The potency and efficacy of ligands for nuclear receptors (NR) result both from the affinity of the ligand for the receptor and the affinity that various coregulatory proteins have for ligand-receptor complexes; the latter interaction, however, is rarely quantified. To understand the molecular basis for ligand potency and efficacy, we developed dual time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (tr-FRET) assays and quantified both ligand and coactivator/corepressor binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Promoter-bound TR exerts dual transcriptional regulatory functions, recruiting corepressor proteins and repressing transcription in absence of thyroid hormones (THs), and shedding corepressors in favor of coactivators upon binding agonists, activating transcription. Our tr-FRET assays involve a TRE sequence labeled with terbium (fluorescence donor), TRβ•RXRα heterodimer and fluorescein-labeled NR interaction domains of coactivator SRC3 or corepressor NCoR (fluorescence acceptors). Through coregulator titrations, we could determine the affinity of SRC3 or NCoR for TRE-bound TR•RXR heterodimers, unliganded or saturated with different THs. Alternatively, through ligand titrations, we could determine the relative potencies of different THs. TR agonist potencies were GC-1~T3~TRIAC~T4>>rT3, for both coactivator recruitment and corepressor dissociation; the affinity of SRC3 binding to TR-ligand complexes followed a similar trend. This highlights that the low activity of rT3 derives both from its low affinity for TR and the low affinity of SRC for the TR-rT3 complex. The TR antagonist NH-3 failed to induce SRC3 recruitment but did effect NCoR dissociation. These assays provide quantitative information on the affinity of two key interactions that are determinants of NR ligand potency and efficacy.
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a human syndrome, is characterized by high thyroid hormone (TH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Mice with mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ) gene that cannot bind steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and Src-1−/− mice both have phenotypes similar to that of RTH. Conversely, mice expressing a mutant nuclear corepressor 1 (Ncor1) allele that cannot interact with TRβ, termed NCoRΔID, have low TH levels and normal TSH. We hypothesized that Src-1−/− mice have RTH due to unopposed corepressor action. To test this, we crossed NCoRΔID and Src-1−/− mice to create mice deficient for coregulator action in all cell types. Remarkably, NCoRΔID/ΔID
Src-1−/− mice have normal TH and TSH levels and are triiodothryonine (T3) sensitive at the level of the pituitary. Although absence of SRC-1 prevented T3 activation of key hepatic gene targets, NCoRΔID/ΔID
Src-1−/− mice reacquired hepatic T3 sensitivity. Using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) for the related coactivator SRC-2, we found enhanced SRC-2 recruitment to TR-binding regions of genes in NCoRΔID/ΔID
Src-1−/− mice, suggesting that SRC-2 is responsible for T3 sensitivity in the absence of NCoR1 and SRC-1. Thus, T3 targets require a critical balance between NCoR1 and SRC-1. Furthermore, replacement of NCoR1 with NCoRΔID corrects RTH in Src-1−/− mice through increased SRC-2 recruitment to T3 target genes.
Background: The large and increasing number of chemicals released into the environment demands more efficient and cost-effective approaches for assessing environmental chemical toxicity. The U.S. Tox21 program has responded to this challenge by proposing alternative strategies for toxicity testing, among which the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) paradigm has been adopted as the primary tool for generating data from screening large chemical libraries using a wide spectrum of assays.
Objectives: The goal of this study was to develop methods to evaluate the data generated from these assays to guide future assay selection and prioritization for the Tox21 program.
Methods: We examined the data from the Tox21 pilot-phase collection of approximately 3,000 environmental chemicals profiled in qHTS format against a panel of 10 human nuclear receptors (AR, ERα, FXR, GR, LXRβ, PPARγ, PPARδ, RXRα, TRβ, and VDR) for reproducibility, concordance of biological activity profiles with sequence homology of the receptor ligand binding domains, and structure–activity relationships.
Results: We determined the assays to be appropriate in terms of biological relevance. We found better concordance for replicate compounds for the agonist-mode than for the antagonist-mode assays, likely due to interference of cytotoxicity in the latter assays. This exercise also enabled us to formulate data-driven strategies for discriminating true signals from artifacts, and to prioritize assays based on data quality.
