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1.  The Reinforcing Therapist Performance (RTP) experiment: Study protocol for a cluster randomized trial 
Background
Rewarding provider performance has been recommended by the Institute of Medicine as an approach to improve the quality of treatment, yet little empirical research currently exists that has examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such approaches. The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of providing monetary incentives directly to therapists as a method to improve substance abuse treatment service delivery and subsequent client treatment outcomes.
Design
Using a cluster randomized design, substance abuse treatment therapists from across 29 sites were assigned by site to either an implementation as usual (IAU) or pay-for-performance (P4P) condition.
Participants
Substance abuse treatment therapists participating in a large dissemination and implementation initiative funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
Intervention
Therapists in both conditions received comprehensive training and ongoing monitoring, coaching, and feedback. However, those in the P4P condition also were given the opportunity to earn monetary incentives for achieving two sets of measurable behaviors related to quality implementation of the treatment.
Outcomes
Effectiveness outcomes will focus on the impact of the monetary incentives to increase the proportion of adolescents who receive a targeted threshold level of treatment, months that therapists demonstrate monthly competency, and adolescents who are in recovery following treatment. Similarly, cost-effectiveness outcomes will focus on cost per adolescent receiving targeted threshold level of treatment, cost per month of demonstrated competence, and cost per adolescent in recovery.
Trial Registration
Trial Registration Number: NCT01016704
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-5-5
PMCID: PMC2824685  PMID: 20205824
2.  Can Psychotherapists Function as Their Own Controls? Meta-Analysis of the “Crossed Therapist” Design in Comparative Psychotherapy Trials 
Objective
Clinical trials sometimes have the same therapists deliver more than one psychotherapy, ostensibly to control for therapist effects. This “crossed therapists” design makes controlling for therapist allegiance imperative, as therapists may prefer one treatment they deliver to the other(s). Research has established a strong relationship between principal investigators’ allegiances and treatment outcome. Study therapists’ allegiances probably also influence outcome, yet this moderating factor on outcome has never been studied.
Data Sources
English language abstracts in Psychinfo and MedLine from January 1985 to December 2011 were searched for keywords “psychotherapy” and “randomized trial.”
Study Selection
The search yielded 990 abstracts that were searched manually. Trials using the same therapists in more than one condition were included.
Data extraction
Thirty-nine studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Meta-regression analyses assessed the influence of researchers’ allegiance on treatment outcome, testing the hypothesis that studies poorly controlling for therapist allegiance would show stronger influence of researcher allegiance on outcome. A single-item measure assessed researchers’ reported attempts to control for therapist allegiance.
Results
Only one (3%) of 39 studies measured therapist treatment allegiance. Another five (13%) mentioned controlling for, without formally assessing, therapist allegiance. Most publications (64%) did not even mention therapist allegiance. In studies not controlling for therapist allegiance, researcher allegiance strongly influenced outcome, whereas studies reporting control for therapist allegiance showed no differential researcher allegiance. Cognitive-behavioral trials less frequently described controlling for therapist allegiance.
Conclusions
The “crossed therapist” design is subject to bias due to differential psychotherapist allegiance. Worrisome results suggest that researchers strongly allied to a treatment may ignore therapist allegiance, potentially skewing outcomes. All clinical trials, and especially “crossed therapist” designs, should measure psychotherapist allegiance to evaluate this possible bias. One of the sacrosanct assumptions of a client is that their therapist believes in the treatment being delivered. -- Wampold, 2001 (1, p159)
doi:10.4088/JCP.12r07848
PMCID: PMC3683365  PMID: 23146326
3.  Acceptability of a Clinician-Assisted Computerized Psychological Intervention for Comorbid Mental Health and Substance Use Problems: Treatment Adherence Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Computer-delivered psychological treatments have great potential, particularly for individuals who cannot access traditional approaches. Little is known about the acceptability of computer-delivered treatment, especially among those with comorbid mental health and substance use problems.
Objective
The objective of our study was to assess the acceptability of a clinician-assisted computer-based (CAC) psychological treatment (delivered on DVD in a clinic-setting) for comorbid depression and alcohol or cannabis use problems relative to a therapist-delivered equivalent and a brief intervention control.
Methods
We compared treatment acceptability, in terms of treatment dropout/participation and therapeutic alliance, of therapist-delivered versus CAC psychological treatment. We randomly assigned 97 participants with current depression and problematic alcohol/cannabis use to three conditions: brief intervention (BI, one individual session delivered face to face), therapist-delivered (one initial face-to-face session plus 9 individual sessions delivered by a therapist), and CAC interventions (one initial face-to-face session plus 9 individual CAC sessions). Randomization occurred following baseline and provision of the initial session, and therapeutic alliance ratings were obtained from participants following completion of the initial session, and at sessions 5 and 10 among the therapist-delivered and CAC conditions.
Results
Treatment retention and attendance rates were equal between therapist-delivered and CAC conditions, with 51% (34/67) completing all 10 treatment sessions. No significant differences existed between participants in therapist-delivered and CAC conditions at any point in therapy on the majority of therapeutic alliance subscales. However, relative to therapist-delivered treatment, the subscale of Client Initiative was rated significantly higher among participants allocated to the BI (F2,54 = 4.86, P = .01) and CAC participants after session 5 (F1,29 = 9.24, P = .005), and this domain was related to better alcohol outcomes. Linear regression modeled therapeutic alliance over all sessions, with treatment allocation, retention, other demographic factors, and baseline symptoms exhibiting no predictive value.
Conclusions
Participants in a trial of CAC versus therapist-delivered treatment were equally able to engage, bond, and commit to treatment, despite comorbidity typically being associated with increased treatment dropout, problematic engagement, and complexities in treatment planning. The extent to which a client feels that they are directing therapy (Client initiative) may be an important component of change in BI and CAC intervention, especially for hazardous alcohol use.
Trial Registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000437460; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=82228 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5ubuRsULu)
doi:10.2196/jmir.1522
PMCID: PMC3221332  PMID: 21273184
computerized cognitive behavior therapy; brief intervention; comorbidity; depression; alcohol use problems
4.  A Transdiagnostic Community-Based Mental Health Treatment for Comorbid Disorders: Development and Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial among Burmese Refugees in Thailand 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(11):e1001757.
