The immunogenicity of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus (A/H1pdm) vaccine might be modified by prior seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (sTIV) administration. We conducted a retrospective analysis of immunogenicity of 243 health care workers (number of sTIV-positive [sTIV+] subjects, 216; number of sTIV− subjects, 27) by hemagglutination inhibition. There was no significant difference in the ratios of antibody titers of ≥40 (41.2% versus 48.1%; P = 0.49) and fold increases in geometric mean titer (3.8 versus 4.5; P = 0.37). sTIV injected 7 to 10 days prior to A/H1pdm vaccine administration did not interfere with the immunogenicity of the latter.
Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) is not licensed for use in infants <6 months old, the group with the highest influenza hospitalization rates among children.
In this prospective, open-label study, 2 doses of TIV were administered to healthy infants aged 10–22 weeks. Adverse reactions were assessed, and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers were determined. Weekly telephone surveillance for influenza-like illness was conducted during the influenza season.
A total of 42 infants were enrolled and completed the study. Mild local and systemic reactions were noted. In the first season (2004–2005), postvaccination HAI titers >1:32 were noted for 31.6%, 47.4%, and 21.1% of 19 subjects for H1N1, H3N2, and B strains included in the vaccine, respectively. In the second season (2005–2006), postvaccination HAI titers >1:32 were seen in 45.5%, 59.1%, and 0% of 23 subjects for H1N1, H3N2, and B strains included in the vaccine, respectively. Infants who were seronegative before vaccination (titers <1:8) were significantly more likely to have a 4-fold rise in antibody titer after vaccination, compared with infants who had prevaccination titers >1:8 (P < .001).
Two doses of TIV were found to be safe and moderately immunogenic against some influenza strains. The presence of preexisting maternally derived antibody was associated with significantly lower seroresponse rates to vaccination. Whether vaccination with TIV will prevent influenza in these young children remains to be determined.
The annually reformulated trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) includes both influenza A/subtypes (H3N2 and H1N1) but only one of two influenza B/lineages (Yamagata or Victoria). In a recent series of clinical trials to evaluate prime-boost response across influenza B/lineages, influenza-naïve infants and toddlers originally primed with two doses of 2008–09 B/Yamagata-containing TIV were assessed after two doses of B/Victoria-containing TIV administered in the subsequent 2009–10 and 2010–11 seasons. In these children, the Victoria-containing vaccines strongly recalled antibody to the initiating B/Yamagata antigen but induced only low B/Victoria antibody responses. To further evaluate this unexpected pattern of cross-lineage vaccine responses, we conducted additional immunogenicity assessment in mice. In the current study, mice were primed with two doses of 2008–09 Yamagata-containing TIV and subsequently boosted with two doses of 2010–11 Victoria-containing TIV (Group-Yam/Vic). With the same vaccines, we also assessed the reverse order of two-dose Victoria followed by two-dose Yamagata immunization (Group-Vic/Yam). The Group-Yam/Vic mice showed strong homologous responses to Yamagata antigen. However, as previously reported in children, subsequent doses of Victoria antigen substantially boosted Yamagata but induced only low antibody response to the immunizing Victoria component. The reverse order of Group-Vic/Yam mice also showed low homologous responses to Victoria but subsequent heterologous immunization with even a single dose of Yamagata antigen induced substantial boost response to both lineages. For influenza A/H3N2, homologous responses were comparably robust for the differing TIV variants and even a single follow-up dose of the heterologous strain, regardless of vaccine sequence, substantially boosted antibody to both strains. For H1N1, two doses of 2008–09 seasonal antigen significantly blunted response to two doses of the 2010–11 pandemic H1N1 antigen. Immunologic interactions between influenza viruses considered antigenically distant and in particular the cross-lineage influenza B and dominant Yamagata boost responses we have observed in both human and animal studies warrant further evaluation.
Background. Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3–17 years.
Methods. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive QIV or 1 of 2 TIVs (either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage; N = 2738). Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 28 days after 1 or 2 doses in primed and unprimed children, respectively. Immunological noninferiority of QIV vs TIV against shared strains, and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was based on geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196988).
