The annually reformulated trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) includes both influenza A/subtypes (H3N2 and H1N1) but only one of two influenza B/lineages (Yamagata or Victoria). In a recent series of clinical trials to evaluate prime-boost response across influenza B/lineages, influenza-naïve infants and toddlers originally primed with two doses of 2008–09 B/Yamagata-containing TIV were assessed after two doses of B/Victoria-containing TIV administered in the subsequent 2009–10 and 2010–11 seasons. In these children, the Victoria-containing vaccines strongly recalled antibody to the initiating B/Yamagata antigen but induced only low B/Victoria antibody responses. To further evaluate this unexpected pattern of cross-lineage vaccine responses, we conducted additional immunogenicity assessment in mice. In the current study, mice were primed with two doses of 2008–09 Yamagata-containing TIV and subsequently boosted with two doses of 2010–11 Victoria-containing TIV (Group-Yam/Vic). With the same vaccines, we also assessed the reverse order of two-dose Victoria followed by two-dose Yamagata immunization (Group-Vic/Yam). The Group-Yam/Vic mice showed strong homologous responses to Yamagata antigen. However, as previously reported in children, subsequent doses of Victoria antigen substantially boosted Yamagata but induced only low antibody response to the immunizing Victoria component. The reverse order of Group-Vic/Yam mice also showed low homologous responses to Victoria but subsequent heterologous immunization with even a single dose of Yamagata antigen induced substantial boost response to both lineages. For influenza A/H3N2, homologous responses were comparably robust for the differing TIV variants and even a single follow-up dose of the heterologous strain, regardless of vaccine sequence, substantially boosted antibody to both strains. For H1N1, two doses of 2008–09 seasonal antigen significantly blunted response to two doses of the 2010–11 pandemic H1N1 antigen. Immunologic interactions between influenza viruses considered antigenically distant and in particular the cross-lineage influenza B and dominant Yamagata boost responses we have observed in both human and animal studies warrant further evaluation.
The campaign of 2009–2010 Northern Hemisphere seasonal vaccination was concurrent with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Using a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, we evaluated the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of 2009–2010 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in US adult and elderly populations. Vaccination of TIV resulted in a robust boost on the antibody response of all subjects to seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) and A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) with over 70% of recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. B/Brisbane/60/2008 was the least immunogenic among the three seasonal vaccine strains with <30% of TIV recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. TIV vaccination also induced a moderate boost on the pandemic specific antibody responses. Twenty-four percent of adults and 36% of elderly reached a seroprotective HAI titer of 40 or more against pandemic A/South Carolina/18/2009 (H1N1) after receiving TIV compared to 4% and 7% at the beginning of vaccination, respectively. In addition, 22% of adults and 34% of elderly showed an increase of 4-fold or more in A/South Carolina/18/2009 specific HAI titers after TIV vaccination. The pandemic specific cross-reactive antibodies strongly correlated with the post-vaccination HAI titers against the seasonal H3N2 vaccine strain in all subjects.
The trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is used to prevent seasonal influenza virus infection in humans, however, the immunogenicity of this vaccine may be influenced by the priming effect of previous influenza vaccinations or exposure to antigenically-related influenza viruses. The current study examines the immunogenicity of a clinically licensed TIV in rabbits naïve to influenza antigens. Animals were immunized with either the licensed TIV, a bivalent (H1 and H3) HA DNA vaccine or the combination of both. Temporal and peak level serum anti-influenza virus IgG responses were determined by ELISA. Functional antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization against either A/NewCaledonia//20/99 (H1N1) or A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) influenza viruses. Our results demonstrate that the immunogenicity of the TIV is low in sero-negative animals. More significantly, the heterologous DNA prime-TIV boost regimen was more immunogenic than the homologous prime-boost using either TIV or DNA vaccines alone. This finding justifies further investigation of HA DNA vaccines as a priming immunogen for the next generation of vaccines against seasonal or pandemic influenza virus infections.
