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1.  The Use of Sociocultural Constructs in Cancer Screening Research Among African Americans 
Studies are increasingly examining the role of sociocultural values, beliefs, and attitudes in cancer prevention. However, these studies vary widely in how sociocultural constructs are defined and measured, how they are conceived as affecting cancer beliefs, behaviors, and screening, and how they are applied in interventions.
To characterize the current state of this research literature, we conducted a critical review of studies published between 1990 and 2006 to describe the current use of sociocultural constructs in cancer screening research among African Americans. We included quantitative and qualitative studies with cancer as a primary focus that included African American participants, assessed screening behaviors, reported race-specific analyses, and considered one or more sociocultural factors. Studies were evaluated for type of cancer and screening analyzed, study population, methodology, sociocultural constructs considered, definitions of constructs, provision of psychometric data for measures, and journal characteristics.
Of 94 studies identified for review, 35 met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Most focused on breast cancer screening, and thus African American women. Sociocultural constructs were seldom clearly defined, and the sources and psychometric properties of sociocultural measures were rarely reported.
A multidisciplinary approach to developing a common language and a standardized set of measures for sociocultural constructs will advance research in this area. Specific recommendations are made for future research.
PMCID: PMC3614350  PMID: 19556966
2.  Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women 
The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.
A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.
Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity), cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well), enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening), and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram).
The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.
PMCID: PMC3379860  PMID: 22723730
breast cancer screening; Vietnamese; Korean; Chinese; breast cancer; Asian American
3.  The sociocultural health behavioral model and disparities in colorectal cancer screening among Chinese Americans 
The purpose of this study was to validate a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model using a structural equation analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependence of model components in relation to health behavior associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Chinese Americans.
A cross-sectional design included a sample of 311 Chinese American men and women age 50 and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis which included the following variables: access/satisfaction with health care, enabling, predisposing, cultural, and health belief factors. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted on factors for CRC screening.
Education and health insurance status were significantly related to CRC screening. Those with less than a high school education and without health insurance were more likely to be “never screened” for CRC than those having more education and health insurance. The path analysis findings also lend support for components of the Sociocultural Health Belief Model and indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between CRC screening and the enabling factors, between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care.
The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to CRC screening and reinforced the need to assist Chinese with poor English proficiency in translation and awareness of the importance of CRC screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese to enhance colorectal cancer screening rates.
PMCID: PMC4214268  PMID: 25364475
Colorectal cancer; Cancer screening; Chinese Americans; Sociocultural health behavior model; Structural equation modeling
4.  Prevalence and Correlates of Lifetime Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Latino Subgroups in the United States 
Limited data is available to understand the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among U.S. Latino subgroups. This paper compares the prevalence of lifetime suicide ideation and suicide attempts among major U.S. Latino ethnic subgroups and identifies psycho-sociocultural factors associated with suicidal behaviors.
The National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) includes Spanish and English speaking Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and other Latinos. Descriptive statistics and logistic models were used to determine demographic, clinical, cultural and social correlates of lifetime suicide ideation and attempts.
The lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among Latinos was 10.2% and 4.4%, respectively. Puerto Ricans were more likely to report ideation as compared to other Latino subgroups but this difference was eliminated after adjustments for psychiatric and sociocultural factors. Most lifetime suicidal attempts described by Latinos were reported as occurring when they were under the age of 18 years. Any lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses, including dual diagnoses, were associated with an increased risk of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts among Latinos. In addition, female gender, acculturation (born in U.S. and English speaking) and high levels of family conflict were independently and positively correlated with suicide attempts among Latinos, even among those without any psychiatric disorder.
These findings reinforce the importance of understanding the process of acculturation, the role of family and sociocultural context for suicide risk among Latinos. These should be considered in addition to psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms in Latino suicide research, treatment and prevention, especially among young individuals.
PMCID: PMC2774123  PMID: 17474813
5.  Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Screening Among Asian Americans: Survey of Safety Net Healthcare Providers 
Digestive Diseases and Sciences  2010;56(5):1516-1523.
Physician patterns of screening for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Asian Americans are not well described.
To describe HBV and HCC screening practices among providers with large Asian American populations.
Providers within San Francisco’s safety net system were surveyed with respect to HBV and HCC screening practices as well as knowledge, attitudes, and barriers to HCC screening.
