AIM: To compare diverse endoscopic interventions in the management of occluded uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) that had been placed for palliative treatment of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction.
METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken in 4 tertiary endoscopic centers to determine optimal management of different types of occluded SEMSs. The technical success of performed treatment in occluded SEMSs, the patency of the stent, the need for re-intervention and the financial costs of each treatment were analyzed.
RESULTS: Fifty four patients were included in the analysis; 21 received Hanaro, 19 Wallstent and 14 Flexus. For the relief of obstruction, a plastic stent was inserted in 24 patients, a second SEMS in 25 and mechanical cleaning was performed in 5 patients. The overall median second patency rates between second SEMSs and plastic stents did not differ (133 d for SEMSs vs 106 d for plastic stents; P = 0.856). Similarly, no difference was found between the overall survival of SEMS and plastic stent groups, and no procedure-related complications occurred. Incremental cost analysis showed that successive plastic stenting was a cost-saving strategy at least in Greece.
CONCLUSION: Insertion of uncovered SEMSs or plastic stents is a safe and effective treatment for occluded uncovered SEMSs; insertion of plastic stents appears to be the most cost-effective strategy.
Biliary obstruction; Gastrointestinal neoplasms; Stents; Cost effectiveness
AIM: To compare clinical success and complications of uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) vs covered SEMS (cSEMS) in obstruction of the small bowel.
METHODS: Technical success, complications and outcome of endoscopic SEMS or cSEMS placement in tumor related obstruction of the duodenum or jejunum were retrospectively assessed. The primary end points were rates of stent migration and overgrowth. Secondary end points were the effect of concomitant biliary drainage on migration rate and overall survival. The data was analyzed according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines.
RESULTS: Thirty-two SEMS were implanted in 20 patients. In all patients, endoscopic stent implantation was successful. Stent migration was observed in 9 of 16 cSEMS (56%) in comparison to 0/16 SEMS (0%) implantations (P = 0.002). Stent overgrowth did not significantly differ between the two stent types (SEMS: 3/16, 19%; cSEMS: 2/16, 13%). One cSEMS dislodged and had to be recovered from the jejunum by way of laparotomy. Time until migration between SEMS and cSEMS in patients with and without concomitant biliary stents did not significantly differ (HR = 1.530, 95%CI 0.731-6.306; P = 0.556). The mean follow-up was 57 ± 71 d (range: 1-275 d).
CONCLUSION: SEMS and cSEMS placement is safe in small bowel tumor obstruction. However, cSEMS is accompanied with a high rate of migration in comparison to uncovered SEMS.
Endoscopy; Digestive system; Intestinal neoplasms; Self-expandable metal stents; Tumor obstruction; Self-expandable metal stents complications
AIM: To compare the efficacy of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) with 10F plastic stents (PSs) in the endoscopic management of occluded SEMSs.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who underwent SEMS insertion for palliation of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction between 2000 and 2007 and subsequent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with SEMS or PS for initial SEMS occlusion between 2000 and 2008.
RESULTS: Subsequent ERBD with SEMS was performed in 29 patients and with PS in 27. The median time to stent occlusion after subsequent ERBD was 186 d in the SEMS group and 101 d in the PS group (P = 0.118). Overall median stent patency was 79 d for the SEMS group and 66 d for the PS group (P = 0.379). The mean number of additional biliary drainage procedures after subsequent ERBD in patients that died (n = 50) during the study period was 2.54 ± 4.12 for the SEMS group and 1.85 ± 1.95 for the PS group (P = 0.457). The mean total cost of additional biliary drainage procedures after the occlusion of subsequent SEMS or PS was $410.04 ± 692.60 for the SEMS group and $630.16 ± 671.63 for the PS group (P = 0.260). Tumor ingrowth as the cause of initial SEMS occlusion was the only factor associated with a shorter time to subsequent stent occlusion (101 d for patients with tumor ingrowth vs 268 d for patients without tumor ingrowth, P = 0.008).
CONCLUSION: Subsequent ERBD with PSs offered similar patency and number of additional biliary drainage procedures compared to SEMSs in the management of occluded SEMS.
Stents; Biliary tract neoplasms; Obstructive jaundice; Endoscopy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Endoscopic biliary drainage of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is controversial with respect to the optimal types of stents and the extent of drainage. This study evaluated endoscopic palliation in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma using self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) and plastic stents (PS).We also compared unilateral and bilateral stent placement according to the Bismuth classification.
