The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is the most damaging nematode pathogen of cotton in Alabama. Soil texture is currently being explored as a basis for the development of economic thresholds and management zones within a field. Trials to determine the reproductive potential of R. reniformis as influenced by soil type were conducted in microplot and greenhouse settings during 2008 to 2010. Population density of R. reniformis was significantly influenced by soil texture and exhibited a general decrease with increasing median soil particle size (MSPS). As the MSPS of a soil increased from 0.04 mm in clay soil to > 0.30 mm in very fine sandy loam and sandy loam soils, R. reniformis numbers decreased. The R. reniformis population densities on all soil types were also greater with irrigation. Early season cotton development was significantly affected by increasing R. reniformis Pi, with plant shoot-weight-to-root-weight ratios increasing at low R. reniformis Pi and declining with increasing R. reniformis Pi. Plant height was increased by irrigation throughout the growing season. The results suggests that R. reniformis will reach higher population densities in soils with smaller MSPS; however, the reduction in yield or plant growth very well may be no greater than in a soil that is less preferential to the nematode.
Gossypium hirsutum; median soil particle size (MSPS); soil moisture; soil texture; site-specific management
The effects of soil type, irrigation, and population density of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton were evaluated in a two-year microplot experiment. Six soil types, Fuquay sand, Norfolk sandy loam, Portsmouth loamy sand, Muck, Cecil sandy loam, and Cecil sandy clay, were arranged in randomized complete blocks with five replications. Each block had numerous plots previously inoculated with R. reniformis and two or more noninoculated microplots per soil type, one half of which were irrigated in each replicate for a total of 240 plots. Greatest cotton lint yields were achieved in the Muck, Norfolk sandy loam, and Portsmouth loamy sand soils. Cotton yield in the Portsmouth loamy sand did not differ from the Muck soil which averaged the greatest lint yield per plot of all soil types. Cotton yield was negatively related to R. reniformis PI (initial population density) in all soil types except for the Cecil sandy clay which had the highest clay content. Supplemental irrigation increased yields in the higher yielding Muck, Norfolk sandy loam, and Portsmouth loamy sand soils compared to the lower yielding Cecil sandy clay, Cecil sandy loam, and Fuquay sand soils. The Portsmouth sandy loam was among the highest yielding soils, and also supported the greatest R. reniformis population density. Cotton lint yield was affected more by R. reniformis Pi with irrigation in the Portsmouth loamy sand soil with a greater influence of Pi on lint yield in irrigated plots than other soils. A significant first degree PI × irrigation interaction for this soil type confirms this observation.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; irrigation; microplot; nematode; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil texture; soil moisture; volumetric water content; yield loss
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) can be elicited by virulent and avirulent pathogenic strains and SAR against plant-parasitic nematodes has been documented. Our objective was to determine whether co-infection of cotton by Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis affects the population level of either nematode compared to infection by each species individually. Split-root trials were conducted in which plants were inoculated with i) R. reniformis only, ii) M. incognita only, iii) both R. reniformis and M. incognita, or iv) no nematodes. Half of the root system was inoculated with R. reniformis or M. incognita on day 0 and the other half with M. incognita or R. reniformis on day 0 or day 14 depending on the experiment. Experiments were conducted on cotton cultivar DP 0935 B2RF (susceptible to both nematodes), LONREN-1 (germplasm line resistant to R. reniformis), and M-120 RNR (germplasm line resistant to M. incognita), and tests were terminated 8 wk after the last inoculation. Both soil (vermiform) and roots (egg) extracted from each half of the root system to determine the total nematode population levels, and root galling was rated on a 0 to 10 scale. Mixed models analysis and comparison of least squares means indicated no differences in root galling (except on LONREN-1) or population levels when the two nematode species were introduced on the same day. When M. incognita was introduced 14 d after R. reniformis, reduction in galling (36% on DP 0935 and 33% on LONREN-1) and M. incognita population levels (35% on DP 0935 and 45% on LONREN-1) were significant (P ≤ 0.05). When R. reniformis was inoculated 14 d after M. incognita, reduction in R. reniformis population levels (18% on DP 0935 and 26% on M-120) were significant. This study documents for the first time that infection of cotton by a nematode can elicit SAR to another nematode species.
