This study aimed to verify whether the decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)–to–pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF) ratio can serve as an indicator for the protective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) and to investigate the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the downregulated VEGF-to-PEDF ratio.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Diabetic rats and control animals were randomly assigned to receive perindopril or vehicle for 24 weeks, and bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRECs) were incubated with normal or high glucose with or without perindopril. VEGF, PEDF, PPARγ, and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) in the rat retinas or BREC extracts were examined by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. The levels of VEGF and PEDF in cell culture media were examined by ELISA. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and ROS production were assayed using JC-1 or CM-H2DCFDA.
The VEGF-to-PEDF ratio was increased in the retina of diabetic rats; perindopril lowered the increased VEGF-to-PEDF ratio in diabetic rats and ameliorated the retinal damage. In BRECs, perindopril lowered the hyperglycemia-induced elevation of VEGF-to-PEDF ratio by reducing mitochondrial ROS. We found the decreased ROS production was a result of perindopril-induced upregulation of PPARγ and UCP-2 expression and the subsequent decrease of Δψm.
It is concluded that the protective effect of ACEI on DR is associated with a decreased VEGF-to-PEDF ratio, which involves the mitochondria-ROS pathway through PPARγ-mediated changes of UCP-2. This study paves a way for future application of ACEI in treatment of DR.
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in diabetic retinopathy (DR) pathogenesis. However, whether simvastatin decreases diabetes-induced mitochondrial ROS production remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to clarify the beneficial effects and mechanism of action of simvastatin against diabetes-induced retinal vascular damage.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Diabetic rats and control animals were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin or vehicle for 24 weeks, and bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRECs) were incubated with normal or high glucose with or without simvastatin. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in the rat retinas or BRECs were examined by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and p38 MAPK were examined by Western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and ROS production were assayed using the potentiometric dye 5,5′,6,6′- Tetrachloro1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) or CM-H2DCFDA fluorescent probes.
Simvastatin significantly upregulated PGC-1α (P < 0.01), subsequently decreased Δψm (P < 0.05) and ROS generation (P < 0.01), inhibited PARP activation (P < 0.01), and further reduced VEGF expression (P < 0.01) and p38 MAPK activity (P < 0.01). Those changes were associated with the decrease of retinal vascular permeability, retinal capillary cells apoptosis, and formation of acellular capillaries.
Simvastatin decreases diabetes-induced mitochondrial ROS production and exerts protective effects against early retinal vascular damage in diabetic rats in association with the inhibition of mitochondrial ROS/PARP pathway mediated by PGC-1α. The understanding of the mechanisms of action of statins has important implications in the prevention and treatment of mitochondrial oxidative stress-related illness such as DR.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, is efficacious for these disorders, but requires monthly intravitreal administration, with associated discomfort, cost, and adverse event risk. We hypothesized that a single intravitreal administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing bevacizumab would result in persistent eye expression of bevacizumab and suppress VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization. We constructed an AAV rhesus serotype rh.10 vector to deliver bevacizumab (AAVrh.10BevMab) and assessed its ability to suppress neovascularization in transgenic mice overexpressing human VEGF165 in photoreceptors. Intravitreal AAVrh.10BevMab directed long-term bevacizumab expression in the retinal pigmented epithelium. Treated homozygous mice had reduced levels of neovascularization, with 90±4% reduction 168 days following treatment. Thus, a single administration of AAVrh.10BevMab provides long-term suppression of neovascularization without the costs and risks associated with the multiple administrations required for the current conventional bevacizumab monoclonal drug delivery.
Mao and colleagues demonstrate that a single injection of an adeno-associated viral vector based on rhesus serotype 10 into the vitreous is capable of expressing an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody in the eye and suppressing retinal neovascularization.
GAPDH is one of the important targets of hyperglycemia-induced changes in the retinal microvasculature.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has been hypothesized as a mediator in the activation of multiple pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanism by which high glucose inactivates GAPDH in retinal microvascular cells.
Bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs), transfected with GAPDH, were incubated in 20 mM glucose. The effect of the overexpression of GAPDH on its activity, apoptosis, and upstream signaling pathways, protein kinase C, and hexosamine pathways was determined. The effect of the inhibitors of nitration and ribosylation on GAPDH activity, its nuclear translocation and reversal of glucose insult was also evaluated.
High glucose decreased GAPDH activity, expression, and nuclear translocation. Overexpression of GAPDH prevented glucose-induced inhibition of its activity, nuclear translocation, apoptosis, and activation of protein kinase C and hexosamine pathways. Inhibitors of nitration and ribosylation ameliorated glucose-induced inhibition of GAPDH, and their addition during the normal glucose exposure that followed high glucose levels had a beneficial effect on GAPDH activity and the degree of nitration and ribosylation.
In hyperglycemia, GAPDH in retinal microvascular cells is inhibited by its covalent modifications, and this activates multiple pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The agents that can directly target modification of GAPDH have potential in inhibiting the development and in arresting the progression of diabetic retinopathy.
Proliferation and migration of retinal endothelial cells (REC) are associated with the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. REC proliferation is stimulated by isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (i.e., VEGF121 and VEGF165), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) of which VEGF165 also enhances migration of REC. Effects induced by VEGF-A can be blocked with ranibizumab, a VEGF-binding Fab fragment used in therapy of diabetic macular edema. In this study, we investigated potential angiogenic effects of placental growth factors (PlGF-1, PlGF-2) as other members of the VEGF family and whether the primary action of VEGF165 is modulated in the presence of bFGF, IGF-1 and PlGF-1/-2. We also studied how effects of growth factor combinations can be attenuated with ranibizumab.
Effects of single growth factors or their combinations on proliferation and migration of immortalized bovine retinal endothelial cells (iBREC) were studied with or without ranibizumab or the inhibitor of VEGF receptors KRN951.
Proliferation of iBREC was significantly stimulated by 1–100 ng/ml PlGF-1 or PlGF-2, but additive effects were not observed with various combinations of the tested growth factors. Ranibizumab neutralized VEGF’s effect on proliferation but was not effective when the other growth factors were used in combination with VEGF. bFGF and IGF-1 but not PlGF-1 or PlGF-2 stimulated iBREC migration as single agents, and they further enhanced VEGF-induced migration. The effects of such growth factor combinations including VEGF on migration were efficiently blocked by targeting only VEGF with ranibizumab. Migration induced by VEGF plus bFGF and IGF-1 was also almost completely inhibited by KRN951 interfering with VEGF receptor signalling.
Migration but not proliferation of iBREC induced by combinations of bFGF, IGF-1, PlGF-1 or PlGF-2 together with VEGF is efficiently suppressed by ranibizumab. VEGF-mediated signalling through VEGFR2 seems to control REC migration dominantly in the presence of other growth factors.
Retinal endothelial cells; Growth factors; Ranibizumab; Migration; Proliferation; Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
H-Ras, a small molecular weight G- protein, undergoes post-translational modifications enabling its translocation from cytosol to the membrane. Hyperglycemia increases apoptosis of retinal capillary cells via activation of H-Ras, which can be ameliorated by farnesylation inhibitors. Our aim is to investigate the mechanism of retinal H-Ras activation in diabetes. H-Ras and Raf-1 were quantified in the retinal membrane and cytosol fractions obtained from streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats, and the role of post-translation modification was determined by investigating the effect of simvastatin on diabetes-induced alterations. The effect of H-Ras-siRNA on membrane translocation and apoptosis was also determined in bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs). Diabetes increased expressions of H-Ras and Raf-1 in the retinal membranes, and simvastatin prevented such translocation. Glucose-exposure of BRECs increased membrane H-Ras expression and H-Ras-siRNA prevented this translocation, and also decreased their apoptosis. Thus membrane translocation of H-Ras is a plausible mechanism responsible for accelerated apoptosis of retinal capillary cells in diabetes.
A three-pore model was developed that describes for the first time, the fractional transport of water and molecular tracers across the retinal endothelial barrier. Experimental results showed that there was no change in permeability or hydraulic conductivity in bovine retinal endothelial cell (BREC) monolayers after exposure to high glucose, whereas VEGF increased permeability under both normal and high-glucose environments. The transport results are consistent with ZO-1 and VE-cadherin immunocytochemistry and the expression of claudin-5, which are all unaltered by high glucose.
