Interindividual variation in genetic background may influence the response to chemotherapy and overall survival for patients with advanced-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
To identify genetic variants associated with poor overall survival in these patients, we conducted a genome-wide scan of 307 260 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 327 advanced-stage NSCLC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (the discovery population). A fast-track replication was performed for 315 patients from the Mayo Clinic followed by a second validation at the University of Pittsburgh in 420 patients enrolled in the Spanish Lung Cancer Group PLATAX clinical trial. A pooled analysis combining the Mayo Clinic and PLATAX populations or all three populations was also used to validate the results. We assessed the association of each SNP with overall survival by multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.
SNP rs1878022 in the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) was statistically significantly associated with poor overall survival in the MD Anderson discovery population (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32 to 1.92, P = 1.42 × 10−6), in the PLATAX clinical trial (HR of death = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.51, P = .05), in the pooled Mayo Clinic and PLATAX validation (HR of death = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.40, P = .005), and in pooled analysis of all three populations (HR of death = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.48, P = 5.13 × 10−7). Carrying a variant genotype of rs10937823 was associated with decreased overall survival (HR of death = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.42 to 2.33, P = 1.73 × 10−6) in the pooled MD Anderson and Mayo Clinic populations but not in the PLATAX trial patient population (HR of death = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.35).
These results have the potential to contribute to the future development of personalized chemotherapy treatments for individual NSCLC patients.
Cell cycle progression contributes to the cellular response to DNA-damaging factors, such as chemotherapy and radiation. We hypothesized that the genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may modulate treatment responses and affect survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We genotyped 374 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 49 cell cycle-related genes in 598 patients with stages III–IV NSCLC treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with/without radiation. We analyzed the individual and combined associations of these SNPs with survival and evaluated their gene–gene interactions using survival tree analysis. In the analysis of survival in all the patients, 39 SNPs reached nominal significance (P < 0.05) and 4 SNPs were significant at P <0.01. However, none of these SNPs remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons at a false discovery rate of 10%. In stratified analysis by treatment modality, after adjusting for multiple comparisons, nine SNPs in chemotherapy alone and one SNP in chemoradiation remained significant. The most significant SNP in chemotherapy group was CCNB2:rs1486878 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–2.30, P = 0.001]. TP73: rs3765701 was the only significant SNP in chemoradiation group (HR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35–2.59, P = 1.8 × 10−4). In cumulative analysis, we found a significant gene-dosage effect in patients receiving chemotherapy alone. Survival tree analysis demonstrated potential higher order gene–gene and gene–treatment interactions, which could be used to predict survival status based on distinct genetic signatures. These results suggest that genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may affect the survival of patients with stages III–IV NSCLC individually and jointly.
Inherited variability in the prognosis of lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy has been widely investigated. However, the overall contribution of genetic variation to platinum response is not well established. To identify novel candidate SNPs/genes, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for cisplatin cytotoxicity using lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), followed by an association study of selected SNPs from the GWAS with overall survival (OS) in lung cancer patients.
GWAS for cisplatin were performed with 283 ethnically diverse LCLs. 168 top SNPs were genotyped in 222 small cell and 961 non-small cell lung cancer (SCLC, NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based therapy. Association of the SNPs with OS was determined using the Cox regression model. Selected candidate genes were functionally validated by siRNA knockdown in human lung cancer cells.
Among 157 successfully genotyped SNPs, 9 and 10 SNPs were top SNPs associated with OS for patients with NSCLC and SCLC, respectively, although they were not significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Fifteen genes, including 7 located within 200 kb up or downstream of the four top SNPs and 8 genes for which expression was correlated with three SNPs in LCLs were selected for siRNA screening. Knockdown of DAPK3 and METTL6, for which expression levels were correlated with the rs11169748 and rs2440915 SNPs, significantly decreased cisplatin sensitivity in lung cancer cells.
This series of clinical and complementary laboratory-based functional studies identified several candidate genes/SNPs that might help predict treatment outcomes for platinum-based therapy of lung cancer.
