We examined the relationship between hypertension subtype and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality in Chinese adults.
Methods and Results
We conducted a prospective cohort study in a nationally representative sample of 169,871 Chinese men and women aged 40 years and older. Data on systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and other variables were obtained at a baseline examination in 1991 using standard protocols. Follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999–2000, with a response rate of 93.4%. Hypertension subtypes were defined as combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH: SBP≥140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg), isolated systolic hypertension (ISH: SBP≥140 and DBP<90 mm Hg), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH: SBP<140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg), and two categories of treated hypertension (SBP<140 and DBP<90 mm Hg or SBP≥140 and/or DBP≥90 mm Hg). After excluding participants with missing BP values, 169,577 adults were included in the analyses. Compared to normotensives, relative risks (95% confidence interval) of CVD incidence and mortality were 2.73 (2.60–2.86) and 2.53 (2.39–2.68) for SDH, 1.78 (1.69–1.87) and 1.68 (1.58–1.78) for ISH, 1.59 (1.43–1.76) and 1.45 (1.27–1.65) for IDH, 2.01 (1.64–2.48) and 1.61 (1.28–2.03) for treated hypertension with SBP<140 and DBP<90 mm Hg, and 3.37 (3.07–3.69) and 2.88 (2.60–3.19) for treated hypertension with SBP≥140 and/or DBP≥90 mm Hg, respectively, after adjustment for important covariables.
Our results indicate that all hypertension subtypes are associated with significantly increased risk of CVD in Chinese adults. Primary prevention of hypertension should be a public health priority in the Chinese population.
hypertension; cardiovascular disease; relative risk; Chinese
Genetic variants in 296 genes in regions identified through admixture mapping of hypertension, BMI, and lipids were assessed for association with hypertension, blood pressure, BMI, and HDL-C.
This study identified coding SNPs identified from HapMap2 data that were located in genes on chromosomes 5, 6, 8, and 21, where ancestry association evidence for hypertension, BMI or HDL-C was identified in previous admixture mapping studies. Genotyping was performed in 1,733 unrelated African-Americans from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s (NHLBI) Family Blood Pressure Project, and gene-based association analyses were conducted for hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), BMI, and HDL-C. A gene score based on the number of minor alleles of each SNP in a gene was created and used for gene-based regression analyses, adjusting for age, age2, sex, local marker ancestry, and BMI, as applicable. An individual’s African ancestry estimated from 2,507 ancestry-informative markers was also adjusted for to eliminate any confounding due to population stratification.
CXADR (rs437470) on chromosome 21 was associated with SBP and DBP with or without adjusting for local ancestry (p < 0.0006). F2RL1 (rs631465) on chromosome 5 was associated with BMI (p = 0.0005). Local ancestry in these regions was associated with the respective traits as well.
This study suggests that CXADR and F2RL1 likely play important roles in blood pressure and obesity variation, respectively; and these findings are consistent with other studies, so replication and functional analyses are necessary.
Blood pressure; Obesity; African Americans; Genetic Association Studies
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study.
A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and 1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups.
Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children.
LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS and the extent of high blood pressure in Hispanic children and adolescents, especially in groups other than Mexican Americans. The authors of this study investigated the levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the extent of high blood pressure among Mexican-American, Cuban-American, and mainland Puerto Rican children and adolescents who participated in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). Very few children and adolescents in these three Hispanic groups had high normal or high blood pressure. Puerto Rican children had significantly lower DBP than Mexican-American (2.4 mmHg) and Cuban-American (1.8 mmHg) children. Their SBP was also lower (1.7 mmHg) than that of Cuban-American children. These findings should be interpreted cautiously, however, since a significant observer effect was also found in this study. Correlates of blood pressure in children in all three Hispanic groups were consistent with those found in studies of other ethnic groups. Age, body mass index, and pulse rate were significant predictors of both SBP and DBP (P less than 0.05). Gender was an important predictor of SBP but not DBP. Socioeconomic and cultural factors were not significant predictors of blood pressure in these Hispanic groups.
To assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors, ocular perfusion pressure with early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos.
Population-based, cross-sectional study.
Data were collected from a population-based sample of self-identified adult Latinos using standardized protocols for assessing blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and stereoscopic macular photography. Hypertension was defined as either a history of hypertension or systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg +/− diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥85mmHg. Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was defined as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and IOP. AMD was diagnosed from photographic grading by masked trained graders. Logistic regression was used to assess associations.