Changes in blood vessel barrier properties contribute to retinal edema in diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, limited data are available to describe the routes of transport for fluids and solutes across the inner blood–retinal barrier (iBRB). In this study, a three-pore model was developed to characterize such routes in normal and elevated glucose levels.
Diffusive and apparent permeabilities to TAMRA (467 Da), dextran (70 kDa), and LDL (2000 kDa), as well as hydraulic conductivity, were measured across bovine retinal endothelial cell (BREC) monolayers after exposure to normal- and high-glucose media for 6 days. The data were used to develop a model of transport dynamics. Claudin 5 and eNOS Western blot analysis were used to measure changes in expression and phosphorylation. Immunolocalization of ZO-1 and VE-cadherin demonstrated organization of the junctional complex. Apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay.
A three-pore model describes the fractional transport of water and molecular tracers across the retinal endothelial barrier. No change in permeability or hydraulic conductivity was observed after exposure to high glucose, whereas VEGF increased permeability in both normal- and high-glucose environments. The transport results were consistent with ZO-1 and VE-cadherin immunocytochemistry and expression of claudin-5, which were all unaltered by high glucose.
The data describe, for the first time, a model for transport of various size solutes and fluids across endothelial cells of the iBRB. Further, the results support the existence of an indirect pathway by which iBRB permeability is increased through the upregulation of retinal VEGF in response to hyperglycemia.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are linked with the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are increased in ischemic and nonischemic diabetic retina, and VEGF is required for the development of retinal and iris neovascularization. Moreover, VEGF alone can induce much of the concomitant pathology of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we found that AGEs increased VEGF mRNA levels in the ganglion, inner nuclear, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layers of the rat retina. In vitro, AGEs increased VEGF mRNA and secreted protein in human RPE and bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. The AGE-induced increases in VEGF expression were dose- and time-dependent, inhibited by antioxidants, and additive with hypoxia. Use of an anti-VEGF antibody blocked the capillary endothelial cell proliferation induced by the conditioned media of AGE-treated cells. AGEs may participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy through their ability to increase retinal VEGF gene expression.
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents have recently been used intravitreally during the perioperative period for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). However, the mechanism of theraputic effects of the agents remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) on retinal vascular endothelial cells and expressions of VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in PDR.
Twenty-four patients with PDR were enrolled and randomized to two groups. Twelve eyes of 12 patients of each group received either an intravitreal injection of 1.25 mg bevacizumab or a sham injection 6 days before vitrectomy. Neovascular membranes (NVMs) were collected during pars plana vitrectomy. The numbers of vascular endothelial cells in the NVMs were counted after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and von Willebrand. The expressions of VEGF and HIF-1α in the NVMs were detected through immunohistochemistry. Ten epiretinal membrane specimens from patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) without IVB treatment were set as an additional control.
The number of vascular endothelial cells in NVMs of the IVB pretreated group was significantly lower than that of the sham group (21.5±3.94 versus 41.33±7.44, p=0.003). The IVB pretreated group also showed significantly lower levels of VEGF and HIF-1α in NVMs than those of the sham group (PHIF-1α=0.02, PVEGF<0.001). A stepwise regression analysis showed that IVB was a significant negative predictor for the numbers of vascular endothelial cells (β=–0.89, p<0.001) and the expressions of VEGF (β=–0.85, p<0.001) and HIF-1α (β=–0.64, p=0.001) in PDR patients. Epiretinal membranes of the PVR group showed negative staining of VEGF and HIF-1α.
Pretreatment with IVB in patients with PDR significantly decreased vascular endothelial cells and expressions of VEGF and HIF-1α, which further supports preoperative use of IVB in such patients.