Data on 480 patients receiving endoscopic biliary drainage for hilar cholangiocarcinoma between September 1995 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the following outcome parameters: technical success (TS), functional success (FS), early and late complications, stent patency and survival. Patients were followed from stent insertion until death or stent occlusion. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the Bismuth classification (Group 1, type I; Group 2, type II; Group 3, type > III).
The initial stent insertion was successful in 450 (93.8%) patients. TS was achieved in 204 (88.3%) patients treated with PS and in 246 (98.8%) patients palliated with SEMS (p < 0.001). In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the FS in patients treated with SEMS (97.9%) was significantly higher than in patients treated with PS (84.8%) (p < 0.001). Late complications occurred in 115 (56.4%) patients treated with PS and 60 (24.4%) patients treated with SEMS (p < 0.001). The median duration of stent patency in weeks (w) were as follows: 20 w in patients palliated with PS and 27 w in patients treated with SEMS (p < 0.0001). In Group 2, the median duration of PS patency was 17 w and 18 w for unilateral and bilateral placement, respectively (p = 0.0004); the median duration of SEMS patency was 24 w and 29 w for unilateral and bilateral placement, respectively (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression showed that SEMS placement (B = 0.48; P < 0.01) and bilateral deployment (B = 0.24; P < 0.01) were the only independent prognostic factors associated with stent patency.
SEMS insertion for the palliation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma offers higher technical and clinical success rates in the ITT analysis as well as lower complication rates and a superior cumulative stent patency when compared with PS placement in all Bismuth classifications. The cumulative patency of bilateral SEMS or PS stents was significantly higher than that of unilateral SEMS or PS stents, with lower occlusion rates in Bismuth II patients.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma; Endoscopic palliation; Plastic stents; Self-expandable metal stents; Bilateral stenting
Background and Study Aims. Endoscopic placement of self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) is indicated for palliation of inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. A fully covered biliary SEMS (WallFlex Biliary RX Boston Scientific, Natick, USA) was assessed for palliation of extrahepatic malignant biliary obstruction. Patients and Methods. 58 patients were included in this prospective, multicenter series conducted under an FDA-approved IDE. Main outcome measurements included (1) absence of stent occlusion within six months or until death, whichever occurred first and (2) technical success, need for reintervention, bilirubin levels, stent patency, time to stent occlusion, and adverse events. Results. Technical success was achieved in 98% (57/58), with demonstrated acute removability in two patients. Adequate clinical palliation until completion of followup was achievedin 98% (54/55) of evaluable patients, with 1 reintervention due to stent obstruction after 142 days. Mean total bilirubin decreased from 8.9 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL at 1 month. Device-related adverse events were limited and included 2 cases of cholecystitis. One stent migrated following radiation therapy. Conclusions. The WallFlex Biliary fully covered stent yielded technically successful placement with uncomplicated acute removal where required, appropriate reduction in bilirubin levels, and low rates of stent migration and occlusion. This SEMS allows successful palliation of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction.
Endoscopic therapy by balloon dilation and placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents is the treatment of choice for benign biliary stricture. This approach is effective but it typically requires multiple endoscopic sessions given the short duration of stent patency. The endoscopic approach for treatment of bile leak involves the placement of a stent with or without biliary sphincterotomy. The self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has traditionally been used for palliation of malignant biliary strictures given the long duration of stent patency owing to their larger stent diameter. Recently, SEMS has been used in a variety of benign biliary strictures and leaks, especially with the design of the covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS), which permits endoscopic-mediated stent removal. The use of CSEMS in benign biliary stricture could potentially result in a decrease in endoscopic sessions and it is technically easier when compared to placement of multiple plastic stents. However, complications such as cholecystitis due to blockage of cystic duct, stent migration, infection and pancreatitis have been reported. The potential subsegmental occlusion of contralateral intrahepatic ducts also limits the use of CSEMS in hilar stricture. Certain techniques and improvement of stent design may overcome these challenges in the future. Thus, CSEMS may be appropriate in only highly selected conditions, such as refractory benign biliary stricture, despite multiple plastic stent placement or difficult to treat bile duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis, and should not be used routinely. This review focuses on the use of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for benign biliary strictures and bile leaks.