Gradable retinal photographs were available in 5875 participants. After adjusting for age, sex, and cigarette smoking, higher DBP and uncontrolled diastolic hypertension were associated with exudative AMD (Odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1−2.8; and OR, 3.3; CI, 1.2−9.3, respectively). Higher OPP was associated with a decreased risk of GA (OR, 0.4 per 10mmHg; CI, 0.3−0.5). Low pulse pressure was associated with a lower risk of exudative AMD (OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1−0.6). Obesity was associated with increased retinal pigment (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.0−2.3).
These data suggest that in Latinos cardiovascular risk factors may play a role in advanced AMD. Given that Latinos have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, an intervention aimed at reducing these risk factors may also have a beneficial impact on the risk of having early and advanced AMD.
DESPITE THEIR HIGHER PREVALENCE of obesity and diabetes, Hispanics have lower or equal rates of hypertension than non-Hispanic whites (1-4). Healthy People 2000 objectives call for increasing the proportion of hypertensive men whose blood pressure is under control to at least 40%. In addition, the objectives recommend reducing the prevalence of overweight to 41% among hypertensive women, and to 35% among hypertensive men (5). The Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) collected data on Mexican Americans (MA), Cuban Americans (CA), and Puerto Ricans (PR) living in the continental United States. A trained physician measured systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure twice in one visit. Our findings provide data to assess baseline estimates for several Healthy People 2000 objectives among Hispanics. Based on criteria from The Fifth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-V), we found Hispanic women to have higher rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension than men. Only 8% of MA and PR men and 9% of CA men who were hypertensive had their high blood pressure under control. The prevalence of overweight among hypertensive men ranged from 39% to 60%; and among hypertensive women, from 44% to 74%. Hispanic women with six or fewer years of education had higher prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Future research should investigate the socioeconomic factors associated with the presence of these risk factors.
Uncontrolled hypertension (HT) is an established risk factor for the development of vascular diseases. Prevalence varies in different communities and no such study has been conducted in the Parsi community living in Bombay, India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness, compliance to medication and control of HT in this community.
We used a 1 in 4 random selection of subjects who were ≥ 20 years of age. A questionnaire was administered and the blood pressure (BP) was measured by a doctor. HT was defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg ± systolic pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) was defined as SBP ≥ 160 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg. Subsequently, we reanalysed the data using current definition of ISH as SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg with DBP < 90 mm Hg.
2879 subjects ≥ 20 years of age were randomly selected of which 2415 (84%) participated in the study. The overall prevalence of HT in the community was 36.4%, of whom 48.5% were unaware of their hypertensive status. Of those aware of having HT, 36.4% were non-compliant with their anti-hypertensive drugs and only 13.6% had optimally controlled HT. Prevalence of ISH using the present criteria was 19.5% and 73% of hypertensives ≥ 60 years had ISH.
This study shows that prevalence of HT in the Parsi community is high and nearly half are unaware of their hypertensive status. ISH is the dominant form of HT in the elderly. Compliance to treatment is poor and optimal BP control is achieved in only a small minority. The study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programs to detect and optimally treat HT in the community.
hypertension; prevalence; awareness; compliance; Parsis; India
High blood pressure or hypertension is a major risk factor involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. We conducted genome-wide variance component linkage analyses to search for loci influencing five blood pressure related traits including the quantitative traits systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP), the dichotomous trait hypertension (HT) and the bivariate quantitative trait SBP-DBP in families residing in American Samoa and Samoa, as well as in the combined sample from the two polities. We adjusted the traits for a number of environmental covariates such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and material life style.
We found suggestive univariate linkage for SBP on chromosome 2q35-q37 (LOD 2.4) and for PP on chromosome 22q13 (LOD 2.2), two chromosomal regions that recently have been associated with SBP and PP, respectively.
We have detected additional evidence for a recently reported locus associated with SBP on chromosome 2q and a susceptibility locus for PP on chromosome 22q. However, differences observed between the results from our three partly overlapping genetically homogenous study samples from the Samoan islands suggest that additional studies should be performed in order to verify these results.
The effect of hypertension on mortality in haemodialysis patients is controversial and can be confounded by non-traditional risk factors like systemic inflammation. This study examined the effect of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) on mortality in haemodialysis patients, separately with and without markers of systemic inflammation.