Results. Noninferiority against shared strains and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was demonstrated for QIV vs TIV. QIV was highly immunogenic; seroconversion rates were 91.4%, 72.3%, 70.0%, and 72.5% against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV.
Conclusions. QIV vs TIV showed superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. QIV may offer improved protection against influenza B in children compared with current trivalent vaccines.
pediatric; noninferiority; quadrivalent; seasonal influenza; superiority; trivalent
The campaign of 2009–2010 Northern Hemisphere seasonal vaccination was concurrent with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Using a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, we evaluated the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of 2009–2010 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in US adult and elderly populations. Vaccination of TIV resulted in a robust boost on the antibody response of all subjects to seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) and A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) with over 70% of recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. B/Brisbane/60/2008 was the least immunogenic among the three seasonal vaccine strains with <30% of TIV recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. TIV vaccination also induced a moderate boost on the pandemic specific antibody responses. Twenty-four percent of adults and 36% of elderly reached a seroprotective HAI titer of 40 or more against pandemic A/South Carolina/18/2009 (H1N1) after receiving TIV compared to 4% and 7% at the beginning of vaccination, respectively. In addition, 22% of adults and 34% of elderly showed an increase of 4-fold or more in A/South Carolina/18/2009 specific HAI titers after TIV vaccination. The pandemic specific cross-reactive antibodies strongly correlated with the post-vaccination HAI titers against the seasonal H3N2 vaccine strain in all subjects.
The trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is used to prevent seasonal influenza virus infection in humans, however, the immunogenicity of this vaccine may be influenced by the priming effect of previous influenza vaccinations or exposure to antigenically-related influenza viruses. The current study examines the immunogenicity of a clinically licensed TIV in rabbits naïve to influenza antigens. Animals were immunized with either the licensed TIV, a bivalent (H1 and H3) HA DNA vaccine or the combination of both. Temporal and peak level serum anti-influenza virus IgG responses were determined by ELISA. Functional antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization against either A/NewCaledonia//20/99 (H1N1) or A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) influenza viruses. Our results demonstrate that the immunogenicity of the TIV is low in sero-negative animals. More significantly, the heterologous DNA prime-TIV boost regimen was more immunogenic than the homologous prime-boost using either TIV or DNA vaccines alone. This finding justifies further investigation of HA DNA vaccines as a priming immunogen for the next generation of vaccines against seasonal or pandemic influenza virus infections.
Influenza virus; HA protein; DNA vaccine; inactivated flu vaccine; prime-boost
The heptavalent pneumococcal-CRM197 conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been incompletely studied in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤1500 grams) infants.
To assess PCV-7 immunogenicity in VLBW, premature infants. We hypothesized that the frequency of post-vaccine antibody concentrations ≥0.15 µg/mL would vary directly with birth weight.
This was a multi-center observational study. Infants 401–1500 grams birth weight and <32 0/7 weeks gestation, stratified by birth weight, were enrolled from 9 NICHD Neonatal Research Network centers. Infants received PCV-7 at 2, 4 and 6 months after birth and had blood drawn 4–6 weeks following the third dose. Antibodies against the 7 vaccine serotypes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Of 369 enrolled infants, 244 completed their primary vaccine series by 8 months and had serum obtained. Subjects were 27.8 ± 2.2 (mean ± standard deviation) weeks gestation and 1008 ± 282 grams birth weight. Twenty-six percent had bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 16% had received postnatal glucocorticoids. Infants 1001–1500 grams birth weight were more likely than those 401–1000 grams to achieve antibody concentrations ≥0.15 µg/mL against the least two immunogenic serotypes (6B: 96% v. 85%, P = 0.003 and 23F: 97% v. 88%, P = 0.009). In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower birth weight, postnatal glucocorticoid use, lower weight at blood draw and Caucasian race were each independently associated with antibody concentrations <0.35 µg/mL against serotypes 6B and/or 23F.
When compared with larger premature infants, infants weighing ≤1000 grams at birth have similar antibody responses to most, but not all, PCV-7 vaccine serotypes.