Lung cancer; cisplatin; pharmacogenomics; lymphoblastoid cell lines; GWAS
The active mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and clinical characteristics are significant biomarkers for chemotherapy selection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although docetaxel is a key agent in second-line therapy for NSCLC, predictive biomarkers for assessing its efficacy have yet to be determined. To assess the clinical efficacy of docetaxel in second-line therapy for NSCLC according to NSCLC histology and the therapeutic effect of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), we retrospectively reviewed 454 NSCLC patients treated with docetaxel between April 2002 and April 2009. In total, 239 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with docetaxel as second-line therapy following failure of platinum-based chemotherapy were analyzed in this study. A total of 59 (25%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma. The overall response rate and median progression-free survival time in the squamous cell group were significantly inferior to those in the non-squamous cell group (p=0.031 and p=0.005, respectively). Following the failure of docetaxel, 91 non-squamous patients were treated with EGFR-TKIs. The patients that achieved clinical benefit from EGFR-TKIs (n=32) demonstrated a significantly better response rate and longer progression-free survival compared to the other group (p<0.001 and p=0.027, respectively). In the univariate and multivariate analysis, the favorable therapeutic effect of EGFR-TKIs had an independent effect on progression- free survival (HR 1.484, p=0.0464). In conclusion, this retrospective study suggests that non-squamous histology and favorable therapeutic effect from EGFR-TKIs are useful markers for predicting the efficacy of docetaxel in second-line therapy for NSCLC.
non-small cell lung cancer; docetaxel; second-line therapy; EGFR-TKI; predictive biomarker; histology
Aberrant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling have been shown to play a role in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis and are associated with decreased survival. We evaluated the clinical activity and tolerability of sunitinib malate (SU11248), an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks the activity of receptors for VEGF and PDGF, as well as related tyrosine kinases in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC.
Patients and Methods
Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC for whom platinum-based chemotherapy had failed received 50 mg/d of sunitinib for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of no treatment in 6-week treatment cycles. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR); secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety.
Of the 63 patients treated with sunitinib, seven patients had confirmed partial responses, yielding an ORR of 11.1% (95% CI, 4.6% to 21.6%). An additional 18 patients (28.6%) experienced stable disease of at least 8 weeks in duration. Median progression-free survival was 12.0 weeks (95% CI, 10.0 to 16.1 weeks), and median overall survival was 23.4 weeks (95% CI, 17.0 to 28.3 weeks). Therapy was generally well tolerated.
Sunitinib has promising single-agent activity in patients with recurrent NSCLC, with an ORR similar to that of currently approved agents and an acceptable safety profile. Further evaluation in combination with other targeted agents and chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC is warranted.
Non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death globally, with most patients presenting with non-curable disease. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of treatment for patients with advanced-stage disease and has resulted in a modest increase in overall survival (on the order of an incremental 2 months increased survival per decade) and quality of life. Improved knowledge of the molecular signalling pathways found in nsclc has led to the development of biomarkers with associated targeted therapeutics, thus changing the treatment paradigm for many nsclc patients. In this review, we present a summary of many of the currently investigated nsclc targets, discuss their current clinical trial status, and provide commentary as to the likelihood of their success making a positive impact for nsclc patients.
Lung cancer; clinical trials; novel targets; novel therapeutics
The first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) generally consists of a maximum of six cycles of platinum-based doublet chemotherapy followed by surveillance for disease progression. Recently, the strategy of starting second-line treatment immediately following the completion of chemotherapy, known as ‘maintenance’ chemotherapy, has been investigated. The use of maintenance pemetrexed improves both progression-free and overall survival, while the use of maintenance docetaxel did not significantly improve overall survival. The Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable NSCLC (SATURN) study investigated the use of maintenance erlotinib following the completion of first-line chemotherapy. It demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival from 11.1 months in the placebo group to 12.3 months in patients receiving maintenance erlotinib, with the important caveat that only 21% of patients in the placebo group ever received erlotinib. A subset of patients whose tumors had EGF receptor mutations had a higher magnitude of benefit from maintenance treatment. Therefore, maintenance erlotinib should be considered in the treatment of patients with NSCLC.
EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor; erlotinib; gefitinib; maintenance chemotherapy; non-small-cell lung cancer
Recent studies have shown that human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1), the major copper influx transporter, is involved in the transport of platinum-based antitumor agents. We investigated the predictive and prognostic values of hCtr1, and cooper efflux transporters ATP7A and ATP7B, in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.
