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1.  Endoscopic management of occluded biliary uncovered metal stents: A multicenter experience 
AIM: To compare diverse endoscopic interventions in the management of occluded uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) that had been placed for palliative treatment of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction.
METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken in 4 tertiary endoscopic centers to determine optimal management of different types of occluded SEMSs. The technical success of performed treatment in occluded SEMSs, the patency of the stent, the need for re-intervention and the financial costs of each treatment were analyzed.
RESULTS: Fifty four patients were included in the analysis; 21 received Hanaro, 19 Wallstent and 14 Flexus. For the relief of obstruction, a plastic stent was inserted in 24 patients, a second SEMS in 25 and mechanical cleaning was performed in 5 patients. The overall median second patency rates between second SEMSs and plastic stents did not differ (133 d for SEMSs vs 106 d for plastic stents; P = 0.856). Similarly, no difference was found between the overall survival of SEMS and plastic stent groups, and no procedure-related complications occurred. Incremental cost analysis showed that successive plastic stenting was a cost-saving strategy at least in Greece.
CONCLUSION: Insertion of uncovered SEMSs or plastic stents is a safe and effective treatment for occluded uncovered SEMSs; insertion of plastic stents appears to be the most cost-effective strategy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i1.98
PMCID: PMC3016687  PMID: 21218089
Biliary obstruction; Gastrointestinal neoplasms; Stents; Cost effectiveness
2.  Endoscopic stenting for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: efficacy of unilateral and bilateral placement of plastic and metal stents in a retrospective review of 480 patients 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:103.
Background
Endoscopic biliary drainage of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is controversial with respect to the optimal types of stents and the extent of drainage. This study evaluated endoscopic palliation in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma using self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) and plastic stents (PS).We also compared unilateral and bilateral stent placement according to the Bismuth classification.
Methods
Data on 480 patients receiving endoscopic biliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma between September 1995 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the following outcome parameters: technical success (TS), functional success (FS), early and late complications, stent patency and survival. Patients were followed from stent insertion until death or stent occlusion. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the Bismuth classification (Group 1, type I; Group 2, type II; Group 3, type > III).
Results
The initial stent insertion was successful in 450 (93.8%) patients. TS was achieved in 204 (88.3%) patients treated with PS and in 246 (98.8%) patients palliated with SEMS (p < 0.001). In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the FS in patients treated with SEMS (97.9%) was significantly higher than in patients treated with PS (84.8%) (p < 0.001). Late complications occurred in 115 (56.4%) patients treated with PS and 60 (24.4%) patients treated with SEMS (p < 0.001). The median duration of stent patency in weeks (w) were as follows: 20 w in patients palliated with PS and 27 w in patients treated with SEMS (p < 0.0001). In Group 2, the median duration of PS patency was 17 w and 18 w for unilateral and bilateral placement, respectively (p = 0.0004); the median duration of SEMS patency was 24 w and 29 w for unilateral and bilateral placement, respectively (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression showed that SEMS placement (B = 0.48; P < 0.01) and bilateral deployment (B = 0.24; P < 0.01) were the only independent prognostic factors associated with stent patency.
Conclusions
SEMS insertion for the palliation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma offers higher technical and clinical success rates in the ITT analysis as well as lower complication rates and a superior cumulative stent patency when compared with PS placement in all Bismuth classifications. The cumulative patency of bilateral SEMS or PS stents was significantly higher than that of unilateral SEMS or PS stents, with lower occlusion rates in Bismuth II patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-103
PMCID: PMC3476445  PMID: 22873816
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma; Endoscopic palliation; Plastic stents; Self-expandable metal stents; Bilateral stenting
3.  SEMS vs cSEMS in duodenal and small bowel obstruction: High risk of migration in the covered stent group 
AIM: To compare clinical success and complications of uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) vs covered SEMS (cSEMS) in obstruction of the small bowel.
METHODS: Technical success, complications and outcome of endoscopic SEMS or cSEMS placement in tumor related obstruction of the duodenum or jejunum were retrospectively assessed. The primary end points were rates of stent migration and overgrowth. Secondary end points were the effect of concomitant biliary drainage on migration rate and overall survival. The data was analyzed according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines.