Data from the United States Renal Data System were analysed for 9,862 patients receiving haemodialysis on December 31, 1993, followed through May 2005.
In Cox regression analysis, increased age, diabetes, low albumin, high white blood count, low cholesterol, low haemoglobin, high phosphate, low DBP, and cardiovascular comorbidity were associated with high mortality, but SBP was not. Elevated PP adjusted for SBP, age, diabetes, haemoglobin, albumin, cholesterol, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and white blood count was associated with higher mortality [adjusted hazard ratio, PP 1.006 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.002–1.010); SBP 0.993 (95% CI 0.990–0.996)]. In dual models, PP adjusted for SBP then DBP was associated with higher mortality [PP 1.029 (95% CI 1.027–1.032); SBP 0.981 (95% CI 0.979–0.983); PP 1.010 (95% CI 1.008–1.011); DBP 0.981 (95% CI 0.979–0.983)]. Increasing PP deciles >70 mm Hg were associated with increasing mortality in the absence of markers of systemic inflammation (white blood count >10 × 109/l, albumin <3.5 g/dl, diabetes), but not in their presence.
PP was a better indicator of adverse outcome than DBP or SBP. Inflammation-associated injury may mask the effect of PP on mortality in haemodialysis patients.
Haemodialysis; Inflammation; Mortality; Pulse pressure
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a strong correlate of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We conducted a genome-wide linkage screen to identify susceptibility genes influencing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Mexican-Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES).
Using data from 1,089 individuals distributed across 266 families, we performed a multipoint linkage analysis to localize susceptibility loci for SBP and DBP by applying two models. In model 1, we added a sensible constant to the observed BP values in treated subjects [Tobin et al.; Stat Med 2005;24:2911–2935] to account for antihypertensive use (i.e. 15 and 10 mm Hg to SBP and DBP values, respectively). In model 2, we fixed values of 140 mm Hg for SBP and 90 mm Hg for DBP, if the treated values were less than the standard referenced treatment thresholds of 140/90 mm Hg for hypertensive status. However, if the observed treated BP values were found to be above these standard treatment thresholds, the actual observed treated BP values were retained in order not to reduce them by substitution of the treatment threshold values.
The multipoint linkage analysis revealed strong linkage signals for SBP compared with DBP. The strongest evidence for linkage of SBP (model 1, LOD = 5.0; model 2, LOD = 3.6) was found on chromosome 6q14.1 near the marker D6S1031 (89 cM) in both models. In addition, some evidence for SBP linkage occurred on chromosomes 1q, 4p, and 16p. Most importantly, our major SBP linkage finding on chromosome 6q near marker D6S1031 was independently confirmed in a Caucasian population (LOD = 3.3). In summary, our study found evidence for a major locus on chromosome 6q influencing SBP levels in Mexican-Americans.
Hypertension; Linkage; Antihypertensive medication; Genetic location; Heritability
POPULATION-BASED DATA ON HYPERTENSION IN HAWAII are limited. Two groups for which data from the 1980s exist are Japanese-American men ages 60 to 81 in the Honolulu Heart Program (HHP) and native Hawaiians ages 20 to 59 in the Molokai Heart Study (MHS). In the elderly HHP men, the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher and the mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was lower in the older age groups. In the MHS, both the mean SBP and the mean DBP were higher with increasing age in both sexes. Among Japanese-American men, 53% of those ages 60 to 64 were hypertensive (SBP greater than or equal to 140 mmHg or DBP greater than or equal to 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medications), as were 59% of those ages 65 to 74, and 67% of those ages 75 to 81. Among native Hawaiians, 6% of men and 8% of women ages 20 to 24 were hypertensive, as were 37% of men and 41% of women ages 45 to 54. At ages 55 to 59 the prevalence for men was 31%; and for women, 33%. These data indicate that hypertension is relatively common in both ethnic groups; however, native Hawaiians appear to be at greater risk of cardiovascular disease overall.
