results into cohort-specific clusters implies similarities in the microbiotas within these groups and relevant differences in the microbiotas between cohorts. This supports the notion that the drinking habits of the subjects may influence the microbiota at both the supragingival and the subgingival levels.
Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.
Many different species of acidophilic prokaryotes, widely distributed within the domains Bacteria and Archaea, can catalyze the dissimilatory oxidation of ferrous iron or reduction of ferric iron, or can do both. Microbially mediated cycling of iron in extremely acidic environments (pH < 3) is strongly influenced by the enhanced chemical stability of ferrous iron and far greater solubility of ferric iron under such conditions. Cycling of iron has been demonstrated in vitro using both pure and mixed cultures of acidophiles, and there is considerable evidence that active cycling of iron occurs in acid mine drainage streams, pit lakes, and iron-rich acidic rivers, such as the Rio Tinto. Measurements of specific rates of iron oxidation and reduction by acidophilic microorganisms show that different species vary in their capacities for iron oxido-reduction, and that this is influenced by the electron donor provided and growth conditions used. These measurements, and comparison with corresponding data for oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, also help explain why ferrous iron is usually used preferentially as an electron donor by acidophiles that can oxidize both iron and sulfur, even though the energy yield from oxidizing iron is much smaller than that available from sulfur oxidation. Iron-oxidizing acidophiles have been used in biomining (a technology that harness their abilities to accelerate the oxidative dissolution of sulfidic minerals and thereby facilitate the extraction of precious and base metals) for several decades. More recently they have also been used to simultaneously remediate iron-contaminated surface and ground waters and produce a useful mineral by-product (schwertmannite). Bioprocessing of oxidized mineral ores using acidophiles that catalyze the reductive dissolution of ferric iron minerals such as goethite has also recently been demonstrated, and new biomining technologies based on this approach are being developed.
acidophiles; iron; oxidation; reduction
Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake.
The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis.
Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc.
The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination.
Zinc; iron; Uganda; Kumi District; micronutrients; 24-hour recall
The ability of Neisseria species to use iron compounds and to compete with iron-binding proteins was examined with deferrated defined medium and the iron chelator deferoxamine. All Neisseria species were able to assimilate a variety of ferric and ferrous iron salts. They were not able to efficiently solubilize an inorganic iron salt such as ferric nitrate, but were able to use iron chelated by citrate, oxalacetate, pyrophosphate, or nitrilotriacetate. Each of the 95 Neisseria isolates examined was able to use hemin as a sole source of iron, and most, but not all, of the isolates were able to obtain iron from hemoglobin. Heated human serum stimulated growth of all gonococci, meningococci, and some commensal Neisseria species in iron-deficient medium. All gonococci and meningococci were able to scavenge iron from 25% saturated transferrin, whereas most commensal organisms were inhibited by this iron-binding protein. The ability to compete with transferrin was specific, since partially saturated conalbumin was bacteriostatic for all Neisseria species. Although the pathogenic Neisseria species were able to compete more efficiently with transferrin for iron than were the nonpathogenic Neisseria species, no correlation was observed between the virulence of different strains or colony types of gonococci and the ability to scavenge iron in vitro from transferrin or other chelators.
Microbial iron oxidation is an integral part of the iron redox cycle in wetlands. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the composition and ecology of iron-oxidizing communities in the soils and sediments of wetlands. In this study, sediment cores were collected across a freshwater tidal marsh in order to characterize the iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and to link their distributions to the geochemical properties of the sediments. We applied recently designed 16S rRNA primers targeting Gallionella-related FeOB by using a nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach combined with a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. Gallionella-related FeOB were detected in most of the samples. The diversity and abundance of the putative FeOB were generally higher in the upper 5 to 12 cm of sediment than in deeper sediment and higher in samples collected in April than in those collected in July and October. Oxygen supply by macrofauna appears to be a major force in controlling the spatial and temporal variations in FeOB communities. The higher abundance of Gallionella-related FeOB in April coincided with elevated concentrations of extractable Fe(III) in the sediments. Despite this coincidence, the distributions of FeOB did not exhibit a simple relationship to the redox zonation inferred from the geochemical depth profiles.