RESULTS: Thirty-two SEMS were implanted in 20 patients. In all patients, endoscopic stent implantation was successful. Stent migration was observed in 9 of 16 cSEMS (56%) in comparison to 0/16 SEMS (0%) implantations (P = 0.002). Stent overgrowth did not significantly differ between the two stent types (SEMS: 3/16, 19%; cSEMS: 2/16, 13%). One cSEMS dislodged and had to be recovered from the jejunum by way of laparotomy. Time until migration between SEMS and cSEMS in patients with and without concomitant biliary stents did not significantly differ (HR = 1.530, 95%CI 0.731-6.306; P = 0.556). The mean follow-up was 57 ± 71 d (range: 1-275 d).
CONCLUSION: SEMS and cSEMS placement is safe in small bowel tumor obstruction. However, cSEMS is accompanied with a high rate of migration in comparison to uncovered SEMS.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i37.6199
PMCID: PMC3787350  PMID: 24115817
Endoscopy; Digestive system; Intestinal neoplasms; Self-expandable metal stents; Tumor obstruction; Self-expandable metal stents complications
4.  Endoscopic management of occluded metal biliary stents: Metal versus 10F plastic stents 
AIM: To compare the efficacy of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) with 10F plastic stents (PSs) in the endoscopic management of occluded SEMSs.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who underwent SEMS insertion for palliation of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction between 2000 and 2007 and subsequent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with SEMS or PS for initial SEMS occlusion between 2000 and 2008.
RESULTS: Subsequent ERBD with SEMS was performed in 29 patients and with PS in 27. The median time to stent occlusion after subsequent ERBD was 186 d in the SEMS group and 101 d in the PS group (P = 0.118). Overall median stent patency was 79 d for the SEMS group and 66 d for the PS group (P = 0.379). The mean number of additional biliary drainage procedures after subsequent ERBD in patients that died (n = 50) during the study period was 2.54 ± 4.12 for the SEMS group and 1.85 ± 1.95 for the PS group (P = 0.457). The mean total cost of additional biliary drainage procedures after the occlusion of subsequent SEMS or PS was $410.04 ± 692.60 for the SEMS group and $630.16 ± 671.63 for the PS group (P = 0.260). Tumor ingrowth as the cause of initial SEMS occlusion was the only factor associated with a shorter time to subsequent stent occlusion (101 d for patients with tumor ingrowth vs 268 d for patients without tumor ingrowth, P = 0.008).
CONCLUSION: Subsequent ERBD with PSs offered similar patency and number of additional biliary drainage procedures compared to SEMSs in the management of occluded SEMS.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i42.5347
PMCID: PMC2980685  PMID: 21072899
Stents; Biliary tract neoplasms; Obstructive jaundice; Endoscopy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
5.  Management of occluded metal stents in malignant biliary obstruction: similar outcomes with second metal stents compared to plastic stents 
Digestive diseases and sciences  2012;57(11):2765-2773.
Background
Covered or uncovered self expandable metallic stents (SEMS) placed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction can occlude in 19–40%, but optimal management is unclear.
Aim
We sought to summarize current evidence regarding management of occluded SEMS in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.
Methods
Two investigators independently searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science using pre-defined search criteria, and reviewed bibliographies of included studies. Data were independently abstracted by two investigators, and analyzed using RevMan. We compared strategies of second SEMS versus plastic stents with respect to the following outcomes: rate of second stent re-occlusion, duration of second stent patency, and survival.
Results
Ten retrospective studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Management options described were placement of an uncovered SEMS (n=125), covered SEMS (n=106), plastic stent (n=135), percutaneous biliary drain (n=7), mechanical cleaning (n=18), or microwave coagulation (n=7). Relative risk of re-occlusion was not significantly different in patients with second SEMS compared to plastic stents (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.92, 1.67, I2= 0, p 0.16). Duration of second stent patency was not significantly different between patients who received second SEMS versus plastic stents (weighted mean difference 0.46, 95% CI −0.30, 1.23, I2=83%). Survival was not significantly different among patients who received plastic stents versus SEMS (weighted mean difference −1.13, 95% CI −2.33, 0.07, I2 86%, p 0.07).
Conclusions
Among patients with malignant biliary obstruction and occluded SEMS, available evidence suggests a strategy of placing a plastic stent may be as effective as second SEMS. Limitations of these findings were that all studies were retrospective and heterogeneity between studies was detected for two of the outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s10620-012-2272-7
PMCID: PMC3920578  PMID: 22732833
6.  Interventional Management of Malignant Colorectal Obstruction: Use of Covered and Uncovered Stents 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(1):57-63.
Objective
We wanted to evaluate usefulness of uncovered stent in comparison with covered stent for the palliative treatment of malignant colorectal obstruction.