Biliary tract disease; Benign stricture; Stent
Self expanding metal stents (SEMS) play an important role in the management of malignant obstructing lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Traditionally, they have been used for palliation in malignant gastric outlet and colonic obstruction and esophageal malignancy. The development of the polyflex stent, which is a removable self expanding plastic stent, allows temporary stent insertion for benign esophageal disease and possibly for patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to esophagectomy. Potential complications of SEMS insertion include perforation, tumour overgrowth or ingrowth, and stent migration. Newer stents are being developed with the aim of increasing technical and clinical success rates, while reducing complication rates. Other areas of development include biodegradable stents for benign disease and radioactive or drug-eluting stents for malignant disease. It is hoped that, in the future, newer stents will improve our management of these difficult conditions and, possibly, provide prognostic as well as symptomatic benefit in the setting of malignant obstruction.
Endoscopy; Stent; Palliation; Bowel obstruction; Malignancy
Endoscopic self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement has become a standard palliative therapy for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Acute cholecystitis after SEMS placement is a serious complication. We report a patient with an acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement, who was managed successfully with endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage (ETGBD) and replacement of the covered SEMS. An 85-year-old man with pancreatic cancer suffered from acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement. It was impossible to perform percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage. After removal of the covered SEMS with a snare, a 7Fr double pigtail stent was placed between the gallbladder and duodenum, subsequently followed by another covered SEMS insertion into the common bile duct beside the gallbladder stent. The cholecystitis improved immediately after ETGBD. ETGBD with replacement of the covered SEMS thus proved to be effective for treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement.
Self-expandable metal stent; Cholecystitis; Endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage
Biliary drainage with biliary stent placement is the treatment of choice for palliation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable neoplasms. In such patients, the endoscopic approach can be initially used with percutaneous radiological intervention. In patients with unresectable malignant distal bile duct obstructions, endoscopic biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has now become the main and least invasive palliative modality, which has been proven to be more effective in >80% of cases with lower morbidity than surgery, and perhaps may provide a survival benefit. In patients with unresectable malignant hilar obstruction, the endoscopic approach for biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has also been considered as the treatment of choice. There is still a lack of clear consensus on the use of covered versus uncovered metal stents in malignant distal bile duct obstructions and plastic versus metal stents and unilateral versus bilateral drainage in malignant hilar obstructions.
Biliary stent; Malignant biliary obstruction; Biliary drainage
Background and Aims. For distal malignant biliary obstruction in cases with short life expectancy, occlusion of plastic stents (PSs) does not usually occur before death, and the application of such a procedure is considered adequate from the viewpoint of cost-effectiveness. Methods and Setting. A new commercially available DLS with side holes, a conventional DLS, and, uncovered self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) were retrospectively evaluated in patients with jaundice due to unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction. Results. A total of 64 patients received endoscopic biliary stenting (23 patients with the new DLS, 24 patients with conventional DLS, and 17 patients with uncovered SEMS) from December 2002 to August 2009. Median patency time was found to be 198 days for the new DLS group and 99 days for the conventional DLS group, revealing a significant difference between devices. There was, however, no significant difference in median patency time between the new DLS and the uncovered SEMS (198 days versus 344 days). Conclusion. The new DLS is efficient and safe and may be considered the first choice for unresectable distal malignant obstruction in cases with short life expectancy.
Background: Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are widely used for the palliative treatment of malignant gastrointestinal obstruction. Our aim was to evaluate the evidence comparing covered and bare SEMS in the digestive tract using meta-analytical techniques.
Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for comparative studies assessing the two types of stents. The primary outcomes of interest were stent patency and patient survival; second outcomes included technical success, clinical success, tumor ingrowth, tumor overgrowth, and stent migration. A random-effects model was conducted. Pooled analysis was done separately based on the different segments of the digestive tract.