Conclusions: The results demonstrate the feasibility of qHTS to identify the potential for environmentally relevant chemicals to interact with key toxicity pathways related to human disease induction.
assay performance; chemical genomics; cytotoxicity; nuclear receptors; qHTS; Tox21
The THRB gene encodes the well-described thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR) isoforms TRβ1 and TRβ2 and two additional variants, TRβ3 and TRΔβ3, of unknown physiological significance. TRβ1, TRβ2, and TRβ3 are bona fide T3 receptors that bind DNA and T3 and regulate expression of T3-responsive target genes. TRΔβ3 retains T3 binding activity but lacks a DNA binding domain and does not activate target gene transcription. TRΔβ3 can be translated from a specific TRΔβ3 mRNA or is coexpressed with TRβ3 from a single transcript that contains an internal TRΔβ3 translation start site. In these studies, we provide evidence that the TRβ3/Δβ3 locus is present in rat but not in other vertebrates, including humans. We compared the activity of TRβ3 with other TR isoforms and investigated mechanisms of action of TRΔβ3 at specific thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in two cell types. TRβ3 was the most potent isoform, but TR potency was TRE dependent. TRΔβ3 acted as a cell-specific and TRE-dependent modulator of TRβ3 when coexpressed at low concentrations. At higher concentrations, TRΔβ3 was a TRE-selective and cell-specific antagonist of TRα1, -β1, and -β3. Both TRβ3 and TRΔβ3 were expressed in the nucleus in the absence and presence of hormone, and their actions were determined by cell type and TRE structure, whereas TRΔβ3 actions were also dependent on the TR isoform with which it interacted. Analysis of these complex responses implicates a range of nuclear corepressors and coactivators as cell-, TR isoform-, and TRE-specific modulators of T3 action.
Study of molecular actions of thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) mutants in vivo has been facilitated by creation of a mouse model (TRβPV mouse) that harbors a knockin mutant of TRβ (denoted PV). PV, which was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone, has lost T3 binding activity and transcription capacity. The striking phenotype of thyroid cancer exhibited by TRβPV/PV mice has allowed the elucidation of novel oncogenic activity of a TRβ mutant (PV) [PAS1]beyond nucleus-initiated transcription. PV was found to physically interact with the regulatory p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in both the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. This protein-protein interaction activates the PI3K signaling by increasing phosphorylation of AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and p70S6K. PV, via interaction with p85α, also activates the PI3K-integrin-linked kinase-matrix metalloproteinase-2 signaling pathway in the extra-nuclear compartment. The PV-mediated PI3K activation results in increased cell proliferation, motility, migration, and metastasis.
In addition to affecting these membrane-initiated signaling events, PV affects [PAS2]the stability of the pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) product. PTTG (also known as securin), a critical mitotic checkpoint protein, is physically associated with TRβ or PV in vivo. Concomitant with T3-induced degradation of TRβ, PTTG is degraded by the proteasome machinery, but no such degradation occurs when PTTG is associated with PV. The degradation of PTTG/TRβ is activated by the direct interaction of the T3-bound TRβ with the steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) that recruits a proteasome activator (PA28γ). PV that does not bind T3 cannot interact directly with SRC-3/PA28γ to activate proteasome degradation, and the absence of degradation results in an aberrant accumulation of PTTG. The PV-induced failure of timely degradation of PTTG results in mitotic abnormalities. PV, via novel protein-protein interaction and transcription regulation, acts to antagonize the functions of wild-type TRs and contributes to the oncogenic functions of this mutation.
thyroid hormone receptors; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; pituitary tumor transforming gene; steroid hormone receptor coactivator-3; nongenomic actions; thyroid hormone receptor mutants; mouse model; thyroid cancer; carcinogenesis
Overexpression of pituitary tumor–transforming 1 (PTTG1) is associated with thyroid cancer. We found elevated PTTG1 levels in the thyroid tumors of a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (TRβPV/PV mice). Here we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated PTTG1 levels and the contribution of increased PTTG1 to thyroid carcinogenesis. We showed that PTTG1 was physically associated with thyroid hormone β receptor (TRβ) as well as its mutant, designated PV. Concomitant with thyroid hormone–induced (T3-induced) degradation of TRβ, PTTG1 proteins were degraded by the proteasomal machinery, but no such degradation occurred when PTTG1 was associated with PV. The degradation of PTTG1/TRβ was activated by the direct interaction of the liganded TRβ with steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3), which recruits proteasome activator PA28γ. PV, which does not bind T3, could not interact directly with SRC-3/PA28γ to activate proteasome degradation, resulting in elevated PTTG1 levels. The accumulated PTTG1 impeded mitotic progression in cells expressing PV. Our results unveil what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which PTTG1, an oncogene, is regulated by the liganded TRβ. The loss of this regulatory function in PV led to an aberrant accumulation of PTTG1 disrupting mitotic progression that could contribute to thyroid carcinogenesis.
Mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene cause resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). RTH is characterized by increased serum thyroid hormone associated with nonsuppressible thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and impaired growth. It is unclear how the actions of TRβ mutants are modulated in vivo to affect the manifestation of RTH. Using a mouse model of RTH that harbors a knockin mutation of the TRβ gene (TRβPV mouse), we investigated the effect of the steroid hormone receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) on RTH. In TRβPV mice deficient in SRC-3, dysfunction of the pituitary-thyroid axis and hypercholesterolemia was lessened, but growth impairment of RTH was worsened. The lessened dysfunction of the pituitary-thyroid axis was attributed to a significant decrease in growth of the thyroid and pituitary. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was further reduced in TRβPV mice deficient in SRC-3. This effect led to reduced signaling of the IGF-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that is known to mediate cell growth and proliferation. Thus, SRC-3 modulates RTH by at least two mechanisms, one via its role as a receptor coregulator and the other via its growth regulatory role through the IGF-1/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling.
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) NAD+-dependent deacetylase regulates energy metabolism by modulating expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis and other liver fasting responses. While many effects of SIRT1 on gene expression are mediated by deacetylation and activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor coactivator α (PGC-1α), SIRT1 also binds directly to DNA bound transcription factors, including nuclear receptors (NRs), to modulate their activity. Since thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1) regulates several SIRT1 target genes in liver and interacts with PGC-1α, we hypothesized that SIRT1 may influence TRβ1. Here, we confirm that SIRT1 cooperates with PGC-1α to enhance response to triiodothyronine, T3. We also find, however, that SIRT1 stimulates TRβ1 activity in a manner that is independent of PGC-1α but requires SIRT1 deacetylase activity. SIRT1 interacts with TRβ1 in vitro, promotes TRβ1 deacetylation in the presence of T3 and enhances ubiquitin-dependent TRβ1 turnover; a common response of NRs to activating ligands. More surprisingly, SIRT1 knockdown only strongly inhibits T3 response of a subset of TRβ1 target genes, including glucose 6 phosphatase (G-6-Pc), and this is associated with blockade of TRβ1 binding to the G-6-Pc promoter. Drugs that target the SIRT1 pathway, resveratrol and nicotinamide, modulate T3 response at dual TRβ1/SIRT1 target genes. We propose that SIRT1 is a gene-specific TRβ1 co-regulator and TRβ1/SIRT1 interactions could play important roles in regulation of liver metabolic response. Our results open possibilities for modulation of subsets of TR target genes with drugs that influence the SIRT1 pathway.
Thyroid hormone (T3) nuclear receptors (TR) are ligand-dependent transcription factors which regulate growth, differentiation, and development. One emerging hypothesis suggests that TR mediate these diverse effects via a large network of coregulators. Recently, we found that TR-mediated transcriptional responses varied in six cell lines derived from different tissues. We therefore used human TR subtype β1 (TRβ1) as bait to search for coregulators in human colon carcinoma RKO cells with a yeast two-hybrid system. RKO cells exhibited T3-dependent and -independent transcriptional activation. One of the three positive clones was identified as Ear-2, which is a distant member of the chick ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors of the orphan nuclear receptor family. The physical interaction between Ear-2 and TRβ1 was further confirmed by specific binding of Ear-2 to glutathione S-transferase–TRβ1. In addition, Ear-2 was found to associate with TRβ1 in cells. As a result of this physical interaction, binding of TRβ1 to the T3 response elements was inhibited. Using reporter systems, we found that both the basal activation and the T3-dependent activation mediated by TRβ1 were repressed by Ear-2 in CV1 cells. In RKO cells, however, the T3-independent transcriptional activity was more sensitive to the repression effect of Ear-2 than the T3-dependent transcriptional activity. The repression effect of Ear-2 was reversed by steroid hormone receptor coactivator 1. These results suggest that TR-mediated responses reflect a balance of corepressors and coactivators in cells. These findings further strengthen the hypothesis that the diverse activities of TR are achieved via a large network of coregulators that includes Ear-2.