Infant, premature; infant, very low birth weight; pneumococcal vaccines; immunization; vaccines
Background. Two doses of either trivalent live attenuated or inactivated influenza vaccines (LAIV and TIV, respectively) are approved for young children (≥24 months old for LAIV and ≥6 months old for TIV) and induce protective antibody responses. However, whether combinations of LAIV and TIV are safe and equally immunogenic is unknown. Furthermore, LAIV is more protective than TIV in children for unclear reasons.
Methods. Children 6–35 months old were administered, 1 month apart, 2 doses of either TIV or LAIV, or combinations of LAIV and TIV in both prime/boost sequences. Influenza-specific antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), and T cells were studied in flow cytometric and functional assays. Highly conserved M1, M2, and NP peptides predicted to be presented by common HLA class I and II were used to stimulate interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses.
Results. All LAIV and/or TIV combinations were well tolerated and induced similar HAI responses. In contrast, only regimens containing LAIV induced influenza-specific CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells, including T cells specific for highly conserved influenza peptides.
Conclusions. Prime/boost combinations of LAIV and TIV in young children were safe and induced similar protective antibodies. Only LAIV induced CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells relevant for broadly protective heterosubtypic immunity.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00231907.
Two doses of AS03B-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine may be sufficient to maintain seroprotection across 2 influenza seasons. Administration of trivalent influenza vaccine to children who previously received 2 doses of pandemic influenza vaccine is safe and is immunogenic for the H1N1 strain.
Background. We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03B-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV).
Methods. Children previously immunized at age 6 months to 12 years in the original study were invited to participate. After a blood sample was obtained to assess persistence of antibody against swine influenza A/H1N1(2009) pandemic influenza, children received 1 dose of 2010/2011 TIV, reactogenicity data were collected for 7 days, and another blood sample was obtained 21 days after vaccination.
Results. Of 323 children recruited, 302 received TIV. Antibody persistence (defined as microneutralization [MN] titer ≥1:40) 1 year after initial vaccination was significantly higher in the AS03B-adjuvanted compared with the whole-virion vaccine group, 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.1%–100%) vs 32.4% (95% CI, 21.5%–44.8%) in children immunized <3 years old and 96.9% (95% CI, 91.3%–99.4%) vs 65.9% (95% CI, 55.3%–75.5%) in those 3–12 years old at immunization, respectively (P < .001 for both groups). All children receiving TIV had post-vaccination MN titers ≥1:40. Although TIV was well tolerated in all groups, reactogenicity in children <5 years old was slightly greater in those who originally received AS03B-adjuvanted vaccine.
Conclusions. This study provides serological evidence that 2 doses of AS03B-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine may be sufficient to maintain protection across 2 influenza seasons. Administration of TIV to children who previously received 2 doses of either pandemic influenza vaccine is safe and is immunogenic for the H1N1 strain.
There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6–8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history.
Methods and Findings
We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009–10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) particularly in children 9–17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6–8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6–8 y of age regardless of vaccination history.
Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.
Aims: To document the immunogenicity and persistence of antibody to polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP) as well as the clinical protection against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in premature infants immunised at the routine schedule.
Methods: Blood was obtained at 2, 5, 12, and 64 months of age from a cohort of prematurely born infants (≤32 weeks gestation). Anti-PRP antibody concentrations were compared with those of a control cohort of infants born at full term and vaccinated at the same schedule. Hib vaccine failures occurring between October 1992 and October 2000 were reported by paediatricians through an active, prospective, national survey in the UK and Republic of Ireland. The number of prematurely born children with vaccine failure was compared with the corresponding number born at term.
Results: Twenty seven prematurely born infants were followed to 5 years of age. Compared with term infants they had a significantly lower geometric mean concentration of anti-PRP antibody and/or a significantly lower proportion above one or both of the conventional protective antibody concentrations (0.15 and 1.0 µg/ml) at all ages. A total of 165 cases of invasive Hib disease were identified over eight years of national surveillance. Eighteen were premature (<37 weeks); approximately 12 would be expected. The relative risk of UK premature infants developing disease compared with term infants was 1.5 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.6).
