The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is the most damaging nematode pathogen of cotton in Alabama. Soil texture is currently being explored as a basis for the development of economic thresholds and management zones within a field. Trials to determine the reproductive potential of R. reniformis as influenced by soil type were conducted in microplot and greenhouse settings during 2008 to 2010. Population density of R. reniformis was significantly influenced by soil texture and exhibited a general decrease with increasing median soil particle size (MSPS). As the MSPS of a soil increased from 0.04 mm in clay soil to > 0.30 mm in very fine sandy loam and sandy loam soils, R. reniformis numbers decreased. The R. reniformis population densities on all soil types were also greater with irrigation. Early season cotton development was significantly affected by increasing R. reniformis Pi, with plant shoot-weight-to-root-weight ratios increasing at low R. reniformis Pi and declining with increasing R. reniformis Pi. Plant height was increased by irrigation throughout the growing season. The results suggests that R. reniformis will reach higher population densities in soils with smaller MSPS; however, the reduction in yield or plant growth very well may be no greater than in a soil that is less preferential to the nematode.
Gossypium hirsutum; median soil particle size (MSPS); soil moisture; soil texture; site-specific management
The sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a serious pest of cotton and soybean in the United States. In recent years, interest in the molecular biology of the interaction between R. reniformis and its plant hosts has increased; however, the unusual life cycle of R. reniformis presents a unique set of challenges to researchers who wish to study the developmental expression of a particular nematode gene or evaluate life stage–specific effects of a specific treatment such as RNA-interference or a potential nematicide. In this report, we describe a simple method to collect R. reniformis juvenile and vermiform adult life stages under in vitro conditions and a second method to collect viable parasitic sedentary females from host plant roots. Rotylenchulus reniformis eggs were hatched over a Baermann funnel and the resultant second-stage juveniles incubated in petri plates containing sterile water at 30°C. Nematode development was monitored through the appearance of fourth-stage juveniles and specific time-points at which each developmental stage predominated were determined. Viable parasitic sedentary females were collected from infected roots using a second method that combined blending, sieving, and sucrose flotation. Rotylenchulus reniformis life stages collected with these methods can be used for nucleic acid or protein extraction or other experimental purposes that rely on life stage–specific data.
host-parasitic relationship; life stages; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; technique
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) can be elicited by virulent and avirulent pathogenic strains and SAR against plant-parasitic nematodes has been documented. Our objective was to determine whether co-infection of cotton by Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis affects the population level of either nematode compared to infection by each species individually. Split-root trials were conducted in which plants were inoculated with i) R. reniformis only, ii) M. incognita only, iii) both R. reniformis and M. incognita, or iv) no nematodes. Half of the root system was inoculated with R. reniformis or M. incognita on day 0 and the other half with M. incognita or R. reniformis on day 0 or day 14 depending on the experiment. Experiments were conducted on cotton cultivar DP 0935 B2RF (susceptible to both nematodes), LONREN-1 (germplasm line resistant to R. reniformis), and M-120 RNR (germplasm line resistant to M. incognita), and tests were terminated 8 wk after the last inoculation. Both soil (vermiform) and roots (egg) extracted from each half of the root system to determine the total nematode population levels, and root galling was rated on a 0 to 10 scale. Mixed models analysis and comparison of least squares means indicated no differences in root galling (except on LONREN-1) or population levels when the two nematode species were introduced on the same day. When M. incognita was introduced 14 d after R. reniformis, reduction in galling (36% on DP 0935 and 33% on LONREN-1) and M. incognita population levels (35% on DP 0935 and 45% on LONREN-1) were significant (P ≤ 0.05). When R. reniformis was inoculated 14 d after M. incognita, reduction in R. reniformis population levels (18% on DP 0935 and 26% on M-120) were significant. This study documents for the first time that infection of cotton by a nematode can elicit SAR to another nematode species.