Small molecule modulators are critical for dissecting and understanding signaling pathways at the molecular level. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that signals via the JAK/STAT pathway and is implicated in cancer and inflammation. To identify modulators of this pathway, we screened a chemical collection against an IL-6 responsive cell line stably expressing a beta-lactamase reporter gene fused to a sis-inducible element (SIE-bla cells). This assay was optimized for a 1536-well microplate format and screened against 11,693 small molecules using quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS), a method that assays a chemical library at multiple concentrations to generate titration-response profiles for each compound. The qHTS recovered 564 actives with well-fit curves that clustered into 32 distinct chemical series of 13 activators and 19 inhibitors. A retrospective analysis of the qHTS data indicated that single concentration data at 1.5 and 7.7 uM scored 35 and 71% of qHTS actives, respectively, as inactive and were therefore false negatives. Following counter screens to identify fluorescent and nonselective series, we found four activator and one inhibitor series that modulated SIE-bla cells but did not show similar activity in reporter gene assays induced by EGF and hypoxia. Small molecules within these series will make useful tool compounds to investigate IL-6 signaling mediated by JAK/STAT activation.
IL-6; small molecule; HTS; STAT; assay
The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) regulates the activities of DNA-binding transcription factors. Recent observations of its distribution in the extranuclear compartment raised the possibility that it could have other cellular functions in addition to transcription repression. We previously showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is aberrantly activated by a mutant thyroid hormone β receptor (TRβPV, hereafter referred to as PV) via physical interaction with p85α, thus contributing to thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (TRβPV/PV mouse). Since NCoR is known to modulate the actions of TRβ mutants in vivo and in vitro, we asked whether NCoR regulates PV-activated PI3K signaling. Remarkably, we found that NCoR physically interacted with and competed with PV for binding to the C-terminal SH2 (Src homology 2) domain of p85α, the regulatory subunit of PI3K. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that both NCoR and p85α were localized in the nuclear as well as in the cytoplasmic compartments. Overexpression of NCoR in thyroid tumor cells of TRβPV/PV mouse reduced PI3K signaling, as indicated by the decrease in the phosphorylation of its immediate downstream effector, p-AKT. Conversely, lowering cellular NCoR by siRNA knockdown in tumor cells led to overactivated p-AKT and increased cell proliferation and motility. Furthermore, NCoR protein levels were significantly lower in thyroid tumor cells than in wild-type thyrocytes, allowing more effective binding of PV to p85α to activate PI3K signaling and thus contributing to tumor progression. Taken together, these results indicate that NCoR, via protein-protein interaction, is a novel regulator of PI3K signaling and could serve to modulate thyroid tumor progression.
To adapt the use of GH3.TRE-Luc reporter gene cell line for a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS)
platform, we miniaturized the reporter gene assay to a 1536-well plate format. 1280 chemicals from the Library of Pharmacologically
Active Compounds (LOPAC) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 1408 compound collection
were analyzed to identify potential thyroid hormone receptor (TR) agonists and antagonists. Of the 2688 compounds
tested, eight scored as potential TR agonists when the positive hit cut-off was defined at ≥10% efficacy, relative to maximal
triiodothyronine (T3) induction, and with only one of those compounds reaching ≥20% efficacy. One common class of
compounds positive in the agonist assays were retinoids such as all-trans retinoic acid, which are likely acting via the retinoid-X receptor, the heterodimer partner with the TR. Five potential TR antagonists were identified, including the antiallergy
drug tranilast and the anxiolytic drug SB 205384 but also some cytotoxic compounds like 5-fluorouracil. None of
the inactive compounds were structurally related to T3, nor had been reported elsewhere to be thyroid hormone disruptors,
so false negatives were not detected. None of the low potency (>100µM) TR agonists resembled T3 or T4, thus these may
not bind directly in the ligand-binding pocket of the receptor. For TR agonists, in the qHTS, a hit cut-off of ≥20% efficacy
at 100 µM may avoid identification of positives with low or no physiological relevance. The miniaturized GH3.TRE-Luc
assay offers a promising addition to the in vitro test battery for endocrine disruption, and given the low percentage of
compounds testing positive, its high-throughput nature is an important advantage for future toxicological screening.
Endocrine disruption; pituitary cells; quantitative high-throughput screening; thyroid hormone receptor; reporter
gene assay; retinoid-X receptor.