Conclusions: Premature infants develop lower antibody concentrations than term infants following Hib conjugate vaccination. Premature infants may also have an increased risk of clinical vaccine failure, but interpretation is limited by the small number of premature infants developing invasive Hib disease over eight years of national surveillance. Overall, vaccination with Hib conjugate vaccines affords a high level of protection to premature babies.
To augment the available influenza vaccine supply, a phase III study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and consistency of a new trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine manufactured by CSL Limited. Healthy adults (ages 18–64) were randomized to receive either a single dose of TIV from multi-dose vials with thimerosal, TIV from pre-filled syringes without thimerosal, or placebo. Of the TIV recipients, 97.8% achieved a post-vaccination titer ≥ 40 against H1N1, 99.9% against H3N2 component, and 94.2% against influenza B. Few local or systemic adverse events were noted after vaccination with either TIV presentation. TIV was well tolerated and immunogenic.
Influenza; vaccine; immunogenicity
Annual immunization with a trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is considered efficacious for prevention of seasonal influenza in older adults. However, significant controversy exists in the current literature regarding the clinical effectiveness of TIV immunization in this highly heterogeneous population. Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to stressors. Using a validated set of frailty criteria, we conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate TIV-induced strain-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers and post-vaccination rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) and infection in frail and nonfrail older adults. The results indicate that frailty was associated with significant impairment in TIV-induced strain-specific HI titers and increased rates of ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. These findings suggest that assessing frailty status in the elderly may identify those who are less likely to respond to TIV immunization and be at higher risk for seasonal influenza and its complications.
Frailty; Influenza immunization; Antibody response; Influenza infection; Influenza-like illness; Older adults
Background. Mismatch between circulating influenza B viruses (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) and vaccine strains occurs frequently.
Methods. In a randomized controlled trial, immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate (QIV) versus trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)-Victoria(Vic) and TIV-Yamagata(Yam) in children 3–17 years of age was evaluated. In an open-label study arm, QIV only was assessed in children 6–35 months of age.
Results. A total of 3094 children (932 QIV, 929 TIV-Vic, 932 TIV-Yam, and 301 QIV only) were vaccinated. QIV was noninferior to the TIVs for shared strains (A/H3N2 and A/H1N1) based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies 28 days after last vaccination, and superior for the unique B strains Victoria and Yamagata (geometric mean titer ratios 2.61, 3.78; seroconversion rate differences 33.96%, 44.63%). Among children in the randomized trial, adverse event rates were similar except for injection site pain (dose 1: 65.4% QIV, 54.6% TIV-Vic, 55.7% TIV-Yam).
Conclusion. QIV elicited superior HI responses to the added B strains compared to TIV controls, potentially improving its effectiveness against influenza B. HI responses were similar between QIV and TIV controls for the shared strains. QIV had an acceptable safety profile relative to TIVs.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01198756.
influenza vaccine; immunogenicity; children
A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coadministered with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults. Participants ages 50 to 59 years (n = 1,116) received TIV with PCV13 (group 1) or placebo (group 2) (1:1 randomization); 1 month later, group 1 received placebo and group 2 received PCV13. A hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay for TIV and a standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pneumococcal serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers (assessed post hoc) were measured at baseline and 1 and 2 months postvaccination. The rises in HAI assay geometric mean titer (GMT) and percentage of participants in groups 1 and 2 with ≥4-fold increases in HAI responses (A/H1N1, 84.0% and 81.2%, respectively; A/H3N2, 71.1% and 69.5%, respectively; and B, 60.6% and 60.3%, respectively) were similar. In group 1, all serotypes met the predefined IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio noninferiority criterion relative to group 2, but GMCs were lower in group 1 than group 2. When comparing group 1 with group 2, 5 serotypes did not meet the OPA GMT ratio noninferiority criterion, and OPA GMTs were significantly lower for 10 serotypes. PCV13 injection site reactions were similar and mostly mild in both groups. Systemic events were more frequent in group 1 (86.2%) than group 2 (76.7%; P < 0.001); no vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Coadministration of PCV13 and TIV was well tolerated but associated with lower PCV13 antibody responses and is of unknown clinical significance. Given the positive immunologic attributes of PCV13, concomitant administration with TIV should be dictated by clinical circumstances.