Cotton; induced resistance; Meloidogyne incognita, reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; split-root system; systemic acquired resistance
Plots naturally infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis were sampled in the spring of 2006 and 2007 at depths of 15 and 30 cm in the bed, furrow over the drip tape, and “dry” furrow, and at approximately 40 to 45 cm depth in the bed and dry furrow. Then, 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone EC) was injected into the subsurface drip irrigation at 46 kg a.i./ha, and 3 to 4 weeks later the plots were resampled and assayed for nematodes. The transformed values for nematode population density (IvLRr) before fumigation were higher at 30 and 40 cm depths than at a 15 cm depth. IvLRr before fumigation was higher in the soil over the drip lines than in the bed or dry furrow and was higher in the bed than the dry furrow. IvLRr was higher in the plots to be fumigated than the plots that were not to be fumigated for all depths and locations except at a 15 cm depth over the drip lines, where the values were similar. However, after fumigation, IvLRr was lower over the drip lines at a 30 cm depth in plots that were fumigated compared to samples in a similar location and depth that were not fumigated. There were no other location/depth combinations where the fumigation reduced IvLRr below that in the nonfumigated plots. Yield in 2006, which was a very hot and dry year, was predicted adequately (R2 = 0.67) by a linear model based on the preplant population density of R. reniformis, with a very steep slope (-2.8 kg lint/ha per R. reniformis/100 cm3 soil). However, no relationship between nematode density and yield was seen in 2007, which had cooler weather for most of the season. Yield was not significantly improved by fumigation through the drip irrigation system in either year compared to plots treated only with aldicarb (0.84 kg a.i./ha), indicating that the level of control with fumigation did not kill enough R. reniformis to be successful.
chemigation; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; reniform nematode
It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniformis in the following ratios (Mi:Rr): 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Soil populations of M. incognita and R. reniformis were recorded at 3, 6, 9, 14, 19, 25, 35, 45, and 60 days after inoculations. At each date, samples were taken to determine the life stage of development, number of egg masses, eggs per egg mass, galls, and giant cells or syncytia produced by the nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita and R. reniformis were capable of initially inhibiting each other when the inoculum ratio of one species was higher than the other. In concomitant infections, M. incognita was susceptible to the antagonistic effect of R. reniformis. Rotylenchulus reniformis affected hatching of M. incognita eggs, delayed secondary infection of M. incognita J2, reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita, and reduced J2 of M. incognita 60 days after inoculations. In contrast, M. incognita reduced R. reniformis soil populations only when its proportion in the inoculum ratio was higher than that of R. reniformis. Meloidogyne incognita reduced egg masses produced by R. reniformis, but not production of eggs and secondary infection.
antagonism; competition; concomitant infections; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; Reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; sequential infections
The sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a serious pest of cotton and soybean in the United States. In recent years, interest in the molecular biology of the interaction between R. reniformis and its plant hosts has increased; however, the unusual life cycle of R. reniformis presents a unique set of challenges to researchers who wish to study the developmental expression of a particular nematode gene or evaluate life stage–specific effects of a specific treatment such as RNA-interference or a potential nematicide. In this report, we describe a simple method to collect R. reniformis juvenile and vermiform adult life stages under in vitro conditions and a second method to collect viable parasitic sedentary females from host plant roots. Rotylenchulus reniformis eggs were hatched over a Baermann funnel and the resultant second-stage juveniles incubated in petri plates containing sterile water at 30°C. Nematode development was monitored through the appearance of fourth-stage juveniles and specific time-points at which each developmental stage predominated were determined. Viable parasitic sedentary females were collected from infected roots using a second method that combined blending, sieving, and sucrose flotation. Rotylenchulus reniformis life stages collected with these methods can be used for nucleic acid or protein extraction or other experimental purposes that rely on life stage–specific data.