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is essential in embryonic development and contributes to cancer pathology. We used a cell-based imaging assay that measures derepression of a silenced GFP reporter to identify novel classes of compounds involved in epigenetic regulation. This Locus Derepression (LDR) assay was screened against a 69,137-member chemical library using quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS), a titration-response method that assays compounds at multiple concentrations. From structure-activity relationships of the 411 actives recovered from the qHTS, six distinct chemical series were chosen for further study. Forty-eight qHTS actives and analogs were counter screened using the parental line of the LDR cells, which lack the GFP reporter. Three series, 8-hydroxy quinoline, quinoline-8-thiol and 1,3,5-thiadiazinane-2-thione, were not fluorescent and re-confirmed activity in the LDR cells. The three active series did not inhibit histone deacetylase activity in nuclear extracts or reactivate the expression of the densely methylated p16 gene in cancer cells. However, one series induced expression of the methylated CDH13 gene and inhibited the viability of several lung cancer lines at submicromolar concentrations. These results suggest that the identified small molecules act on epigenetic or transcriptional components and validate our approach of using a cell-based imaging assay in conjunction with qHTS.
epigenetic; small molecule; GFP; HTS; HDAC; cell assay; cancer
Association studies suggest that the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1) could function as a tumor suppressor in cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We explored how TRβ1 acted as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer MDA cells. Proliferation and invasiveness were markedly inhibited in cells stably expressing TRβ1 (MDA-TRβ1 cells). cSrc-phosphorylated TRβ1 at Y406 signaled T3-induced degradation. Mutation of Y406 to Phe (TRβ1Y406F) did not affect T3 binding affinity, but blocked T3-induced degradation in cells. Importantly, cell-based studies showed that TRβ1Y406F lost the inhibitory effects by TRβ1 on cell proliferation and invasion. Consistently, in xenograft models, MDA-TRβ1 cells exhibited significantly slower tumor growth rates than those of Neo control cells. In contrast, the tumor growth rates of MDA-TRβ1Y406F cells were indistinguishable from those of Neo control cells. We further showed that markedly more TRβ1Y406F than TRβ1 was physically associated with cSrc in cells, leading to constitutive activation of cSrc-FAK-ERK signaling. In contrast, degradation of T3-bound TRβ1 complexed with cSrc attenuated signaling to decrease cell proliferation and invasiveness, thus confirming TRβ1 as a tumor suppressor. Thus, the present studies suggested that TRβ1 could be tested as a novel potential therapeutic target.
cSrc signaling; phosphorylation of thyroid hormone receptor β1; tumor suppressor; breast cancer cells; xenograft models
Nuclear translocation is an important step in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling and assays that measure this process allow the identification of nuclear receptor ligands independent of subsequent functional effects. To facilitate the identification of GR-translocation agonists, an enzyme fragment complementation (EFC) cell-based assay was scaled to a 1536-well plate format to evaluate 9,920 compounds using a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) strategy where compounds are assayed at multiple concentrations. In contrast to conventional assays of nuclear translocation the qHTS assay described here was enabled on a standard luminescence microplate reader precluding the requirement for imaging methods. The assay uses beta-galactosidase alpha complementation to indirectly detect GR-translocation in CHO-K1 cells [Fung, P., et al. Assay Drug Devel. Technol. 2006, 4(3): 263–272]. 1536-well assay miniaturization included the elimination of a media aspiration step, and the optimized assay displayed a Z′ of 0.55. qHTS yielded EC50 values for all 9,920 compounds and allowed us to retrospectively examine the dataset as a single concentration-based screen to estimate the number of false positives and negatives at typical activity thresholds. For example, at a 9 μM screening concentration the assay showed an accuracy that is comparable to typical cell-based assays as judged by the occurrence of false positives that we determined to be 1.3% or 0.3%, for a 3σ or 6σ threshold, respectively. This corresponds to a confirmation rate of ~30% or ~50%, respectively. The assay was consistent with glucocorticoid pharmacology as scaffolds with close similarity to dexamethasone were identified as active, while, for example, steroids that act as ligands to other nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptor were found to be inactive.
qHTS; HTS; EFC; PubChem; glucocorticoid receptor; nuclear translocation; suspension cells
Thyroid hormone (T3) is critical in growth, development, differentiation, and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) not only mediate the biological activities of T3 via nucleus-initiated transcription, but also could act via nongenomic pathways. The striking phenotype of thyroid cancer exhibited by a knockin mutant mouse that harbors a dominant negative TRβ mutant (TRβPV/PV mouse) allows the elucidation of novel oncogenic activity of a TRβ mutant (PV) via extra-nuclear actions. PV physically interacts with the regulatory p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to activate the downstream AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6K and PI3K-integrin-linked kinase-matrix metalloproteinase-2 signaling pathways. The PV-mediated PI3K activation results in increased cell proliferation, motility, migration, and metastasis. Remarkably, a nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) was found to regulate the PV-activated PI3K signaling by competing with PV for binding to the C-terminal SH2 domain of p85α. Overexpression of NCoR in thyroid tumor cells of TRβPV/PV mice reduces AKT-mTOR- p70S6K signaling. Conversely, lowering cellular NCoR by siRNA knockdown in tumor cells leads to over-activated PI3K-AKT signaling to increase cell proliferation and motility. Furthermore, NCoR protein levels are significantly lower in thyroid tumor cells than in wild type thyrocytes, allowing more effective binding of PV to p85α to activate PI3K signaling, thereby contributing to tumor progression. Thus, PV, an apo-TRβ, could act via direct protein-protein interaction to mediate critical oncogenic actions. These studies also uncovered a novel extra-nuclear role of NCoR in modulating the nongenomic actions of a mutated TRβ in controlling thyroid carcinogenesis.