In a randomized controlled trial, Paul Bolton and colleagues investigate whether a transdiagnostic community-based intervention is effective for improving mental health symptoms among Burmese refugees in Thailand.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Existing studies of mental health interventions in low-resource settings have employed highly structured interventions delivered by non-professionals that typically do not vary by client. Given high comorbidity among mental health problems and implementation challenges with scaling up multiple structured evidence-based treatments (EBTs), a transdiagnostic treatment could provide an additional option for approaching community-based treatment of mental health problems. Our objective was to test such an approach specifically designed for flexible treatments of varying and comorbid disorders among trauma survivors in a low-resource setting.
Methods and Findings
We conducted a single-blinded, wait-list randomized controlled trial of a newly developed transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), for low-resource settings, compared with wait-list control (WLC). CETA was delivered by lay workers to Burmese survivors of imprisonment, torture, and related traumas, with flexibility based on client presentation. Eligible participants reported trauma exposure and met severity criteria for depression and/or posttraumatic stress (PTS). Participants were randomly assigned to CETA (n = 182) or WLC (n = 165). Outcomes were assessed by interviewers blinded to participant allocation using locally adapted standard measures of depression and PTS (primary outcomes) and functional impairment, anxiety symptoms, aggression, and alcohol use (secondary outcomes). Primary analysis was intent-to-treat (n = 347), including 73 participants lost to follow-up. CETA participants experienced significantly greater reductions of baseline symptoms across all outcomes with the exception of alcohol use (alcohol use analysis was confined to problem drinkers). The difference in mean change from pre-intervention to post-intervention between intervention and control groups was −0.49 (95% CI: −0.59, −0.40) for depression, −0.43 (95% CI: −0.51, −0.35) for PTS, −0.42 (95% CI: −0.58, −0.27) for functional impairment, −0.48 (95% CI: −0.61, −0.34) for anxiety, −0.24 (95% CI: −0.34, −0.15) for aggression, and −0.03 (95% CI: −0.44, 0.50) for alcohol use. This corresponds to a 77% reduction in mean baseline depression score among CETA participants compared to a 40% reduction among controls, with respective values for the other outcomes of 76% and 41% for anxiety, 75% and 37% for PTS, 67% and 22% for functional impairment, and 71% and 32% for aggression. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large for depression (d = 1.16) and PTS (d = 1.19); moderate for impaired function (d = 0.63), anxiety (d = 0.79), and aggression (d = 0.58); and none for alcohol use. There were no adverse events. Limitations of the study include the lack of long-term follow-up, non-blinding of service providers and participants, and no placebo or active comparison intervention.
Conclusions
CETA provided by lay counselors was highly effective across disorders among trauma survivors compared to WLCs. These results support the further development and testing of transdiagnostic approaches as possible treatment options alongside existing EBTs.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01459068
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Worldwide, one in four people will experience a mental health disorder at some time during their life. Although many evidence-based treatments (EBTs), most involving some sort of cognitive behavioral therapy (talking therapies that help people manage their mental health problems by changing the way they think and behave), are now available, many people with mental health disorders never receive any treatment for their condition. The situation is particularly bad for people living in low-resource settings, where a delivery model for EBTs based on referral to mental health professionals is problematic given that mental health professionals are scarce. To facilitate widespread access to mental health care among poor and/or rural populations in low-resource settings, EBTs need to be deliverable at the primary or community level by non-professionals. Moreover, because there is a large burden of trauma-related mental health disorders in low-resource settings and because trauma increases the risk of multiple mental health problems, treatment options that address comorbid (coexisting) mental health problems in low-resource settings are badly needed.
Why Was This Study Done?
One possible solution to the problem of delivering EBTs for comorbid mental health disorders in low-resource settings is “transdiagnostic” treatment. Many mental health EBTs for different disorders share common components. Transdiagnostic treatments recognize these facts and apply these common components to a range of disorders rather than creating a different structured treatment for each diagnosis. The Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), for example, trains counselors in a range of components that are similar across EBTs and teaches counselors how to choose components, their order, and dose, based on their client's problems. This flexible approach, which was designed for delivery by non-professional providers in low-resource settings, provides counselors with the skills needed to treat depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress—three trauma-related mental health disorders. In this randomized controlled trial, the researchers investigate the use of CETA among Burmese refugees living in Thailand, many of whom are survivors of decades-long harsh military rule in Myanmar. A randomized controlled trial compares the outcomes of individuals chosen to receive different interventions through the play of chance.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers assigned Burmese survivors or witnesses of imprisonment, torture, and related traumas who met symptom criteria for significant depression and/or posttraumatic stress to either the CETA or wait-list control arm of their trial. Lay counselors treated the participants in the CETA arm by delivering CETA components—for example, “psychoeducation” (which teaches clients that their symptoms are normal and experienced by many people) and “cognitive coping” (which helps clients understand that how they think about an event can impact their feelings and behavior)—chosen to reflect the client's priority problems at presentation. Participants in the control arm received regular calls from the trial coordinator to check on their safety but no other intervention. Participants in the CETA arm experienced greater reductions of baseline symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and aggression than participants in the control arm. For example, there was a 77% reduction in the average depression score from before the intervention to after the intervention among participants in the CETA arm, but only a 40% reduction in the depression score among participants in the control arm. Importantly, the effect size of CETA (a statistical measure that quantifies the importance of the difference between two groups) was large for depression and posttraumatic stress, the primary outcomes of the trial. That is, compared to no treatment, CETA had a large effect on the symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress experienced by the trial participants.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that, among Burmese survivors and witnesses of torture and other trauma living in Thailand, CETA delivered by lay counselors was a highly effective treatment for comorbid mental disorders compared to no treatment (the wait-list control). These findings may not be generalizable to other low-resource settings, they provide no information about long-term outcomes, and they do not identify which aspects of CETA were responsible for symptom improvement or explain the improvements seen among the control participants. Given that the study compared CETA to no treatment rather than a placebo (dummy) or active comparison intervention, it is not possible to conclude that CETA works better that existing treatments. Nevertheless, these findings support the continued development and assessment of transdiagnostic approaches for the treatment of mental health disorders in low-resource settings where treatment access and comorbid mental health disorders are important challenges.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001757.
The World Health Organization provides background information about mental health
The US National Institute of Mental Health provides information about a range of mental health disorders and about cognitive behavioral therapy
The UK National Health Service Choices website has information about cognitive behavioral therapy, including some personal stories and links to other related mental health resources on the Choices website
A short introduction to transdiagnosis and CETA written by one of the trial authors is available
Information about this trial is available on the ClinicalTrials.gov website
The UN Refugee Agency provides information about Burmese (Myanmar) refugees in Thailand
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001757
PMCID: PMC4227644  PMID: 25386945
5.  Mechanisms of change in Motivational Interviewing: A review and preliminary evaluation of the evidence 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2009;104(5):705-715.