Results: Eleven studies (8 randomized controlled trials and 3 prospective cohort studies) including a total of 1376 patients were identified. Covered SEMS were equivalent to bare SEMS in terms of technical success, clinical success, stent patency (gastroduodenal obstruction: HR =0.87, 95% CI 0.53-1.42; colorectal obstruction: HR =0.89, 95% CI 0.18-4.45; biliary obstruction: HR =0.73, 95% CI 0.41-1.32) and survival rates (esophageal obstruction: HR =1.80, 95% CI 0.73-4.44; gastroduodenal obstruction: HR =0.83, 95% CI 0.55-1.26; biliary obstruction: HR =0.99, 95% CI 0.77-1.28), although bare stents were more prone to tumor ingrowth (esophageal obstruction: RR =0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.77; gastroduodenal obstruction: RR =0.12, 95% CI 0.03-0.55; colorectal obstruction: RR =0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.70; biliary obstruction: RR =0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.69), whereas covered stents had the higher risk of stent migration (gastroduodenal obstruction: RR =5.01, 95% CI 1.53-16.43; colorectal obstruction: RR =11.70, 95% CI 2.84-48.27; biliary obstruction: RR =8.11, 95% CI 1.47-44.76) and tumor overgrowth (biliary obstruction: RR =2.03, 95% CI 1.08-3.78).
Conclusion: Both covered and bare SEMS are comparable in efficacy for the palliative treatment of malignant obstruction in the digestive tract. Each type of the stents has its own merit and demerit relatively.
covered stent; digestive tract; gastrointestinal cancer; malignant obstruction; self-expandable metal stent.
We wanted to evaluate usefulness of uncovered stent in comparison with covered stent for the palliative treatment of malignant colorectal obstruction.
Materials and Methods
Covered (n = 52, type 1 and type 2) and uncovered (n = 22, type 3) stents were placed in 74 patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. Stent insertion was performed for palliative treatment in 37 patients (covered stent: n = 23 and uncovered stent: n = 14). In the palliative group, the data on the success of the procedure, the stent patency and the complications between the two groups (covered versus uncovered stents) were compared.
The technical success rate was 89% (33/37). Symptomatic improvement was achieved in 86% (18/21) of the covered stent group and in 92% (11/12) of the uncovered stent group patients. The period of follow-up ranged from three to 319 days (mean period: 116±85 days). The mean period of stent patency was 157±33 days in the covered stent group and 165±25 days in the uncovered stent group. In the covered stent group, stent migration (n = 11), stent fracture (n = 2) and poor expansion of the stent (n = 2) were noted. In the uncovered stent group, tumor ingrowth into the stents (n = 3) was noted.
Self-expanding metallic stents are effective for relieving malignant colorectal obstruction. The rate of complications is lower in the uncovered stent group than in the covered stent group.
Colon, interventional procedures; Colon, neoplasm; Colon, stenosis or obstruction; Stents and prostheses
AIM: To investigate the clinical safety and efficacy of a temporary self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) for malignant colorectal obstruction.
METHODS: From September 2007 to June 2012, 33 patients with malignant colorectal obstruction were treated with a temporary SEMS. The stent had a tubular configuration with a retrieval lasso attached inside the proximal end of the stent to facilitate its removal. The SEMS was removed one week after placement. Clinical examination, abdominal X-ray and a contrast study were prospectively performed and both initial and follow-up data before and at 1 d, 1 wk, and 1 mo, 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo after stent placement were obtained. Data collected on the technical and clinical success of the procedures, complications, need for reinsertion and survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: Stent placement and removal were technically successful in all patients with no procedure-related complications. Post-procedural complications included stent migration (n = 2) and anal pain (n = 2). Clinical success was achieved in 31 (93.9%) of 33 patients with resolution of bowel obstruction within 3 d of stent removal. Eleven of the 33 patients died 73.81 ± 23.66 d (range 42-121 d) after removal of the stent without colonic re-obstruction. Clinical success was achieved in another 8 patients without symptoms of obstruction during the follow-up period. Reinsertion of the stent was performed in the remaining 12 patients with re-obstruction after 84.33 ± 51.80 d of follow-up. The mean and median periods of relief of obstructive symptoms were 97.25 ± 9.56 d and 105 ± 17.43 d, respectively, using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
CONCLUSION: Temporary SEMS is a safe and effective approach in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction due to low complication rates and good medium-term outcomes.