Materials and Methods
Covered (n = 52, type 1 and type 2) and uncovered (n = 22, type 3) stents were placed in 74 patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. Stent insertion was performed for palliative treatment in 37 patients (covered stent: n = 23 and uncovered stent: n = 14). In the palliative group, the data on the success of the procedure, the stent patency and the complications between the two groups (covered versus uncovered stents) were compared.
Results
The technical success rate was 89% (33/37). Symptomatic improvement was achieved in 86% (18/21) of the covered stent group and in 92% (11/12) of the uncovered stent group patients. The period of follow-up ranged from three to 319 days (mean period: 116±85 days). The mean period of stent patency was 157±33 days in the covered stent group and 165±25 days in the uncovered stent group. In the covered stent group, stent migration (n = 11), stent fracture (n = 2) and poor expansion of the stent (n = 2) were noted. In the uncovered stent group, tumor ingrowth into the stents (n = 3) was noted.
Conclusion
Self-expanding metallic stents are effective for relieving malignant colorectal obstruction. The rate of complications is lower in the uncovered stent group than in the covered stent group.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2007.8.1.57
PMCID: PMC2626692  PMID: 17277564
Colon, interventional procedures; Colon, neoplasm; Colon, stenosis or obstruction; Stents and prostheses
7.  Stenting and interventional radiology for obstructive jaundice in patients with unresectable biliary tract carcinomas 
Together with biliary drainage, which is an appropriate procedure for unresectable biliary cancer, biliary stent placement is used to improve symptoms associated with jaundice. Owing to investigations comparing percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), surgical drainage, and endoscopic drainage, many types of stents are now available that can be placed endoscopically. The stents used are classified roughly as plastic stents and metal stents. Compared with plastic stents, metal stents are of large diameter, and have long-term patency (although they are expensive). For this reason, the use of metal stents is preferred for patients who are expected to survive for more than 6 months, whereas for patients who are likely to survive for less than 6 months, the use of plastic stents is not considered to be improper. Obstruction in a metal stent is caused by a tumor that grows within the stent through the mesh interstices. To overcome such problems, a covered metal stent was developed, and these stents are now used in patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction. However, this type of stent has been reported to have several shortcomings, such as being associated with the development of acute cholecystitis and stent migration. In spite of these shortcomings, evidence is expected to demonstrate its superiority over other types of stent.
doi:10.1007/s00534-007-1282-x
PMCID: PMC2794345  PMID: 18274846
Biliary stenting; Biliary tract cancer; Obstructive jaundice; Guidelines
8.  Analysis of complications after EUS-FNA in patients with obstructive jaundice and drained with plastic biliary stents or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS): do complications differ between the type of stent? 
Background and aims
The standard of care for relieving malignant obstructive jaundice is endoscopic biliary stenting. There is debate on use of plastic biliary stents vs. self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) for biliary decompression. While the latter is more expensive, it tends to have a longer patency. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be performed after biliary decompression for diagnostic and staging purposes. This retrospective study compares the complications of EUS-FNA in patients drained with plastic stents vs. SEMS.
Materials and methods
Seventy-six patients underwent EUS-FNA after biliary stenting. 31 patients received plastic stents and 45 patients received SE MS. All 76 patients underwent EUS-FNA by dedicated pancreatico-biliary endoscopists. All immediate complications within 48 hours of the EUS-FNA were recorded. Complication rates were statistically compared between patients with plastic stents vs. SEMS.
Results
A total of 76 patients with a mean age of 64.3 years were collected and analyzed retrospectively. 31 patients underwent plastic stenting and 45 patients underwent SE MS placement for biliary decompression for head of pancreas masses. A total of 4/31 patients had complications in the plastic stent group while 0/45 of patients had complications in the SE MS group (p=0.025). The complications in the plastic stent group were abdominal pain (n=2) and cholangitis (n=2).
Conclusion
This study suggests that EUS-FNA in patients who underwent biliary decompression with a plastic stent had significantly more complications than patients who underwent placement of a SEMS. We hypothesize that the smaller caliber biliary stent is more likely to occlude after FNA secondary to bleeding and/or edema.
doi:10.7178/jig.125
PMCID: PMC3896574  PMID: 24498529
endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration; plastic biliary stents; self-expandable metal biliary stent; obstructive jaundice
9.  Role of Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent for Treatment of Benign Biliary Strictures and Bile Leaks 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;13(Suppl 1):S67-S73.