Iron is an essential growth factor for virtually all organisms. However, iron is not readily available in most environments and microorganisms have evolved specialized mechanisms, such as the use of siderophores and high-affinity transport systems, to acquire iron when confronted with iron-limiting conditions. In general these systems are tightly regulated to prevent iron-induced toxicity and because they are quite costly to the microbe. Because of this tight regulation we chose to explore the response of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 to iron limitation. Through microarray and complementation analyses we identified and characterized a presumed ferrous iron uptake system, encoded by bfeUOB, from B. breve UCC2003 and exploited its regulated transcription to develop an inducible expression system for use in bifidobacteria.
iron-regulation; plasmid; probiotic
Iron is required by most living systems. A great variety of means of acquisition, avenues of uptake, and methods of storage are used by pathogenic fungi to ensure a supply of the essential metal. Solubilization of insoluble iron polymers is the first step in iron assimilation. The two methods most commonly used by microorganisms for solubilization of iron are reduction and chelation. Reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron by enzymatic or nonenzymatic means is a common mechanism among pathogenic yeasts. Under conditions of iron starvation, many fungi synthesize iron chelators known as siderophores. Two classes of compounds that function in iron gathering are commonly observed: hydroxamates and polycarboxylates. Two major responses to iron stress in fungi are a high-affinity ferric iron reductase and siderophore synthesis. Regulation of these two mechanisms at the molecular level has received attention. Uptake of siderophores is a diverse process, which varies among the different classes of compounds. Since free iron is toxic, it must be stored for further metabolic use. Polyphosphates, ferritins, and siderophores themselves have been described as storage molecules. The iron-gathering mechanisms used by a pathogen in an infected host are largely unknown and can only be posited on the basis of in vitro studies at present.
Relationships between community composition of the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae, pollution levels, and the occurrence of biodegradation were established for an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate by using cultivation-independent Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene-targeting techniques. Numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and sequencing revealed a high Geobacteraceae diversity and showed that community composition within the leachate plume differed considerably from that of the unpolluted aquifer. This suggests that pollution has selected for specific species out of a large pool of Geobacteraceae. DGGE profiles of polluted groundwater taken near the landfill (6- to 39-m distance) clustered together. DGGE profiles from less-polluted groundwater taken further downstream did not fall in the same cluster. Several individual DGGE bands were indicative of either the redox process or the level of pollution. This included a pollution-indicative band that dominated the DGGE profiles from groundwater samples taken close to the landfill (6 to 39 m distance). The clustering of these profiles and the dominance by a single DGGE band corresponded to the part of the aquifer where organic micropollutants and reactive dissolved organic matter were attenuated at relatively high rates.
The availability of ferric iron for microbial reduction as directly determined by the activity of iron-reducing organisms was compared with its availability as determined by a newly developed chemical assay for microbially reducible iron. The chemical assay was based on the reduction of poorly crystalline ferric iron by hydroxylamine under acidic conditions. There was a strong correlation between the extent to which hydroxylamine could reduce various synthetic ferric iron forms and the susceptibility of the iron to microbial reduction in an enrichment culture of iron-reducing organisms. When sediments that contained hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron were incubated under anaerobic conditions, ferrous iron accumulated as the concentration of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron declined over time. Ferrous iron production stopped as soon as the hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron was depleted. In anaerobic incubations of reduced sediments that did not contain hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron, there was no microbial iron reduction, even though the sediments contained high concentrations of oxalate-extractable ferric iron. A correspondence between the presence of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron and the extent of ferric iron reduction in anaerobic incubations was observed in sediments from an aquifer and in fresh- and brackish-water sediments from the Potomac River estuary. The assay is a significant improvement over previously described procedures for the determination of hydroxylamine-reducible ferric iron because it provides a correction for the high concentrations of solid ferrous iron which may also be extracted from sediments with acid. This is a rapid, simple technique to determine whether ferric iron is available for microbial reduction.
A number of trace elements are required by man, but clear-cut evidence of deficiency has been observed for only iodine and iron. Despite the fact no evidence exists that human diets may be deficient in trace minerals other than iron and iodine, there is an increasing tendency to add more and more minerals to vitamin-mineral preparations. Since potassium iodide is a mandatory constituent of table salt in Canada, iron is apparently the only trace element which may not be consumed in adequate amounts under Canadian conditions, and whose addition to dietary supplements for sale to the general public can be justified. It is suggested that trace elements other than iron should not be advertised to the general public, but should be administered only on the advice of a physician, who is in a position to judge the merit of available products in each specific situation.