Three anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are currently used for the treatment of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD): pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab. Ranibizumab is an antibody fragment approved for the treatment of wet AMD. Bevacizumab is a full-length antibody registered for use in oncology but unlicensed for wet AMD. However, it is used off-label worldwide not only for wet AMD but also for various other ocular diseases associated with macular edema and abnormal vessel growth. We consider aspects of ranibizumab and bevacizumab in relation to their molecular characteristics, in vitro and in vivo properties, and preclinical safety data. Before 2009, most studies described the short-term toxicity of bevacizumab in multiple cell types of the eye. Since 2009, an increasing number of studies have compared the properties of ranibizumab and bevacizumab and investigated their impact on retinal cell functioning. Compared with bevacizumab, ranibizumab neutralizes VEGF better at low concentrations, maintains efficacy for longer, and has a higher retinal penetration and potency. Studies in animals demonstrate ranibizumab to be better localized to the injected eye, whereas bevacizumab appears to have a greater effect in the fellow eye. In humans, a localized and systemic effect has been reported for both molecules. In conclusion, overlapping yet distinct pharmacological properties of ranibizumab and bevacizumab indicate that safety or efficacy data from one cannot be extrapolated to the other.
age-related macular degeneration; ranibizumab; bevacizumab; Lucentis; Avastin; VEGF
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis and contributes to increased permeability across both the blood-retinal and blood-brain barriers. After 2 decades of extensive research into the VEGF families and receptors, specific molecules have been targeted for drug development, and several medications have received US Food and Drug Administration approval. Bevacizumab, a full-length antibody against VEGF approved for the intravenous treatment of advanced carcinomas, has been used extensively in ophthalmology for exudative age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, retinopathy of prematurity, and other chorioretinal vascular disorders. Pegaptanib and ranibizumab have been developed specifically for intraocular use, whereas the soon-to-be-introduced aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye) is moving through clinical trials for both intraocular and systemic use. Although these drugs exhibit excellent safety profiles, ocular and systemic complications, particularly thromboembolic events, remain a concern in patients receiving therapy. Patients experiencing adverse events that may be related to VEGF suppression should be carefully evaluated by both the ophthalmologist and the medical physician to reassess the need for intraocular therapy and explore the feasibility of changing medications. For this review a search of PubMed from January 1, 1985 through April 15, 2011, was performed using the following terms (or combination of terms): vascular endothelial growth factors, VEGF, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retina vein occlusions, retinopathy of prematurity, intravitreal injections, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and VEGF Trap. Studies were limited to those published in English. Other articles were identified from bibliographies of retrieved articles and archives of the author.
Cellular metabolic memory occurs in diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and metformin in this phenomenon. In bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRECs) and retinas of diabetic rats, the inflammatory gene, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and the proapoptotic gene, Bax, induced by hyperglycemia, remained elevated after returning to normoglycemia. BRECs with small interfering RNA–mediated SIRT1 knockdown had increased sensitivity to hyperglycemia stress, whereas SIRT1 overexpression or activation by metformin inhibited the increase of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species–mediated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity through the upregulation of liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK), ultimately suppressing NF-κB and Bax expression. Furthermore, we showed that hyperglycemia led to PARP activation, which in turn may have downregulated SIRT1. Of importance, this study also demonstrated that metformin suppressed the “memory” of hyperglycemia stress in the diabetic retinas, which may be involved in the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway. Our data suggest that SIRT1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of the cellular metabolic memory, and the use of metformin specifically for such therapy may be a new avenue of investigation in the diabetes field.
Fluid accumulation into the subretinal space and the development of macular edema is a common condition in age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and following ocular surgery, or injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other cytokines have been implicated in the disruption of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) barrier function and a reduction in the regulated removal of subretinal fluid; however, the cellular and molecular events linking these agents to the disruption of barrier function have not been established. In the current study, cultures of ARPE-19 and primary porcine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were utilized to investigate the effects of the VEGF-induced modifications to the barrier properties of the RPE. The barrier function was determined by transepithelial resistance (TER) measurements and morphology of the RPE monolayers. In both ARPE-19 and primary porcine RPE cells the administration of VEGF produced a significant drop in TER, and this response was only observed following apical administration. Maximum reduction in TER was reached 5 hours post VEGF administration. These responses were concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 502 pg/mL in ARPE-19 cells and 251 pg/mL in primary porcine cells. In both ARPE-19 and primary RPE cells, the response to VEGF was blocked by pretreatment with the relatively selective VEGF-R2 antagonists, SU5416 or ZM323881, or the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein. Administration of the relatively selective VEGF-R2 agonist, VEGF-E, also reduced TER in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 of 474 pg/mL), while VEGF-R1 agonist, placental growth factor (PlGF), did not significantly alter the TER. Immunolocalization studies demonstrated that confluent monolayers exhibited continuous cell-to-cell ZO-1 protein contacts and apical localization of the VEGF-R2 receptors. These data provide evidence that the VEGF-induced breakdown of RPE barrier function is mediated by the activation of apically-oriented VEGF-R2 receptors. Thus, VEGF-mediated increases in RPE permeability are initiated by a rise in intraocular levels of VEGF.