Endoscopic therapy by balloon dilation and placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents is the treatment of choice for benign biliary stricture. This approach is effective but it typically requires multiple endoscopic sessions given the short duration of stent patency. The endoscopic approach for treatment of bile leak involves the placement of a stent with or without biliary sphincterotomy. The self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has traditionally been used for palliation of malignant biliary strictures given the long duration of stent patency owing to their larger stent diameter. Recently, SEMS has been used in a variety of benign biliary strictures and leaks, especially with the design of the covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS), which permits endoscopic-mediated stent removal. The use of CSEMS in benign biliary stricture could potentially result in a decrease in endoscopic sessions and it is technically easier when compared to placement of multiple plastic stents. However, complications such as cholecystitis due to blockage of cystic duct, stent migration, infection and pancreatitis have been reported. The potential subsegmental occlusion of contralateral intrahepatic ducts also limits the use of CSEMS in hilar stricture. Certain techniques and improvement of stent design may overcome these challenges in the future. Thus, CSEMS may be appropriate in only highly selected conditions, such as refractory benign biliary stricture, despite multiple plastic stent placement or difficult to treat bile duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis, and should not be used routinely. This review focuses on the use of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for benign biliary strictures and bile leaks.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2012.13.S1.S67
PMCID: PMC3341463  PMID: 22563290
Biliary tract disease; Benign stricture; Stent
10.  A Multicenter, Prospective Study of a New Fully Covered Expandable Metal Biliary Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Malignant Bile Duct Obstruction 
Background and Study Aims. Endoscopic placement of self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) is indicated for palliation of inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. A fully covered biliary SEMS (WallFlex Biliary RX Boston Scientific, Natick, USA) was assessed for palliation of extrahepatic malignant biliary obstruction. Patients and Methods. 58 patients were included in this prospective, multicenter series conducted under an FDA-approved IDE. Main outcome measurements included (1) absence of stent occlusion within six months or until death, whichever occurred first and (2) technical success, need for reintervention, bilirubin levels, stent patency, time to stent occlusion, and adverse events. Results. Technical success was achieved in 98% (57/58), with demonstrated acute removability in two patients. Adequate clinical palliation until completion of followup was achievedin 98% (54/55) of evaluable patients, with 1 reintervention due to stent obstruction after 142 days. Mean total bilirubin decreased from 8.9 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL at 1 month. Device-related adverse events were limited and included 2 cases of cholecystitis. One stent migrated following radiation therapy. Conclusions. The WallFlex Biliary fully covered stent yielded technically successful placement with uncomplicated acute removal where required, appropriate reduction in bilirubin levels, and low rates of stent migration and occlusion. This SEMS allows successful palliation of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction.
doi:10.1155/2013/642428
PMCID: PMC3623117  PMID: 23606835
11.  Endoscopic Stent Placement in the Palliation of Malignant Biliary Obstruction 
Clinical Endoscopy  2011;44(2):76-86.
Biliary drainage with biliary stent placement is the treatment of choice for palliation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable neoplasms. In such patients, the endoscopic approach can be initially used with percutaneous radiological intervention. In patients with unresectable malignant distal bile duct obstructions, endoscopic biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has now become the main and least invasive palliative modality, which has been proven to be more effective in >80% of cases with lower morbidity than surgery, and perhaps may provide a survival benefit. In patients with unresectable malignant hilar obstruction, the endoscopic approach for biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has also been considered as the treatment of choice. There is still a lack of clear consensus on the use of covered versus uncovered metal stents in malignant distal bile duct obstructions and plastic versus metal stents and unilateral versus bilateral drainage in malignant hilar obstructions.
doi:10.5946/ce.2011.44.2.76
PMCID: PMC3363064  PMID: 22741117
Biliary stent; Malignant biliary obstruction; Biliary drainage
12.  A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials and Prospective Studies Comparing Covered and Bare Self-Expandable Metal Stents for the Treatment of Malignant Obstruction in the Digestive Tract 
Background: Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are widely used for the palliative treatment of malignant gastrointestinal obstruction. Our aim was to evaluate the evidence comparing covered and bare SEMS in the digestive tract using meta-analytical techniques.
Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for comparative studies assessing the two types of stents. The primary outcomes of interest were stent patency and patient survival; second outcomes included technical success, clinical success, tumor ingrowth, tumor overgrowth, and stent migration. A random-effects model was conducted. Pooled analysis was done separately based on the different segments of the digestive tract.