host-parasitic relationship; life stages; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; technique
The interrelationships between reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedling blight fungus (Rhizoctonia solani) were studied using three isolates of R. solani, two populations of R. reniformis at multiple inoculum levels, and the cotton cultivars Dehapine 90 (DP 90) and Dehapine 41 (DP 41). Colonization of cotton hypocotyl tissue by R. solani resulted in increases (P ≤ 0.05) in nematode population densities in soil and in eggs recovered from the root systems in both 40- and 90-day-duration experiments. Increases in soil population densities resulted mainly from increases in juveniles. Enhanced reproduction of R. reniformis in the presence of R. solani was consistent across isolates (1, 2, and 3) of R. solani and populations (1 and 2) and inoculum levels (0.5, 2, 4, and 8 individuals/g of soil) of R. reniformis, regardless of cotton cultivar (DP 90 or DP 41). Severity of seedling blight was not influenced by the nematode. Rhizoctonia solani caused reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in cotton growth in 40- and 90-day periods. Rotylenchulus reniformis reduced cotton growth at 90 days. The relationship between nematode inoculum levels and plant growth reductions was linear. At 90 days, the combined effects of these pathogens were antagonistic to plant growth.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; interrelationships; interaction; nematode; reniform nematode; Rhizoctonia solani; Rotylenchulus reniformis; seedling blight
Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of 10 described species of reniform nematodes and is considered the most economically significant pest within the genus, parasitizing a variety of important agricultural crops. Rotylenchulus reniformis collected from cotton fields in the Southeastern US were observed to have the nematode parasitic bacterium Pasteuria attached to their cuticles. Challenge with a Pasteuria-specific monoclonal antibody in live immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA) confirmed the discovery of Pasteuria infecting R. reniformis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were employed to observe endospore ultrastructure and sporogenesis within the host. Pasteuria were observed to infect and complete their life-cycle in juvenile, male and female R. reniformis. Molecular analysis using Pasteuria species-specific and degenerate primers for 16s rRNA and spoII, and subsequent phylogenetic assessment, placed the Pasteuria associated with R. reniformis in a distinct clade within established assemblages for the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes. A global phylogenetic assessment of Pasteuria 16s rDNA using the Neighbor-Joining method resulted in a clear branch with 100% boot-strap support that effectively partitioned the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes from the Pasteuria associated with bacterivorous nematodes. Phylogenetic analysis of the R. reniformis Pasteuria and Pasteuria spp. parasitizing a number of economically important plant parasitic nematodes revealed that Pasteuria with different host specificities are closely related and likely constitute biotypes of the same species. This suggests host preference, and thus effective differentiation and classification are most likely predicated by an influential virulence determinant(s) that has yet to be elucidated. Pasteuria Pr3 endospores produced by in vitro fermentation demonstrated efficacy as a commercial bionematicide to control R. reniformis on cotton in pot tests, when applied as a seed treatment and in a granular formulation. Population control was comparable to a seed-applied nematicide/insecticide (thiodicarb/imidacloprid) at a seed coating application rate of 1.0 x 108 spores/seed.
biological control; cotton; reniform nematode; endospore; Gossypium hirsutum; molecular biology; morphometrics; Pasteuria spp.; phylogenetics; Rotylenchulus reniformis; ultrastructure
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which results in enhanced defense mechanisms in plants, can be elicited by virulent and avirulent strains of pathogens including nematodes. Recent studies of nematode reproduction strongly suggest that Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis induce SAR in cotton, but biochemical evidence of SAR was lacking. Our objective was to determine whether infection of cotton by M. incognita and R. reniformis increases the levels of P-peroxidase, G-peroxidase, and catalase enzymes which are involved in induced resistance. A series of greenhouse trials was conducted; each trial included six replications of four treatments applied to one of three cotton genotypes in a randomized complete block design. The four treatments were cotton plants inoculated with i) R. reniformis, ii) M. incognita, iii) BTH (Actigard), and iv) a nontreated control. Experiments were conducted on cotton genotypes DP 0935 B2RF (susceptible to both nematodes), LONREN-1 (resistant to R. reniformis), and M-120 RNR (resistant to M. incognita), and the level of P-peroxidase, G-peroxidase, and catalase activity was measured before and 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 d after treatment application. In all cotton genotypes, activities of all three enzymes were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaves of plants infected with M. incognita and R. reniformis than in the leaves of control plants, except that M. incognita did not increase catalase activity on LONREN-1. Increased enzyme activity was usually apparent 6 d after treatment. This study documents that infection of cotton by M. incognita or R. reniformis increases the activity of the enzymes involved in systemic acquired resistance; thereby providing biochemical evidence to substantiate previous reports of nematode-induced SAR in cotton.