Aims
Motivational interviewing (MI) is an efficacious treatment for substance use disorders. However, little is known about how MI exerts its therapeutic effects. This review is a first attempt to summarize and evaluate the evidence for purported within-session mechanisms of change. The primary question of interest was: Which MI constructs and variables appear to be the most promising candidates for mechanisms of change?
Methods
Literature searches were conducted to identify studies delivering MI in an individual format for the treatment of substance use disorders. Our search identified a total of 152 studies for review; 19 studies met inclusion criteria by providing data on at least one link in the causal chain model under examination. Effect size estimates were calculated for every possible step in the causal model where sufficient data were provided by study authors.
Results
Four constructs of therapist behavior were evaluated: MI Spirit, MI-Consistent behaviors, MI-Inconsistent behaviors, and therapist use of specific techniques. Five constructs of client behavior were evaluated: change talk/intention, readiness to change, involvement/engagement, resistance, and the client’s experience of discrepancy. The absence of experimental and full mediation studies of mechanisms of change was notable. Effect sizes were generally mixed.
Conclusions
The most consistent evidence was found for three constructs: client change talk/intention (related to better outcomes); client experience of discrepancy (related to better outcomes); and therapist MI-Inconsistent behavior (related to worse outcomes). Regarding therapist use of specific techniques, use of a decisional balance exercise showed the strongest association to better outcomes.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02527.x
PMCID: PMC2756738  PMID: 19413785
Motivational interviewing; brief intervention; mechanisms of change; mediator; therapy process; active ingredients of treatment
6.  Policy to implementation: evidence-based practice in community mental health – study protocol 
Background
Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are not widely available in community mental health settings. In response to the call for implementation of evidence-based treatments in the United States, states and counties have mandated behavioral health reform through policies and other initiatives. Evaluations of the impact of these policies on implementation are rare. A systems transformation about to occur in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, offers an important opportunity to prospectively study implementation in response to a policy mandate.
Methods/design
Using a prospective sequential mixed-methods design, with observations at multiple points in time, we will investigate the responses of staff from 30 community mental health clinics to a policy from the Department of Behavioral Health encouraging and incentivizing providers to implement evidence-based treatments to treat youth with mental health problems. Study participants will be 30 executive directors, 30 clinical directors, and 240 therapists. Data will be collected prior to the policy implementation, and then at two and four years following policy implementation. Quantitative data will include measures of intervention implementation and potential moderators of implementation (i.e., organizational- and leader-level variables) and will be collected from executive directors, clinical directors, and therapists. Measures include self-reported therapist fidelity to evidence-based treatment techniques as measured by the Therapist Procedures Checklist-Revised, organizational variables as measured by the Organizational Social Context Measurement System and the Implementation Climate Assessment, leader variables as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, attitudes towards EBTs as measured by the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale, and knowledge of EBTs as measured by the Knowledge of Evidence- Based Services Questionnaire. Qualitative data will include semi-structured interviews with a subset of the sample to assess the implementation experience of high-, average-, and low-performing agencies. Mixed methods will be integrated through comparing and contrasting results from the two methods for each of the primary hypotheses in this study.
Discussion
Findings from the proposed research will inform both future policy mandates around implementation and the support required for the success of these policies, with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of treatment provided to youth in the public sector.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-8-38
PMCID: PMC3618103  PMID: 23522556
Evidence-based practice; Community mental health; Policy; Implementation; Fidelity; Organizational variables
7.  Evaluating Motivational Enhancement Therapy Adherence and Competence Among Spanish-speaking Therapists 
Drug and alcohol dependence  2009;103(1-2):44-51.
Despite the fact that the number of Hispanic individuals in need of treatment for substance use problems is increasing internationally, no studies have investigated the extent to which therapists can provide empirically supported treatments to Spanish-speaking clients with adequate fidelity. Twenty-three bilingual Hispanic therapists from five community outpatient treatment programs in the United States were randomly assigned to deliver either three sessions of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or an equivalent number of drug counseling-as-usual sessions (CAU) in Spanish to 405 Spanish-speaking clients randomly assigned to these conditions. Independent ratings of 325 sessions indicated the adherence/competence rating system had good to excellent interrater reliability and indicated strong support for an a priori defined fundamental MET skill factor. Support for an advanced MET skill factor was relatively weaker. The rating scale indicated significant differences in therapists’ MET adherence and competence across conditions. These findings indicate that the rating system has promise for assessing the performance of therapists who deliver MET in Spanish and suggest that bilingual Spanish-speaking therapists from the community can be trained to implement MET with adequate fidelity and skill using an intensive multisite training and supervision model.
doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.03.006
PMCID: PMC2692434  PMID: 19394164
motivational interviewing; therapist adherence and competence; therapist training and supervision; substance abuse treatment; Hispanic population
8.  Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainees at a university psychotherapy training center 
Psych Journal  2013;2(2):101-112.
At the psychotherapy training center at Karlstad University, a study was carried out to examine the levels of symptom change and satisfaction with therapy in a heterogeneous population of clients treated using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) by less experienced trainee therapists with limited theoretical education. The clients received an average of 11 therapy sessions. The results suggested that CBT performed by less experienced trainee therapists can be effective. According to client estimations, a statistically significant reduction in symptoms, measured using the Symptoms Checklist, was achieved for seven of nine variables (p ≤ .006), as well as a significant increase in satisfaction with life (p ≤ .001). Also, the pre- and posttherapy measurements using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale showed a statistically significant improvement in the clients’ condition. According to the therapists’ estimations, 64% (SD = 32.01) of the clients experienced a significant improvement in their condition. In addition, the results of a survey of client satisfaction demonstrated that the clients were very pleased with the therapy received. Also the therapists were, to a great extent, satisfied with the treatment process itself, including the supervision received, and very satisfied with the client alliance. A correlation analysis between the clients’ perceived level of improvement and therapist satisfaction showed a strong correlation between the two variables (r = .50, p < .005). By including the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS) in our study it was possible to measure trueness to therapy form. An analysis of the CPPS results confirmed that the form of therapy used at the training site was more strongly CBT than psychodynamic interpersonal treatment (p ≤ .001). The CBT subscale score indicated that the therapy was characteristic of CBT, confirming that the interventions used in the therapy belong to the CBT genre.
doi:10.1002/pchj.23
PMCID: PMC3888554  PMID: 24436779
cognitive behavioral therapy; satisfaction with therapy; symptom relief; trainee therapists
9.  Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 
Executive Summary
In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.