Among the 109 respondents (response rate = 72%), 62% were aged >40, 65% female, 24% Asian, 87% primary care providers, and 48% had >25% Asian patients. Only 76% had screened >50% of their Asian patients for HBV and 43% had vaccinated >50% of eligible patients against HBV. Although 94% knew Asians were disproportionately affected by HCC, only 79% had screened for HCC in >50% of their Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A majority believed that HCC screening in CHB reduces HCC mortality (70%) and is cost-effective (57%). The most common HCC screening modality was AFP with abdominal ultrasound every 6–12 months (63%). Factors associated with HBV screening were familiarity with AASLD guidelines (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.3–30.1, p = 0.02) and having vaccinated >50% of eligible patients against HBV (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.5, p = 0.03). Factors associated with HCC screening using abdominal ultrasound every 6–12 months were having >25% Asian patients (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.3–15.3, p = 0.02) and higher HCC knowledge score (OR = 1.9 per item, 95% CI 1.01–3.6, p = 0.045).
HBV and HCC screening rates and HBV vaccination among Asians from physician report is suboptimal. HCC screening is associated with having more Asian patients and higher provider knowledge. Provider education is essential in increasing rates of HBV and HCC screening among Asian Americans.
PMCID: PMC3082048  PMID: 21046247
Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance; Hepatitis B screening; Asian American; Provider practices
6.  The Utility of Cancer-Related Cultural Constructs to Understand Colorectal Cancer Screening Among African Americans 
Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT) to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS).
Design and Methods
A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility criteria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables.
Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS) that addresses seven cultural constructs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151) had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise.
The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.
Significance for public healthThe 29 items of the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey, identified through IRT analyses, can be used by community health researchers interested in determining the relevance of cultural constructs in the design and implementation of colorectal cancer screening programs in the African American community. With appropriate identification of sociocultural concerns, CRC health education materials and promotion strategies may avoid unnecessary conflicts with community beliefs and values. Avoiding conflicts between beliefs and values increases the likelihood that evidence and the recommended behaviours are considered for adoption. In addition, the short survey, as well as the broader item set, may be useful as a starting point for surveys to be used with other cancer sites. The application of IRT analysis to measures of cultural constructs to facilitate the development of accurate and efficient measures may prove useful in other racial/ethnic communities where cultural concerns may be relevant for health education and promotion.
PMCID: PMC4147735  PMID: 25170482
cancer; cultural beliefs; colorectal cancer; screening; African American
7.  Pathways of Breast Cancer Screening Among Chinese American Women 
The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to breast cancer screening among Chinese American women.
A cross-sectional design included a sample of 440 Chinese American women aged 40 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, which included the following variables: access/satisfaction with health care, enabling, predisposing, and cultural and health belief factors. Structural equation model analyses were conducted to evaluate factors related to breast cancer screening in Chinese American women.
Initial univariate analyses indicated that women without health insurance were significantly more likely to report being never-screened compared to women with health insurance. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to evaluate the utility of the Sociocultural Health Behavior model in understanding breast cancer screening among Chinese American women. Results indicated that enabling and predisposing factors were significantly and positively related to breast cancer screening. Cultural factors were significantly associated with enabling factors and satisfaction with healthcare. Overall, the proposed model explained 34% of the variance in breast cancer screening among Chinese American women.
The model highlights the significance of enabling and predisposing factors in understanding breast cancer screening behaviors among Chinese American women. In addition, cultural factors were associated with enabling factors, reinforcing the importance of providing translation assistance to Chinese women with poor English fluency and increasing awareness of the critical role of breast cancer screening. Partnering with community organizations may help to facilitate and enhance the screening rates.
PMCID: PMC3762685  PMID: 24013711
Mammograms; Breast cancer screening; Chinese women
8.  Prostate Cancer Screening Among Chinese American Men: A Structural Model 
To test the Sociocultural Health Behavior Model in relation to the health behavior of prostate cancer (PCa) screening among Chinese American men.
Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model analyses were conducted among Chinese American men.
The path analysis supported the components of the sociocultural model and indicated a positive and significant relationship between PCa screening and the enabling factors; between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors; and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care.
The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to PCa screening.
PMCID: PMC3325499  PMID: 22488399
digital rectal exam; prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test; prostate cancer screening; structural equation model
9.  Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women 
The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.
A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.
Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.
This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical cancer screening. Community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese American women, which could enhance cervical cancer screening rates.
PMCID: PMC3702238  PMID: 23843708
Papanicolaou test; cervical cancer screening; Chinese women
10.  Survival and hepatitis status among Asian Americans with hepatocellular carcinoma treated without liver transplantation 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:46.