Influenza virus; HA protein; DNA vaccine; inactivated flu vaccine; prime-boost
Background. Two doses of either trivalent live attenuated or inactivated influenza vaccines (LAIV and TIV, respectively) are approved for young children (≥24 months old for LAIV and ≥6 months old for TIV) and induce protective antibody responses. However, whether combinations of LAIV and TIV are safe and equally immunogenic is unknown. Furthermore, LAIV is more protective than TIV in children for unclear reasons.
Methods. Children 6–35 months old were administered, 1 month apart, 2 doses of either TIV or LAIV, or combinations of LAIV and TIV in both prime/boost sequences. Influenza-specific antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), and T cells were studied in flow cytometric and functional assays. Highly conserved M1, M2, and NP peptides predicted to be presented by common HLA class I and II were used to stimulate interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot responses.
Results. All LAIV and/or TIV combinations were well tolerated and induced similar HAI responses. In contrast, only regimens containing LAIV induced influenza-specific CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells, including T cells specific for highly conserved influenza peptides.
Conclusions. Prime/boost combinations of LAIV and TIV in young children were safe and induced similar protective antibodies. Only LAIV induced CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells relevant for broadly protective heterosubtypic immunity.
Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00231907.
The heptavalent pneumococcal-CRM197 conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has been incompletely studied in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤1500 grams) infants.
To assess PCV-7 immunogenicity in VLBW, premature infants. We hypothesized that the frequency of post-vaccine antibody concentrations ≥0.15 µg/mL would vary directly with birth weight.
This was a multi-center observational study. Infants 401–1500 grams birth weight and <32 0/7 weeks gestation, stratified by birth weight, were enrolled from 9 NICHD Neonatal Research Network centers. Infants received PCV-7 at 2, 4 and 6 months after birth and had blood drawn 4–6 weeks following the third dose. Antibodies against the 7 vaccine serotypes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Of 369 enrolled infants, 244 completed their primary vaccine series by 8 months and had serum obtained. Subjects were 27.8 ± 2.2 (mean ± standard deviation) weeks gestation and 1008 ± 282 grams birth weight. Twenty-six percent had bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 16% had received postnatal glucocorticoids. Infants 1001–1500 grams birth weight were more likely than those 401–1000 grams to achieve antibody concentrations ≥0.15 µg/mL against the least two immunogenic serotypes (6B: 96% v. 85%, P = 0.003 and 23F: 97% v. 88%, P = 0.009). In multiple logistic regression analysis, lower birth weight, postnatal glucocorticoid use, lower weight at blood draw and Caucasian race were each independently associated with antibody concentrations <0.35 µg/mL against serotypes 6B and/or 23F.
When compared with larger premature infants, infants weighing ≤1000 grams at birth have similar antibody responses to most, but not all, PCV-7 vaccine serotypes.
Infant, premature; infant, very low birth weight; pneumococcal vaccines; immunization; vaccines
Two doses of AS03B-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine may be sufficient to maintain seroprotection across 2 influenza seasons. Administration of trivalent influenza vaccine to children who previously received 2 doses of pandemic influenza vaccine is safe and is immunogenic for the H1N1 strain.
Background. We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03B-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV).
Methods. Children previously immunized at age 6 months to 12 years in the original study were invited to participate. After a blood sample was obtained to assess persistence of antibody against swine influenza A/H1N1(2009) pandemic influenza, children received 1 dose of 2010/2011 TIV, reactogenicity data were collected for 7 days, and another blood sample was obtained 21 days after vaccination.