RPE; resistance; VEGF; tight junction; macular edema; polarity; receptor
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are both implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy. How these pathways interact to promote retinal vasculopathy is not fully understood. Glyoxalase-I (GLO-I) is an enzyme critical for the detoxification of AGEs and retinal vascular cell survival. We hypothesized that, in retina, angiotensin II (Ang II) downregulates GLO-I, which leads to an increase in methylglyoxal-AGE formation. The angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker, candesartan, rectifies this imbalance and protects against retinal vasculopathy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Cultured bovine retinal endothelial cells (BREC) and bovine retinal pericytes (BRP) were incubated with Ang II (100 nmol/l) or Ang II+candesartan (1 μmol/l). Transgenic Ren-2 rats that overexpress the RAS were randomized to be nondiabetic, diabetic, or diabetic+candesartan (5 mg/kg/day) and studied over 20 weeks. Comparisons were made with diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.
In BREC and BRP, Ang II induced apoptosis and reduced GLO-I activity and mRNA, with a concomitant increase in nitric oxide (NO•), the latter being a known negative regulator of GLO-I in BRP. In BREC and BRP, candesartan restored GLO-I and reduced NO•. Similar events occurred in vivo, with the elevated RAS of the diabetic Ren-2 rat, but not the diabetic Sprague-Dawley rat, reducing retinal GLO-I. In diabetic Ren-2 rats, candesartan reduced retinal acellular capillaries, inflammation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and NO•, and restored GLO-I.
We have identified a novel mechanism by which candesartan improves diabetic retinopathy through the restoration of GLO-I.
Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) constitute the second most common cause of retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy, with a prevalence of between 1% and 2% in persons older than 40 years of age. Despite the existence of numerous potential therapeutic options, none is entirely satisfactory, and many patients with RVO suffer irreversible visual loss. Fortunately however, the recent introduction of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, such as ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech), offers a potentially new treatment approach for clinicians managing this disorder. The results of the BRAVO and CRUISE trials have provided the first definitive evidence for the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of RVO. As a result, ranibizumab has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RVO-associated macular edema. In this review, we provide a critical evaluation of clinical trial data for the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab, and address unresolved issues in the management of this disorder.
ranibizumab; retinal vein occlusion; vascular endothelial growth factor; macular edema
The alternative splice variant of VEGF, VEGF165b, is cytoprotective for endothelial and epithelial cells and is antiangiogenic, making it a new candidate for the treatment of ischemic retinopathies.
A number of key ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, are characterized by localized areas of epithelial or endothelial damage, which can ultimately result in the growth of fragile new blood vessels, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. VEGF-A165, the principal neovascular agent in ocular angiogenic conditions, is formed by proximal splice site selection in its terminal exon 8. Alternative splicing of this exon results in an antiangiogenic isoform, VEGF-A165b, which is downregulated in diabetic retinopathy. Here the authors investigate the antiangiogenic activity of VEGF165b and its effect on retinal epithelial and endothelial cell survival.
VEGF-A165b was injected intraocularly in a mouse model of retinal neovascularization (oxygen-induced retinopathy [OIR]). Cytotoxicity and cell migration assays were used to determine the effect of VEGF-A165b.