Results: Eleven studies (8 randomized controlled trials and 3 prospective cohort studies) including a total of 1376 patients were identified. Covered SEMS were equivalent to bare SEMS in terms of technical success, clinical success, stent patency (gastroduodenal obstruction: HR =0.87, 95% CI 0.53-1.42; colorectal obstruction: HR =0.89, 95% CI 0.18-4.45; biliary obstruction: HR =0.73, 95% CI 0.41-1.32) and survival rates (esophageal obstruction: HR =1.80, 95% CI 0.73-4.44; gastroduodenal obstruction: HR =0.83, 95% CI 0.55-1.26; biliary obstruction: HR =0.99, 95% CI 0.77-1.28), although bare stents were more prone to tumor ingrowth (esophageal obstruction: RR =0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.77; gastroduodenal obstruction: RR =0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.55; colorectal obstruction: RR =0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.70; biliary obstruction: RR =0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.69), whereas covered stents had the higher risk of stent migration (gastroduodenal obstruction: RR =5.01, 95% CI 1.53-16.43; colorectal obstruction: RR =11.70, 95% CI 2.84-48.27; biliary obstruction: RR =8.11, 95% CI 1.47-44.76) and tumor overgrowth (biliary obstruction: RR =2.03, 95% CI 1.08-3.78).
Conclusion: Both covered and bare SEMS are comparable in efficacy for the palliative treatment of malignant obstruction in the digestive tract. Each type of the stents has its own merit and demerit relatively.
doi:10.7150/ijms.5969
PMCID: PMC3689879  PMID: 23794946
covered stent; digestive tract; gastrointestinal cancer; malignant obstruction; self-expandable metal stent.
13.  Randomized trial in malignant biliary obstruction: Plastic vs partially covered metal stents 
AIM: To compare efficacy and complications of partially covered self-expandable metal stent (pcSEMS) to plastic stent (PS) in patients treated for malignant, infrahilar biliary obstruction.
METHODS: Multicenter prospective randomized clinical trial with treatment allocation to a pcWallstent® (SEMS) or a 10 French PS. Palliative patients aged ≥ 18, for infrahilar malignant biliary obstruction and a Karnofsky performance scale index > 60% from 6 participating North American university centers. Primary endpoint was time to stent failure, with secondary outcomes of death, adverse events, Karnofsky performance score and short-form-36 scale administered on a three-monthly basis for up to 2 years. Survival analyses were performed for stent failure and death, with Cox proportional hazards regression models to determine significant predictive characteristics.
RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were accrued over 37 mo, 42 were randomized to the SEMS group and 83 patients were available for analyses. Time to stent failure was 385.3 ± 52.5 d in the SEMS and 153.3 ± 19.8 d in the PS group, P = 0.006. Time to death did not differ between groups (192.3 ± 23.4 d for SEMS vs 211.5 ± 28.0 d for PS, P = 0.70). The only significant predictor was treatment allocation, relating to the time to stent failure (P = 0.01). Amongst other measured outcomes, only cholangitis differed, being more common in the PS group (4.9% vs 24.5%, P = 0.029). The small number of patients in follow-up limits longitudinal assessments of performance and quality of life. From an initially planned 120 patients, only 85 patients were recruited.
CONCLUSION: Partially covered SEMS result in a longer duration till stent failure without increased complication rates, yet without accompanying measurable benefits in survival, performance, or quality of life.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i46.8638
PMCID: PMC3870509  PMID: 24379581
Randomized; Biliary; Obstruction; Stent; Plastic; Metal; Palliative; Common bile duct
14.  Threaded biliary inside stents are a safe and effective therapeutic option in cases of malignant hilar obstruction 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:31.
Background
Although endoscopic biliary stents have been accepted as part of palliative therapy for cases of malignant hilar obstruction, the optimal endoscopic management regime remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of placing a threaded stent above the sphincter of Oddi (threaded inside plastic stents, threaded PS) and compared the results with those of other stent types.
Methods
Patients with malignant hilar obstruction, including those requiring biliary drainage for stent occlusion, were selected. Patients received either one of the following endoscopic indwelling stents: threaded PS, conventional plastic stents (conventional PS), or metallic stents (MS). Duration of stent patency and the incident of complication were compared in these patients.
Results
Forty-two patients underwent placement of endoscopic indwelling stents (threaded PS = 12, conventional PS = 17, MS = 13). The median duration of threaded PS patency was significantly longer than that of conventional PS patency (142 vs. 32 days; P = 0.04, logrank test). The median duration of threaded PS and MS patency was not significantly different (142 vs. 150 days, P = 0.83). Stent migration did not occur in any group. Among patients who underwent threaded PS placement as a salvage therapy after MS obstruction due to tumor ingrowth, the median duration of MS patency was significantly shorter than that of threaded PS patency (123 vs. 240 days).