From 2004 to 2009, we identified 54 consecutive stage III NSCLC patients who underwent first-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical studies of hCtr1, ATP7A and ATP7B on the paraffin-embedded pre-treatment tumor samples were performed and correlated with chemotherapy response and survival.
Overexpression of hCtr1, ATP7A and ATP7B were observed in 68%, 48% and 74% of the participants, respectively. hCtr1 overexpression was associated with better chemotherapy responses (P < 0.01); whereas ATP7A and ATP7B were not. Patients with hCtr1 overexpressing tumors had better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.01 and 0.047, respectively). In multivariate analyses for chemotherapy response and PFS, only hCtr1 overexpression emerged as a favorable independent predictive and prognostic factor (all P < 0.01).
This is the first report to state that hCtr1 is not only an independent predictor of platinum-based chemotherapy response but also a prognostic factor in stage III NSCLC.
Human copper transporter 1; Cisplatin; ATP7A; ATP7B; Non-small cell lung cancer; Prognosis
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The effect of the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway on cancer treatment, including NSCLC, has been well documented. In this study, we analyzed associations between genetic variations within this pathway and clinical outcomes following platinum-based chemotherapy in 168 patients with stage IIIB (wet) or stage IV NSCLC. Sixteen tagging SNPs in five core genes (PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, AKT2, and FRAP1) of this pathway and identified SNPs associated with development of toxicity and disease progression. We observed significantly increased toxicity for patients with PIK3CA:rs2699887 (OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.08 – 13.82). In contrast, a SNP in PTEN was associated with significantly reduced risk for chemotherapeutic toxicity (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.20 - 0.95). We identified three SNPs in AKT1 resulting in significantly decreased risks of distant progression in patients carrying at least one variant allele with HRs of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.45 - 0.97), 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35 - 0.77), and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42 - 0.91) for rs3803304, rs2498804, and rs1130214, respectively. Furthermore, these same variants conferred nearly two-fold increased progression-free survival times. The current study provides evidence that genetic variations within the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway are associated with variation in clinical outcomes of NSCLC patients. With further validation, our findings may provide additional biomarkers for customized treatment of platinum-based chemotherapy for NSCLC.
lung cancer; chemotherapy; platinum-agents; AKT; clinical outcomes
Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codes for a DNA helicase involved in nucleotide excision repair that removes platinum-induced DNA damage. Genetic polymorphisms of XPD may affect DNA repair capacity and lead to individual differences in the outcome of patients after chemotherapy. This study aims to identify whether XPD polymorphisms affect clinical efficacy among advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
353 stage III-IV NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy as the first-line treatment were enrolled in this study. Four potentially functional XPD polymorphisms (Arg156Arg, Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln) were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or PCR-based sequencing.
Variant genotypes of XPD Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln were significantly associated with poorer NSCLC survival (P = 0.006, 0.006, 0.014, respectively, by log-rank test). The most common haplotype GCA (in order of Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln) also exhibited significant risk effect on NSCLC survival (log-rank P = 0.001). This effect was more predominant for patients with stage IIIB disease (P = 2.21×10−4, log-rank test). Increased risks for variant haplotypes of XPD were also observed among patients with performance status of 0–1 and patients with adenocarcinoma. However, no significant associations were found between these polymorphisms, chemotherapy response and PFS.
Our study provides evidence for the predictive role of XPD Asp312Asn, Asp711Asp and Lys751Gln polymorphisms/haplotype on NSCLC prognosis in inoperable advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
In the last 6 years, since the first reports of an association between somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exons 19 and 21 and response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has changed dramatically. Based on laboratory and clinical observations, investigators have anticipated that these mutations could be predictive of response to EGFR TKIs and numerous studies have confirmed that the presence of mutation was associated with longer survival in patients receiving targeted therapy. Prospective trials comparing standard platinum-based chemotherapy with EGFR TKIs in patients with and without activating EGFR mutations validated the predictive value of molecular selection of patients for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. Recently, preclinical and first-in-human studies have demonstrated impressive activity of ALK TKI in tumors harboring ALK rearrangement. In this article, we review current data on molecular biology of lung cancer and evidence-based patient selection for targeted therapy.