Results. Of 323 children recruited, 302 received TIV. Antibody persistence (defined as microneutralization [MN] titer ≥1:40) 1 year after initial vaccination was significantly higher in the AS03B-adjuvanted compared with the whole-virion vaccine group, 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.1%–100%) vs 32.4% (95% CI, 21.5%–44.8%) in children immunized <3 years old and 96.9% (95% CI, 91.3%–99.4%) vs 65.9% (95% CI, 55.3%–75.5%) in those 3–12 years old at immunization, respectively (P < .001 for both groups). All children receiving TIV had post-vaccination MN titers ≥1:40. Although TIV was well tolerated in all groups, reactogenicity in children <5 years old was slightly greater in those who originally received AS03B-adjuvanted vaccine.
Conclusions. This study provides serological evidence that 2 doses of AS03B-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine may be sufficient to maintain protection across 2 influenza seasons. Administration of TIV to children who previously received 2 doses of either pandemic influenza vaccine is safe and is immunogenic for the H1N1 strain.
Aims: To document the immunogenicity and persistence of antibody to polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP) as well as the clinical protection against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in premature infants immunised at the routine schedule.
Methods: Blood was obtained at 2, 5, 12, and 64 months of age from a cohort of prematurely born infants (≤32 weeks gestation). Anti-PRP antibody concentrations were compared with those of a control cohort of infants born at full term and vaccinated at the same schedule. Hib vaccine failures occurring between October 1992 and October 2000 were reported by paediatricians through an active, prospective, national survey in the UK and Republic of Ireland. The number of prematurely born children with vaccine failure was compared with the corresponding number born at term.
Results: Twenty seven prematurely born infants were followed to 5 years of age. Compared with term infants they had a significantly lower geometric mean concentration of anti-PRP antibody and/or a significantly lower proportion above one or both of the conventional protective antibody concentrations (0.15 and 1.0 µg/ml) at all ages. A total of 165 cases of invasive Hib disease were identified over eight years of national surveillance. Eighteen were premature (<37 weeks); approximately 12 would be expected. The relative risk of UK premature infants developing disease compared with term infants was 1.5 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.6).
Conclusions: Premature infants develop lower antibody concentrations than term infants following Hib conjugate vaccination. Premature infants may also have an increased risk of clinical vaccine failure, but interpretation is limited by the small number of premature infants developing invasive Hib disease over eight years of national surveillance. Overall, vaccination with Hib conjugate vaccines affords a high level of protection to premature babies.
To augment the available influenza vaccine supply, a phase III study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and consistency of a new trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine manufactured by CSL Limited. Healthy adults (ages 18–64) were randomized to receive either a single dose of TIV from multi-dose vials with thimerosal, TIV from pre-filled syringes without thimerosal, or placebo. Of the TIV recipients, 97.8% achieved a post-vaccination titer ≥ 40 against H1N1, 99.9% against H3N2 component, and 94.2% against influenza B. Few local or systemic adverse events were noted after vaccination with either TIV presentation. TIV was well tolerated and immunogenic.
Influenza; vaccine; immunogenicity
Annual immunization with a trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is considered efficacious for prevention of seasonal influenza in older adults. However, significant controversy exists in the current literature regarding the clinical effectiveness of TIV immunization in this highly heterogeneous population. Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to stressors. Using a validated set of frailty criteria, we conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate TIV-induced strain-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers and post-vaccination rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) and infection in frail and nonfrail older adults. The results indicate that frailty was associated with significant impairment in TIV-induced strain-specific HI titers and increased rates of ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. These findings suggest that assessing frailty status in the elderly may identify those who are less likely to respond to TIV immunization and be at higher risk for seasonal influenza and its complications.