BTH; catalase; Meloidogyne incognita, peroxidase; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; systemic acquired resistance
Nematicide/irrigation rate trials were conducted in Texas (TX) in 2009 and 2010 in cotton grown at three irrigation rates, where irrigation rate (base (B), B - 33%, B + 33%) was the main plot and treatment (untreated check, aldicarb, and nematicide seed treatment (NST) and NST + aldicarb) were the subplots. Aldicarb improved cotton lint yield with the base (medium) irrigation rate over the untreated check, but not at the B - 33% and B + 33% irrigation rates. In a second evaluation, 20 tests conducted over 7 yr at the same field in TX and 12 tests conducted over 6 yr at the same field in Alabama (AL) were examined for impact of environmental variables (EV) on the response to NST (containing thiodicarb or abamectin), aldicarb, a nontreated check (CK), insecticide seed treatment (TX only), and a combination of NST + aldicarb + oxamyl (NST/A/O, AL only) on root galls (TX only), early season nematode eggs (AL only), and yield (both sites). Galls/root system were lower with aldicarb-treated plots, than for the CK- or NST-treated plots. As water (irrigation plus rain) in May increased, galls/root system increased for CK or insecticide-only-treated plots, and decreased for NST- and aldicarb-treated plots, suggesting efficacy of nematicides was strongly improved by adequate soil moisture. Nematode reproduction was not affected by EV in either location, though yield was negatively affected by root-knot nematode eggs in AL at 60 d. Yield in both AL and TX was negatively related to temperature parameters and positively related to water parameters. With the addition of EV in TX, chemical treatments went from not significantly different in the absence of EV to aldicarb-treated plots having higher yields than nonnematicide-treated plots in the presence of EV. In AL, NST/A/O-treated plots yielded similar to aldicarb and better than CK or NST in the absence of EV and had significantly higher yields than all other treatments in the presence of most EV.
abamectin; aldicarb; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; oxamyl; thiodicarb
The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, has been reported from all Gulf Coast states, Arkansas, Hawaii, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Experts in 11 states identified the counties or parishes where the nematode is found and provided information regarding associated soil parameters, climate, crops, and crop management. Rotylenchulus reniformis has been detected in 187 counties and parishes of the southeastern United States and is most widespread in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. In every state except Florida and Hawaii, economically damaging soil populations were associated with continuous cotton production. Other crops considered to be damaged by R. reniformis were soybean, tobacco, several vegetables, and pineapple (Hawaii). There was no consistent relationship between the nematode's presence and soil texture, soil pH, rainfall, or irrigation regime. However, certain respondents associated damage from the nematode primarily with silty or clay soils (Texas, Hawaii, Florida, and Georgia) or with silty soils with exceptionally tow pH (Hawaii and Louisiana).
geographical distribution; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil type; survey
The reproductive and damage potential of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, on five cotton breeding lines reported as tolerant to this nematode in Texas were compared with two standard cotton cultivars, Deltapine 50 and Stoneville LA 887, in a North Carolina field naturally infested with R. reniformis. Numbers of R. reniformis in soil were suppressed at mid-season, and cotton-lint yield was increased by preplant fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene. Population densities of R. reniformis at cotton harvest were unaffected by fumigation in 1998, but were affected in 1999. Some of the putatively tolerant breeding lines supported lower levels of R. reniformis and had higher tolerance indices to reniform nematode than the standard cultivars, but the yields of the breeding lines were significantly lower than the standard cultivars. Fumigation resulted in a 100- to 200-kg/ha increase in cotton lint yield for cultivars LA 887 and Deltapine 50.