Conclusions
Threaded PS are safe and effective in cases of malignant hilar obstruction; moreover, it is a suitable therapeutic option not only for initial drainage but also for salvage therapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-31
PMCID: PMC3598933  PMID: 23410217
15.  Endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage with replacement of a covered self-expandable metal stent 
Endoscopic self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement has become a standard palliative therapy for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Acute cholecystitis after SEMS placement is a serious complication. We report a patient with an acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement, who was managed successfully with endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage (ETGBD) and replacement of the covered SEMS. An 85-year-old man with pancreatic cancer suffered from acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement. It was impossible to perform percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage. After removal of the covered SEMS with a snare, a 7Fr double pigtail stent was placed between the gallbladder and duodenum, subsequently followed by another covered SEMS insertion into the common bile duct beside the gallbladder stent. The cholecystitis improved immediately after ETGBD. ETGBD with replacement of the covered SEMS thus proved to be effective for treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement.
doi:10.4253/wjge.v3.i2.46
PMCID: PMC3055944  PMID: 21403817
Self-expandable metal stent; Cholecystitis; Endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage
16.  Endoscopic stenting-Where are we now and where can we go? 
Self expanding metal stents (SEMS) play an important role in the management of malignant obstructing lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Traditionally, they have been used for palliation in malignant gastric outlet and colonic obstruction and esophageal malignancy. The development of the polyflex stent, which is a removable self expanding plastic stent, allows temporary stent insertion for benign esophageal disease and possibly for patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to esophagectomy. Potential complications of SEMS insertion include perforation, tumour overgrowth or ingrowth, and stent migration. Newer stents are being developed with the aim of increasing technical and clinical success rates, while reducing complication rates. Other areas of development include biodegradable stents for benign disease and radioactive or drug-eluting stents for malignant disease. It is hoped that, in the future, newer stents will improve our management of these difficult conditions and, possibly, provide prognostic as well as symptomatic benefit in the setting of malignant obstruction.
doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3798
PMCID: PMC2721435  PMID: 18609702
Endoscopy; Stent; Palliation; Bowel obstruction; Malignancy
17.  Efficacy of the New Double-Layer Stent for Unresectable Distal Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Center Retrospective Study 
Background and Aims. For distal malignant biliary obstruction in cases with short life expectancy, occlusion of plastic stents (PSs) does not usually occur before death, and the application of such a procedure is considered adequate from the viewpoint of cost-effectiveness. Methods and Setting. A new commercially available DLS with side holes, a conventional DLS, and, uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) were retrospectively evaluated in patients with jaundice due to unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction. Results. A total of 64 patients received endoscopic biliary stenting (23 patients with the new DLS, 24 patients with conventional DLS, and 17 patients with uncovered SEMS) from December 2002 to August 2009. Median patency time was found to be 198 days for the new DLS group and 99 days for the conventional DLS group, revealing a significant difference between devices. There was, however, no significant difference in median patency time between the new DLS and the uncovered SEMS (198 days versus 344 days). Conclusion. The new DLS is efficient and safe and may be considered the first choice for unresectable distal malignant obstruction in cases with short life expectancy.
doi:10.1155/2012/680963
PMCID: PMC3310264  PMID: 22496603
18.  Recent Advances of Biliary Stent Management 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;13(Suppl 1):S62-S66.
Recent progress in chemotherapy has prolonged the survival of patients with malignant biliary strictures, leading to increased rates of stent occlusion. Even we employed metallic stents which contributed to higher rates and longer durations of patency, and occlusion of covered metallic stents now occurs in about half of all patients during their survival. We investigated the complication and patency rate for the removal of covered metallic stents, and found that the durations were similar for initial stent placement and re-intervention. In order to preserve patient quality of life, we currently recommend the use of covered metallic stents for patients with malignant biliary obstruction because of their removability and longest patency duration, even though uncovered metallic stents have similar patency durations.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2012.13.S1.S62
PMCID: PMC3341462  PMID: 22563289
Metallic stent; Stent obstruction; Re-intervention; Biliary stricture; Stent patency
19.  A temporary self-expanding metallic stent for malignant colorectal obstruction 
AIM: To investigate the clinical safety and efficacy of a temporary self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) for malignant colorectal obstruction.