Knowledge about the relationship between microbial community structure and hydrogeochemistry (e.g., pollution, redox and degradation processes) in landfill leachate-polluted aquifers is required to develop tools for predicting and monitoring natural attenuation. In this study analyses of pollutant and redox chemistry were conducted in parallel with culture-independent profiling of microbial communities present in a well-defined aquifer (Banisveld, The Netherlands). Degradation of organic contaminants occurred under iron-reducing conditions in the plume of pollution, while upstream of the landfill and above the plume denitrification was the dominant redox process. Beneath the plume iron reduction occurred. Numerical comparison of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of Bacteria and Archaea in 29 groundwater samples revealed a clear difference between the microbial community structures inside and outside the contaminant plume. A similar relationship was not evident in sediment samples. DGGE data were supported by sequencing cloned 16S rDNA. Upstream of the landfill members of the β subclass of the class Proteobacteria (β-proteobacteria) dominated. This group was not encountered beneath the landfill, where gram-positive bacteria dominated. Further downstream the contribution of gram-positive bacteria to the clone library decreased, while the contribution of δ-proteobacteria strongly increased and β-proteobacteria reappeared. The β-proteobacteria (Acidovorax, Rhodoferax) differed considerably from those found upstream (Gallionella, Azoarcus). Direct comparisons of cloned 16S rDNA with bands in DGGE profiles revealed that the data from each analysis were comparable. A relationship was observed between the dominant redox processes and the bacteria identified. In the iron-reducing plume members of the family Geobacteraceae made a strong contribution to the microbial communities. Because the only known aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading, iron-reducing bacteria are Geobacter spp., their occurrence in landfill leachate-contaminated aquifers deserves more detailed consideration.
Iron is an essential element for the survival of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo, acting as a cofactor of several enzymes and playing a critical role in host-parasite relationships. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a parasite that is widespread in the new world and considered the major etiological agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although iron depletion leads to promastigote and amastigote growth inhibition, little is known about the role of iron in the biology of Leishmania. Furthermore, there are no reports regarding the importance of iron for L. (V.) braziliensis.
In this study, the effect of iron on the growth, ultrastructure and protein expression of L. (V.) braziliensis was analyzed by the use of the chelator 2,2-dipyridyl. Treatment with 2,2-dipyridyl affected parasites' growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Multiplication of the parasites was recovered after reinoculation in fresh culture medium. Ultrastructural analysis of treated promastigotes revealed marked mitochondrial swelling with loss of cristae and matrix and the presence of concentric membranar structures inside the organelle. Iron depletion also induced Golgi disruption and intense cytoplasmic vacuolization. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of tetramethylrhodamine ester-stained parasites showed that 2,2-dipyridyl collapsed the mitochondrial membrane potential. The incubation of parasites with propidium iodide demonstrated that disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was not associated with plasma membrane permeabilization. TUNEL assays indicated no DNA fragmentation in chelator-treated promastigotes. In addition, two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that treatment with the iron chelator induced up- or down-regulation of proteins involved in metabolism of nucleic acids and coordination of post-translational modifications, without altering their mRNA levels.
Iron chelation leads to a multifactorial response that results in cellular collapse, starting with the interruption of cell proliferation and culminating in marked mitochondrial impairment in some parasites and their subsequent cell death, whereas others may survive and resume proliferating.
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a neglected disease that is widely distributed in the Americas. The protozoan parasite Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is one of the main causative agents of ATL, being responsible for the development of different clinical manifestations of the disease, which ranges from self-healing cutaneous lesions to disseminated and mucocutaneous forms. Because iron is essential for the survival and growth of Leishmania, as it is required for colonization of macrophages and development of lesions in mice, several chelating compounds have been tested for their effects on the growth of these parasites. In the present work, treatment of L. (V.) braziliensis with the iron chelator 2,2-dipyridyl inhibited the growth of promastigote forms in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, multiplication of the parasites was recovered after reinoculation in fresh culture medium. The iron chelator also induced mitochondrial dysfunction and altered expression of proteins involved in metabolism of nucleic acids and coordination of post-translational modifications. The events described above ultimately caused the death of some parasites, most likely due to mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas others adapted and survived, suggesting a plasticity or resilience of the mitochondrion in this parasite.
Iron is an essential nutrient not freely available to microorganisms infecting mammals. To overcome iron deficiency, bacteria have evolved various strategies including the synthesis and secretion of high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The siderophores produced and secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, exomycobactins, compete for iron with host iron-binding proteins and, together with the iron-regulated ABC transporter IrtAB, are required for the survival of M. tuberculosis in iron deficient conditions and for normal replication in macrophages and in mice. This study further characterizes the role of IrtAB in M. tuberculosis iron acquisition. Our results demonstrate a role for IrtAB in iron import and show that the amino terminus domain of IrtA is a flavin-adenine dinucleotide-binding domain essential for iron acquisition. These results suggest a model in which the amino terminus of IrtA functions to couple iron transport and assimilation.