cotton; crop loss; Gossypium hirsutum; host-plant resistance; nematode; plant disease loss; reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; tolerance
The efficacy of foliar applications of oxamyl were evaluated for the management of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton in Mississippi. Two tests were established in Tallahatchie County on a fine sandy loam soil (56.8% sand, 37.8% silt, 5.3% clay, pH 5.4, and 0.3% OM) naturally infested with R. reniformis. Oxamyl was applied as a foliar spray at 0.14, 0.27, or 0.53 kg a.i./ha to cotton plants that had reached the sixth true leaf growth stage. A second oxamyl application was applied 14 days after the first treatment at the same rates. All oxamyl treatments also received aldicarb at 0.59 kg a.i./ha at planting. Controls consisted of aldicarb alone, disulfoton (which is not a nematicide), and an untreated control. Oxamyl reduced R. reniformis numbers at 79 and 107 days after planting in Test 1 and at 62 and 82 days after planting in Test 2 compared to aldicarb at 0.59 kg a.i./ha alone and the controls that received neither material. Average reniform population densities in oxamyl-treated plots were 24.5% and 30% lower than with aldicarb alone and the controls. Cotton plant height was greater in plots that received oxamyl at all rates than in the controls. Cotton in oxamyl plus aldicarb and aldicarb alone treatments produced more bolls per plant and had a greater total boll weight than disulfoton and the untreated control. Seed cotton yields were greater in oxamyl-treated plots than for disulfoton-treated and the untreated control.
aldicarb; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; management; nematicide; nematode; oxamyl; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis
Rotylenchulus reniformis is rapidly becoming the most economically important pest associated with cotton in the southeastern United States. Incentive programs have been implemented to support sampling of production fields to determine the presence and abundance of R. reniformis. These sampling programs have dramatically increased the number of soils samples submitted to nematology laboratories during autumn. The large numbers of samples overwhelm most labs and require placement in cold storage until extraction. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the length of time soils infested with R. reniformis can be stored before nematode extraction without compromising the accuracy of estimates of population densities. A sandy loam and a silty loam were the two cotton production soils used in this study. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers decreased 61%during the first 180 days of storage in both soils. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers from the initial sampling through 180 days decreased as a linear function. The decline of R. reniformis numbers during storage was estimated as 0.28% of the population lost daily from the maximum population through 180 days. The diminution of nematode numbers from 180 through 1,080 days in storage continued, but at a slower rate. Numbers of R. reniformis declined to less than 89%, 93%, and 99% of the initial population within 360, 720, and 1,080 days, respectively, of storage. The reduction of R. reniformis numbers over 180 days can be adjusted, allowing a more accurate estimation of R. reniformis levels in soil samples stored at 4 °C.
Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil storage; population density
A survey was conducted in northeastern Louisiana to determine the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton. In fall 1997 and 1998, more than 600 soil samples were collected from cotton fields representing 6,200 ha, which is 5.3% of the cotton production hectarage in this region. Composite soil samples were collected from 10 ha in each field. Nematodes were extracted by gravity screening and sucrose centrifugation, identified to genus, and quantified. Nine genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified. Rotylenchulus reniformis was found in 67% of the fields sampled, with an average population of 12,959 juveniles and vermiform adult stages per 500 cm³ of soil. Meloidogyne incognita was identified in 25% of the fields sampled, with an average population of 998 juveniles per 500 cm³ of soil. Hoplolaimus spp. were identified in 3%, or 155 ha, with an average population of 282 juveniles and adult stages per 500 cm[sup3] of soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis and M. incognita occurred at population levels above reported economic thresholds in 49% and 21% of the fields, respectively.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; survey
Development strategies in Ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. However, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis, in Ethiopia were investigated.
In three villages in western Ethiopia practising large-scale sugarcane irrigation, traditional smallholder irrigation and non-irrigated farming, cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted during the short rains, after the long rains and during the dry season. Entomological surveys were undertaken monthly (February 2010-January 2011) in each village using light traps, pyrethrum spray collections and artificial pit shelters.
Malaria prevalence and the risk of transmission by An. arabiensis assessed by the average human biting rate, mean sporozoite rate and estimated annual entomological inoculation rate were significantly higher in the irrigated sugarcane agro-ecosystem compared to the traditionally irrigated and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. The average human biting rate was significantly elevated by two-fold, while the mean sporozoite rate was 2.5-fold higher, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 4.6 to 5.7-fold higher in the irrigated sugarcane compared to the traditional and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. Active irrigation clearly affected malaria prevalence by increasing the abundance of host seeking Anopheles mosquitoes year-round and thus increasing the risk of infective bites. The year-round presence of sporozoite-infected vectors due to irrigation practices was found to strengthen the coupling between rainfall and risk of malaria transmission, both on- and off-season.
This study demonstrates the negative impact of large-scale irrigation expansion on malaria transmission by increasing the abundance of mosquito vectors and indicates the need for effective vector monitoring and control strategies in the implementation of irrigation projects.