ALK; EGFR; KRAS; lung cancer; targeted therapy
To compare the efficacy and toxicities of pemetrexed plus platinum with other platinum regimens in patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. The outcomes included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and different types of toxicity. Hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using RevMan software. Results: Four trials involving 2,518 patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC met the inclusion criteria. Pemetrexed plus platinum chemotherapy (PPC) improved survival compared with other platinum-based regimens (PBR) in patients with advanced NSCLC (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83–1.00, p = 0.04), especially in those with non-squamous histology (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77–0.98, p = 0.02). No statistically significant improvement in either PFS or RR was found in PPC group as compared with PBR group (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94–1.13, p = 0.57; OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.95–1.39, p = 0.15, respectively). Compared with PBR, PPC led to less grade 3–4 neutropenia and leukopenia but more grade 3–4 nausea. However, hematological toxicity analysis revealed significant heterogeneities. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PPC in the first-line setting leads to a significant survival advantage with acceptable toxicities for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology, as compared with other PRB. PPC could be considered as the first-line treatment option for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology.
To explore the association between genetic polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and susceptibility, chemotherapy response rate and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
This is a prospective study in which 562 patients with NSCLC and 764 healthy controls were enrolled. Three RAGE genetic polymorphisms, namely, −429T/C, −374T/A and 82G/S were genotyped. Platinum-based chemotherapy was given to 432 subjects with advanced inoperable NSCLC and their responses to chemotherapy were evaluated.
All the polymorphic genotypes of RAGE polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility for NSCLC. Only the 82G/S polymorphisms denoted a significant difference between responders and non-responders to chemotherapy. The 82SS genotype and 82S allele distribution not only increased the NSCLC risk, but also was associated with a lower chemotherapy response rate and poor prognosis, indicated by overall survival and progression free survival.
The 82G/S genetic polymorphism of RAGE gene might be used as a genetic marker to screen for patients sensitive to thermotherapy and to predict the prognosis of NSCLC.
Sunitinib malate (SUTENT) has promising single-agent activity given on Schedule 4/2 (4 weeks on treatment followed by 2 weeks off treatment) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
We examined the activity of sunitinib on a continuous daily dosing (CDD) schedule in an open-label, multicentre phase II study in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC. Patients ⩾18 years with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC after failure with platinum-based chemotherapy, received sunitinib 37.5 mg per day. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), 1-year survival rate, and safety.
Of 47 patients receiving sunitinib, one patient achieved a confirmed partial response (ORR 2.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 11.3)) and 11 (23.4%) had stable disease (SD) ⩾8 weeks. Five patients had SD>6 months. Median PFS was 11.9 weeks (95% CI 8.6, 14.1) and median OS was 37.1 weeks (95% CI 31.1, 69.7). The 1-year survival probability was 38.4% (95% CI 24.2, 52.5). Treatment was generally well tolerated.
The safety profile and time-to-event analyses, albeit relatively low response rate of 2%, suggest single-agent sunitinib on a CDD schedule may be a potential therapeutic agent for patients with advanced, refractory NSCLC.
non-small cell lung cancer; phase II; sunitinib; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Lung cancer remains a leading cause of death globally, with the most frequent type, nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), having a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. While platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is currently first-line therapy for advanced disease, it is associated with only modest clinical benefits at the cost of significant toxicities. In an effort to overcome these limitations, recent research has focused on targeted therapies, with recently approved agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways. However, these agents (gefitinib, erlotinib, and bevacizumab) provide antitumor activity for only a small proportion of patients, and patients whose tumors respond inevitably develop resistance to treatment. As angiogenesis is a crucial step in tumor growth and metastasis, antiangiogenic treatments might be expected to have antitumor activity. Important targets for the development of novel antiangiogenic therapies include VEGF, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and their receptors. It is hypothesized that targeting multiple angiogenic pathways may not only improve antitumor activity but also reduce the risk of resistance. Several novel agents, such as BIBF 1120, sorafenib, sunitinib, and cediranib have shown promising preliminary activity and tolerability in Phase II studies, and results of ongoing Phase III randomized studies will be necessary to establish the potential place of these new therapies in the management of individual patients with NSCLC.
angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor; fibroblast growth factor; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; nonsmall cell lung cancer
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (egfr-tkis) and chemotherapy have both demonstrated efficacy in recurrent metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) following failure of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Although the 3 available therapeutic agents—docetaxel, erlotinib, and pemetrexed—have significantly changed the treatment landscape for recurrent nsclc, the optimal selection of second- and third-line therapy has not been established. This practice review examines the outcomes in clinical practice of using second-line erlotinib followed by third-line chemotherapy in the treatment of recurrent metastatic nsclc.