Self-expanding metallic stents; Colorectum; Malignant obstruction; Complications
Together with biliary drainage, which is an appropriate procedure for unresectable biliary cancer, biliary stent placement is used to improve symptoms associated with jaundice. Owing to investigations comparing percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), surgical drainage, and endoscopic drainage, many types of stents are now available that can be placed endoscopically. The stents used are classified roughly as plastic stents and metal stents. Compared with plastic stents, metal stents are of large diameter, and have long-term patency (although they are expensive). For this reason, the use of metal stents is preferred for patients who are expected to survive for more than 6 months, whereas for patients who are likely to survive for less than 6 months, the use of plastic stents is not considered to be improper. Obstruction in a metal stent is caused by a tumor that grows within the stent through the mesh interstices. To overcome such problems, a covered metal stent was developed, and these stents are now used in patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction. However, this type of stent has been reported to have several shortcomings, such as being associated with the development of acute cholecystitis and stent migration. In spite of these shortcomings, evidence is expected to demonstrate its superiority over other types of stent.
Biliary stenting; Biliary tract cancer; Obstructive jaundice; Guidelines
In patients with a malignant biliary obstruction who require biliary drainage, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) provides longer patency duration than a plastic stent (PS). Nevertheless, a stent occlusion by tumor ingrowth, tumor overgrowth and biliary sludge may develop. There are several methods to manage occluded SEMS. Endoscopic management is the preferred treatment, whereas percutaneous intervention is an alternative approach. Endoscopic treatment involves mechanical cleaning with a balloon and a second stent insertion as stent-in-stent with either PS or SEMS. Technical feasibility, patient survival and cost-effectiveness are important factors that determine the method of re-drainage and stent selection.
Occluded biliary metallic stent; Re-drainage; Cost effectiveness
Aim. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) are increasingly used for the palliation of metastatic colorectal cancer and as a bridge to surgery for obstructing tumours. This case series analyses the learning curve and changes in practice of colorectal stenting over a three year period. Methods. A study of 40 patients who underwent placement of SEMS for the management of colorectal cancer. Patients spanned the learning curve of a single surgeon endoscopist. Results. Technical success rates increased from 82% initially, using an average of 1.7 stents per procedure, to a 94% success rate where all patients were stented using a single stent. There has been a change in practice from elective palliative stenting toward emergency preoperative stenting. Conclusion. There is a steep learning curve for the use of SEMS in the management of malignant colorectal bowel obstruction. We suggest that at least 20 cases are required for an operator to be considered experienced.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma has an extremely poor prognosis and is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Palliative management plays an important role in the treatment of patients with inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Surgical, percutaneous, and endoscopic biliary drainage are three modalities available to resolve obstructive jaundice. Plastic stents were widely used in the past; however, self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have become popular recently due to their long patency and reduced risk of side branch obstruction, and SEMS are now the accepted treatment of choice for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Bilateral drainage provides more normal and physiological biliary flow through the biliary ductal system than that of unilateral drainage. Unilateral drainage was preferred until recently because of its technical simplicity. But, with advancements in technology, bilateral drainage now achieves a high success rate and is the preferred treatment modality in many centers. However, the choice of unilateral or bilateral drainage is still controversial, and more studies are needed. This review focuses on the endoscopic method and discusses stent materials and types of procedures for patients with a hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma; Inoperable; Endoscopic; Drainage
Benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks are life-threatening conditions that are often treated surgically. Recently, placement of partially and fully covered metal or plastic stents has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment option. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of covered stent placement for the treatment of esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks with special emphasis on different stent designs.
Consecutive patients who underwent placement of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS), a partially covered SEMS (PSEMS) or a self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) for a benign esophageal rupture or anastomotic leak after upper gastrointestinal surgery in the period 2007-2010 were included. Data on patient demographics, type of lesion, stent placement and removal, clinical success and complications were collected
A total of 52 patients received 83 esophageal stents (61 PSEMS, 15 FSEMS, 7 SEPS) for an anastomotic leak (n = 32), iatrogenic rupture (n = 13), Boerhaave's syndrome (n = 4) or other cause (n = 3). Endoscopic stent removal was successful in all but eight patients treated with a PSEMS due to tissue ingrowth. Clinical success was achieved in 34 (76%, intention-to-treat: 65%) patients (PSEMS: 73%, FSEMS: 83%, SEPS: 83%) after a median of 1 (range 1-5) stent and a median stenting time of 39 (range 7-120) days. In total, 33 complications in 24 (46%) patients occurred (tissue in- or overgrowth (n = 8), stent migration (n = 10), ruptured stent cover (all Ultraflex; n = 6), food obstruction (n = 3), severe pain (n = 2), esophageal rupture (n = 2), hemorrhage (n = 2)). One (2%) patient died of a stent-related cause.