Two phylogenetic lineages of influenza B virus coexist and circulate in the human population (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) but only one B-strain is included in each seasonal vaccine. Mismatch regularly occurs between the recommended and circulating B-strain. Inclusion of both lineages in vaccines may offer better protection against influenza.
This study (NCT00714285) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of two candidate quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) containing two A- and two B-strains (one from each lineage) in adults (18–60 years). Subjects were randomized and stratified by age to receive either QIV (non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD QIV-AS]) or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV, non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD TIV-AS]), N = 105 in all treatment groups. The study evaluated the statistical non-inferiority of the immunological response elicited by QIV and LD QIV-AS versus TIV and LD TIV-AS and the statistical superiority of the response elicited by the quadrivalent vaccines against the B-strain (B/Jiangsu) not included in the TIV.
Pre-defined non-inferiority and superiority criteria were reached for both QIVs compared to the TIVs. On Day 21 in all vaccine groups SCRs were ≥54.8%, SPRs ≥88.5% and SCFs ≥5.4 for the A strains and B strain included in all vaccines (B/Malaysia). This fulfilled the European (CHMP) and the US (CBER) licensing criteria for the assessment of influenza vaccines in adults (CHMP criteria: SCR > 40%, SPR > 70%, SCF > 2; CBER criteria: LL of 95% CI for SPR ≥ 70% or SCR ≥ 40%). Only the QIVs met the CHMP and CBER criteria for the B/Jiangsu strain. In the QIV and LD-QIV-AS groups, the SCFs were 9.1 and 8.1, respectively and the SPRs were 98.1% and 95.2%, whereas for the TIV and LD-TIV-AS groups, the SCFs were 2.3 and 2.5, respectively, and the SPRs were 75.0% and 63.8%, with the LLs of the 95% CI <70% for SPR and <40% for SCR.
Addition of a fourth strain did not impact the immune response elicited by the three original strains contained in the TIV. A clear immunological benefit was seen with the QIV formulation for the second B-strain, indicating that quadrivalent vaccines could provide broader protection against influenza.
Adjuvant; Influenza vaccine; Tetravalent; Trivalent inactivated; Quadrivalent
Background. Administering 2 separate vaccines for seasonal and pandemic influenza was necessary in 2009. Therefore, we conducted a randomized trial of monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine (2009 H1N1 vaccine) and seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV; split virion) given sequentially or concurrently in previously vaccinated children.
Methods. Children randomized to 4 study groups and stratified by age received 1 dose of seasonal TIV and 2 doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine in 1 of 4 combinations. Injections were given at 21-day intervals and serum samples for hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses were obtained prior to and 21 days after each vaccination. Reactogenicity and adverse events were monitored.
Results. All combinations of vaccines were safe in the 531 children enrolled. Generally, 1 dose of 2009 H1N1 vaccine and 1 dose of TIV, regardless of sequence or concurrency of administration, was immunogenic in children ≥10 years of age; children <10 years of age required 2 doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine.
Conclusions. Vaccines were generally well tolerated. The immune responses to 2009 H1N1 vaccine were adequate regardless of the sequence of vaccination in all age groups but the sequence affected titers to TIV antigens. Two doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine were required to achieve a protective immune response in children <10 years of age.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00943202.
There are little data about adverse effects and immunogenicity of flu vaccine in Asian pregnant women.
This prospective trial (NCT01514708) enrolled 46 pregnant women who received a single intramuscular dose of trivalent flu vaccine (AdimFlu-S®) containing 15 mcg of hemagglutinin for each strain/0.5 mL from influenza A (H1N1), influenza A (H3N2), and influenza B after the first trimester. Blood samples were collected at day 0 and 28 after vaccination, and at delivery. Cord blood was also collected. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays were performed to determine seroprotection and seroconversion rates and fold increase in the HAI geometric mean titer (GMT).