Cotton; induced resistance; Meloidogyne incognita, reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; split-root system; systemic acquired resistance
The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, has been reported from all Gulf Coast states, Arkansas, Hawaii, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Experts in 11 states identified the counties or parishes where the nematode is found and provided information regarding associated soil parameters, climate, crops, and crop management. Rotylenchulus reniformis has been detected in 187 counties and parishes of the southeastern United States and is most widespread in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. In every state except Florida and Hawaii, economically damaging soil populations were associated with continuous cotton production. Other crops considered to be damaged by R. reniformis were soybean, tobacco, several vegetables, and pineapple (Hawaii). There was no consistent relationship between the nematode's presence and soil texture, soil pH, rainfall, or irrigation regime. However, certain respondents associated damage from the nematode primarily with silty or clay soils (Texas, Hawaii, Florida, and Georgia) or with silty soils with exceptionally tow pH (Hawaii and Louisiana).
geographical distribution; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil type; survey
Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of 10 described species of reniform nematodes and is considered the most economically significant pest within the genus, parasitizing a variety of important agricultural crops. Rotylenchulus reniformis collected from cotton fields in the Southeastern US were observed to have the nematode parasitic bacterium Pasteuria attached to their cuticles. Challenge with a Pasteuria-specific monoclonal antibody in live immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA) confirmed the discovery of Pasteuria infecting R. reniformis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were employed to observe endospore ultrastructure and sporogenesis within the host. Pasteuria were observed to infect and complete their life-cycle in juvenile, male and female R. reniformis. Molecular analysis using Pasteuria species-specific and degenerate primers for 16s rRNA and spoII, and subsequent phylogenetic assessment, placed the Pasteuria associated with R. reniformis in a distinct clade within established assemblages for the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes. A global phylogenetic assessment of Pasteuria 16s rDNA using the Neighbor-Joining method resulted in a clear branch with 100% boot-strap support that effectively partitioned the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes from the Pasteuria associated with bacterivorous nematodes. Phylogenetic analysis of the R. reniformis Pasteuria and Pasteuria spp. parasitizing a number of economically important plant parasitic nematodes revealed that Pasteuria with different host specificities are closely related and likely constitute biotypes of the same species. This suggests host preference, and thus effective differentiation and classification are most likely predicated by an influential virulence determinant(s) that has yet to be elucidated. Pasteuria Pr3 endospores produced by in vitro fermentation demonstrated efficacy as a commercial bionematicide to control R. reniformis on cotton in pot tests, when applied as a seed treatment and in a granular formulation. Population control was comparable to a seed-applied nematicide/insecticide (thiodicarb/imidacloprid) at a seed coating application rate of 1.0 x 108 spores/seed.
biological control; cotton; reniform nematode; endospore; Gossypium hirsutum; molecular biology; morphometrics; Pasteuria spp.; phylogenetics; Rotylenchulus reniformis; ultrastructure
The reproductive and damage potential of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, on five cotton breeding lines reported as tolerant to this nematode in Texas were compared with two standard cotton cultivars, Deltapine 50 and Stoneville LA 887, in a North Carolina field naturally infested with R. reniformis. Numbers of R. reniformis in soil were suppressed at mid-season, and cotton-lint yield was increased by preplant fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene. Population densities of R. reniformis at cotton harvest were unaffected by fumigation in 1998, but were affected in 1999. Some of the putatively tolerant breeding lines supported lower levels of R. reniformis and had higher tolerance indices to reniform nematode than the standard cultivars, but the yields of the breeding lines were significantly lower than the standard cultivars. Fumigation resulted in a 100- to 200-kg/ha increase in cotton lint yield for cultivars LA 887 and Deltapine 50.