Anopheles arabiensis; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax; Malaria prevalence; Biting rate; Sporozoite rate; Entomological inoculation rate; Ethiopia
Population development of Tylenchulus semipenetrans in dry soil was investigated in a greenhouse study. Citrus seedlings were grown in sandy soil in vertical tubes with upper and lower sections. Nematode population densities in the upper tubes were measured at 16, 23, and 37 days, post-treatment. Three treatments consisted of i) irrigating both tubes when soil water potential reached -1 5 kPa (non-drought), ii) irrigating only the bottom tube (local drought), and iii) no irrigation (uniform drought). Soil water potential in the upper tubes did not differ under local and uniform drought during the first 16 days post-treatment, when it approached - 125 kPa. Thereafter, the water potential of soil under uniform drought continued to decrease, while that under local drought stabilized at approximately -150 kPa. Treatments had no consistent effects on female T. semipenetrans counts from soil or roots. However, after 37 days, numbers of eggs, juvenile, and male nematodes per gram of root under local drought were more than 2.4-fold greater than those under non-drought or uniform drought. Numbers of juvenile and male nematodes in soil were 6.5 times higher under local drought than under non-drought after 37 days. Nematodes did not survive in soil under uniform drought. Most of the eggs recovered on each date, from roots under local and non-drought, hatched within 35 days. Sixteen days of uniform drought reduced cumulative egg hatch to 51%, and almost no eggs hatched after 23 and 37 days of uniform drought. Thus, the response of T. semipenetrans to dry soil is fundamentally different, depending on whether all or part of the rhizosphere experiences drought. These data and field observations suggest that hydraulic lift via the root xylem may prolong the activity of some nematodes and possibly other rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms in dry soil.
carbohydrate; citrus; citrus nematode; ecology; drought; hydraulic lift; soil moisture; survival; Tylenchulus semipenetrans
Nematode occurrence at specific locations throughout a water catchment-irrigation system was determined. Soil samples were collected from five water source locations on the slopes of Olomana Mountain and Maunawili Valley and from about 40 plant species on 18 farms (56 ha of 480 ha irrigated by the reservoir). Water was sampled from the catchment reservoir at 0.3 m, 9 m, and 18 m (bottom). A farm irrigated with potable water was sampled and compared to areas of the same farm irrigated from the reservoir. Nematodes present in soil from the mountain and farms were root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.), lesion (Pratylenchus spp.), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis), stunt (Tylenchorhynchus sp.), ring (Criconema spp.), dagger (Xiphinema sp.), spiral (Helicotylenchus sp.), Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., and pin (Paratylenchus sp.) nematodes. The economically important genera Rotylenchulus, Meloidogyne, and Pratylenchus occurred in very low numbers (10, 41, and 10/250 cm³ soil, respectively) and in low frequency (10%, 25%, and 8% of the samples, respectively) in the mountain samples compared with high numbers (170-895/250 cm³ soil) from farms. Frequency of occurrence over all farms was near 40% for Meloidogyne and 80% for Rotylenchulus. No nematodes were detected in water from the reservoir. One sample from the outlets contained two specimens of plant-parasitic nematodes. The population densities of nematodes were not different between the soil samples collected from crops irrigated by potable or reservoir water.
Criconema; dagger nematode; Hawaii; Helicotylenchus; irrigation; lesion nematode; Meloidogyne; nematode; Paratylenchus; pin nematode; Pratylenchus; reniform nematode; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus; spiral nematode; watershed; Xiphinema
The effects of soil type and initial inoculum density (Pi) on the reproductive and damage potentials of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton were evaluated in microplot experiments from 1991 to 1993. The equilibrium nematode population density for R. reniformis on cotton was much greater than that of M. incognita, indicating that cotton is a better host for R. reniformis than M. incognita. Reproduction of M. incognita was greater in coarse-textured soils than in fine-textured soils, whereas R. reniformis reproduction was greatest in a Portsmouth loamy sand with intermediate percentages of clay plus silt. Population densities of M. incognita were inversely related to the percentage of silt and clay, but R. reniformis was favored by moderate levels of clay plus silt (ca. 28%). Both M. incognita races 3 and 4 and R. reniformis effected suppression of seed-cotton yield in all soil types evaluated. Cotton-yield suppression was greatest in response to R. reniformis at high Pi. Cotton maturity, measured as percentage of open bolls at different dates, was affected by the presence of nematodes in all 3 years.