Dietary intake among other lifestyle factors influence blood pressure. We examined the associations of an “a priori” diet score with incident high normal blood pressure (HNBP; systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120–139 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80–89 mmHg and no antihypertensive medications) and hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication). We used proportional hazards regression to evaluate this score in quintiles (Q) and each food group making up the score relative to incident HNBP or hypertension over nine years in the Atherosclerosis Risk of Communities (ARIC) study of 9913 African-American and Caucasian adults aged 45–64 years and free of HNBP or hypertension at baseline. Incidence of HNBP varied from 42.5% in white women to 44.1% in black women; and incident hypertension from 26.1% in white women to 40.8% in black women. Adjusting for demographics and CVD risk factors, the “a priori” food score was inversely associated with incident hypertension; but not HNBP. Compared to Q1, the relative hazards of hypertension for the food score Q2–Q5 were 0.97 (0.87–1.09), 0.91 (0.81–1.02), 0.91 (0.80–1.03), and 0.86 (0.75–0.98); ptrend = 0.01. This inverse relation was largely attributable to greater intake of dairy products and nuts, and less meat. These findings support the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to consume more dairy products and nuts, but suggest a reduction in meat intake.
diet pattern; healthy food score; hypertension; high normal blood pressure
We investigate whether the changing environment caused by rapid economic growth yielded differential effects for successive Taiwanese generations on 8 components of metabolic syndrome (MetS): body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and uric acid (UA).
To assess the impact of age, birth year and year of examination on MetS components, we used partial least squares regression to analyze data collected by Mei-Jaw clinics in Taiwan in years 1996 and 2006. Confounders, such as the number of years in formal education, alcohol intake, smoking history status, and betel-nut chewing were adjusted for.
As the age of individuals increased, the values of components generally increased except for UA. Men born after 1970 had lower FPG, lower BMI, lower DBP, lower TG, Lower LDL and greater HDL; women born after 1970 had lower BMI, lower DBP, lower TG, Lower LDL and greater HDL and UA. There is a similar pattern between the trend in levels of metabolic syndrome components against birth year of birth and economic growth in Taiwan.
We found cohort effects in some MetS components, suggesting associations between the changing environment and health outcomes in later life. This ecological association is worthy of further investigation.
Metabolic syndrome; obesity; age-period-cohort analysis; partial least squares; Taiwan
To assess associations between body size and blood pressure in children (5-6 years) from different ethnic origins.
Five ethnic groups of the ABCD cohort were examined: Dutch (n=1 923), Turkish (n=99), Moroccan (n=187), Black-African (n=67) and Black-Caribbean (n=121). Data on body-mass-index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), fat-mass-index (FMI), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), were collected. Linear regression analysis with restricted cubic splines was used to examine non-linear associations between body size and blood pressure, adjusted for age, sex, height and birth weight.
Ethnic differences were found in associations of BMI with SBP and DBP (SBP: p=0.001 and DBP: p=0.01) and FMI with SBP (p=0.03). BMI and FMI had a relatively large positive association with SBP in Turkish children (BMI: β=2.46mmHg; 95%CI:1.20-3.72; FMI: β=2.41mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.73) compared to Dutch (BMI: β=1.31mmHg; 95%CI:0.71-1.92; FMI: β=0.84mmHg; 95%CI:0.23-1.45). Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children showed high blood pressure with low BMI and FMI. Moroccan children showed higher SBP with high BMI and FMI. WHtR was positively associated with SBP and DBP, similar in all ethnic groups. Generally, strongest associations with blood pressure were found for BMI in all ethnic groups.
Ethnic-specific associations between BMI, and FMI and blood pressure are present at young age, with Turkish children showing the highest increase in blood pressure with increasing body size. The higher blood pressure in the Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children with low BMI needs further research. WHtR or FMI do not seem to be associated more strongly to blood pressure than BMI in any ethnic group.
Blood pressure; Ethnicity; Children; Adiposity; Body size
Comparison of recent national survey data on prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in England, the USA and Canada, and correlation of these parameters with each country stroke and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality.
Non-institutionalised population surveys.
Setting and participants
England (2006 n=6873), the USA (2007–2010 n=10 003) and Canada (2007–2009 n=3485) aged 20–79 years.
Stroke and IHD mortality rates were plotted against countries’ specific prevalence data.
Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in England than in the USA and Canada in all age–gender groups. Mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was similar in the three countries before age 50 and then fell more rapidly in the USA, being the lowest in the USA. Only 34% had a BP under 140/90 mm Hg in England, compared with 50% in the USA and 66% in Canada. Prehypertension and stages 1 and 2 hypertension prevalence figures were the highest in England. Hypertension prevalence (≥140 mm Hg SBP and/or ≥90 mm Hg DBP) was lower in Canada (19·5%) than in the USA (29%) and England (30%). Hypertension awareness was higher in the USA (81%) and Canada (83%) than in England (65%). England also had lower levels of hypertension treatment (51%; USA 74%; Canada 80%) and control (<140/90 mm Hg; 27%; the USA 53%; Canada 66%). Canada had the lowest stroke and IHD mortality rates, England the highest and the rates were inversely related to the mean SBP in each country and strongly related to the blood pressure indicators, the strongest relationship being between low hypertension awareness and stroke mortality.
While the current prevention efforts in England should result in future-improved figures, especially at younger ages, these data still show important gaps in the management of hypertension in these countries, with consequences on stroke and IHD mortality.
Epidemiology; Public Health
Epidemiological evidence of the effects of dietary sodium, calcium, and potassium, and anthropometric indexes on blood pressure is still inconsistent. To investigate the relationship between dietary factors or anthropometric indexes and hypertension risk, we examined the association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with sodium, calcium, and potassium intakes and anthropometric indexes in 19~49-year-olds using data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) III. Total of 2,761 young and middle aged adults (574 aged 19~29 years and 2,187 aged 30~49 years) were selected from KNHANES III. General information, nutritional status, and anthropometric data were compared between two age groups (19~29 years old and 30~49 years old). The relevance of blood pressure and risk factors such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and the intakes of sodium, potassium, and calcium was determined by multiple regression analysis. Multiple regression models showed that waist circumference, weight, and BMI were positively associated with SBP and DBP in both age groups. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with either SBP or DBP. Among 30~49-year-olds, calcium was inversely associated with both SBP and DBP (P = 0.012 and 0.010, respectively). Our findings suggest that encouraging calcium consumption and weight control may play an important role in the primary prevention and management of hypertension in early adulthood.
Blood pressure; hypertension; calcium; BMI (body mass index); waist circumference
We evaluated the cross-sectional relationship of blood pressure (BP) components with cognitive impairment after adjusting for potential confounders.
Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a national, longitudinal population cohort evaluating stroke risk in 30,228 black and white men and women ≥45 years old. During the in-home visit, BP measurements were taken as the average of 2 measurements using a standard aneroid sphygmomanometer. Excluding participants with prior stroke or TIA, the present analysis included 19,836 participants (enrolled from December 2003 to March 2007) with complete baseline physical and cognitive evaluations. Incremental logistic models examined baseline relationships between BP components (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], and pulse pressure [PP]) and impaired cognitive status (score of ≤4 on 6-Item Screener) after adjusting for demographic and environmental characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, depressive symptoms, and current use of any antihypertensive medication.
Higher DBP levels were associated with impaired cognitive status after adjusting for demographic and environmental characteristics, risk factors, depressive symptoms, and antihypertensive medications. An increment of 10 mm Hg in DBP was associated with a 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1%–14%, p = 0.0275) higher odds of cognitive impairment. No independent association was identified between impaired cognitive status and SBP (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% CI 0.99–1.06) or PP (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95–1.04). There was no evidence of nonlinear relationships between any of the BP components and impaired cognitive status. There was no interaction between age and the relationship of impaired cognitive status with SBP (p = 0.827), DBP (p = 0.133), or PP (p = 0.827) levels.
Higher diastolic blood pressure was cross-sectionally and independently associated with impaired cognitive status in this large, geographically dispersed, race- and sex-balanced sample of stroke-free individuals.
= Alzheimer disease;
= Atherosclerosis Risk in Community;
= body mass index;
= blood pressure;
= Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression–4-item version;
= confidence interval;
= diastolic blood pressure;
= interquartile range;
= odds ratio;
= pulse pressure;
= Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke;
= systolic blood pressure.
WE ASSESSED THE PREVALENCE of obesity, high normal blood pressure (BP), and the relationship between BP and anthropometric measurements in a sample of Navajo adolescents. The prevalence of obesity in boys and girls was 3 times that expected in U.S. white adolescents of the same age (17.1% for boys, 15.9% for girls) using body mass index as a criterion. The prevalence of high normal BP (between the 90th and 95th percentiles) was nearly twice that expected by definition (8.7% for boys and 9.1% for girls). Although systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased significantly with age for boys and not for girls, SBP and DBP increased significantly with increasing body mass for both boys and girls. Given the high prevalence of obesity and the observed association with BP, primary prevention of hypertension among the Navajo should emphasize maintaining a healthy body weight at early ages.