Chromium (VI) is toxic to microorganisms and can inhibit the biodegradation of organic pollutants in contaminated soils. We used microcosms amended with either glucose or protein (to drive bacterial community change) and Fe(III) (to stimulate iron-reducing bacteria) to study the effect of various concentrations of Cr(VI) on anaerobic bacterial communities. Microcosms were destructively sampled based on microbial activity (measured as evolution of CO2) and analyzed for the following: (i) dominant bacterial community by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene; (ii) culturable Cr-resistant bacteria; and (iii) enrichment of iron-reducing bacteria of the Geobacteraceae family by real-time PCR. The addition of organic C stimulated the activities of anaerobic communities. Cr(VI) amendment resulted in lower rates of CO2 production in glucose microcosms and a slow mineralization phase in protein-amended microcosms. Glucose and protein amendments selected for different bacterial communities. This selection was modified by the addition of Cr(VI), since some DGGE bands were intensified and new bands appeared in Cr(VI)-amended microcosms. A second dose of Cr(VI), added after the onset of activity, had a strong inhibitory effect when higher levels of Cr were added, indicating that the developing Cr-resistant communities had a relatively low tolerance threshold. Most of the isolated Cr-resistant bacteria were closely related to previously studied Cr-resistant anaerobes, such as Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter species. Geobacteraceae were not enriched during the incubation. The studied Cr(VI)-contaminated soil contained a viable anaerobic bacterial community; however, Cr(VI) altered its composition, which could affect the soil biodegradation potential.
Iron is essential for nearly all living organisms. Innate immunity effectively restricts iron availability to microbial invaders. Some microbes have evolved effective countermeasures that blunt the effect of iron restriction. Recent epidemiologic studies have highlighted the potentiating effect of iron on microbial infections. Laboratory studies have focused on specific immune mechanisms that mediate iron withholding from microbes constitutively and in response to infections. Specialized inflammation-regulated proteins chelate iron, trap siderophores, and transport iron or modulate its transport to alter its tissue distribution during infections.
A method is described for determination of the relative availability of transferrin-bound iron and cell-derived iron to microbial iron-scavenging mechanisms. This involved incubation of parallel cultures of microorganisms in dialysis tubes placed in RPMI 1640 tissue culture medium containing 30%-iron-saturated transferrin and K562 erythroleukemia cells. In one culture the transferrin was labelled with 59Fe and in the other the cells were labelled, and the relative uptake of radioiron by the microorganisms determined. The results showed that Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus acquired iron predominantly from cells, while Candida albicans and the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli NCTC 8623 tended to acquire iron from transferrin. E. coli K-12 strains W3110 and LG1705, which (like NCTC 8623) produce the siderophore enterochelin but not aerobactin, acquired predominantly transferrin-bound iron, whereas the related E. coli strains LG1315 and LG1628, which produce aerobactin but not enterochelin, showed a preference for cell-derived iron. When the cells were incubated in the presence of 59Fe-labelled transferrin and 55Fe-labelled ferritin, no difference in relative availability of iron to E. coli was observed, suggesting that differences in the ability of aerobactin and enterochelin to remove iron from intracellular ferritin were not responsible for this preference. These results may help to explain why production of aerobactin, despite its relatively low affinity for iron, is more closely associated with invasiveness in E. coli than is enterochelin production. Reduced availability of cell-bound iron during inflammation may contribute to antimicrobial defenses.
The oxidation of ferrous iron and elemental sulfur by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans that was absorbed and unabsorbed onto the surface of sulfur prills was studied. Unadsorbed sulfur-grown cells oxidized ferrous iron at a rate that was 3 to 7 times slower than that of ferrous iron-grown cells, but sulfur-grown cells were able to reach the oxidation rate of the ferrous iron-adapted cells after only 1.5 generations in a medium containing ferrous iron. Bacteria that were adsorbed to sulfur prills oxidized ferrous iron at a rate similar to that of unadsorbed sulfur-grown bacteria. They also showed the enhancement of ferrous iron oxidation activity in the presence of ferrous iron, even though sulfur continued to be available to the bacteria in this case. An increase in the level of rusticyanin together with the enhancement of the ferrous iron oxidation rate were observed in both sulfur-adsorbed and unadsorbed cells. On the other hand, sulfur oxidation by the adsorbed bacteria was not affected by the presence of ferrous iron in the medium. When bacteria that were adsorbed to sulfur prills were grown at a higher pH (ca. 2.5) in the presence of ferrous iron, they rapidly lost both ferrous iron and sulfur oxidation capacities and became inactive, apparently because of the deposition of a jarosite-like precipitate onto the surface to which they were attached.