cotton; ecology; edaphic factor; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; plant-disease loss; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil texture; yield
Solarization by covering the soil with transparent polyethylene sheets during the summer months (April, May, June) in 1984 and 1985 significantly (P = 0.01) reduced the population densities of nematodes (Heterodera cajani, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus retusus, Pratylenchus sp., and Tylenchorhynchus sp.) parasitic to chickpea and pigeonpea. Population density reductions of 93% of Heterodera cajani eggs and juveniles, 99% ofHelicotylenchus retusus, 98% of Pratylenchus sp., and 100% of R. reniformis were achieved by solarization in 1984. Irrigation before covering soil with polyethylene improved (P = 0.01) the effects of solarization in reducing the population densities of Heterodera cajani. Similar trends in population density reductions were observed in 1985, but the solarization effects were not the same. Nematode population reductions in the 1984-85 season were evident until near crop harvest, but in the 1985-86 season the effects on nematode populations were not as great and did not last until harvest. Factors such as rains during the solarization, duration of solarization, and sunshine hours may have influenced the efficacy of solarization. Solarization for two seasons reduced the population densities each year about the same as single season solarization, and residual effects of solarization on nematode populations did not last for more than a crop season.
Cajanus cajan; Cicer arietinum; Helicotylenchus retusus; Heterodera cajani; India; irrigation; Pratylenchus sp.; residual effect; Rotylenchulus reniformis; solar heating; solarization; Tylenchorhynchus sp.
Sub-surface irrigation (SUI) is a new water-saving irrigation technology. To explore the influence of SUI on soil conditions in a cherry orchard and its water-saving efficiency, experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2010 using both SUI and flood irrigation (FLI) and different SUI quotas in hilly semi-arid area of northern China. The results demonstrated the following: 1) The bulk density of the soil under SUI was 6.8% lower than that of soil under FLI (P<0.01). The total soil porosity, capillary porosity and non-capillary porosity of soils using SUI were 11.7% (P<0.01), 8.7% (P<0.01) and 43.8% (P<0.01) higher than for soils using FLI. 2) The average soil temperatures at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm of soil depth using SUI were 1.7, 1.1, 0.7, 0.4 and 0.3°C higher than those for FLI, specifically, the differences between the surface soil layers were more significant. 3) Compared with FLI, the average water-saving efficiency of SUI was 55.6%, and SUI increased the irrigation productivity by 7.9-12.3 kg m-3 ha-1. 4) The soil moisture of different soil layers using SUI increased with increases in the irrigation quotas, and the soil moisture contents under SUI were significantly higher in the 0-20 cm layer and in the 21-50 cm layer than those under FLI (P<0.01). 5) The average yields of cherries under SUI with irrigation quotas of 80-320 m3 ha-1 were 8.7%-34.9% higher than those in soil with no irrigation (CK2). The average yields of cherries from soils using SUI were 4.5%-12.2% higher than using FLI. It is appropriate to irrigate 2-3 times with 230 m3 ha-1 per application using SUI in a year with normal rainfall. Our findings indicated that SUI could maintain the physical properties, greatly improve irrigation water use efficiency, and significantly increase fruit yields in hilly semi-arid areas of northern China.
The impact of 10 Fusarium species in concomitant association with Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton seedling disease was examined under greenhouse conditions. In experiment 1, fungal treatments consisted of Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. lateritium, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, and F. sporotrichioides; Rhizoctonia solani; and Thielaviopsis basicola. The experimental design was a 2 × 14 factorial consisting of the presence or absence of R. reniformis and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls in autoclaved field soil. In experiment 2, the same fungal and nematode treatments were examined in autoclaved or non-autoclaved soil. This experimental design was a 2 × 2 × 14 factorial consisting of field or autoclaved soil, presence or absence of R. reniformis, and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls. In both tests, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, F. solani, R. solani, and T. basicola consistently displayed extensive root and hypocotyl necrosis that was more severe (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of R. reniformis. Soil treatment (autoclaved vs. non-autoclaved) influenced the impact of the Fusarium species on cotton seedling disease, with disease being more severe in the autoclaved soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction on cotton seedlings was greater in field soil compared to autoclaved soil (P ≤ 0.05). This study suggests the importance of Fusarium species and R. reniformis in cotton seedling disease.