Frailty; Influenza immunization; Antibody response; Influenza infection; Influenza-like illness; Older adults
A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) coadministered with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults. Participants ages 50 to 59 years (n = 1,116) received TIV with PCV13 (group 1) or placebo (group 2) (1:1 randomization); 1 month later, group 1 received placebo and group 2 received PCV13. A hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay for TIV and a standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for pneumococcal serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers (assessed post hoc) were measured at baseline and 1 and 2 months postvaccination. The rises in HAI assay geometric mean titer (GMT) and percentage of participants in groups 1 and 2 with ≥4-fold increases in HAI responses (A/H1N1, 84.0% and 81.2%, respectively; A/H3N2, 71.1% and 69.5%, respectively; and B, 60.6% and 60.3%, respectively) were similar. In group 1, all serotypes met the predefined IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio noninferiority criterion relative to group 2, but GMCs were lower in group 1 than group 2. When comparing group 1 with group 2, 5 serotypes did not meet the OPA GMT ratio noninferiority criterion, and OPA GMTs were significantly lower for 10 serotypes. PCV13 injection site reactions were similar and mostly mild in both groups. Systemic events were more frequent in group 1 (86.2%) than group 2 (76.7%; P < 0.001); no vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Coadministration of PCV13 and TIV was well tolerated but associated with lower PCV13 antibody responses and is of unknown clinical significance. Given the positive immunologic attributes of PCV13, concomitant administration with TIV should be dictated by clinical circumstances.
Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) prevents more cases of influenza in immune-competent children than the trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV). We compared the antibody responses to LAIV or TIV in HIV-infected children.
Blood and saliva obtained at enrollment, 4 and 24 weeks post-immunization (wpi) from 243 HIV-infected children randomly assigned to TIV or LAIV were analyzed.
Both vaccines increased the anti-influenza neutralizing antibodies at 4 and 24 wpi. At 4 wpi, TIV recipients had 2- to 3-fold higher neutralizing antibody titers than LAIV recipients, but the proportions of subjects with protective titers (≥1:40) were similar between treatment groups (96% to 100% for influenza A and 81% to 88% for influenza B). Both vaccines increased salivary homotypic IgG antibodies, but not IgA antibodies. Both vaccines also increased serum heterosubtypic antibodies. Among HIV-specific characteristics, the baseline viral load correlated best with the antibody responses to either vaccine. We used LAIV-virus shedding as a surrogate of influenza infection. Influenza-specific humoral and mucosal antibody levels were significantly higher in non-shedders than in shedders.
LAIV and TIV generated homotypic and heterosubtypic humoral and mucosal antibody responses in HIV-infected children. High titers of humoral or mucosal antibodies correlated with protection against viral shedding.
HIV-infected children; influenza vaccines; antibodies; viral shedding
At the time of the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic it was not known if concurrent or sequential administration of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with pandemic vaccine was preferred.
Immunogenicity and safety were assessed in 871 healthy subjects aged 19–40 years who were randomised into six groups to receive co-administration or sequential administration of TIV and two doses of A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine (either unadjuvanted or adjuvanted with AS03, an α-tocopherol and squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion).
Safety and immunogenicity data (by haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assay) after each dose and six months post-Dose 1 are reported here. Co-administration of A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine with TIV reduced the HI immune responses to A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine. However, serologic responses with both co-administration and sequential schedules met the European and US regulatory criteria for pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines up to six months following the first vaccine dose. The AS03-adjuvanted formulation elicited higher immune responses at all time points. Prior administration or co-administration of A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine did not affect immune responses to TIV.
Co-administration of TIV and A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine negatively influenced A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine immunogenicity but had no effect on TIV responses. The non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted vaccines demonstrated strong immune responses against all vaccine strains for up to six months following the first vaccine dose.