Treatment of hypertension is difficult in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and blood pressure goals remain controversial. The association between each blood pressure component and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk is less well known.
We studied associations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) and pulse pressure (PP) with ESRD risk among 16 129 Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using Cox proportional hazards. We estimated the prevalence and characteristics associated with uncontrolled hypertension (SBP≥150 or DBP≥90 mm Hg).
The mean (SD) age of participants was 69 (12) years; 25% were black, 6% were Hispanic, and 43% had diabetes mellitus. Over 2.87 years, there were 320 ESRD events. Higher SBP was associated with higher ESRD risk, starting at SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher. After sex and age adjustment, compared with SBP lower than 130 mm Hg, hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.74–1.59) for SBP of 130 to 139 mm Hg, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.21–2.45) for SBP of 140 to 149 mm Hg, and 3.36 (95% CI, 2.51–4.49) for SBP of 150 mm Hg or greater. After full adjustment, HRs for ESRD were 1.27 (95% CI, 0.88–1.83) for SBP of 140 to 149 mm Hg and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.85) for SBP of 150 mm Hg or higher. Persons with DBP of 90 mm Hg or higher were at higher risk for ESRD compared with persons with DBP of 60 to 74 mm Hg (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.33–2.45). Higher PP was also associated with higher ESRD risk (HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.00–2.07] for PP≥80 mm Hg compared with PP<50 mm Hg). Adjustment for SBP attenuated this association. More than 33% of participants had uncontrolled hypertension (SBP≥150 mm Hg or DBP≥90 mm Hg), mostly due to isolated systolic hypertension (54%).
In this large, diverse, community-based sample, we found that high SBP seemed to account for most of the risk of progression to ESRD. This risk started at SBP of 140 mm Hg rather than the currently recommended goal of less than 130 mm Hg, and it was highest among those with SBP of at least 150 mm Hg. Treatment strategies that preferentially lower SBP may be required to improve BP control in CKD.
Blood pressure (BP) levels below the pre-hypertension category may be associated with the risk of developing hypertension. We estimated the incidence rates of hypertension in low-income Mexican population according to several subcategories of baseline BP within normal and pre-hypertension categories.
A total of 1572 nonhypertensive men (n=632) and non-pregnant women (n=940), aged 35 to 64 years at baseline, were followed for a median of 5.8 years. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, or self-reported physician diagnosis with anti-hypertensive medications.
During follow-up, 267 subjects developed hypertension, of whom 83 were men and 184 were women. Age-adjusted incidence rate was higher in women (37.1 per 1000 person-years) than in men (23.7 per 1000 person-years). There was a significant association between BP levels at baseline and hypertension incidence even within the normal category. For the upper levels of normal SBP (110-119 mm Hg), the HR (95%CI) was 2.43 (1.50-3.93) in women and 2.44 (1.05-5.69) in men, compared with SBP <110 mm Hg. For the upper levels of normal DBP (70-79 mm Hg), the HR (95%CI) was 2.33 (1.65-3.31) in women and 1.80 (0.92-3.52) in men, compared with DBP <70 mm Hg, after adjustment for recognized predictors.
High risk of hypertension incidence was associated with levels of BP even within the normal category. This information could help define a population at high risk of progression to hypertension, in order to establish preventive measures.
Blood pressure; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk
The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measures in African-American (AA) adolescents.
Forty-one AA adolescents (age 16.6 ± 1.3 yrs, 16F) with high-normal BP were measured on 3 occasions at 2-month intervals. Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and heart rate (HR) measures were recorded using the Spacelabs ambulatory BP monitor 90207 (Redmond, Wash) in the natural environment over 24-hour periods. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze the underlying error variance-covariance (V-C) structures as well as mean differences for the 3 visits.
Daytime measures: there were no significant mean differences across visits for daytime SBP, DBP, and HR (all Ps>.57). The error V-C matrix was heterogeneous Toeplitz for daytime SBP. Correlations between visits 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 for daytime SBP were rs=0.71, 0.47, and 0.71, respectively. Compound symmetry (CS) was the preferred model for daytime DBP (r=0.68) and HR (r=0.75). Nighttime measures: there were no significant mean differences across visits for nighttime SBP, DBP, and HR (all Ps>.29). The error V-C matrix was unstructured for nighttime SBP. Correlations between visits 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 for SBP were rs=0.74, 0.33, and 0.33, respectively. CS was preferred for nighttime DBP (r=0.58) and HR (r=0.74).