After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework
Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Long-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model
Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature
For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm.
For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.
The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact.
Objective
The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary care (MDC) compared with usual care (UC, single health care provider) for the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive disorder with episodes of acute exacerbations associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoking is linked causally to COPD in more than 80% of cases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is among the most common chronic diseases worldwide and has an enormous impact on individuals, families, and societies through reduced quality of life and increased health resource utilization and mortality.
The estimated prevalence of COPD in Ontario in 2007 was 708,743 persons.
Technology
Multidisciplinary care involves professionals from a range of disciplines, working together to deliver comprehensive care that addresses as many of the patient’s health care and psychosocial needs as possible.
Two variables are inherent in the concept of a multidisciplinary team: i) the multidisciplinary components such as an enriched knowledge base and a range of clinical skills and experiences, and ii) the team components, which include but are not limited to, communication and support measures. However, the most effective number of team members and which disciplines should comprise the team for optimal effect is not yet known.
Research Question
What is the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MDC compared with UC (single health care provider) for the treatment of stable COPD?
Research Methods
Literature Search
Search Strategy
A literature search was performed on July 19, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 1995 until July 2010. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search.
Inclusion Criteria
health technology assessments, systematic reviews, or randomized controlled trials
studies published between January 1995 and July 2010;
COPD study population
studies comparing MDC (2 or more health care disciplines participating in care) compared with UC (single health care provider)
Exclusion Criteria
grey literature
duplicate publications
non-English language publications
study population less than 18 years of age
Outcomes of Interest
hospital admissions
emergency department (ED) visits
mortality
health-related quality of life
lung function
Quality of Evidence
The quality of each included study was assessed, taking into consideration allocation concealment, randomization, blinding, power/sample size, withdrawals/dropouts, and intention-to-treat analyses.
The quality of the body of evidence was assessed as high, moderate, low, or very low according to the GRADE Working Group criteria. The following definitions of quality were used in grading the quality of the evidence:
Summary of Findings
Six randomized controlled trials were obtained from the literature search. Four of the 6 studies were completed in the United States. The sample size of the 6 studies ranged from 40 to 743 participants, with a mean study sample between 66 and 71 years of age. Only 2 studies characterized the study sample in terms of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD stage criteria, and in general the description of the study population in the other 4 studies was limited. The mean percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (% predicted FEV1) among study populations was between 32% and 59%. Using this criterion, 3 studies included persons with severe COPD and 2 with moderate COPD. Information was not available to classify the population in the sixth study.
Four studies had MDC treatment groups which included a physician. All studies except 1 reported a respiratory specialist (i.e., respiratory therapist, specialist nurse, or physician) as part of the multidisciplinary team. The UC group was comprised of a single health care practitioner who may or may not have been a respiratory specialist.
A meta-analysis was completed for 5 of the 7 outcome measures of interest including:
health-related quality of life,
lung function,
all-cause hospitalization,
COPD-specific hospitalization, and
mortality.
There was only 1 study contributing to the outcome of all-cause and COPD-specific ED visits which precluded pooling data for these outcomes. Subgroup analyses were not completed either because heterogeneity was not significant or there were a small number of studies that were meta-analysed for the outcome.
Quality of Life
Three studies reported results of quality of life assessment based on the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). A mean decrease in the SGRQ indicates an improvement in quality of life while a mean increase indicates deterioration in quality of life. In all studies the mean change score from baseline to the end time point in the MDC treatment group showed either an improvement compared with the control group or less deterioration compared with the control group. The mean difference in change scores between MDC and UC groups was statistically significant in all 3 studies. The pooled weighted mean difference in total SGRQ score was −4.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], −6.47 to 1.63; P = 0.001). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as low for this outcome.
Lung Function
Two studies reported results of the FEV1 % predicted as a measure of lung function. A negative change from baseline infers deterioration in lung function and a positive change from baseline infers an improvement in lung function. The MDC group showed a statistically significant improvement in lung function up to 12 months compared with the UC group (P = 0.01). However this effect is not maintained at 2-year follow-up (P = 0.24). The pooled weighted mean difference in FEV1 percent predicted was 2.78 (95% CI, −1.82 to −7.37). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as very low for this outcome indicating that an estimate of effect is uncertain.
Hospital Admissions
All-Cause
Four studies reported results of all-cause hospital admissions in terms of number of persons with at least 1 admission during the follow-up period. Estimates from these 4 studies were pooled to determine a summary estimate. There is a statistically significant 25% relative risk (RR) reduction in all-cause hospitalizations in the MDC group compared with the UC group (P < 0.001). The index of heterogeneity (I2) value is 0%, indicating no statistical heterogeneity between studies. The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as moderate for this outcome, indicating that further research may change the estimate of effect.
COPD-Specific Hospitalization
Three studies reported results of COPD-specific hospital admissions in terms of number of persons with at least 1 admission during the follow-up period. Estimates from these 3 studies were pooled to determine a summary estimate. There is a statistically significant 33% RR reduction in all-cause hospitalizations in the MDC group compared with the UC group (P = 0.002). The I2 value is 0%, indicating no statistical heterogeneity between studies. The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as moderate for this outcome, indicating that further research may change the estimate of effect.
Emergency Department Visits
All-Cause
Two studies reported results of all-cause ED visits in terms of number of persons with at least 1 visit during the follow-up period. There is a statistically nonsignificant reduction in all-cause ED visits when data from these 2 studies are pooled (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.31 to −1.33; P = 0.24). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as very low for this outcome indicating that an estimate of effect is uncertain.
COPD-Specific
One study reported results of COPD-specific ED visits in terms of number of persons with at least 1 visit during the follow-up period. There is a statistically significant 41% reduction in COPD-specific ED visits when the data from these 2 studies are pooled (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43−0.81; P < 0.001). The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as moderate for this outcome.
Mortality
Three studies reported the mortality during the study follow-up period. Estimates from these 3 studies were pooled to determine a summary estimate. There is a statistically nonsignificant reduction in mortality between treatment groups (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.52−1.27; P = 0.36). The I2 value is 19%, indicating low statistical heterogeneity between studies. All studies had a 12-month follow-up period. The GRADE quality of evidence was assessed as low for this outcome.