VEGF-A165b dose dependently inhibited angiogenesis (IC50, 12.6 pg/eye) and retinal endothelial migration induced by 1 nM VEGF-A165 across monolayers in culture (IC50, 1 nM). However, it also acts as a survival factor for endothelial cells and retinal epithelial cells through VEGFR2 and can stimulate downstream signaling. Furthermore, VEGF-A165b injection, while inhibiting neovascular proliferation in the eye, reduced the ischemic insult in OIR (IC50, 2.6 pg/eye). Unlike bevacizumab, pegaptanib did not interact directly with VEGF-A165b.
The survival effects of VEGF-A165b signaling can protect the retina from ischemic damage. These results suggest that VEGF-A165b may be a useful therapeutic agent in ischemia-induced angiogenesis and a cytoprotective agent for retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important angiogenic factor that is able to stimulate the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, is the best-studied hallmark of angiogenesis. Neovascularization is a major cause of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly population. Specific molecular inhibitors of VEGF have been proved to be useful in the treatment of AMD. Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab are structurally similar to anti-VEGF drugs in the treatment of AMD. Many studies have indicated that Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab are of roughly equal short-term efficacy and safety, Bevacizumab is an attractive alternative to Ranibizumab due to its lower cost. However, only Ranibizumab has received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of macular degeneration. More multicenter clinical trials are required to compare the relative efficacy and safety of these two drugs and some progress has been achieved. This review discusses the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost and other practical implications of Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab.
Ranibizumab; Bevacizumab; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); age-related macular degeneration; angiogenesis.
Diabetic macular edema is the major cause of visual acuity impairment in diabetic patients. The exact etiopathogenesis is unknown and, currently, grid/focal retinal laser photocoagulation represents the recommended treatment. It has been demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema by mediating vascular permeability and accumulation of intracellular and extracellular fluid, and thereby represents an appealing candidate as a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. The advent of intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs has opened up a new era for the management of diabetic macular edema. At present, three anti-VEGF substances are available for routine clinical use, ie, pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting the use of ranibizumab in clinical practice. Most of the studies analyzed in this review are prospective, controlled clinical trials that have focused on documenting the therapeutic effect of ranibizumab and its safety, providing encouraging results.
ranibizumab; diabetic macular edema; anti-VEGF; diabetic macular edema
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) are elevated in the vitreous of diabetic patients and in retinas of diabetic rats associated with increased retinal vascular permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinal vascular permeability induced by these cytokines are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of IL-1β and TNF-α on retinal endothelial cell permeability were compared and the molecular mechanisms by which TNF-α increases cell permeability were elucidated.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Cytokine-induced retinal vascular permeability was measured in bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) and rat retinas. Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunocytochemistry were performed to determine tight junction protein expression and localization.
IL-1β and TNF-α increased BREC permeability, and TNF-α was more potent. TNF-α decreased the protein and mRNA content of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and claudin-5 and altered the cellular localization of these tight junction proteins. Dexamethasone prevented TNF-α–induced cell permeability through glucocorticoid receptor transactivation and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transrepression. Preventing NF-κB activation with an inhibitor κB kinase (IKK) chemical inhibitor or adenoviral overexpression of inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) reduced TNF-α–stimulated permeability. Finally, inhibiting protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) using both a peptide and a novel chemical inhibitor reduced NF-κB activation and completely prevented the alterations in the tight junction complex and cell permeability induced by TNF-α in cell culture and rat retinas.
These results suggest that PKCζ may provide a specific therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular permeability in retinal diseases characterized by elevated TNF-α, including diabetic retinopathy.
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears may develop as a complication after anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment for pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This retrospective study analyses best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and foveal involvement after RPE tears that are associated with anti-VEGF therapy due to PED in exudative AMD.
A total of 37 patients with RPE tears during anti-VEGF therapy (bevacizumab 12, ranibizumab 21 and pegaptanib 4 eyes) for progressive PED in AMD (PED with occult choroidal neovascularization 25 eyes and PED with retinal angiomatous proliferation 12 eyes) were included in this study. We analyzed BCVA and different morphologic aspects by means of appearance on fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. Mean follow-up was 88 weeks.