We conducted a retrospective review of nsclc patient charts at three Canadian institutions. Patients with recurrent nsclc who had received second-line erlotinib therapy followed by third-line chemotherapy were selected by census. A chart review assessed key outcomes that included time to progression (ttp), response, and change in performance status. Outcomes for specific patient subgroups were also examined.
We identified 35 patients for this retrospective practice review. First-line platinum-doublet therapy demonstrated a mean ttp of 6.6 months and a 46% overall response rate (15 partial responses and 1 complete response). Second-line treatment with erlotinib produced the highest mean ttp of all lines of therapy (9.2 months) and an overall response rate of 40% (all being partial responses). In the third-line setting, in which most patients received docetaxel, the mean ttp was 4.3 months and the overall response rate was 18% (all being partial responses). Subgroup analysis showed that all patient subgroups demonstrated benefit from second-line erlotinib treatment; improved benefit was observed in patients who developed rash, in female patients, in never smokers, in Asian patients, in patients with positive egfr status, and in patients with adenocarcinoma histology.
For patients with advanced nsclc who progressed following first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, the data demonstrate that second-line egfr-tki treatment is efficacious and well-tolerated and that it does not appear to diminish the benefit of third-line chemotherapy.
Non-small-cell lung cancer; nsclc; epidermal growth factor receptor; egfr; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; tki; erlotinib; second-line; retrospective practice review
New therapeutic approaches are being developed based on the findings that several genetic abnormalities underlying non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could influence chemosensitivity. In this study, we assessed whether polymorphisms in genes of nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, including ERCC5, ERCC6, MMS19L, CCNH, XPC, RRM1, can affect the tolerability of platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. We used AllGloTM probe to assess genotyping and polymorphisms in 388 stage IIIB and IV NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. MMS19L might be associated with the adverse events of chemotherapy in NSCLC, especially for all grade leucopenia (P = 0.020), all grade jaundice (P = 0.037) and all grade creatinine increasing (P = 0.013). In terms of grade 3/4 adverse events, MMS19L was related with total grade 3/4 adverse events (P = 0.024) and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.035), while RRM1 was related with total grade 3/4 adverse events (P = 0.047) and grade 3/4 vomiting (P = 0.046). ERCC5 was related with more infection (P = 0.017). We found that some SNPs in NER pathway genes were correlated with toxicity treated with double chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients, especially for SNPs of MMS19L, RRM1 and ERCC5.
Platinum-based chemotherapy has been shown to provide survival benefits in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Maintenance/consolidation chemotherapy in NSCLC has gained renewed interest with improved tolerability of chemotherapy and the addition of biologic agents. Various studies have evaluated the role of prolonged duration of chemotherapy as well as maintenance/consolidation strategies with both chemotherapy and biologic agents. The available data at this time demonstrates that maintenance or consolidation therapy can improve progression free survival; however this does not result consistently in an improved overall survival. We review the literature with regard to duration of therapy and use of maintenance/consolidation therapy in advanced NSCLC.
maintenance therapy; non-small cell lung cancer; overall survival; targeted therapy
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the usual first-line treatment for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although an efficacy plateau has been reached with this approach. Bevacizumab is a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and is being evaluated as a different mechanism to improve outcomes in patients with stage IIIB/stage IV (metastatic) NSCLC.
To review the emerging evidence for the potential use of bevacizumab in stage IIIB/IV NSCLC.
Adding bevacizumab to carboplatin plus paclitaxel improves response rates and significantly prolongs time to disease progression, which translates into a significant extension of overall survival (median 2.3 months in one key study). Low levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 are associated with better response. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining bevacizumab with erlotinib could improve outcomes in patients relapsing following platinum-based chemotherapy. Episodes of bleeding (particularly pulmonary hemorrhage) are the predominant adverse events associated with bevacizumab, probably a result of tumor disintegration.
There is limited evidence that the high acquisition cost of bevacizumab unfavorably affects assessment of its cost effectiveness, although there are few other treatment options in these patients with poor prognosis.