Conclusions
Significant effect estimates with moderate quality of evidence were found for all-cause hospitalization, COPD-specific hospitalization, and COPD-specific ED visits (Table ES1). A significant estimate with low quality evidence was found for the outcome of quality of life (Table ES2). All other outcome measures were nonsignificant and supported by low or very low quality of evidence.
Summary of Dichotomous Data
Abbreviations: CI, confidence intervals; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; n, number.
Summary of Continuous Data
Abbreviations: CI, confidence intervals; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; n, number; SGRQ, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire.
PMCID: PMC3384374  PMID: 23074433
10.  Fatigue Intervention by Nurses Evaluation – The FINE Trial. A randomised controlled trial of nurse led self-help treatment for patients in primary care with chronic fatigue syndrome: study protocol. [ISRCTN74156610] 
BMC Medicine  2006;4:9.
Background
Chronic fatigue syndrome, also known as ME (CFS/ME), is a condition characterised primarily by severe, disabling fatigue, of unknown origin, which has a poor prognosis and serious personal and economic consequences. Evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment for CFS/ME in primary care, where most patients are seen, is sparse. Recently, a brief, pragmatic treatment for CFS/ME, based on a physiological dysregulation model of the condition, was shown to be successful in improving fatigue and physical functioning in patients in secondary care. The treatment involves providing patients with a readily understandable explanation of their symptoms, from which flows the rationale for a graded rehabilitative plan, developed collaboratively with the therapist. The present trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pragmatic rehabilitation when delivered by specially trained general nurses in primary care. We selected a client-centred counselling intervention, called supportive listening, as a comparison treatment. Counselling has been shown to be as effective as cognitive behaviour therapy for treating fatigue in primary care, is more readily available, and controls for supportive therapist contact time. Our control condition is treatment as usual by the general practitioner (GP).
Methods and design
This study protocol describes the design of an ongoing, single-blind, pragmatic randomized controlled trial of a brief (18 week) self-help treatment, pragmatic rehabilitation, delivered by specially trained nurse-therapists in patients' homes, compared with nurse-therapist delivered supportive listening and treatment as usual by the GP. An economic evaluation, taking a societal viewpoint, is being carried out alongside the clinical trial. Three adult general nurses were trained over a six month period to deliver the two interventions. Patients aged over 18 and fulfilling the Oxford criteria for CFS are assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and again one year later. Primary outcomes are self-reported physical functioning and fatigue at one year, and will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. A qualitative study will examine the interventions' mechanisms of change, and also GPs' drivers and barriers towards referral.
doi:10.1186/1741-7015-4-9
PMCID: PMC1456982  PMID: 16603058
11.  The Route to Change: Within-Session Predictors of Change Plan Completion in a Motivational Interview 
This study is the first to examine within-session therapist and client language/process predictors of a client’s decision to complete a written Change Plan in an alcohol-focused motivational interview (MI). Data were from an ongoing hospital-based clinical trial (N = 291). Trained raters coded audio-recorded MI sessions using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code. Logistic regression analyses found that therapist MI-consistent behaviors (b = .023, p < .001) and client change talk (b = .063, p < .001) were positive predictors, and client counter change talk (b = −.093, p < .001) was a negative predictor of the decision to complete a Change Plan regarding alcohol use. Mean comparisons showed that compared to non-completion, Change Plan completion did not result in significantly greater changes in client motivational readiness. Completion of a Change Plan is a proximal outcome in MI that is associated with client intention to change (change talk), and may predict follow-up alcohol outcomes. Analyses of such theory-driven proximal client mechanisms provide a more complete model of MI process and may inform MI providers of necessary treatment ingredients.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2009.12.001
PMCID: PMC2835844  PMID: 20149571
Alcohol Use; Change Language or Change Talk; Mechanisms of Behavior Change; Motivational Interviewing; Therapy Process
12.  Parent Perspectives of an Evidence-Based Intervention for Children with Autism Served in Community Mental Health Clinics 
Research suggests that improvements to community mental health (CMH) care for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are needed. Recent research examining the feasibility of training CMH therapists to deliver a package of evidence-based practice intervention strategies (EBPs) targeting challenging behaviors for school-age children with ASD offers initial support for such efforts to improve care. Specifically, quantitative data from a recent pilot study indicate that CMH therapists with limited ASD experience can deliver an EBP intervention with fidelity and perceive it as useful to their practice. Further, client attendance is high and children demonstrate improvement on standardized measures. To further understand the feasibility and impact of training CMH therapists to deliver EBPs, this mixed-methods study examined parent perspectives of the process and impact of outpatient psychotherapy for 13 parents of children ages 5–13 with ASD whose therapists were trained to deliver the EBP intervention. Results complement and expand previously reported quantitative data on psychotherapy process indicating that parents are highly involved in treatment for their children, perceive a strong therapeutic alliance with their children’s therapist, and highlight that treatment was different once therapists began delivering the intervention. Results also indicate themes related to parents’ perceptions of positive child and parent outcomes that provide important details on the specific gains that were observed during treatment. Study findings underscore the importance of parent perspectives in understanding the process and impact of implementing EBPs in CMH settings for families of children with ASD.
doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9594-0
PMCID: PMC3765032  PMID: 24019736
Parent perspectives; Evidence-based practice; Autism spectrum disorders; Community mental health clinics; Challenging behaviors
13.  The Efficacy of Self-Help Group Treatment and Therapist-Led Group Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder 
The American journal of psychiatry  2009;166(12):1347-1354.
Objective
The purpose of this investigation was to compare three types of treatment for binge eating disorder to determine the relative efficacy of self-help group treatment compared to therapist-led and therapist-assisted group cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Method
A total of 259 adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder were randomized to wait-list or 20 week group treatment that was therapist-led, therapist-assisted, or self-help. Binge eating as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination was assessed at baseline, post-treatment, 6- and 12 month follow-up and outcome was determined using logistic regression and analysis of covariance (intention-to-treat).
Results
At end of treatment, the therapist-led (51.7%) and the therapist-assisted (33.3%) conditions had higher binge eating abstinence rates than the self-help (17.9%) and wait-list (10.1%) conditions. No differences in abstinence rates were observed at either follow-up assessment. The therapist-led condition also showed more reductions in binge eating at post-treatment and follow-up compared to the self-help condition, and treatment completion rates were higher in the therapist-led (88.3%) and wait-list (81.2%) conditions than the therapist-assisted (68.3%) and the self-help (59.7%) conditions.