Twenty-eight days after vaccination the seroprotection rate against H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B was 91.3%, 84.8% and 56.5%, respectively. The GMT fold increase was 12.8, 8.4, and 4.6 for H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B, respectively. At delivery, both the seroprotection rate (86.4%, 68.2%, and 47.7%) and GMT fold increase (9.4, 5.7 and 3.8) were slightly lower than day 28. The seroprotection rate and GMT fold increase in maternal and cord blood samples were comparable. No significant adverse effects were detected.
Trivalent flu vaccine induces a strong immune response in pregnant women and their infants without adverse effects.
Clinical Trials. gov NCT01514708
Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) prevents more cases of influenza in immune-competent children than the trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV). We compared the antibody responses to LAIV or TIV in HIV-infected children.
Blood and saliva obtained at enrollment, 4 and 24 weeks post-immunization (wpi) from 243 HIV-infected children randomly assigned to TIV or LAIV were analyzed.
Both vaccines increased the anti-influenza neutralizing antibodies at 4 and 24 wpi. At 4 wpi, TIV recipients had 2- to 3-fold higher neutralizing antibody titers than LAIV recipients, but the proportions of subjects with protective titers (≥1:40) were similar between treatment groups (96% to 100% for influenza A and 81% to 88% for influenza B). Both vaccines increased salivary homotypic IgG antibodies, but not IgA antibodies. Both vaccines also increased serum heterosubtypic antibodies. Among HIV-specific characteristics, the baseline viral load correlated best with the antibody responses to either vaccine. We used LAIV-virus shedding as a surrogate of influenza infection. Influenza-specific humoral and mucosal antibody levels were significantly higher in non-shedders than in shedders.
LAIV and TIV generated homotypic and heterosubtypic humoral and mucosal antibody responses in HIV-infected children. High titers of humoral or mucosal antibodies correlated with protection against viral shedding.
HIV-infected children; influenza vaccines; antibodies; viral shedding
In a randomized controlled trial, we administered seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or placebo to subjects 6–15 years of age in two consecutive years. Receipt of TIV in year 2 induced seroprotection in most subjects. Among 39 children who received TIV in the second year, receipt of TIV in the first year was associated with lower antibody titer rises in the second year to seasonal influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) strains for which the vaccine strains remained unchanged. Antibody response to a different influenza B strain in the second year was unaffected by receipt of TIV in the first year.
vaccination; influenza; antibody response; children
The frozen version of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV; FluMist) was compared with a newly licensed, refrigerated formulation, the cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent (CAIV-T), for their immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability in healthy subjects 5 to 49 years of age. Eligible subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive CAIV-T or frozen LAIV. Subjects 5 to 8 years of age received two doses of vaccine 46 to 60 days apart; subjects 9 to 49 years of age received one dose of vaccine. Equivalent immunogenicities were defined as serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) geometric mean titer (GMT) ratios >0.5 and <2.0 for each of the three vaccine-specific strains. A total of 376 subjects 5 to 8 years of age and 566 subjects 9 to 49 years of age were evaluable. Postvaccination HAI GMT ratios were equivalent for CAIV-T and LAIV. The GMT ratios of CAIV-T/LAIV for the H1N1, H3N2, and B strains were 1.24, 1.02, and 1.00, respectively, for the 5- to 8-year-old age group and 1.14, 1.12, and 0.96, respectively, for the 9- to 49-year-old age group. Seroresponse/seroconversion rates (fourfold or greater rise) were similar in both age groups for each of the three vaccine strains. Within 28 days, the most frequent reactogenicity event in the CAIV-T and LAIV groups was runny nose/nasal congestion, which occurred at higher rates after dose 1 (44% and 42%, respectively) than after dose 2 (41% and 29%, respectively) in the 5- to 8-year-old group. Otherwise, the rates of adverse events (AEs) were similar between the treatment groups and the two age cohorts, with no serious AEs related to the study vaccines. The immunogenicities, reactogenicity events, and AEs were comparable for refrigerated CAIV-T and frozen LAIV.