RPE tears were diagnosed a mean of 56 days after the first injection. BCVA deteriorated after RPE tear and during follow-up significantly (P<0.001), with 53.2% of eyes being legally blind (WHO, world health organization) at 12 months. RPE-free foveal area, foveal wrinkling of the RPE, and fibrotic scar development were significantly associated with worse visual acuity.
RPE tears can be observed in 12–15% of treated eyes during anti-VEGF therapy for PED in exudative AMD. Owing to the close time relationship with the therapy, this complication must be taken into consideration. Visual prognosis is associated with a decrease in vision in the long term, often resulting in a severe visual disability. Relevant factors for a negative visual prognosis were the potential foveal involvement of the central RPE and morphologic fibrovascular transformation of the RPE tear.
bevacizumab (Avastin); ranibizumab (Lucentis); pegaptanib (Macugen); age-related macular degeneration; retinal pigment epithelium detachment; retinal pigment epithelium tears
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among individuals of working age in industrialized nations, with most of the vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema (DME). The formation of DME depends on the action of several growth factors and inflammatory mediators, but vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) appears to be critical for breaking down the blood-retinal barrier and promoting the accumulation of macular edema. Laser photocoagulation has been the standard-of-care for three decades, and although it stabilizes vision, significant gains in visual acuity after treatment are unusual. Several VEGF inhibitors (pegaptanib, aflibercept, and ranibizumab) have been initially developed and tested for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and subsequently for DME. In Phase I, II, and III trials for DME, ranibizumab has been shown to be superior to macular laser photocoagulation and intraocular triamcinolone acetonide injections for improving visual acuity and drying the macula. As a result, ranibizumab is the only anti-VEGF drug that has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of DME. Most experts now consider intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy to be standard-of-care for DME involving the fovea.
aflibercept; bevacizumab; diabetic macular edema; diabetic retinopathy; ranibizumab; vascular endothelial growth factor
Pharmacological inhibition of VEGF-A has proven to be effective in inhibiting angiogenesis and vascular leak associated with cancers and various eye diseases. However, little information is currently available on the binding kinetics and relative biological activity of various VEGF inhibitors. Therefore, we have evaluated the binding kinetics of two anti-VEGF antibodies, ranibizumab and bevacizumab, and VEGF Trap (also known as aflibercept), a novel type of soluble decoy receptor, with substantially higher affinity than conventional soluble VEGF receptors. VEGF Trap bound to all isoforms of human VEGF-A tested with subpicomolar affinity. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab also bound human VEGF-A, but with markedly lower affinity. The association rate for VEGF Trap binding to VEGF-A was orders of magnitude faster than that measured for bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Similarly, in cell-based bioassays, VEGF Trap inhibited the activation of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, as well as VEGF-A induced calcium mobilization and migration in human endothelial cells more potently than ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Only VEGF Trap bound human PlGF and VEGF-B, and inhibited VEGFR1 activation and HUVEC migration induced by PlGF. These data differentiate VEGF Trap from ranibizumab and bevacizumab in terms of its markedly higher affinity for VEGF-A, as well as its ability to bind VEGF-B and PlGF.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10456-011-9249-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
VEGF receptor; Aflibercept; Affinity; Age-related macular degeneration; Placental growth factor; Biomedicine; Cardiology; Biomedicine general; Ophthalmology; Cancer Research; Cell Biology; Oncology
Increased retinal vasopermeability contributes to diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. Despite clinical progress, effective therapy remains a major need. Vasoinhibins, a family of peptides derived from the protein hormone prolactin (and inclusive of the 16-kDa fragment of prolactin), antagonize the proangiogenic effects of VEGF, a primary mediator of retinal vasopermeability. Here, we demonstrate what we believe to be a novel function of vasoinhibins as inhibitors of the increased retinal vasopermeability associated with diabetic retinopathy. Vasoinhibins inhibited VEGF-induced vasopermeability in bovine aortic and rat retinal capillary endothelial cells in vitro. In vivo, vasoinhibins blocked retinal vasopermeability in diabetic rats and in response to intravitreous injection of VEGF or of vitreous from patients with diabetic retinopathy. Inhibition by vasoinhibins was similar to that achieved following immunodepletion of VEGF from human diabetic retinopathy vitreous or blockage of NO synthesis, suggesting that vasoinhibins inhibit VEGF-induced NOS activation. We further showed that vasoinhibins activate protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to eNOS dephosphorylation at Ser1179 and, thereby, eNOS inactivation. Moreover, intravitreous injection of okadaic acid, a PP2A inhibitor, blocked the vasoinhibin effect on endothelial cell permeability and retinal vasopermeability. These results suggest that vasoinhibins have the potential to be developed as new therapeutic agents to control the excessive retinal vasopermeability observed in diabetic retinopathy and other vasoproliferative retinopathies.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intraocular injections of ranibizumab (RBZ) and bevacizumab (BVZ) in transgenic mouse models in which human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) causes subretinal neovascularization (NV) and/or exudative retinal detachment.