Siderophores are low-molecular-mass iron chelators serving as iron transporters for almost all bacteria, fungi and some plants. Iron is an essential element for majority of organisms and plays an important role in virulence of pathogenic organisms. 68Ga is a positron emitter with complexing properties comparable to those of Fe(III) and readily available from a generator. Initial studies with 68Ga-triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) showed excellent targeting properties in a rat infection model. We report here on the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of other siderophores radiolabelled with 68Ga as potential radiopharmaceuticals for infection imaging.
68Ga labelling was performed using acetate buffer. Stability, log P and protein binding values were determined. In vitro uptake was tested using iron-deficient and iron-sufficient Aspergillus fumigatus (A.f.) cultures. Biodistribution of 68Ga-siderophores was studied in Balb/c mice.
Significant differences among studied siderophores were observed in labelling efficiency, stability and protein binding. Uptake in A.f. cultures was highly dependent on iron load and type of the siderophore. In mice, 68Ga-TAFC and 68Ga-ferrioxamine E (FOXE) showed rapid renal excretion and low blood values even at a short period after injection; in contrast, 68Ga-ferricrocin and 68Ga-ferrichrome revealed high retention in blood and 68Ga-fusarinine C showed very high kidney retention.
Some of the studied siderophores bind 68Ga with high affinity and stability, especially 68Ga-TAFC and 68Ga-FOXE. Low values of protein binding, high and specific uptake in A.f., and excellent in vivo biodistribution make them favourable agents for Aspergillus infection imaging.
Siderophores; Aspergillus fumigatus; 68Ga; PET imaging; Invasive aspergillosis
Iron is an essential element for nearly all living cells. Thus, the ability of bacteria to utilize iron is a crucial survival mechanism independent of the ecological niche in which the microorganism lives, because iron is scarce both in potential biological hosts, where it is bound by high-affinity iron-binding proteins, and in the environment, where it is present as part of insoluble complex hydroxides. Therefore, pathogens attempting to establish an infection and environmental microorganisms must all be able to utilize the otherwise unavailable iron. One of the strategies to perform this task is the possession of siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems that are capable of scavenging the hoarded iron. This metal is, however, a double-edged sword for the cell because it can catalyze the production of deadly free hydroxyl radicals, which are harmful to the cells. It is therefore imperative for the cell to control the concentration of iron at levels that permit key metabolic steps to occur without becoming a messenger of cell death. Early work identified a repressor, Fur, which as a complex with iron repressed the expression of most iron uptake systems as well as other iron-regulated genes when the iron concentration reached a certain level. However, later work demonstrated that this regulation by Fur was not the only answer under low-iron conditions, there was a need for activation of iron uptake genes as well as siderophore biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, it was also realized that in some instances the actual ferric iron-siderophore complex induced the transcription of the cognate receptor and transport genes. It became evident that control of the expression of iron-regulated genes was more complex than originally envisioned. In this review, I analyze the processes of signal transduction, transcriptional control, and posttranscriptional control of iron-regulated genes as reported for the ferric dicitrate system in Escherichia coli; the pyochelin, pyoverdin, and enterobactin systems in Pseudomonas species; the irgB system in Vibrio cholerae; and the plasmid-mediated anguibactin system in Vibrio anguillarum. I hope that by using these diverse paradigms, I will be able to convey a unifying picture of these mechanism and their importance in the maintenance and prosperity of bacteria within their ecological niches.
The human gut harbors a diverse community of microorganisms which serve numerous important functions for the host wellbeing. Functional foods are commonly used to modulate the composition of the gut microbiota contributing to the maintenance of the host health or prevention of disease. In the present study, we characterized the impact of one month intake of a synbiotic food, containing fructooligosaccharides and the probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus Bar13 and Bifidobacterium longum Bar33, on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic profiles of 20 healthy subjects.