thyroid hormone receptors; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; pituitary tumor transforming gene; steroid hormone receptor coactivator-3; nongenomic actions; thyroid hormone receptor mutants; mouse model; thyroid cancer; carcinogenesis
Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) may disrupt thyroid hormone status because of their structural similarity to thyroid hormone. However, the molecular mechanisms of interactions with thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are not fully understood.
We investigated the interactions between HO-PBDEs and TRβ to identify critical structural features and physicochemical properties of HO-PBDEs related to their hormone activity, and to develop quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models for the thyroid hormone activity of HO-PBDEs.
We used the recombinant two-hybrid yeast assay to determine the hormone activities to TRβ and molecular docking to model the ligand–receptor interaction in the binding site. Based on the mechanism of action, molecular structural descriptors were computed, selected, and employed to characterize the interactions, and finally a QSAR model was constructed. The applicability domain (AD) of the model was assessed by Williams plot.
The 18 HO-PBDEs tested exhibited significantly higher thyroid hormone activities than did PBDEs (p < 0.05). Hydrogen bonding was the characteristic interaction between HO-PBDE molecules and TRβ, and aromaticity had a negative effect on the thyroid hormone activity of HO-PBDEs. The developed QSAR model had good robustness, predictive ability, and mechanism interpretability.
Hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between HO-PBDEs and TRβ are important factors governing thyroid hormone activities. The HO-PBDEs with higher ability to accept electrons tend to have weak hydrogen bonding with TRβ and lower thyroid hormone activities.
application domain; density functional theory; docking; HO-PBDEs; hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs; quantitative structure-activity relationship; thyroid hormone receptor
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are hormone-regulated transcription factors. TRs are generally thought to bind to their DNA target sites as homodimers or as TR/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers. However, we have shown that certain TR isoforms, such as TRβ0, can bind as trimers to a subset of naturally-occurring DNA elements. We report here that this trimeric mode of DNA recognition by TRβ0 also results in an enhanced recruitment of coactivators in vitro and increased transcriptional activation in cells compared to TRβ0 dimers. At least part of this enhanced coactivator recruitment reflects a selectively enhanced avidity of the TRβ0 trimer for a specific LXXLL interaction motif within the p160 coactivators. TRβ0 trimers also recruit certain coactivators at lower concentrations of T3 hormone and exhibit distinct coactivator stoichiometries than do TRβ0 dimers. We conclude that trimer formation confers isoform-specific DNA recognition and transcriptional regulatory properties that are not observed for TR dimers.
thyroid hormone receptor; coactivator; transcriptional activation; coregualtor recruitment
The human pregnane X nuclear receptor (PXR) is a xenobiotic-regulated receptor that is activated by a range of diverse chemicals, including antibiotics, antifungals, glucocorticoids, and herbal extracts. PXR has been characterized as an important receptor in the metabolism of xenobiotics due to induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes and activation by a large number of prescribed medications. Developing methodologies that can efficiently detect PXR ligands will be clinically beneficial to avoid potential drug–drug interactions. To facilitate the identification of PXR ligands, a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay was miniaturized to a 1,536-well microtiter plate format to employ quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS). The optimized 1,536-well TR-FRET assay showed Z′-factors of ≥0.5. Seven- to 15-point concentration–response curves (CRCs) were generated for 8,280 compounds using both terbium and fluorescein emission data, resulting in the generation of 241,664 data points. The qHTS method allowed us to retrospectively examine single concentration screening datasets to assess the sensitivity and selectivity of the PXR assay at different compound screening concentrations. Furthermore, nonspecific assay artifacts such as concentration-based quenching of the terbium signal and compound fluorescence were identified through the examination of CRCs for specific emission channels. The CRC information was also used to define chemotypes associated with PXR ligands. This study demonstrates the feasibility of profiling thousands of compounds against PXR using the TR-FRET assay in a high-throughput format.