Conclusions
Therapist-led group cognitive-behavioral treatment for binge eating disorder led to higher binge eating abstinence rates, greater reductions in binge eating frequency, and lower attrition at the end of treatment compared to group self-help treatment. Although these findings indicate that therapist delivery of group treatment is associated with better short-term outcome and less attrition than self-help treatment, the lack of group differences at follow-up suggests that self-help group treatment may be a viable alternative to therapist-led interventions. (Clinical Trials Registration: Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder, #NCT00041743; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00041743?term=00041743&rank=1)
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09030345
PMCID: PMC3041988  PMID: 19884223
14.  Side effects of therapeutic punishment on academic performance and eye contact. 
The effects of therapeutic punishment delivered following inappropriate behavior on the academic responding and eye-to-face contact of 2 persons with developmental handicaps was examined using a counterbalanced alternating treatment design. Each subject was sequentially taught by two therapists each day. While one of the therapists taught the subject, the second therapist stood in close proximity directly behind the subject. During baseline, neither therapist delivered punishment following inappropriate behavior. During the treatment condition, one of the therapists delivered all punishment regardless of whether she was teaching or standing behind the subject. The therapist who delivered all punishment for 1 subject did not deliver any punishment for the other subject. During the last condition, the therapist delivering all punishment was reversed for 1 of the subjects. The results indicated that the task being taught was mastered by each subject only when the therapist delivering punishment was teaching. Data collected also indicated that each subject made more eye-to-face contact when the therapist delivering all punishment was teaching. Although neither therapist had to deliver punishers often, punishment had to be administered less often when the therapist teaching the subject was also the therapist delivering punishment.
doi:10.1901/jaba.1991.24-763
PMCID: PMC1279633  PMID: 1797778
15.  Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:592.
Background
Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness.
Methods
In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured.
Results
For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior.
In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An important goal of our study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness, the intensity of physical activity and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness (R2 = .23, p < .001) was positively associated with physical active behavior (beta = .180, p < .01), self-efficacy (beta = .180, p < .01) and the intensity of physical activity (beta = .238, p < .01).
For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive.
Conclusions
This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of physical activity, and the latter by physical active behavior.
Physical active behavior can be predicted by intention, self-efficacy, descriptive norms and barriers. Intention to engage in physical activity by attitude, self-efficacy, descriptive norms and barriers. An important input for lifestyle changes for people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors was that for ca. 40% of the population the intention to engage in physical activity was in line with their actual physical active behavior.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-592
PMCID: PMC3091554  PMID: 20929529
16.  A mixed methods feasibility study to evaluate the use of a low-intensity, nurse-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome 
BMJ Open  2014;4(6):e005262.
Introduction
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterised by symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea and bloating. These symptoms impact on health-related quality of life, result in excess service utilisation and are a significant burden to healthcare systems. Certain mechanisms which underpin IBS can be explained by a biopsychosocial model which is amenable to psychological treatment using techniques such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). While current evidence supports CBT interventions for this group of patients, access to these treatments within the UK healthcare system remains problematic.
Methods and analysis
A mixed methods feasibility randomised controlled trial will be used to assess the feasibility of a low-intensity, nurse-delivered guided self-help intervention within secondary care gastrointestinal clinics. A total of 60 participants will be allocated across four treatment conditions consisting of: high-intensity CBT delivered by a fully qualified cognitive behavioural therapist, low-intensity guided self-help delivered by a registered nurse, self-help only without therapist support and a treatment as usual control condition. Participants from each of the intervention arms of the study will be interviewed in order to identify potential barriers and facilitators to the implementation of CBT interventions within clinical practice settings. Quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics only. Qualitative data will be analysed using a group thematic analysis.
Ethics and dissemination
This study will provide essential information regarding the feasibility of nurse-delivered CBT interventions within secondary care gastrointestinal clinics. The data gathered during this study would also provide useful information when planning a substantive trial and will assist funding bodies when considering investment in substantive trial funding. A favourable opinion for this research was granted by the Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee.
Trial registration number
ISRCTN: 83683687 (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN83683687).
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005262
PMCID: PMC4067860  PMID: 24939813
17.  Working Alliance in Online Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth: Comparison With Clinic Delivery and its Role in Predicting Outcome 
Background
Substantial evidence exists that positive therapy outcomes are related to the therapist–client working alliance.
Objectives
To report two studies that examined (1) the quality of the working alliance in online cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), with minimal therapist contact, for anxiety disorders in youth, and (2) the role of working alliance and compliance in predicting treatment outcome.
Methods
Study 1 participants were 73 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, plus one or more of their parents. Participants were randomly assigned to clinic or online delivery of CBT, with working alliance being assessed for youth and parents after session 3. Study 2 participants were 132 children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, plus one or more of their parents. Youths and parents participated in a minimally therapist-assisted online CBT program supported by brief, weekly emails and a single, short phone call.
Results
Study 1 revealed a strong working alliance for both online and clinic CBT, with no significant difference in working alliance between conditions for adolescents (F 1,73 = 0.44, P = .51, ηp 2 = 0.006, Cohen d = 0.15). Parents also reported high working alliance in both conditions, although a slight but significantly higher working alliance in clinic-based therapy (F 1,70 = 6.76, P = .01, ηp 2 = 0.09, Cohen d = 0.64). Study 2 showed a significant and substantial decrease in anxiety symptoms following online therapy (P < .001 for all outcome measures). Adolescents improved significantly more in overall functioning when working alliance (beta = .22, t 79 = 2.21, P = .03) and therapy compliance (beta = .22, t 84 = 2.22, P = .03) were higher, with working alliance also predicting compliance (beta = .38, F 1,80 = 13.10, P = .01). No such relationships were evident among younger children.
Conclusions
Working alliance is important in determining clinical outcome for online treatment for anxiety among adolescents, with minimal therapist assistance, although this was not the case for younger children.
Trial Registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000900910; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=343375 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/674C4N3JJ)
doi:10.2196/jmir.1848
PMCID: PMC3414866  PMID: 22789657
Anxiety; online therapy; children; adolescents; working alliance
18.  Heterogeneity in Patient-Reported Outcomes following Low-Intensity Mental Health Interventions: A Multilevel Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e99658.
Background
Variability in patient-reported outcomes of psychological treatments has been partly attributed to therapists – a phenomenon commonly known as therapist effects. Meta-analytic reviews reveal wide variation in therapist-attributable variability in psychotherapy outcomes, with most studies reporting therapist effects in the region of 5% to 10% and some finding minimal to no therapist effects. However, all except one study to date have been conducted in high-intensity or mixed intervention groups; therefore, there is scarcity of evidence on therapist effects in brief low-intensity psychological interventions.