The synbiotic food did not modify the overall structure of the gut microbiome, as indicated by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The ability of the probiotic L. helveticus and B. longum strains to pass through the gastrointestinal tract was hypothesized on the basis of real-time PCR data. In spite of a stable microbiota, the intake of the synbiotic food resulted in a shift of the fecal metabolic profiles, highlighted by the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (GC-MS/SPME) analysis. The extent of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), ketones, carbon disulfide and methyl acetate was significantly affected by the synbiotic food consumption. Furthermore, the Canonical discriminant Analysis of Principal coordinates (CAP) of GC-MS/SPME profiles allowed a separation of the stool samples recovered before and after the consumption of the functional food.
In this study we investigated the global impact of a dietary intervention on the gut ecology and metabolism in healthy humans. We demonstrated that the intake of a synbiotic food leads to a modulation of the gut metabolic activities with a maintenance of the gut biostructure. In particular, the significant increase of SCFA, ketones, carbon disulfide and methyl acetate following the feeding period suggests potential health promoting effects of the synbiotic food.
Polyphenolic compounds are known to possess many beneficial health effects, including the antioxidative activities of scavenging reactive oxygen species and chelating metals, such as iron and zinc. Tea and red wine are thought to be important sources of these compounds. However, some polyphenolic compounds can also reduce the absorption of iron, and possibly other trace metals, when included in a diet. There is very little information on the effect of dietary polyphenolic compounds on the status of trace elements other than iron. We examined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), green tea extract (GT) and grape seed extract (GSE) on the absorption of 65Zn and compared them with their effects on 55Fe absorption in human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown on microporous membrane inserts. The levels of EGCG, GT and GSE used in this study were within the physiological ranges and did not affect the integrity of the Caco-2 cell monolayers. GSE significantly (P < 0.05) reduced zinc transport across the cell monolayer, and the decreased zinc transport was associated with a reduction in apical zinc uptake. However, EGCG and GT did not alter zinc absorption. In contrast, the polyphenolic compounds in EGCG, GT and GSE almost completely blocked transepithelial iron transport across the cell monolayer. The effect of GSE on zinc absorption was very different from that on iron absorption. While GSE decreased zinc absorption by reducing apical zinc uptake, the polyphenolic compounds inhibited iron absorption by enhancing apical iron uptake. GSE inhibited zinc absorption similarly to that observed for phytate. Phytate significantly (P < 0.05) decreased transepithelial zinc transport by reducing apical zinc uptake. The inhibition of zinc absorption may be due to the presence of procyanidins in GSE, which bind zinc with high affinity and block the transport of zinc across the apical membrane of enterocytes. Further research on the absorption of zinc as zinc-polyphenol complexes and free zinc should provide further insight into the process of dietary zinc absorption in the presence of GSE and other bioactive dietary polyphenols. The present study suggests that some individuals should consider their zinc status if they regularly consume procyanidin-containing foods in their diet. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are needed to confirm these results.
zinc; iron; epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); grape seed extract; green tea extract; Caco-2 cells
Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2 = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community.
methanogens; trace elements; coal bed methane; mcrA transcript; enrichments
Anaerobic, nitrate-dependent microbial oxidation of ferrous iron was recently recognized as a new type of metabolism. In order to study the occurrence of three novel groups of ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (represented by strains BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3), 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed. In pure-culture experiments, these probes were shown to be suitable for fluorescent in situ hybridization, as well as for hybridization analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns. However, neither enumeration by in situ hybridization nor detection by the DGGE-hybridization approach was feasible with sediment samples. Therefore, the DGGE-hybridization approach was combined with microbiological methods. Freshwater sediment samples from different European locations were used for enrichment cultures and most-probable-number (MPN) determinations. Bacteria with the ability to oxidize ferrous iron under nitrate-reducing conditions were detected in all of the sediment samples investigated. At least one of the previously described types of bacteria was detected in each enrichment culture. MPN studies showed that sediments contained from 1 × 105 to 5 × 108 ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria per g (dry weight) of sediment, which accounted for at most 0.8% of the nitrate-reducing bacteria growing with acetate. Type BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3 bacteria accounted for an even smaller fraction (0.2% or less) of the ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing community. The DGGE patterns of MPN cultures suggested that more organisms than those isolated thus far are able to oxidize ferrous iron with nitrate. A comparison showed that among the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, organisms that have the ability to oxidize ferrous iron also account for only a minor fraction of the population.
Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities' growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between coastal and open ocean sites regarding Fe2+ versus Fe3+ uptake gene prevalence. We also show that non-specific siderophore uptake increases in low iron open ocean environments, suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron uptake mechanisms in most marine microorganisms, our approach provides insights into how the iron metabolic pathways of microbial communities may vary with seawater iron concentrations.