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are established causes of HCC. HCC patients are often diagnosed late and receive palliative therapies, however, the survival of Asian American patients with HCC treated without transplantation has not been well studied. We reviewed our institution's experience to determine predictors and rates of survival in Asian American HCC patients treated without transplantation.
We identified Asian American patients with HCC referred to M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patients were tested for HBV and HCV. Survival curves were generated by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the relationship between prognostic factors and survival.
Of 82 Asian American HCC patients, most had advanced disease (65%) and received treatment (68%); however, only 11% had surgical resection. 94% had positive anti-HBc and 61% had positive HBsAg. 20% had positive anti-HCV. There were no significant changes in the rates of HBV and HCV over time. Male gender, high alpha-fetoprotein levels, and stage IV disease were associated with shorter survival Overall median survival was 9.2 months (95% CI 6.5–11.9), and the survival of HCV and HBV patients was not statistically different.
The survival rate of Asian American patients with advanced HCC, for whom transplantation was not available, was low. Timely hepatitis screening and interventions by primary care physicians may be the most logical solution to reduce the burden of hepatitis-associated HCC among Asian Americans.
PMCID: PMC2644315  PMID: 19193234
11.  Sociodemographic and home environment predictors of screen viewing among Spanish school children† 
Higher screen-viewing levels increase the risk of obesity. Understanding the correlates of screen viewing is an important first step in designing interventions but there is lack of information on the correlates among Spanish children. This study examined associations among environmental, sociocultural, age variables and screen viewing among Spanish children.
Children completed a questionnaire about time spent in screen viewing. BMI was assessed and children were classified into obesity groups using International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Parents completed a questionnaire about sociodemographic, environmental and sociocultural variables.
Participants were 247 primary and 256 secondary school-aged children and their parents. Time spent in screen viewing increased with age. Males spent more time than females in screen viewing. Greater access to bedroom media sources was associated with higher screen viewing. Younger children from single-parent households and older children having a younger parent, siblings and a father who was not working were higher screen-viewers on weekends and weekdays, respectively. For older children parental TV viewing time appeared to be a significant correlate, while parental rules was a determinant predictor for younger children on weekdays.
Environmental and sociocultural factors influence the time children spend in screen viewing. Parents play a central role in child's screen viewing; therefore, interventions that target environmental and family TV viewing practices are likely to be effective.
PMCID: PMC3307230  PMID: 21047871
children; obesity and health promotion
12.  Genetic Ancestry, Social Classification, and Racial Inequalities in Blood Pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(9):e6821.
The role of race in human genetics and biomedical research is among the most contested issues in science. Much debate centers on the relative importance of genetic versus sociocultural factors in explaining racial inequalities in health. However, few studies integrate genetic and sociocultural data to test competing explanations directly.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We draw on ethnographic, epidemiologic, and genetic data collected in southeastern Puerto Rico to isolate two distinct variables for which race is often used as a proxy: genetic ancestry versus social classification. We show that color, an aspect of social classification based on the culturally defined meaning of race in Puerto Rico, better predicts blood pressure than does a genetic-based estimate of continental ancestry. We also find that incorporating sociocultural variables reveals a new and significant association between a candidate gene polymorphism for hypertension (α2C adrenergic receptor deletion) and blood pressure.
This study addresses the recognized need to measure both genetic and sociocultural factors in research on racial inequalities in health. Our preliminary results provide the most direct evidence to date that previously reported associations between genetic ancestry and health may be attributable to sociocultural factors related to race and racism, rather than to functional genetic differences between racially defined groups. Our results also imply that including sociocultural variables in future research may improve our ability to detect significant allele-phenotype associations. Thus, measuring sociocultural factors related to race may both empower future genetic association studies and help to clarify the biological consequences of social inequalities.
PMCID: PMC2731885  PMID: 19742303
13.  The Influence of Sociocultural Factors on Colonoscopy and FOBT Screening Adherence among Low-income Hispanics 
Few studies have examined barriers and facilitators to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Hispanics, particularly sociocultural factors that may be relevant. This paper examines the influence of sociocultural factors on adherence to fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy. A survey was conducted among a sample of 400 low-income Hispanics in East Harlem, New York. Fatalism and health literacy were both significantly associated with colonoscopy screening adherence in bivariate models, though fatalism became non-significant and health literacy became less significant in multivariable models. With respect to adherence to colonoscopy or FOBT, both fatalism and health literacy were associated in bivariate models, though only fatalism remained significant in multivariable models (p=.03; OR: .94; 95% CI: .881–.992). These findings suggest fatalism and health literacy may play a role in shaping CRC screening adherence among low-income Hispanics. Researchers should continue investigating how sociocultural factors influence screening adherence among Hispanics, using larger and more geographically diverse samples.