Objective
To examine therapist effects in low-intensity interventions for depression and anxiety in a naturalistic setting.
Data and Analysis
Session-by-session data on patient-reported outcome measures were available for a cohort of 1,376 primary care psychotherapy patients treated by 38 therapists. Outcome measures included PHQ-9 (sensitive to depression) and GAD-7 (sensitive to general anxiety disorder) measures. Three-level hierarchical linear modelling was employed to estimate therapist-attributable proportion of variance in clinical outcomes. Therapist effects were evaluated using the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bayesian empirical predictions of therapist random effects. Three sensitivity analyses were conducted: 1) using both treatment completers and non-completers; 2) a sub-sample of cases with baseline scores above the conventional clinical thresholds for PHQ-9 and GAD-7; and 3) a two-level model (using patient-level pre- and post-treatment scores nested within therapists).
Results
The ICC estimates for all outcome measures were very small, ranging between 0% and 1.3%, although most were statistically significant. The Bayesian empirical predictions showed that therapist random effects were not statistically significantly different from each other. Between patient variability explained most of the variance in outcomes.
Conclusion
Consistent with the only other study to date in low intensity interventions, evidence was found to suggest minimal to no therapist effects in patient-reported outcomes. This draws attention to the more prominent source of variability which is found at the between-patient level.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099658
PMCID: PMC4160171  PMID: 25207881
19.  Comparing In-Person to Videoconference-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness for treating mood and anxiety disorders. Dissemination of CBT via videoconference may help improve access to treatment.
Objective
The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of CBT administered via videoconference to in-person therapy for a mixed diagnostic cohort.
Methods
A total of 26 primarily Caucasian clients (mean age 30 years, SD 11) who had a primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of a mood or anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to receive 12 sessions of CBT either in-person or via videoconference. Treatment involved individualized CBT formulations specific to the presenting diagnosis; all sessions were provided by the same therapist. Participants were recruited through a university clinic. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and quality of life were assessed using questionnaires before, after, and 6 weeks following treatment. Secondary outcomes at posttreatment included working alliance and client satisfaction.
Results
Retention was similar across treatment conditions; there was one more client in the videoconferencing condition at posttreatment and at follow-up. Statistical analysis using multilevel mixed effects linear regression indicated a significant reduction in client symptoms across time for symptoms of depression (P<.001, d=1.41), anxiety (P<.001, d=1.14), stress (P<.001, d=1.81), and quality of life (P<.001, d=1.17). There were no significant differences between treatment conditions regarding symptoms of depression (P=.165, d=0.37), anxiety (P=.41, d=0.22), stress (P=.15, d=0.38), or quality of life (P=.62, d=0.13). There were no significant differences in client rating of the working alliance (P=.53, one-tailed, d=–0.26), therapist ratings of the working alliance (P=.60, one-tailed, d=0.23), or client ratings of satisfaction (P=.77, one-tailed, d=–0.12). Fisher’s Exact P was not significant regarding differences in reliable change from pre- to posttreatment or from pretreatment to follow-up for symptoms of depression (P=.41, P=.26), anxiety (P=.60, P=.99), or quality of life (P=.65, P=.99) but was significant for symptoms of stress in favor of the videoconferencing condition (P=.03, P=.035). Difference between conditions regarding clinically significant change was also not observed from pre- to posttreatment or from pretreatment to follow-up for symptoms of depression (P=.67, P=.30), anxiety (P=.99, P=.99), stress (P=.19, P=.13), or quality of life (P=.99, P=.62).
Conclusions
The findings of this controlled trial indicate that CBT was effective in significantly reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and increasing quality of life in both in-person and videoconferencing conditions, with no significant differences being observed between the two.
Trial Registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ID: ACTRN12609000819224; http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12609000819224.aspx (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Kz5iBMiV).
doi:10.2196/jmir.2564
PMCID: PMC3842436  PMID: 24252663
telepsychology; videoconferencing; cognitive behavioral therapy; anxiety; mood disorder
20.  The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy for Youth with Behavioral Problems in a Community Practice Setting 
The study examined the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT), as compared to probation services, in a community juvenile justice setting 12 months post treatment. The study also provides specific insight into the interactive effects of therapist model specific adherence and measures of youth risk and protective factors on behavioral outcomes for a diverse group of adolescents. The findings suggest that FFT was effective in reducing youth behavioral problems, although only when the therapists adhered to the treatment model. High adherent therapists delivering FFT had a statistically significant reduction of (35%) in felony, a (30%) violent crime, and a marginally significant reduction (21%) in misdemeanor recidivisms as compared to the control condition. The results represent a significant reduction in serious crimes one year after treatment, when delivered by a model adherent therapist. The low adherent therapists were significantly higher than the control group in recidivism rates. There was an interaction effect between youth risk level and therapist adherence demonstrating that the most difficult families (those with high peer and family risk) had a higher likelihood of successful outcomes when their therapist demonstrated model specific adherence. These results are discussed within the context of the need and importance of measuring and accounting for model specific adherence in the evaluation of community-based replications of evidence-based family therapy models like FFT.
doi:10.1037/a0019406
PMCID: PMC4172308  PMID: 20545407
21.  The Clinical Effectiveness of Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Face-to-Face Therapist Support for Depressed Primary Care Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Most patients with mild to moderate depression receive treatment in primary care, but despite guideline recommendations, structured psychological interventions are infrequently delivered. Research supports the effectiveness of Internet-based treatment for depression; however, few trials have studied the effect of the MoodGYM program plus therapist support. The use of such interventions could improve the delivery of treatment in primary care.
Objective
To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a guided Web-based intervention for mild to moderate depression, which could be suitable for implementation in general practice.
Methods
Participants (N=106) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to a treatment condition comprising 6 weeks of therapist-assisted Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or to a 6-week delayed treatment condition. The intervention included the Norwegian version of the MoodGYM program, brief face-to-face support from a psychologist, and reminder emails. The primary outcome measure, depression symptoms, was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Secondary outcome measures included the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire (EQ-5D). All outcomes were based on self-report and were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at 6-month follow-up.
Results
Postintervention measures were completed by 37 (71%) and 47 (87%) of the 52 participants in the intervention and 54 participants in the delayed treatment group, respectively. Linear mixed-models analyses revealed a significant difference in time trends between the groups for the BDI-II, (P=.002), for HADS depression and anxiety subscales (P<.001 and P=.001, respectively), and for the SWLS (P<.001). No differential group effects were found for the BAI and the EQ-5D. In comparison to the control group, significantly more participants in the intervention group experienced recovery from depression as measured by the BDI-II. Of the 52 participants in the treatment program, 31 (60%) adhered to the program, and overall treatment satisfaction was high. The reduction of depression and anxiety symptoms was largely maintained at 6-month follow-up, and positive gains in life satisfaction were partly maintained.