Covered stents placed for a period of 5-6 weeks may well be an alternative to surgery for treating benign esophageal ruptures or anastomotic leaks. As efficacy between PSEMS, FSEMS and SEPS is not different, stent choice should depend on expected risks of stent migration (SEPS and FSEMS) and tissue in- or overgrowth (PSEMS).
Recent progress in chemotherapy has prolonged the survival of patients with malignant biliary strictures, leading to increased rates of stent occlusion. Even we employed metallic stents which contributed to higher rates and longer durations of patency, and occlusion of covered metallic stents now occurs in about half of all patients during their survival. We investigated the complication and patency rate for the removal of covered metallic stents, and found that the durations were similar for initial stent placement and re-intervention. In order to preserve patient quality of life, we currently recommend the use of covered metallic stents for patients with malignant biliary obstruction because of their removability and longest patency duration, even though uncovered metallic stents have similar patency durations.
Metallic stent; Stent obstruction; Re-intervention; Biliary stricture; Stent patency
Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) can provide temporary relief of acute large bowel obstructions. Placement of SEMS creates the opportunity for semi-elective 1-stage surgical resections, use of possible adjuvant therapy or palliative relief of malignant obstructions. Our aim was to assess the likelihood of success and possible complication rates of SEMS insertion in a community hospital setting in patients presenting with large bowel obstructions.
We conducted a retrospective chart review at a single community-based hospital. This review addressed the technical success in deployment of the SEMS, clinical success defined by relief of the obstruction, procedure-related complications, surgical interventions and completion of adjuvant therapy for patients with large bowel obstructions.
In a 34-month period, 16 patients underwent 16 SEMS procedures. The average age of patients was 69.4 years and 7 (44%) were women. Thirteen patients had intrinsic colorectal cancers, 1 had an extracolonic lesion (ovarian cancer) and 2 had strictures due to diverticular disease. Technical success occurred in all 16 patients, but only 15 (94%) had clinical success. No procedure-related deaths (defined as death within 7 days) occurred. Palliative stenting occurred in 5 patients (31%). Eleven patients (69%) eventually had surgery. Stenting allowed a window for neoadjuvant therapy in 4 patients. Ten of 11 patients (91%) had a 1-stage procedure. One patient had a cecal perforation presenting 2 days after SEMS. This patient received a defunctioning ileostomy.
In appropriate patients with large bowel obstructions, SEMS procedures can be safely and effectively performed in a community-based setting.
Background. In patients with benign biliary strictures, the use of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) has been proposed as an alternative to plastic stenting, but high quality prospective data are sparse. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of a new fully covered SEMS for benign biliary strictures.
Methods. All consecutive patients with benign biliary strictures were treated with placement of a fully covered SEMS (WallFlex) for 6 months. Short- and long-term stricture resolution, adverse events, and ease of stent removal were recorded.
Results. 23 patients were enrolled. Stricture etiology was chronic pancreatitis (14), postorthotopic liver transplant (4), idiopathic (4), and biliary stones (1). All ERCPs were technically successful. All stents were successfully removed. Short-term stricture resolution was seen in 22/23 (96%) patients. Long-term success was 15/18 (83.3%). All 3 failures were patients with biliary strictures in the setting of chronic calcific pancreatitis. Conclusions. The use of the new SEMS for the treatment of benign biliary strictures led to short-term stricture resolution in the vast majority of patients. Over a long-term followup the success rate appears favorable compared to historical results achieved with multiple plastic stenting, particularly in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01238900).
Although endoscopic biliary stents have been accepted as part of palliative therapy for cases of malignant hilar obstruction, the optimal endoscopic management regime remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of placing a threaded stent above the sphincter of Oddi (threaded inside plastic stents, threaded PS) and compared the results with those of other stent types.
Patients with malignant hilar obstruction, including those requiring biliary drainage for stent occlusion, were selected. Patients received either one of the following endoscopic indwelling stents: threaded PS, conventional plastic stents (conventional PS), or metallic stents (MS). Duration of stent patency and the incident of complication were compared in these patients.