PMCID: PMC3635094  PMID: 21841288
Hispanics/Latinos; colorectal cancer screening; fatalism; health literacy; cancer screening
14.  Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood 
Advances in dual diagnosis  2014;7(2):90-104.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women.
Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar.
We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language.
Practical implications
The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan.
This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood.
PMCID: PMC4095878  PMID: 25031627
15.  A Socio-cultural Perspective on Cancer Control Issues for Asian Americans 
Eighty-five to ninety percent of cancer incidence is attributable to lifestyle choices, such as diet, life habits such as smoking, and environmental factors. Culture is the single force most influential on lifestyles. This paper provides a framework to understand the potential contribution of sociocultural factors to cancer control.
This literature review of culture and cancer control provides a perspective on Asian American populations. Culture is defined in a manner that enables researchers and practitioners to begin to focus on the fundamental elements of culture that directly influence health behavior.
Only four studies were found that address sociocultural factors in cancer control for Asian Americans. Each of these studies found significant variations in the response to cancer than Euro-American populations. Only mainstream researchers or practitioners, who are knowledgeable enough about Asian American cultures to be sensitive to these differences, would recognize these variations.
The widening disparities in cancer outcomes between Asian- and Euro-Americans challenges the current research and practice paradigms for cancer control. A Cultural Systems Approach would strengthen future studies. This paradigm requires multi-level analyses of individuals and populations within specific contexts in order to identify culturally based strategies to improve practice along the cancer care continuum.
PMCID: PMC1618773  PMID: 11567507
16.  Sociocultural and Socioeconomic Influences on Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Overweight/Obese African-American and Latino-American Children and Adolescents 
Journal of Obesity  2013;2013:512914.
Purpose. It is unclear whether sociocultural and socioeconomic factors are directly linked to type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese ethnic minority children and adolescents. This study examines the relationships between sociocultural orientation, household social position, and type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American (n = 43) and Latino-American (n = 113) children and adolescents. Methods. Sociocultural orientation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents (AHIMSA) questionnaire. Household social position was calculated using the Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position. Insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIRG) and disposition index (DI) were derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). The relationships between AHIMSA subscales (i.e., integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization), household social position and FSIGT parameters were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results. For African-Americans, integration (integrating their family's culture with those of mainstream white-American culture) was positively associated with AIRG (β = 0.27 ± 0.09, r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and DI (β = 0.28 ± 0.09, r = 0.55, P < 0.01). For Latino-Americans, household social position was inversely associated with AIRG (β = −0.010 ± 0.004, r = −0.19, P = 0.02) and DI (β = −20.44 ± 7.50, r = −0.27, P < 0.01). Conclusions. Sociocultural orientation and household social position play distinct and opposing roles in shaping type 2 diabetes risk in African-American and Latino-American children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3666294  PMID: 23762538
17.  Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Among Three Asian American Sub-Groups: A Focus Group Inquiry 
Prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans is higher than for any other ethnic group in the United States. Since more than 50% of liver cancer is hepatitis B related, the burden of morbidity and mortality is extremely high among Asian Americans, highlighting the need for culturally appropriate interventions. We conducted focus groups (n = 8) with a total of 58 Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigrants in Maryland to explore knowledge, awareness and perceived barriers toward hepatitis B screening and vaccinations. Thematic analysis uncovered generally low levels of knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B risks, screening, and vaccination; inter-generational differences; and barriers to prevention. Some differences arose across ethnic groups, particularly toward perceived orientation to preventive activities and the role of religious groups. High rates of hepatitis B infection among Asian Americans highlight the need for tailored interventions. These findings may assist policy strategists in implementing interventions that will facilitate the integration and scale-up of hepatitis B education, screening, and vaccination campaigns.
PMCID: PMC3804298  PMID: 21901445
Hepatitis B risk; HBV screening and vaccinations; Asian Americans; Qualitative; Immigrant health
18.  Medical Care of Hepatitis B among Asian American Populations: Perspectives from Three Provider Groups 
Physicians can play a significant role in helping to decrease the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden among Asian Americans. Few studies have described knowledge and practice patterns in the medical community among different provider types regarding HBV and liver cancer.