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the major hypoxia-regulated transcription factor that regulates cellular responses to low oxygen environments. HIF-1 is composed of two subunits: hypoxia-inducible HIF-1α and constitutively-expressed HIF-1β. During hypoxic conditions, HIF-1α heterodimerizes with HIF-1β and translocates to the nucleus where the HIF-1 complex binds to the hypoxia-response element (HRE) and activates expression of target genes implicated in cell growth and survival. HIF-1α protein expression is elevated in many solid tumors, including those of the cervix and brain, where cells that are the greatest distance from blood vessels, and therefore the most hypoxic, express the highest levels of HIF-1α. Therapeutic blockade of the HIF-1 signaling pathway in cancer cells therefore provides an attractive strategy for development of anticancer drugs. To identify small molecule inhibitors of the HIF-1 pathway, we have developed a cell-based reporter gene assay and screened a large compound library by using a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) approach.
The assay is based upon a β-lactamase reporter under the control of a HRE. We have screened approximate 73,000 compounds by qHTS, with each compound tested over a range of seven to fifteen concentrations. After qHTS we have rapidly identified three novel structural series of HIF-1 pathway Inhibitors. Selected compounds in these series were also confirmed as inhibitors in a HRE β-lactamase reporter gene assay induced by low oxygen and in a VEGF secretion assay. Three of the four selected compounds tested showed significant inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation by western blot analysis.
The use of β-lactamase reporter gene assays, in combination with qHTS, enabled the rapid identification and prioritization of inhibitors specific to the hypoxia induced signaling pathway.
The U.S. Tox21 program has screened a library of approximately 10,000 (10K) environmental chemicals and drugs in three independent runs for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist and antagonist activity using two types of ER reporter gene cell lines, one with an endogenous full length ERα (ER-luc; BG1 cell line) and the other with a transfected partial receptor consisting of the ligand binding domain (ER-bla; ERα β-lactamase cell line), in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format. The ability of the two assays to correctly identify ERα agonists and antagonists was evaluated using a set of 39 reference compounds with known ERα activity. Although both assays demonstrated adequate (i.e. >80%) predictivity, the ER-luc assay was more sensitive and the ER-bla assay more specific. The qHTS assay results were compared with results from previously published ERα binding assay data and showed >80% consistency. Actives identified from both the ER-bla and ER-luc assays were analyzed for structure-activity relationships (SARs) revealing known and potentially novel ERα active structure classes. The results demonstrate the feasibility of qHTS to identify environmental chemicals with the potential to interact with the ERα signaling pathway and the two different assay formats improve the confidence in correctly identifying these chemicals.
Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assays are increasingly being used to inform chemical hazard identification. Hundreds of chemicals have been tested in dozens of cell lines across extensive concentration ranges by the National Toxicology Program in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center.
Our goal was to test a hypothesis that dose–response data points of the qHTS assays can serve as biological descriptors of assayed chemicals and, when combined with conventional chemical descriptors, improve the accuracy of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models applied to prediction of in vivo toxicity end points.
We obtained cell viability qHTS concentration–response data for 1,408 substances assayed in 13 cell lines from PubChem; for a subset of these compounds, rodent acute toxicity half-maximal lethal dose (LD50) data were also available. We used the k nearest neighbor classification and random forest QSAR methods to model LD50 data using chemical descriptors either alone (conventional models) or combined with biological descriptors derived from the concentration–response qHTS data (hybrid models). Critical to our approach was the use of a novel noise-filtering algorithm to treat qHTS data.
Both the external classification accuracy and coverage (i.e., fraction of compounds in the external set that fall within the applicability domain) of the hybrid QSAR models were superior to conventional models.
Concentration–response qHTS data may serve as informative biological descriptors of molecules that, when combined with conventional chemical descriptors, may considerably improve the accuracy and utility of computational approaches for predicting in vivo animal toxicity end points.
acute toxicity; animal testing; computational toxicology; quantitative high-throughput screening; QSAR
Gene-expression analysis in cerebellum, heart and white adipose tissue from a knock-in mouse that harbors a human mutation and faithfully reproduces human resistance to thyroid hormone, uncovered complex multiple signaling pathways that mediate the molecular actions of TRβ mutants in vivo.