cotton; crop loss; Gossypium hirsutum; host-plant resistance; nematode; plant disease loss; reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; tolerance
The interrelationships between reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedling blight fungus (Rhizoctonia solani) were studied using three isolates of R. solani, two populations of R. reniformis at multiple inoculum levels, and the cotton cultivars Dehapine 90 (DP 90) and Dehapine 41 (DP 41). Colonization of cotton hypocotyl tissue by R. solani resulted in increases (P ≤ 0.05) in nematode population densities in soil and in eggs recovered from the root systems in both 40- and 90-day-duration experiments. Increases in soil population densities resulted mainly from increases in juveniles. Enhanced reproduction of R. reniformis in the presence of R. solani was consistent across isolates (1, 2, and 3) of R. solani and populations (1 and 2) and inoculum levels (0.5, 2, 4, and 8 individuals/g of soil) of R. reniformis, regardless of cotton cultivar (DP 90 or DP 41). Severity of seedling blight was not influenced by the nematode. Rhizoctonia solani caused reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in cotton growth in 40- and 90-day periods. Rotylenchulus reniformis reduced cotton growth at 90 days. The relationship between nematode inoculum levels and plant growth reductions was linear. At 90 days, the combined effects of these pathogens were antagonistic to plant growth.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; interrelationships; interaction; nematode; reniform nematode; Rhizoctonia solani; Rotylenchulus reniformis; seedling blight
The effects of soil type and initial inoculum density (Pi) on the reproductive and damage potentials of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton were evaluated in microplot experiments from 1991 to 1993. The equilibrium nematode population density for R. reniformis on cotton was much greater than that of M. incognita, indicating that cotton is a better host for R. reniformis than M. incognita. Reproduction of M. incognita was greater in coarse-textured soils than in fine-textured soils, whereas R. reniformis reproduction was greatest in a Portsmouth loamy sand with intermediate percentages of clay plus silt. Population densities of M. incognita were inversely related to the percentage of silt and clay, but R. reniformis was favored by moderate levels of clay plus silt (ca. 28%). Both M. incognita races 3 and 4 and R. reniformis effected suppression of seed-cotton yield in all soil types evaluated. Cotton-yield suppression was greatest in response to R. reniformis at high Pi. Cotton maturity, measured as percentage of open bolls at different dates, was affected by the presence of nematodes in all 3 years.
cotton; ecology; edaphic factor; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; plant-disease loss; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil texture; yield
It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniformis in the following ratios (Mi:Rr): 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Soil populations of M. incognita and R. reniformis were recorded at 3, 6, 9, 14, 19, 25, 35, 45, and 60 days after inoculations. At each date, samples were taken to determine the life stage of development, number of egg masses, eggs per egg mass, galls, and giant cells or syncytia produced by the nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita and R. reniformis were capable of initially inhibiting each other when the inoculum ratio of one species was higher than the other. In concomitant infections, M. incognita was susceptible to the antagonistic effect of R. reniformis. Rotylenchulus reniformis affected hatching of M. incognita eggs, delayed secondary infection of M. incognita J2, reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita, and reduced J2 of M. incognita 60 days after inoculations. In contrast, M. incognita reduced R. reniformis soil populations only when its proportion in the inoculum ratio was higher than that of R. reniformis. Meloidogyne incognita reduced egg masses produced by R. reniformis, but not production of eggs and secondary infection.
antagonism; competition; concomitant infections; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; Reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; sequential infections
The objective of this work was to isolate and identify fungi associated with R. reniformis in cotton roots. Soil samples were collected in cotton fields naturally infested with R. reniformis and from cotton stock plants cultured in the greenhouse. Nematodes extracted from the soil were observed under the stereoscope, and discolored eggs and vermiform stages colonized with mycelia were cultured on 1.5% water agar supplemented with antibiotics, and incubated at 27°C. Identification of the nematophagous fungi was based on the morphological characters, and the ITS regions and 5.8S rDNA amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The parasitism percentage on vermiform nematodes from greenhouse samples was 21.2%, and the percentages from cotton fields in Limestone, Henry, and Baldwin counties in Alabama were 3%, 23.2%, and 5.6%, respectively. A total of 12 fungi were identified from R. reniformis vermiform stages and eggs. The most frequently isolated fungi were Arthrobotrys dactyloides (46%) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (14%), followed by Phoma exigua (4.8%), Penicillium waksmanii and Dactylaria brochophaga (3.6%), Aspergillus glaucus group (2.4%). Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium cladiosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and an unidentified basidiomycete were less frequent (1.2%). A high percentage (16.8%) of fungi from colonized nematodes was not cultivable on our media. Out of those 12 fungi, only four have been previously reported as nematophagous fungi: three isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides, and one isolate of Dactylaria brochopaga, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Molecular identification of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga was consistent with the morphological identification, placing these two fungi in the new genus Drechslerella as proposed in the new Orbilaceae classification.