Conclusions
The intervention combining MoodGYM and brief therapist support can be an effective treatment of depression in a sample of primary care patients. The intervention alleviates depressive symptoms and has a significant positive effect on anxiety symptoms and satisfaction with life. Moderate rates of nonadherence and predominately positive evaluations of the treatment also indicate the acceptability of the intervention. The intervention could potentially be used in a stepped-care approach, but remains to be tested in regular primary health care.
Trial Registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000257066; http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/trial.aspx?trialid=ACTRN12610000257066 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Ie3YhIZa).
doi:10.2196/jmir.2714
PMCID: PMC3742404  PMID: 23916965
cognitive therapy; therapy; computer-assisted; Internet; mental health; depression; randomized controlled trial; primary health care
22.  Exploring the Effect of Therapists’ Treatment Practices on Client Attendance in Community-Based Care for Children 
Psychological services  2012;9(1):74-88.
Sustained treatment attendance has been reported to be poor in publicly-funded community-based clinic settings serving children and families. Several child and family characteristics have been shown to predict attendance in community-based care, but virtually no research has been conducted to examine how experiences in care, including psychotherapists’ within-session practices, influence client attendance. The goal of this exploratory study was to examine how observed practice within sessions, in particular the extent to which therapists delivered elements consistent with evidence-based practices, impacts total number of sessions attended, while accounting for an array of other potential predictors. Participants include 181 children ages 4–13 and their parents entering a new episode of care for disruptive behavior problems in publicly-funded clinics. Data sources include administrative billing records on treatment attendance, coded videotaped treatment sessions, and self-reports from children, parents, and therapists. Results indicate that parent education, service funding source, parent alliance with therapist, and therapist experience predicted number of sessions attended; intensity of evidence-based treatment techniques delivered to children was marginally associated with attendance (p=.059). Implications for improving engagement in community-based care are discussed.
doi:10.1037/a0027098
PMCID: PMC3436117  PMID: 22449089
treatment attendance; childhood disruptive behavior; community-based care
23.  Therapist Focus on Parent Involvement in Community-Based Youth Psychotherapy 
Parent involvement in the treatment of childhood disruptive behavior problems is a critical component of effective care. Yet little is known about the amount of time therapists are involving parents in treatment and factors that predict therapists’ efforts to involve parents in routine care. The purpose of this study is to examine therapists’ within-session involvement of parents in community-based outpatient mental health treatment. The data are from a larger longitudinal observational study of psychotherapy for children ages 4–13 with disruptive behavior problems and include videotaped psychotherapy sessions coded for the therapeutic strategies delivered as well as measures of child, parent/family, and therapist characteristics at baseline. Parent involvement is defined as the proportion of time in the session that therapists direct treatment strategies towards parents. Results indicated that therapists directed treatment strategies towards parents an average of 44% of the time within a session. Multilevel modeling was used to examine client-level (child, parent, and family functioning) and provider-level (therapist experience and background) predictors of parent involvement. Therapists involved parents more when the child had higher levels of behavior problems, when the parent reported higher levels of internalized caregiver strain, and when the therapist was more experienced. The results highlight potential areas to target in efforts to increase parent involvement, including training less experienced therapists to increase their focus on directing strategies towards parents.
doi:10.1007/s10826-011-9517-5
PMCID: PMC3405145  PMID: 22844188
Parent involvement; Community-based care; Childhood disruptive behavior problems; Youth psychotherapy; Therapist
24.  The working alliance in a randomized controlled trial comparing online with face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression 
BMC Psychiatry  2011;11:189.
Background
Although numerous efficacy studies in recent years have found internet-based interventions for depression to be effective, there has been scant consideration of therapeutic process factors in the online setting. In face-to face therapy, the quality of the working alliance explains variance in treatment outcome. However, little is yet known about the impact of the working alliance in internet-based interventions, particularly as compared with face-to-face therapy.
Methods
This study explored the working alliance between client and therapist in the middle and at the end of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for depression. The participants were randomized to an internet-based treatment group (n = 25) or face-to-face group (n = 28). Both groups received the same cognitive behavioral therapy over an 8-week timeframe. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) post-treatment and the Working Alliance Inventory at mid- and post- treatment. Therapists completed the therapist version of the Working Alliance Inventory at post-treatment.
Results
With the exception of therapists' ratings of the tasks subscale, which were significantly higher in the online group, the two groups' ratings of the working alliance did not differ significantly. Further, significant correlations were found between clients' ratings of the working alliance and therapy outcome at post-treatment in the online group and at both mid- and post-treatment in the face-to-face group. Correlation analysis revealed that the working alliance ratings did not significantly predict the BDI residual gain score in either group.
Conclusions
Contrary to what might have been expected, the working alliance in the online group was comparable to that in the face-to-face group. However, the results showed no significant relations between the BDI residual gain score and the working alliance ratings in either group.
Trial registration
ACTRN12611000563965
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-11-189
PMCID: PMC3248847  PMID: 22145768
25.  Patient Versus Therapist Alliance: Whose Perception Matters? 
Development of working alliance was examined for 25 opioid-abusing pain patients and their therapists. Patients participated in an 8-session intervention based on adherence strategies and employing a supportive, psychoeducational approach; methadone was prescribed for pain. Treatment goals included opioid analgesic adherence and decreasing pain, functional interference, and substance abuse. Patients and therapists completed the Helping Alliance Questionnaire-II following each treatment session. At baseline, patients’ and therapists’ scores indicated good alliance. Patient alliance grew significantly over time, regardless of addiction severity and independent of treatment outcomes. In contrast, therapist alliance grew only for patients without substance abuse co-morbidity and/or who had good outcomes. Patients’ and therapists’ alliance scores were consistent during sessions focused on emotional bonds but diverged during sessions that demanded behavior change, suggesting therapists may have reacted negatively to patients’ lack of progress. Whether therapists’ reactions to poor performers impacted subsequent patient outcomes is unknown, but should be investigated.
doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2007.09.007
PMCID: PMC2600770  PMID: 18082997
Working alliance; Prescription opioid abuse; Opioid analgesic abuse; Chronic non-cancer pain; Medication adherence

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