Our study explores the HBV beliefs, attitudes and practice patterns of medical providers serving Asian American communities.
We conducted three focus groups with primary care providers, liver specialists, and other providers predominantly serving Asian American community. We asked about practices and barriers to appropriate medical care and outreach.
We moderated three focus groups with 23 participants, 18 of whom completed and returned demographic surveys. Twelve were of Asian ethnicity and 13 spoke English as a second language. Only eight screened at least half of their patients, most (72%) using the hepatitis B surface antigen test.
We used grounded theory methods to analyze focus group transcripts.
Participants frequently discussed cultural and financial barriers to hepatitis care. They admitted reluctance to screen for HBV because patients might be unwilling or unable to afford treatment. Cultural differences were discussed most by primary care providers; best methods of outreach were discussed most by liver specialists; and alternative medicine was discussed most by acupuncturists and other providers.
More resources are needed to lower financial barriers complicating HBV care and encourage providing guideline-recommended screenings. Other providers can help promote HBV screening and increase community and cultural awareness.
PMCID: PMC2839343  PMID: 20049549
provider attitudes; Hepatitis B; Asian Americans; qualitative research; focus groups
19.  Culturally Appropriate Photonovel Development and Process Evaluation for Hepatitis B Prevention in Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American Communities 
Asian Americans have disproportionately high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States and yet have low hepatitis B screening and vaccination rates. We developed three photonovels specifically designed for Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans and evaluated their cultural relevance and effectiveness in increasing self-efficacy and intention to have a hepatitis B screening. Photonovels' storylines were drawn from focus group themes, and lay people from each community played actors/actresses in community settings. Photonovels were pilot tested, revised, and distributed in a hepatitis B intervention. A two-page process evaluation questionnaire was mailed to 441 participants after one month. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess the overall evaluation of the photonovel and to assess factors associated with self-efficacy and intention to have hepatitis B screening. Eighty-four percent of participants responded to the process evaluation. The majority of participants either strongly agreed or agreed that the cancer information in the photonovel was helpful, the story was written by someone who knows the community, and the information was easy to understand. Overall, more than 80% of them thought this photonovel was a good teaching tool. Favorable evaluation of the photonovel was associated with both having intention and self-efficacy to have a hepatitis B screening in the next 5 months. When stratified by level of education and income, the associations were stronger among the lower income and education groups. Culturally appropriate photonovels are useful tools to promote hepatitis B screening among Asian Americans, especially among those of lower socioeconomic status.
PMCID: PMC3830675  PMID: 23372031
Asian Americans; community-based participatory research; educational material; hepatitis B; photonovel; screening
20.  Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates among Asian Americans and Non-Latino Whites 
Cancer  2005;104(12 Suppl):2940-2947.
Among Asian Americans, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer, and it is the third highest cause of cancer-related mortality. The 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2001) was used to examine 1) CRC screening rates between different Asian-American ethnic groups compared with non-Latino whites and 2) factors related to CRC screening. The CHIS 2001 was a population-based telephone survey that was conducted in California. Responses about CRC screening were analyzed from 1771 Asian Americans age 50 years and older (Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese). The authors examined two CRC screening outcomes: individuals who ever had CRC screening and individuals who were up to date for CRC screening. For CRC screening, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, and any other form of screening were examined. CRC screening of any kind was low in all populations, and Koreans had the lowest rate (49%). Multivariate analysis revealed that, compared with non-Latino whites, Koreans were less likely to undergo FOBT (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.25–0.62), and Filipinos were the least likely to undergo sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44–0.88) or to be up to date with screening (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48–0.97). Asian Americans were less likely to undergo screening if they were older, male, less educated, recent immigrants, living with ≥ 3 individuals, poor, or uninsured. Asian-American populations, especially Koreans and Filipinos, are under-screened for CRC. Outreach efforts could be more focused on helping Asian Americans to understand the importance of CRC screening, providing accurate information in different Asian languages. Other strategies for increasing CRC screening may include using a more family-centered approach and using qualified translators.
PMCID: PMC1810896  PMID: 16276538
Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training; cancer; Chinese; Vietnamese; Korean; Filipino; South Asian; Japanese; fecal occult blood test; sigmoidoscopy; colonoscopy
21.  Development of Intervention Materials for Individuals With Limited English Proficiency 
Medical care  2008;46(9 0 1):10.1097/MLR.0b013e31817f0cde.