Randomized trials in animal models
Transgenic mice in which the rhodopsin promoter drives expression of human VEGF in photoreceptors (rho/VEGF mice) and double transgenic mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of human VEGF in photoreceptors (Tet/opsin/VEGF mice).
Rho/VEGF mice) received intraocular injections of RBZ, BVZ, or vehicle and after various time periods the area of subretinal NV was measured. Tet/opsin/VEGF mice were given an intraocular injection of RBZ, BVZ, or vehicle and after 5 days of doxycycline treatment the presence or absence of retinal detachment was determined.
Main Outcome Measures
Area of subretinal neovascularization per retina in rho/VEGF mice and the occurrence of retinal detachment in Tet/opsin/VEGF mice
In rho/VEGF mice, intraocular injections of RBZ or BVZ strongly suppressed subretinal NV, but the duration of effect was greater for BVZ. Three injections of 10 μg of BVZ over the course of 2 weeks not only suppressed subretinal NV in the injected eye, but also caused significant suppression in the fellow eye indicating a systemic effect. In doxycycline-treated Tet/opsin/VEGF mice, intraocular injection of 10 μg of BVZ significantly reduced the incidence of exudative retinal detachment compared to injection of 10 μg of RBZ. Injection of 25 μg of BVZ reduced the incidence of retinal detachment in both eyes.
Intraocular injections of RBZ and BVZ had similar efficacy in rho/VEGF mice, but the duration of effect was greater for BVZ. In Tet/opsin/VEGF mice which expression levels of human VEGF are very high and the phenotype is severe, BVZ showed greater efficacy than RBZ. In both models, higher doses or repeated injections of BVZ, but not RBZ, resulted in a systemic effect. These data suggest that BVZ is not inferior to RBZ for treatment of subretinal NV in mice and is superior in a severe model. The systemic effects of BVZ after intraocular injection deserve further study and consideration of their potential consequences.
To investigate whether vector-based vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF)165 targeted siRNA expression system (pSilencersiVEGF) could inhibit VEGF165 expression in vitro and suppresses retinal neovascularization in the murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy.
pSilencersiVEGF, from which siRNA targeting VEGF165 could be generated, was constructed and transfected to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Then the level of VEGF isoforms in cultured cells was measured by RT–PCR and ELISA. Intravitreal injection of pSilencersiVEGF was performed in mice with ischemic retinopathy. Retinal neovascularization was evaluated by angiography using fluorescein-labeled dextran and quantitated histologically. The levels of VEGF164, which is equivalent to human VEGF165 in murine retinas were determined by RT–PCR and western immunoblotting.
Expression of VEGF165 in cultured cells was greatly curtailed by pSilencersiVEGF under both normoxia and hypoxia conditions. However, the other isoforms, VEGF189 and VEGF121, were expressed to a similar degree regardless of whether pSilencersiVEGF was administered. Based on angiography and histological analysis, retinal neovascularization in the eyes treated with pSilencersiVEGF were significantly reduced compared to the control eyes. Furthermore, the VEGF164 levels in the murine retinas were suppressed by pSilencersiVEGF.
Retinal neovascularization in the murine model was significantly attenuated by pSilencersiVEGF through decreasing VEGF164 levels in the retinas. pSilencersiVEGF seems to be a potential therapeutic tool for ischemic-induced retinal diseases.