cotton seedling disease; Fusarium species; Gossypium hirsutum; Rhizoctonia solani; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Thielaviopsis basicola
Three greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine whether NaOCl-extracted eggs would provide an acceptable inoculum source for Rotylenchulus reniformis. Two tests (one each on loamy sand and sandy clay) were designed to compare eggs extracted from roots with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with mechanically extracted vermiform males, females, and juveniles from soil as inoculum sources. Infection rates for both inoculum types were low (< 1-3%) on roots of 'Ransom' soybean 14 days (loamy sand soil) or 30 days (sandy clay soil) after inoculation. A larger number of infective females from the mechanically extracted than from NaOCl-extracted inoculum penetrated the roots in the loamy sand; however, in the heavier soil (sandy clay), NaOCl-extracted eggs were the better inoculum source. Significant reproduction occurred on infected plants, regardless of inoculum preparation method or soil type. Extraction of eggs by the NaOCl method is much easier and quicker than mechanical extraction of vermiform nematodes from soil. A third test was conducted to determine the infectivity of R. reniformis from eggs extracted at different NaOCl concentrations. Five initial inocnlum levels (0, 500, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000) and four NaOCl concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0%) were compared on 'Rutgers' tomato harvested on two dates, 17 and 23 days after inoculation. Again, infection rates of roots were low (≤10-3%). By 23 days after inoculation, the largest number of females penetrating the roots were from the highest inoculum level extracted with 0.25% NaOCl. The lowest infection rates in both harvests occurred when inoculum was prepared with 1.0% NaOCl.
Glycine max; inoculum; Lycopersicon esculentum; nematode; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; tomato
Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia.
Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia. Daily canal water releases were recorded during the study period and bi-weekly correlation analysis was done to determine relationships between canal water releases and larval/adult vector densities. Blood meal sources (bovine vs human) and malaria sporozoite infection were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Monthly malaria data were also collected from central health centre of the study villages.
Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canal water releases. Similarly, there was a strong positive correlation between bi-weekly vector density and canal water releases lagged by two weeks. Furthermore, monthly malaria incidence was strongly correlated with monthly vector density lagged by a month in the irrigated villages.
The present study revealed that the irrigation schemes resulted in intensified malaria transmission due to poor canal water management. Proper canal water management could reduce vector abundance and malaria transmission in the irrigated villages.
Malaria; Irrigation; Canal water management; Anopheline mosquito breeding; Ethiopia
During September 1990, 30 cotton fields in each of three Missouri counties were surveyed for plant-parasitic nematodes. Soil samples for nematode analysis consisted of a composite of 20 cores collected in a zig-zag pattern within a 1-ha block in each field. Cores were taken from within weed-free cotton rows. Nine genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were found (Rotylenchulus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Heterodera, and Trichodorus), and five species were identified: Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Pratylenchus vulnus, and P. scribneri. This is the first report of R. reniformis, H. galeatus, P. vulnus, and P. scribneri in Missouri cotton fields and the first report of R. reniformis and P. vulnus in Missouri. The known cotton pathogens M. incognita, R. reniformis, and H. galeatus were found in 30%, 3%, and 2% of the fields sampled, respectively. The correlation between sand content of the soil sample and the number of vermiform M. incognita in the sample was not significant, with r² = 0.13. Select fields where H. galeatus and R. reniformis were found in 1990 were sampled more intensely in 1991. The 1-ha block sampled in 1990 was sampled in 1991, along with three other 1-ha blocks uniformly distributed within the field. In addition, a 1-ha block was sampled in each of eight nearby fields, within 2 km of the first field. The nine plant-parasitic nematode genera identified in the 1990 survey were observed again in 1991. Within-field distribution of M. incognita, R. reniformis, and H. galeatus was not uniform. When M. incognita, R. reniformis, or H. galeatus were present in a field, the same species was found in 38%, 25%, or 50% of nearby fields, respectively.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; Missouri; nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Hoplolaimus galeatus; survey