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is caused by mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene. To understand the transcriptional program underlying TRβ mutant-induced phenotypic expression of RTH, cDNA microarrays were used to profile the expression of 11,500 genes in a mouse model of human RTH.
We analyzed transcript levels in cerebellum, heart and white adipose tissue from a knock-in mouse (TRβPV/PV mouse) that harbors a human mutation (referred to as PV) and faithfully reproduces human RTH. Because TRβPV/PV mice have elevated thyroid hormone (T3), to define T3-responsive genes in the context of normal TRβ, we also analyzed T3 effects in hyperthyroid wild-type gender-matched littermates. Microarray analysis revealed 163 genes responsive to T3 treatment and 187 genes differentially expressed between TRβPV/PV mice and wild-type littermates. Both the magnitude and gene make-up of the transcriptional response varied widely across tissues and conditions. We identified genes modulated in T3-dependent PV-independent, T3- and PV-dependent, and T3-independent PV-dependent pathways that illuminated the biological consequences of PV action in vivo. Most T3-responsive genes that were dysregulated in the heart and white adipose tissue of TRβPV/PV mice were repressed in T3-treated wild-type mice and upregulated in TRβPV/PV mice, suggesting the inappropriate activation of T3-suppressed genes in RTH.
Comprehensive multi-tissue gene-expression analysis uncovered complex multiple signaling pathways that mediate the molecular actions of TRβ mutants in vivo. In particular, the T3-independent mutant-dependent genomic response unveiled the contribution of a novel 'change-of-function' of TRβ mutants to the pathogenesis of RTH. Thus, the molecular actions of TRβ mutants are more complex than previously envisioned.
We find that prothymosin alpha (PTα) selectively enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor (ER) but not transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors. This selectivity for ER is explained by PTα interaction not with ER, but with a 37-kDa protein denoted REA, for repressor of estrogen receptor activity, a protein that we have previously shown binds to ER, blocking coactivator binding to ER. We isolated PTα, known to be a chromatin-remodeling protein associated with cell proliferation, using REA as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a cDNA library from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. PTα increases the magnitude of ERα transcriptional activity three- to fourfold. It shows lesser enhancement of ERβ transcriptional activity and has no influence on the transcriptional activity of other nuclear hormone receptors (progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, or retinoic acid receptor) or on the basal activity of ERs. In contrast, the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 increases transcriptional activity of all of these receptors. Cotransfection of PTα or SRC-1 with increasing amounts of REA, as well as competitive glutathione S-transferase pulldown and mammalian two-hybrid studies, show that REA competes with PTα (or SRC-1) for regulation of ER transcriptional activity and suppresses the ER stimulation by PTα or SRC-1, indicating that REA can function as an anticoactivator in cells. Our data support a model in which PTα, which does not interact with ER, selectively enhances the transcriptional activity of the ER but not that of other nuclear receptors by recruiting the repressive REA protein away from ER, thereby allowing effective coactivation of ER with SRC-1 or other coregulators. The ability of PTα to directly interact in vitro and in vivo with REA, a selective coregulator of the ER, thereby enabling the interaction of ER with coactivators, appears to explain its ability to selectively enhance ER transcriptional activity. These findings highlight a new role for PTα as a coregulator activity-modulating protein that confers receptor specificity. Proteins such as PTα represent an additional regulatory component that defines a novel paradigm enabling receptor-selective enhancement of transcriptional activity by coactivators.
The thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are transcription factors that mediate the pleiotropic activities of the thyroid hormone, T3. Four T3-binding isoforms, TRα1, TRβ1, TRβ2, and TRβ3, are encoded by two genes, THRA and THRB. Mutations and altered expression of TRs have been reported in human cancers. A targeted germline mutation of the Thrβ gene in the mouse leads to spontaneous development of follicular thyroid carcinoma (TRβPV/PV mouse). The TRβPV mutant has lost T3 binding activity and displays potent dominant negative activity. The striking phenotype of thyroid cancer exhibited by TRβPV/PV mice has recently led to the discovery of novel non-genomic actions of TRβPV that contribute to thyroid carcinogenesis. These actions involve direct physical interaction of TRβPV with cellular proteins, namely the regulatory subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p85α), the pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) and β-catenin, that are critically involved in cell proliferation, motility, migration, and metastasis. Thus, a TRβ mutant (TRβPV), via a novel mode of non-genomic action, acts as an oncogene in thyroid carcinogenesis.
thyroid hormone receptor mutants; thyroid cancer; non-genomic action; phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase; pituitary tumor transforming gene; β-catenin; mouse model