Adjuvant; AS03; Co-administration; H1N1; Influenza; Pandemic; TIV
The frozen version of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV; FluMist) was compared with a newly licensed, refrigerated formulation, the cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent (CAIV-T), for their immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability in healthy subjects 5 to 49 years of age. Eligible subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive CAIV-T or frozen LAIV. Subjects 5 to 8 years of age received two doses of vaccine 46 to 60 days apart; subjects 9 to 49 years of age received one dose of vaccine. Equivalent immunogenicities were defined as serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) geometric mean titer (GMT) ratios >0.5 and <2.0 for each of the three vaccine-specific strains. A total of 376 subjects 5 to 8 years of age and 566 subjects 9 to 49 years of age were evaluable. Postvaccination HAI GMT ratios were equivalent for CAIV-T and LAIV. The GMT ratios of CAIV-T/LAIV for the H1N1, H3N2, and B strains were 1.24, 1.02, and 1.00, respectively, for the 5- to 8-year-old age group and 1.14, 1.12, and 0.96, respectively, for the 9- to 49-year-old age group. Seroresponse/seroconversion rates (fourfold or greater rise) were similar in both age groups for each of the three vaccine strains. Within 28 days, the most frequent reactogenicity event in the CAIV-T and LAIV groups was runny nose/nasal congestion, which occurred at higher rates after dose 1 (44% and 42%, respectively) than after dose 2 (41% and 29%, respectively) in the 5- to 8-year-old group. Otherwise, the rates of adverse events (AEs) were similar between the treatment groups and the two age cohorts, with no serious AEs related to the study vaccines. The immunogenicities, reactogenicity events, and AEs were comparable for refrigerated CAIV-T and frozen LAIV.
Objective. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in patients treated with Japanese Oriental (Kampo) Medicine is unknown. The objectives of this study were to observe the efficacy of influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo. Methods. Trivalent influenza subunit vaccine was administered to 45 RA patients who had received Kampo. They were divided into 2 groups: RA patients treated without MTX (“without MTX group”) and treated with MTX (“with MTX group”). Antibody titers were measured before and 4 weeks after vaccination using hemagglutination inhibition assay. Results. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-influenza antibodies significantly increased for all influenza strains. Response to the influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo was not lower than that of healthy subjects and the response in the “with MTX group” had a tendency to be higher than that in RA patients treated with MTX in the previous study. There was no significant difference in the GMT after 4 weeks between the “with MTX group” and the “without MTX group.” A decreased efficacy in both seroprotection and seroconversion was not found in the “with MTX group.” Conclusion. These observations may open the way for further clinical trials to establish the efficacy for the influenza vaccination in RA patients treated with Kampo.
The role of seasonal influenza vaccination in pandemic influenza A H1N1 disease is important to address, because a large segment of the population is vaccinated annually. We administered 1 or 2 doses of pandemic H1N1 vaccine (CA/7 ca), a seasonal trivalent inactivated (s-TIV), or live attenuated influenza vaccine (s-LAIV) to mice and ferrets and subsequently challenged them with a pandemic H1N1 virus. In both species, CA/7 ca was immunogenic and conferred complete protection against challenge. s-TIV did not confer protection in either animal model, and s-LAIV did not confer any protection in ferrets. In mice, 2 doses of s-LAIV led to complete protection in the upper respiratory tract and partial protection in the lungs. Our data indicate that vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccines did not confer complete protection in the lower respiratory tract in either animal model, whereas the CA/7 ca vaccine conferred complete protection in both animal models.
We used a systems biological approach to study innate and adaptive responses to influenza vaccination in humans, during 3 consecutive influenza seasons. Healthy adults were vaccinated with inactivated (TIV) or live attenuated (LAIV) influenza vaccines. TIV induced greater antibody titers and enhanced numbers of plasmablasts than LAIV. In TIV vaccinees, early molecular signatures correlated with, and accurately predicted, later antibody titers in two independent trials. Interestingly, the expression of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CamkIV) at day 3 was inversely correlated with later antibody titers. Vaccination of CamkIV −/− mice with TIV induced enhanced antigen-specific antibody titers, demonstrating an unappreciated role for CaMKIV in the regulation of antibody responses. Thus systems approaches can predict immunogenicity, and reveal new mechanistic insights about vaccines.
Influenza virus continues to cause significant hospitalization rates in infants and young children. A 2-dose regime of trivalent inactivated vaccine is required to generate protective levels of hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) antibodies. A vaccine preparation with enhanced immunogenicity is therefore desirable.