According to recent US census data, 52 million people reported speaking a language other than English at home, and almost 45% of this population reported limited English proficiency (LEP). Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks among the top 3 most common cancers for several Asian ethnic groups, yet screening remains underutilized by Asian Americans.
This article describes the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate intervention materials for individuals with LEP. We discuss lessons learned from this research and implications for the translation of research into practice.
The Health Behavior Framework served as the conceptual model for this study, and qualitative findings guided the development of our intervention materials (a video and pamphlet). To recommend Western preventive behaviors, the research team bridged the gap between Western and Chinese values and beliefs by devoting particular attention to: (1) the target population's sociocul-tural values and health beliefs; and (2) unique linguistic features of the Chinese language.
Key lessons learned from this study include the importance of: (1) a conceptual framework to guide intervention development; (2) incorporating sociocultural values and health beliefs into the intervention; (3) addressing and capitalizing on complex linguistics issues; (4) using qualitative methodology in cross-cultural research; and (5) contributions from a multicultural and multilingual research team. Other lessons relate to the translation of research findings into practice. We surmise that lessons learned from this study may be pertinent to the promotion of CRC screening among other patient groups with LEP and applicable to additional cancer screening tests.
PMCID: PMC3860055  PMID: 18725834
limited English proficiency; colorectal cancer screening; culturally and linguistically appropriate materials
22.  The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Sample, Design, and Procedures 
Ethnicity & disease  2014;24(1):77-83.
The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Design and Setting
The Sociocultural Ancillary Study to the HCHS/SOL is a cross-sectional cohort study with future opportunities for prospective investigation.
Participants were 5,313 adults, aged 18-74 years, of self-identified Hispanic/Latino descent and representing multiple Hispanic/Latino background groups, recruited from the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA.
Participants completed an interview-administered sociocultural assessment battery within 9 months of their HCHS/SOL clinical baseline exam.
Outcome Measures
The primary outcomes are CVD and the metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors.
The Sociocultural Ancillary Study sample is broadly representative of the HCHS/SOL cohort. Weighted demographics are: 55% male, 56% 18-44 years, 44% 45 years and older, and 37% Mexican, 20% Cuban, 16% Puerto Rican, 12% Dominican, 8% Central American, and 5% South American descent.
By testing theoretically driven hypotheses concerning sociocultural and psychosocial factors in CVD, the Sociocultural Ancillary Study seeks to inform future prevention and intervention efforts for U.S. Hispanic/Latinos.
PMCID: PMC3986116  PMID: 24620452
Cardiovascular Disease; Culture; Hispanic; Latino; Metabolic Syndrome; Psychosocial Factors; Social Factors
23.  Sociocultural Differences and Colorectal Cancer Screening Among African American Men and Women 
Oncology Nursing Forum  2012;39(1):100-107.
To examine sociocultural factors that influence an informed decision about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American men and women.
Descriptive, cross-sectional.
A medical center, a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center, and various social organizations and barbershops in a midwestern city of the United States.
A purposive sample of African American women (n = 65) and African American men (n = 64) aged 50 years and older.
Participants completed a self-administered survey.
Main Research Variables
Cultural identity, CRC beliefs, family support, and informed decision.
Family support was positively related to CRC beliefs among participants, and CRC beliefs were positively related to an informed decision. However, among men, family support positively related to an informed decision about CRC screening. In addition, t-test results indicated that the men and women were significantly different. Family support predicted CRC beliefs among men (p < 0.01) and women (p < 0.01). CRC beliefs predicted CRC screening informed decisions among men (p < 0.01) and women (p < 0.05). However, the accounted variance was dissimilar, suggesting a difference in the impact of the predictors among the men and women.
Family support has a significant impact on CRC beliefs about CRC screening among African Americans. However, how men and women relate to the variables differs.
Implications for Nursing
To improve CRC screening rates, informed decision-making interventions for African Americans should differ for men and women and address family support, CRC beliefs, and elements of cultural identity.
PMCID: PMC3354616  PMID: 22201660
24.  The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study 
This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.
PMCID: PMC4186661  PMID: 25298617
Asian Indian; racial identity development; qualitative
25.  Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:214.
Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated.
Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188).
After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening.
Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A better understanding of mutable factors such as rates of doctor recommendation and health beliefs will be crucial for designing culturally appropriate interventions to promote CRC screening.
PMCID: PMC2888788  PMID: 20482868

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