Objective. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in patients treated with Japanese Oriental (Kampo) Medicine is unknown. The objectives of this study were to observe the efficacy of influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo. Methods. Trivalent influenza subunit vaccine was administered to 45 RA patients who had received Kampo. They were divided into 2 groups: RA patients treated without MTX (“without MTX group”) and treated with MTX (“with MTX group”). Antibody titers were measured before and 4 weeks after vaccination using hemagglutination inhibition assay. Results. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-influenza antibodies significantly increased for all influenza strains. Response to the influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo was not lower than that of healthy subjects and the response in the “with MTX group” had a tendency to be higher than that in RA patients treated with MTX in the previous study. There was no significant difference in the GMT after 4 weeks between the “with MTX group” and the “without MTX group.” A decreased efficacy in both seroprotection and seroconversion was not found in the “with MTX group.” Conclusion. These observations may open the way for further clinical trials to establish the efficacy for the influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo.
At the time of the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic it was not known if concurrent or sequential administration of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with pandemic vaccine was preferred.
Immunogenicity and safety were assessed in 871 healthy subjects aged 19–40 years who were randomised into six groups to receive co-administration or sequential administration of TIV and two doses of A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine (either unadjuvanted or adjuvanted with AS03, an α-tocopherol and squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion).
Safety and immunogenicity data (by haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assay) after each dose and six months post-Dose 1 are reported here. Co-administration of A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine with TIV reduced the HI immune responses to A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine. However, serologic responses with both co-administration and sequential schedules met the European and US regulatory criteria for pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines up to six months following the first vaccine dose. The AS03-adjuvanted formulation elicited higher immune responses at all time points. Prior administration or co-administration of A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine did not affect immune responses to TIV.
Co-administration of TIV and A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine negatively influenced A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine immunogenicity but had no effect on TIV responses. The non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted vaccines demonstrated strong immune responses against all vaccine strains for up to six months following the first vaccine dose.
Adjuvant; AS03; Co-administration; H1N1; Influenza; Pandemic; TIV
The role of seasonal influenza vaccination in pandemic influenza A H1N1 disease is important to address, because a large segment of the population is vaccinated annually. We administered 1 or 2 doses of pandemic H1N1 vaccine (CA/7 ca), a seasonal trivalent inactivated (s-TIV), or live attenuated influenza vaccine (s-LAIV) to mice and ferrets and subsequently challenged them with a pandemic H1N1 virus. In both species, CA/7 ca was immunogenic and conferred complete protection against challenge. s-TIV did not confer protection in either animal model, and s-LAIV did not confer any protection in ferrets. In mice, 2 doses of s-LAIV led to complete protection in the upper respiratory tract and partial protection in the lungs. Our data indicate that vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccines did not confer complete protection in the lower respiratory tract in either animal model, whereas the CA/7 ca vaccine conferred complete protection in both animal models.
Influenza virus continues to cause significant hospitalization rates in infants and young children. A 2-dose regime of trivalent inactivated vaccine is required to generate protective levels of hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) antibodies. A vaccine preparation with enhanced immunogenicity is therefore desirable.
Mice were inoculated intramuscularly (IM) with live and inactivated preparations of A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2). Serum cytokine levels, hemagglutinin (HA)-specific antibody responses and nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ T cell responses were compared between vaccinated groups, as well as to responses measured after intranasal infection. The protective efficacy of each vaccine type was compared by measuring virus titers in the lungs and weight loss of mice challenged intranasally with a heterosubtypic virus, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1).
Intramuscular administration of live virus resulted in greater amounts of IFN-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ, HA-specific antibodies, and virus-specific CD8+ T cells, than IM immunization with inactivated virus. These increases corresponded with the live virus vaccinated group having significantly less weight loss and less virus in the lungs on day 7 following challenge with a sublethal dose of a heterosubtypic virus.
Inflammatory cytokines, antibody titers to HA and CD8+ T cell responses were greater to live than inactivated virus delivered IM. These increased responses correlated with greater protection against heterosubtypic virus challenge, suggesting that intramuscular immunization with live influenza virus may be a practical means to increase vaccine immunogenicity and to broaden protection in pediatric populations.