Forty-two patients underwent placement of endoscopic indwelling stents (threaded PS = 12, conventional PS = 17, MS = 13). The median duration of threaded PS patency was significantly longer than that of conventional PS patency (142 vs. 32 days; P = 0.04, logrank test). The median duration of threaded PS and MS patency was not significantly different (142 vs. 150 days, P = 0.83). Stent migration did not occur in any group. Among patients who underwent threaded PS placement as a salvage therapy after MS obstruction due to tumor ingrowth, the median duration of MS patency was significantly shorter than that of threaded PS patency (123 vs. 240 days).
Threaded PS are safe and effective in cases of malignant hilar obstruction; moreover, it is a suitable therapeutic option not only for initial drainage but also for salvage therapy.
There are limited data regarding the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stents in the treatment of proximal colon obstruction. We compared the clinical outcomes of stent placement in patients with malignant proximal to distal colon obstructions.
We reviewed medical records from 37 consecutive patients from three institutions (19 men; mean age, 72 years) who underwent endoscopic stent placement at a malignant obstruction of the proximal colon. We also examined the records from 99 patients (50 men; mean age, 65 years) who underwent endoscopic stent placement for a distal colon obstruction. Technical success, clinical improvements, complications and stent patency were compared between treatments.
The technical success rate tended to be lower in stents inserted to treat proximal colon obstructions than in those used to treat distal colon obstructions (86% vs 97%, p=0.06). Clinical improvement was achieved in 78% of patients (29/37) with proximal colonic stenting and in 91% of patients (90/99) with distal colonic stenting (p=0.08). Complications (24% vs 27%), stent migration (8% vs 8%) and stent reocclusion rates (11% vs 17%) did not differ significantly between groups. Two cases of bowel perforation related to stenting (5%) occurred in patients with proximal colonic stenting.
The technical success and clinical improvement associated with self-expandable metal stents used to treat proximal colon obstruction tend to be lower than cases of distal colon obstruction. Technical failure is an important cause of poor clinical improvement in patients with proximal colon stenting. Complication rates and stent patency appear to be similar in both groups.
Self-expandable metal stent; Colon cancer; Proximal colon; Distal colon
It is unclear whether plastic or metal stents are more suitable for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions in patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing plastic or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placements for preoperative biliary decompression.
This was a retrospective study of all patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatic head cancer who underwent their index endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and all follow-up biliary stent placements at our center before undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Plastic or SEMS were placed at ERCP for biliary decompression. The main outcome measure was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions between the plastic and SEMS cohorts.
29 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy had preoperative biliary stent placement (18 plastic, 11 SEMS) at our center. Whereas none of the 11 patients who underwent SEMS placement had stent dysfunction, 7 of 18 (39%) patients with plastic stents required endoscopic reintervention before surgery (P = 0.02). Reinterventions were due to cholangitis (n = 1) or persistent elevation in serum bilirubin levels (n = 6). Two patients with SEMS underwent EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration after ERCP, which yielded a positive diagnosis of cancer in all cases; SEMS did not impair visualization of the tumor mass at EUS. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was undertaken successfully in all 29 patients and the presence of a SEMS did not interfere with biliary anastomosis. On univariate logistic regression, only SEMS placement was associated with less need for endoscopic reintervention (P = 0.02).
SEMS are superior to plastic stents for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00464-010-1552-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Metal stents; Plastic stents; Preoperative; Biliary decompression; Pancreatic cancer; Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Placement of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) is an effective method for palliation of a malignant biliary obstruction. However, metal stents can cause various complications, including stent migration. Distally migrated metal stents, particularly covered SEMS, can be removed successfully in most cases. Stent trimming using argon plasma coagulation may be helpful in difficult cases despite conventional methods. However, no serious complications related to the trimming or remnant stent removal method have been reported due to the limited number of cases. In particular, proximal migration of a remnant fragmented metal stent after stent trimming followed by balloon sweeping has not been reported. We report an unusual case of proximal migration of a remnant metal stent during balloon sweeping following stent trimming by argon plasma coagulation. The remnant metal stent was successfully removed with rotation technique using a basket and revised endoscopically.
Pancreatic neoplasms; Stents; Cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic retrograde; Argon plasma coagulation