Mice were inoculated intramuscularly (IM) with live and inactivated preparations of A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2). Serum cytokine levels, hemagglutinin (HA)-specific antibody responses and nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ T cell responses were compared between vaccinated groups, as well as to responses measured after intranasal infection. The protective efficacy of each vaccine type was compared by measuring virus titers in the lungs and weight loss of mice challenged intranasally with a heterosubtypic virus, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1).
Intramuscular administration of live virus resulted in greater amounts of IFN-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ, HA-specific antibodies, and virus-specific CD8+ T cells, than IM immunization with inactivated virus. These increases corresponded with the live virus vaccinated group having significantly less weight loss and less virus in the lungs on day 7 following challenge with a sublethal dose of a heterosubtypic virus.
Inflammatory cytokines, antibody titers to HA and CD8+ T cell responses were greater to live than inactivated virus delivered IM. These increased responses correlated with greater protection against heterosubtypic virus challenge, suggesting that intramuscular immunization with live influenza virus may be a practical means to increase vaccine immunogenicity and to broaden protection in pediatric populations.
Aim: To determine the immunogenicity of routine vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in Asian infants born in the UK, and whether maternal antibody suppression occurs.
Methods: A cohort study with 80% power, within 95% confidence limits, to show that 80% or fewer Asian infants would respond with an anti-PRP antibody concentration >0.15 µg/ml. Infants of South Asian origin born in Berkshire were enrolled at two general practices in Reading: 41 Asian families sequentially asked to participate within 2 weeks of birth; 36 infants were enrolled and 34 completed the study. Main outcome measures were: antibody concentration against diphtheria, tetanus, and Hib expressed as geometric mean titres (GMT) and proportion of infants about a threshold protective antibody concentration.
Results: Median age for completing primary vaccination course was 5 months. All 34 achieved anti-PRP antibody concentration of >0.15 µg/ml, 33 were >1.0 µg/ml, and the GMT was 15.0 µg/ml. All infants developed protective antibody concentration >0.1 IU/ml for tetanus and diphtheria; the respective GMTs were 1.94 and 5.57 IU/ml. Infants with high (>0.25 IU/ml) antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus at 2 months achieved lower antibody concentrations after their three dose course than those with low concentrations (<0.1 IU/ml) (p = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively).
Conclusions: Despite evidence for maternal antibody suppression of the response to tetanus and diphtheria vaccination, excellent antibody responses were achieved by routine vaccination according to the accelerated schedule. High vaccine coverage should be encouraged to provide protection against the possibility of imported infection.
Seasonal influenza imposes a substantial personal morbidity and societal cost burden. Vaccination is the major strategy for influenza prevention; however, because antigenically drifted influenza A and B viruses circulate annually, influenza vaccines must be updated to provide protection against the predicted prevalent strains for the next influenza season. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a trivalent inactivated split virion influenza vaccine (TIV) in healthy adults over two influenza seasons in the US.
The primary endpoint of this double-blind, randomized study was the average efficacy of TIV versus placebo for the prevention of vaccine-matched, culture-confirmed influenza (VMCCI) across the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons. Secondary endpoints included the prevention of laboratory-confirmed (defined by culture and/or serology) influenza, as well as safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and consistency between three consecutive vaccine lots. Participants were assessed actively during both influenza seasons, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for viral culture from individuals with influenza-like illness. Blood specimens were obtained for serology one month after vaccination and at the end of each influenza season's surveillance period.