Place in therapy:
The encouraging results obtained with bevacizumab in patients with NSCLC are leading to its adoption in some treatment guidelines. Emerging evidence indicates improved outcomes when bevacizumab is added to carboplatin/paclitaxel in previously untreated patients with NSCLC, and when used with erlotinib in patients who have relapsed following platinum-based chemotherapy.
bevacizumab; evidence; nonsmall cell lung cancer
A multicentre, single-arm, phase II trial designed to determine the efficacy of single-agent vinflunine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with a platinum-based regimen. The objectives were to assess efficacy in terms of tumour response rate (primary end point), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and to evaluate the toxicity associated with this treatment. Patients with advanced NSCLC with progressive disease having failed prior platinum-based first-line treatment for advanced disease. Five responses out of the 63 treated patients were documented by WHO criteria and validated by an independent panel review (IRP), yielding a response rate of 7.9% (95% CI: 2.6–17.6) in the intent-to-treat analysis and 8.3% (95% CI: 2.8–18.4) in the evaluable population. Disease control was achieved in 35 out of 60 evaluable patients (58.3%). The median duration of response (complete response+partial response), according to modified WHO criteria was 7.8 months (95% CI: 4.6–NR). Median PFS was 2.6 months (95% CI: 1.4–3.8), and the median survival was 7.0 months (95% CI: 5.8–9.2). Grades 3–4 neutropenia was reported in 50% of patients; febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients (3.2%); grades 3–4 myalgia and grade 3 constipation were experienced by 10 (15.9%) and six (9.5%) of patients, respectively. Constipation was manageable, noncumulative and could be prevented with laxative prophylaxis. The encouraging results from this phase II study with vinflunine warrant further investigations in phase III trials as second- or first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma, as a single agent or in combination with other active drugs.
vinflunine; phase II study; non-small-cell-lung-cancer
Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas, and is accompanied by hypercoagulablity. In advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze the association between chemotherapy-induced changes in plasma fibrinogen level and the chemotherapeutic response after the first two courses of standard first-line platinum-based chemotherapy; and 2) evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with advanced NSCLC.
In this retrospective study, the data from 160 patients with advanced NSCLC were collected. The association between the changes in fibrinogen and the response to chemotherapy, or between the pre-and post-chemotherapy fibrinogen levels and patient clinical characteristics, were analyzed using SPSS software. In addition, the prognostic value of pre-chemotherapy fibrinogen levels was assessed.
The median pre-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen level was 4.4 g/L. Pre-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.041). Post-chemotherapy plasma fibrinogen levels correlated with gender (p = 0.023), age (p = 0.018), ECOG (p = 0.002) and tumor response (p = 0.049). Plasma fibrinogen levels markedly decreased after chemotherapy in 98 (61.25 %) patients with pre-chemotherapy hyperfibrinogenemia (p = 0.008); and in this population there was a significant link between the decrease in fibrinogen level, and initial partial response (PR; p = 0.017) and stable disease (SD; p = 0.031). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of fibrinogen (≥4.4 g/L) and ECOG 1 were positively associated with shorter overall survival (OS). CEA and CA125 also decreased significantly (p =0.015, p =0.000) in DCR group after chemotherapy.
This study showed that the reduction in plasma fibrinogen levels induced by chemotherapy might be as a promising biomarker as CEA and CA125 for evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. In addition, basal plasma fibrinogen levels could be used as an independent prognostic parameter for the OS of patients with advanced NSCLC.
Hyperfibrinogenemia; Biomarker; NSCLC
The level of drug metabolism and drug transport is correlated with the sensitivity of cancer cells towards platinum-based chemotherapy. We hypothesize that genetic polymorphisms in metabolising enzymes gene GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase P1), and MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) (ABCC2), which result in inter-individual differences in metabolism and drug disposition, may predict clinical response to platinum agents in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Totally 113 patients with advanced NSCLC were routinely treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, and clinical response was evaluated after four cycles. MRP2 C-24T (−24C>T), MRP2 Val417Ile (1249G>A), MRP2 Ile1324Ile (3972C>T), and GSTP1 Ile105Val (342A>G) genotype were determined by gene-chip method (a 3-D (three dimensions) polyacrylamide gel-based DNA microarray method) using DNA samples isolated from peripheral blood collected before treatment. Pearson Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were performed to measure the differences of the chemotherapeutic efficacy among variant genotype. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by logistic regression.