Collectively, these findings demonstrate that 3 measurements of ambulatory-derived DBP and HR measures are stable across 4 months, but SBP was only stable across 2 months in African-American adolescents.
Adolescent; Ambulatory; Blood Pressure; African American
Hypertension is a health problem in Iran. Given the importance of this subject, we reviewed the factors affecting the blood pressure in this survey.
This retrospective cohort study was performed on 3961 male workers employed at Isfahan Polyacryl Corporation (Iran) in health and safety executive between 1996 until 2008. In this study, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were considered as dependent variables; body mass index (BMI), age, type of job, marital status, shift work and educational level were considered as independent variables. MLwiN programmer version 2.1 was used to analyze the data.
BMI, age, shift work, marital status and educational level had statistical significant association with DBP. The result for SBP was similar to DBP except shift work and educational level that had no statistically significant association.
The results can be considered in the industry to provide practical solutions to reduce blood pressure.
Blood Pressure; Cohort Study; Retrospective Study; Risk Factor; Multilevel Anal
Optiscope™ is a newly developed video stylet device. This study evaluated and compared the hemodynamic changes observed after endotracheal intubation with video stylet and after conventional laryngoscopic endotracheal intubation.
Fifty-eight adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class 1 or 2, undergoing general anesthesia, were randomized into two groups: one group of patients were intubated using video stylet (n = 29) and the other group were intubated using direct laryngoscope (n = 29). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), POGO (percentage of glottic opening) score, time for intubation and degree of sore throat were recorded.
There were no significant differences in the SBP, MAP, DBP, HR, and the sore throat incidence between the two groups. Optiscope™ produced better POGO scores, but time for intubation was longer than with conventional laryngoscope.
Optiscope™, when compared with conventional laryngoscope for intubation, does not modify the hemodynamic response, but it provides a better view of the vocal cords.
Bronchoscopes; Endotracheal intubation; Fiberoptics; Hemodynamics; Laryngoscope; Video recording
THE AUTHORS PRESENT DATA FROM 361, 662 MEN ages 35 to 57, screened from 1973 to 1976 for possible participation in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Volunteers identified themselves as "white," "black," "Oriental," "Spanish American," "American Indian," or "other." They also noted if they were taking medication for diabetes. A trained technician measured blood pressure after participants had rested for 5 minutes, using the fifth Korotkoff sound to define diastolic pressure and averaging the second and third of three readings. Differences among the groups included the following: blacks had consistently higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) than other groups; Orientals had slightly lower pressure than other nonblack groups; American Indians had somewhat higher pressure than other nonblack groups at ages 35 to 44 but lower at ages 45 to 54; Hispanics in Miami and Davis, California, had significantly higher SBP and DBP than whites in the same area; Orientals in California had significantly higher DBP (but not SBP) than whites in California.
Hypertension is becoming increasingly important in sub-Saharan Africa. However, evidences in support of this trend with time are still not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 10-year change in blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension in rural and urban Cameroon.
Two cross sectional population-based surveys in Yaounde (urban area) and Evodoula (rural area) in 1994 (1762 subjects) and 2003 (1398 subjects) used similar methodologies in women and men aged ≥ 24 years. Data on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), body mass index, educational level, alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were collected during the two periods.
Between 1994 and 2003, blood pressure levels significantly increased in rural women (SBP +18.2 mmHg, DBP +11.9 mmHg) and men (SBP +18.8 mmHg, DBP +11.6 mmHg), all p<0.001. In the urban area, SBP increased in women (+8.1 mmHg, p<0.001) and men (+6.5 mmHg, p<0.001), and DBP increased only in women (+3.3 mmHg, p<0.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) adjusted on confounders comparing the prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or treatment) between 2003 and 1994 ranged from 1.5 (1.1–2.2) in urban men to 5.3 (3.2–8.9) in rural men.
Blood pressure levels of this population have deteriorated over time and the prevalence of hypertension has increased by two to five folds. Adverse effects of risk factors could account for some of these changes. Prevention and control programs are needed to reverse these trends and to avoid the looming complications.
Hypertension; blood pressure; trends; developing countries; sub-Saharan Africa; Cameroon