Although the point estimate for efficacy in the prevention of all laboratory-confirmed influenza was 63.2% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] lower bound of 48.2%), the point estimate for the primary endpoint, efficacy of TIV against VMCCI across both influenza seasons, was 46.3% with a 97.5% CI lower bound of 9.8%. This did not satisfy the pre-specified success criterion of a one-sided 97.5% CI lower bound of >35% for vaccine efficacy. The VMCCI attack rates were very low overall at 0.6% and 1.2% in the TIV and placebo groups, respectively. Apart from a mismatch for influenza B virus lineage in 2005-2006, there was a good match between TIV and the circulating strains. TIV was highly immunogenic, and immune responses were consistent between three different TIV lots. The most common reactogenicity events and spontaneous adverse events were associated with the injection site, and were mild in severity.
Despite a good immune response, and an average efficacy over two influenza seasons against laboratory-confirmed influenza of 63.2%, the pre-specified target (lower one-sided 97.5% confidence bound for efficacy > 35%) for the primary efficacy endpoint, the prevention of VMCCI, was not met. However, the results should be interpreted with caution in view of the very low attack rates we observed at the study sites in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, which corresponded to relatively mild influenza seasons in the US. Overall, the results showed that TIV has an acceptable safety profile and offered clinical benefit that exceeded risk.
The influenza virus H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical catastrophes in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus [A(H1N1)pdm09], the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), share cross-reactive antigenic determinants. In this study, we demonstrate that immunization with the 2010-2011 seasonal TIV induces neutralizing antibodies that cross-react with the reconstructed 1918 pandemic virus in ferrets. TIV-immunized ferrets subsequently challenged with the 1918 virus displayed significant reductions in fever, weight loss, and virus shedding compared to these parameters in nonimmune control ferrets. Seasonal TIV was also effective in protecting against the lung infection and severe lung pathology associated with 1918 virus infection. Our data demonstrate that prior immunization with contemporary TIV provides cross-protection against the 1918 virus in ferrets. These findings suggest that exposure to A(H1N1)pdm09 through immunization may provide protection against the reconstructed 1918 virus which, as a select agent, is considered to pose both biosafety and biosecurity threats.
AIM—To assess the immunogenicity of hepatitis B
vaccine in preterm and term infants, given in a sequence of three doses
beginning soon after birth.
METHOD—The immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine
was assessed in 176 preterm infants (< 35 weeks of gestation),
immunised soon after birth, and compared with that in 46 term infants.
Titres of hepatitis B antibodies were determined one to two months
after the third vaccine. The significance of the differences between
the term and preterm groups was determined using Student's
RESULTS—A similar proportion of infants in
both preterm and term groups attained protective titres of hepatitis B
antibodies (88.7% vs 93.4%, respectively; p=NS).
However, the term infants had a higher geometric mean titre of
antibodies after the third vaccine than did the preterm infants (701.2 (745.0) vs 469.1 (486.2) mU/ml, respectively; p<0.03).
CONCLUSION—Hepatitis B vaccine is effective
in most preterm infants when given soon after birth. It may be
advisable to determine the immune response at 12-24 months of age to
booster the non-responders.
Currently two vaccines, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), are licensed in the USA. Despite previous studies on immune responses induced by these two vaccines, a comparative study of the influence of prior influenza vaccination on serum antibody and B-cell responses to new LAIV or TIV vaccination has not been reported. During the 2005/6 influenza season, we quantified the serum antibody and B-cell responses to LAIV or TIV in adults with differing influenza vaccination histories in the prior year: LAIV, TIV, or neither. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7–9 and 21–35 after immunization and used for serum HAI assay and B-cell assays. Total and influenza-specific circulating IgG and IgA antibody secreting cells (ASC) in PBMC were detected by direct ELISPOT assay. Memory B cells were also tested by ELISPOT after polyclonal stimulation of PBMC in vitro. Serum antibody, effector, and memory B-cell responses were greater in TIV recipients than LAIV recipients. Prior year TIV recipients had significantly higher baseline HAI titers, but lower HAI response after vaccination with either TIV or LAIV, and lower IgA ASC response after vaccination with TIV than prior year LAIV or no vaccination recipients. Lower levels of baseline HAI titer were associated with a greater fold-increase of HAI titer and ASC number after vaccination, which also differed by type of vaccine. Our findings suggest that the type of vaccine received in the prior year affects the serum antibody and the B-cell responses to subsequent vaccination. In particular, prior year TIV vaccination is associated with sustained higher HAI titer one year later but lower antibody response to new LAIV or TIV vaccination, and a lower effector B-cell response to new TIV but not LAIV vaccination.