METHODS: From September 2007 to June 2012, 33 patients with malignant colorectal obstruction were treated with a temporary SEMS. The stent had a tubular configuration with a retrieval lasso attached inside the proximal end of the stent to facilitate its removal. The SEMS was removed one week after placement. Clinical examination, abdominal X-ray and a contrast study were prospectively performed and both initial and follow-up data before and at 1 d, 1 wk, and 1 mo, 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo after stent placement were obtained. Data collected on the technical and clinical success of the procedures, complications, need for reinsertion and survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: Stent placement and removal were technically successful in all patients with no procedure-related complications. Post-procedural complications included stent migration (n = 2) and anal pain (n = 2). Clinical success was achieved in 31 (93.9%) of 33 patients with resolution of bowel obstruction within 3 d of stent removal. Eleven of the 33 patients died 73.81 ± 23.66 d (range 42-121 d) after removal of the stent without colonic re-obstruction. Clinical success was achieved in another 8 patients without symptoms of obstruction during the follow-up period. Reinsertion of the stent was performed in the remaining 12 patients with re-obstruction after 84.33 ± 51.80 d of follow-up. The mean and median periods of relief of obstructive symptoms were 97.25 ± 9.56 d and 105 ± 17.43 d, respectively, using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
CONCLUSION: Temporary SEMS is a safe and effective approach in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction due to low complication rates and good medium-term outcomes.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i7.1119
PMCID: PMC3582001  PMID: 23467379
Self-expanding metallic stents; Colorectum; Malignant obstruction; Complications
20.  Clinical Outcome of Self-Expandable Metal Stent Placement in the Management of Malignant Proximal Colon Obstruction 
Gut and Liver  2011;5(2):165-170.
Background/Aims
There are limited data regarding the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stents in the treatment of proximal colon obstruction. We compared the clinical outcomes of stent placement in patients with malignant proximal to distal colon obstructions.
Methods
We reviewed medical records from 37 consecutive patients from three institutions (19 men; mean age, 72 years) who underwent endoscopic stent placement at a malignant obstruction of the proximal colon. We also examined the records from 99 patients (50 men; mean age, 65 years) who underwent endoscopic stent placement for a distal colon obstruction. Technical success, clinical improvements, complications and stent patency were compared between treatments.
Results
The technical success rate tended to be lower in stents inserted to treat proximal colon obstructions than in those used to treat distal colon obstructions (86% vs 97%, p=0.06). Clinical improvement was achieved in 78% of patients (29/37) with proximal colonic stenting and in 91% of patients (90/99) with distal colonic stenting (p=0.08). Complications (24% vs 27%), stent migration (8% vs 8%) and stent reocclusion rates (11% vs 17%) did not differ significantly between groups. Two cases of bowel perforation related to stenting (5%) occurred in patients with proximal colonic stenting.
Conclusions
The technical success and clinical improvement associated with self-expandable metal stents used to treat proximal colon obstruction tend to be lower than cases of distal colon obstruction. Technical failure is an important cause of poor clinical improvement in patients with proximal colon stenting. Complication rates and stent patency appear to be similar in both groups.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2011.5.2.165
PMCID: PMC3140661  PMID: 21814596
Self-expandable metal stent; Colon cancer; Proximal colon; Distal colon
21.  Biliary metal stents are superior to plastic stents for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer 
Surgical Endoscopy  2011;25(7):2364-2367.
Background
It is unclear whether plastic or metal stents are more suitable for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions in patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing plastic or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placements for preoperative biliary decompression.
Methods
This was a retrospective study of all patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatic head cancer who underwent their index endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and all follow-up biliary stent placements at our center before undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Plastic or SEMS were placed at ERCP for biliary decompression. The main outcome measure was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions between the plastic and SEMS cohorts.
Results
29 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy had preoperative biliary stent placement (18 plastic, 11 SEMS) at our center. Whereas none of the 11 patients who underwent SEMS placement had stent dysfunction, 7 of 18 (39%) patients with plastic stents required endoscopic reintervention before surgery (P = 0.02). Reinterventions were due to cholangitis (n = 1) or persistent elevation in serum bilirubin levels (n = 6). Two patients with SEMS underwent EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration after ERCP, which yielded a positive diagnosis of cancer in all cases; SEMS did not impair visualization of the tumor mass at EUS. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was undertaken successfully in all 29 patients and the presence of a SEMS did not interfere with biliary anastomosis. On univariate logistic regression, only SEMS placement was associated with less need for endoscopic reintervention (P = 0.02).
Conclusions
SEMS are superior to plastic stents for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00464-010-1552-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00464-010-1552-6
PMCID: PMC3116134  PMID: 21373939
Metal stents; Plastic stents; Preoperative; Biliary decompression; Pancreatic cancer; Pancreaticoduodenectomy
22.  Covered Metal Stenting for Malignant Lower Biliary Stricture with Pancreatic Duct Obstruction: Is Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Needed? 