The C→T change of MRP2 C-24T and the A→G change of GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism significantly increased platinum-based chemotherapy response.
The polymorphic status of MRP2 C-24T and GSTP1 Ile105Val might be the predictive markers for the treatment response of advanced NSCLC patients. The DNA microarray-based method is accurate, high throughput and inexpensive, suitable for single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in a large number of individuals.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Gene chip; MRP2; GSTP1; Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); Chemotherapy
The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) pathway plays an important role in signaling transduction, cellular activities, and carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that genetic variations in RGS gene family may be associated with the response of late-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. We selected 95 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 RGS genes and genotyped them in 598 late-stage NSCLC patients. Thirteen SNPs were significantly associated with overall survival. Among them, rs2749786 of RGS12 was most significant. Stratified analysis by chemotherapy or chemoradiation further identified SNPs that were associated with overall survival in subgroups. Rs2816312 of RGS1 and rs6689169 of RGS7 were most significant in chemotherapy group and chemoradiotherapy group, respectively. A significant cumulative effect was observed when these SNPs were combined. Survival tree analyses identified potential interactions between rs944343, rs2816312, and rs1122794 in affecting survival time in patients treated with chemotherapy, while the genotype of rs6429264 affected survival in chemoradiation-treated patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the importance of RGS gene family in the survival of late-stage NSCLC patients.
Genetic polymorphisms contribute to interindividual variation in drug response. However, a single polymorphism is likely to exhibit a modest effect. Therefore, we applied a pathway-based approach to evaluate the cumulative effect of multiple polymorphisms on clinical outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
We genotyped 25 functional polymorphisms in 16 key genes involved in cisplatin metabolism and action and evaluated their associations with overall survival in 229 NSCLC patients receiving first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Several biologically plausible main effects were identified in individual analysis. More importantly, when 6 polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes were analyzed jointly, a significant trend of reduced risk of death with decreasing number of putative unfavorable genotypes was observed (P for trend <0.001 and log-rank p<0.001). Survival tree analysis revealed potential higher-order gene-gene interactions and categorized subgroups with dramatically different survival experiences, based on distinct genotype profiles. The median survival time was 78.5 months for terminal node 1 in the low-risk group, 15.1 months for terminal node 10 in the medium-risk group, and 6.7 months for terminal node 9 in the high-risk group (log rank P<0.001). We also constructed a prediction hazard model. The area under the curve (AUC) increased from 0.71 (using clinical variables only) to 0.84 (using clinical, epidemiological, and genetic variations from survival tree analysis).
Our results highlight the clinical potential of taking a pathway-based approach and using survival tree analytic approach to identify subgroups of patients with distinctly differing outcomes.
Although notable progress has been made in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in recent years, this disease is still associated with a poor prognosis. Despite early-stage NSCLC is considered a potentially curable disease following complete resection, the majority of patients relapse and eventually die after surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival, altough the absolute improvement in 5-year overall survival is only approximately 5%.
Trying to understand the role of genes which could affect drug activity and response to treatment is a major challenge for establishing an individualised chemotherapy according to the specific genetic profile of each patient. Among genes involved in the DNA repair system, the excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) is a useful markers of clinical resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. In the International Lung Cancer Trial (IALT) adjuvant chemotherapy significantly prolonged survival among patients with ERCC1 negative tumors but not among ERCC1-positive patients. BRCA1 and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1), two other key enzymes in DNA synthesis and repair, appear to be modulators of drug sensitivity and may provide additional information for customizing adjuvant chemotherapy.
Several clinical trials suggest that overexpression of class III β-tubulin is an adverse prognostic factor in cancer since it could be responsible for resistance to anti-tubulin agents. A retrospective analysis of NCIC JBR.10 trial showed that high tubulin III expression is associated with a higher risk of relapse following surgery alone but also with a higher probability of benefit from adjuvant cisplatin plus vinorelbine chemotherapy.
Finally, the use of gene expression patterns such as the lung metagene model could provide a potential mechanism to refine the estimation of a patient’s risk of disease recurrence and could affect treatment decision in the management of early stage of NSCLC.
In this review we will discuss the potential role of pharmacogenomic approaches to guide the medical treatment of early stage NSCLC.
NSCLC; adjuvant treatment; molecular markers; ERCC1; RRM1; β-tubulin; EGFR.