Few data are available on the safety and long-term immunogenicity of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines for HIV-infected pediatric patients. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and long-term immunogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of the 2009 monovalent pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (PV) coadministered with the seasonal 2009-2010 trivalent nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine (SV) to HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. A total of 66 HIV-infected patients aged 9 to 26 years were randomized to receive one (group 1) or two (group 2) doses of PV coadministered with 1 dose of SV. The main outcome was the seroconversion rate for PV at 1 month. Secondary outcomes were the geometric mean titer ratios and the seroprotection rates at 1 month for all vaccines, seroconversion rates at 1 month for SV, and longitudinal changes of antibody titers (ABTs) at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months for all vaccines. Groups 1 and 2 had similar CD4 counts and HIV RNA levels during the study. The seroconversion rate for PV was 100% at 1 month in both groups. ABTs for PV were high during the first 6 months and declined below seroprotection levels thereafter. Longitudinal changes in ABTs were similar in groups 1 and 2 for both PV and SV. The side effects of vaccination were mild and mostly local. In HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults, the immune response triggered by a single dose of PV was similar to that obtained with a double dose and was associated with long-term antibody response.
Objective: To compare the parental stress in the families of 2 year old extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants with that in control families, and to compare the stress of mothers with that of fathers.
Methods: The study population included all parents of ELBW infants (birth weight < 1000 g and gestational age at least 22 gestational weeks) born between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 1997 in Helsinki University Hospital and followed at the hospital's neuropaediatric department. The parents of full term, healthy infants born subsequent to each ELBW infant were eligible for the control group. The Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) translated into Finnish was completed by parents during the neurological assessment visit at 2 years of age.
Results: No significant differences were found in total SPSQ or subscale scores when mothers of ELBW infants were compared with control mothers. Nor did the scores of fathers of ELBW infants differ from the scores of control fathers. However, in the comparison of all mothers with all fathers, several differences were found: mothers indicated significantly more distress than fathers with respect to role restriction, incompetence, and spouse relationship problems, and fathers indicated significantly more distress on the social isolation subscale.
Conclusion: The study shows that, although the birth of an ELBW infant is a stressful event for parents, most parents seem to have recovered well by the time the child has reached the age of 2. In both control families and those of ELBW infants, the overall stress of mothers seemed to be higher than that of fathers.
To evaluate if, among children aged 3 to 15 years, influenza vaccination for multiple seasons affects the proportion sero-protected.
Participants were 131 healthy children aged 3–15 years. Participants were vaccinated with trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) over the 2005–06, 2006–07 and 2007–8 seasons. Number of seasons vaccinated were categorized as one (2007–08); two (2007–08 and 2006–07 or 2007–08 and 2005–06) or three (2005–06, 2006–07, and 2007–08). Pre- and post-vaccination sera were collected four weeks apart. Antibody titres were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay using antigens to A/Solomon Islands/03/06 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04. The proportions sero-protected were compared by number of seasons vaccinated using cut-points for seroprotection of 1∶40 vs. 1∶320. The proportions of children sero-protected against H1N1 and H3N2 was high (>85%) regardless of number of seasons vaccinated and regardless of cut-point for seroprotection. For B Malaysia there was no change in proportions sero-protected by number of seasons vaccinated; however the proportions protected were lower than for H1N1 and H3N2, and there was a lower proportion sero-protected when the higher, compared to lower, cut-point was used for sero-protection.
The proportion of children sero-protected is not affected by number of seasons vaccinated.