Aims. To evaluate the need for endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) before covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS) deployment for malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Methods. This study included 79 patients who underwent CSEMS deployment for unresectable malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Treatment outcomes and complications were compared between 38 patients with EST before CSEMS deployment (EST group) and 41 without EST (non-EST group). Results. The technical success rates were 100% in both the EST and the non-EST group. The incidence of pancreatitis was 2.6% in the EST, and 2.4% in the non-EST group (P = 0.51). The incidences of overall complications were 18.4% and 14.6%, respectively, (P = 0.65). Within the non-EST groups, the incidence of pancreatitis was 0% in patients with fully covered stent deployment and 3.6% in those with partially covered stent deployment (P = 0.69). In the multivariate analysis, younger age (P = 0.003, OR 12) and nonpancreatic cancer (P = 0.001, OR 24) were significant risk factors for overall complications after CSEMS deployment. EST was not identified as a risk factor. Conclusions. EST did not reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after CSEMS deployment in patients of unresectable distal malignant obstruction with pancreatic duct obstruction.
doi:10.1155/2013/375613
PMCID: PMC3845734  PMID: 24324486
23.  Management of an occluded biliary metallic stent 
In patients with a malignant biliary obstruction who require biliary drainage, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) provides longer patency duration than a plastic stent (PS). Nevertheless, a stent occlusion by tumor ingrowth, tumor overgrowth and biliary sludge may develop. There are several methods to manage occluded SEMS. Endoscopic management is the preferred treatment, whereas percutaneous intervention is an alternative approach. Endoscopic treatment involves mechanical cleaning with a balloon and a second stent insertion as stent-in-stent with either PS or SEMS. Technical feasibility, patient survival and cost-effectiveness are important factors that determine the method of re-drainage and stent selection.
doi:10.4253/wjge.v4.i5.157
PMCID: PMC3355237  PMID: 22624066
Occluded biliary metallic stent; Re-drainage; Cost effectiveness
24.  Colorectal Stenting in Malignant Large Bowel Obstruction: The Learning Curve 
Aim. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) are increasingly used for the palliation of metastatic colorectal cancer and as a bridge to surgery for obstructing tumours. This case series analyses the learning curve and changes in practice of colorectal stenting over a three year period. Methods. A study of 40 patients who underwent placement of SEMS for the management of colorectal cancer. Patients spanned the learning curve of a single surgeon endoscopist. Results. Technical success rates increased from 82% initially, using an average of 1.7 stents per procedure, to a 94% success rate where all patients were stented using a single stent. There has been a change in practice from elective palliative stenting toward emergency preoperative stenting. Conclusion. There is a steep learning curve for the use of SEMS in the management of malignant colorectal bowel obstruction. We suggest that at least 20 cases are required for an operator to be considered experienced.
doi:10.1155/2011/917848
PMCID: PMC3263676  PMID: 22312531
25.  Preoperative Colonoscopy for Detection of Synchronous Neoplasms after Insertion of Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Occlusive Colorectal Cancer: Comparison of Covered and Uncovered Stents 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(3):311-316.
Background/Aims
In patients with occlusive colorectal cancers, a complete preoperative evaluation of the colon proximal to the obstruction is often impossible. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of preoperative colonoscopy after stent placement and to determine whether the success rate of colonoscopy differs between covered and uncovered stents.
Methods
Seventy-three patients with malignant colorectal obstruction were enrolled prospectively. In patients with a resectable cancer, a preoperative colonoscopy was performed after insertion of a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). The success rate of complete preoperative colonoscopy was compared between covered and uncovered stents.
Results
Forty-five of 73 patients who underwent stent placement had a resectable cancer (61.6%). A complete preoperative colonoscopy was possible in 40 of 45 patients (88.9%). The success rate of complete preoperative colonoscopy was significantly lower in the covered-stent group when the obstructing mass lesion was located in the sigmoid colon (p=0.024). Synchronous cancer was detected in one patient (2.2%). Stent migration was observed in four patients with a covered stent.
Conclusions
A preoperative complete colonoscopy after SEMS placement was feasible and safe in most patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. Uncovered stents seem to have more advantages than covered stents in preoperative colonoscopy proximal to the obstruction.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.3.311
PMCID: PMC3661963  PMID: 23710312
Colorectal neoplasms; Stents; Colonoscopy; Neoplasms, multiple primary

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