Arthrobotrys dactyloides; Dactylaria brochopaga; Paecilomyces lilacinus; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which results in enhanced defense mechanisms in plants, can be elicited by virulent and avirulent strains of pathogens including nematodes. Recent studies of nematode reproduction strongly suggest that Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis induce SAR in cotton, but biochemical evidence of SAR was lacking. Our objective was to determine whether infection of cotton by M. incognita and R. reniformis increases the levels of P-peroxidase, G-peroxidase, and catalase enzymes which are involved in induced resistance. A series of greenhouse trials was conducted; each trial included six replications of four treatments applied to one of three cotton genotypes in a randomized complete block design. The four treatments were cotton plants inoculated with i) R. reniformis, ii) M. incognita, iii) BTH (Actigard), and iv) a nontreated control. Experiments were conducted on cotton genotypes DP 0935 B2RF (susceptible to both nematodes), LONREN-1 (resistant to R. reniformis), and M-120 RNR (resistant to M. incognita), and the level of P-peroxidase, G-peroxidase, and catalase activity was measured before and 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 d after treatment application. In all cotton genotypes, activities of all three enzymes were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaves of plants infected with M. incognita and R. reniformis than in the leaves of control plants, except that M. incognita did not increase catalase activity on LONREN-1. Increased enzyme activity was usually apparent 6 d after treatment. This study documents that infection of cotton by M. incognita or R. reniformis increases the activity of the enzymes involved in systemic acquired resistance; thereby providing biochemical evidence to substantiate previous reports of nematode-induced SAR in cotton.
BTH; catalase; Meloidogyne incognita, peroxidase; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; systemic acquired resistance
A survey was conducted in northeastern Louisiana to determine the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton. In fall 1997 and 1998, more than 600 soil samples were collected from cotton fields representing 6,200 ha, which is 5.3% of the cotton production hectarage in this region. Composite soil samples were collected from 10 ha in each field. Nematodes were extracted by gravity screening and sucrose centrifugation, identified to genus, and quantified. Nine genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified. Rotylenchulus reniformis was found in 67% of the fields sampled, with an average population of 12,959 juveniles and vermiform adult stages per 500 cm³ of soil. Meloidogyne incognita was identified in 25% of the fields sampled, with an average population of 998 juveniles per 500 cm³ of soil. Hoplolaimus spp. were identified in 3%, or 155 ha, with an average population of 282 juveniles and adult stages per 500 cm[sup3] of soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis and M. incognita occurred at population levels above reported economic thresholds in 49% and 21% of the fields, respectively.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; survey
The effects of culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia solani and root exudates of R. solani-infected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings on hatching of eggs and infectivity of females of Rotylenchulus reniformis were evaluated in an attempt to account for the enhanced nematode reproduction observed in the presence of this fungus. Crude filtrates of R. solani cultures growing over sterile, deionized distilled water did not affect egg hatching. Exudates from roots of cotton seedlings increased hatching of R. reniformis eggs over that observed in water controls. Exudates from cotton seedling roots not infected or infected with R. solani did not differ in their effect on egg hatching. However, infection of cotton seedlings by reniform females was increased in the presence of R. solani, resulting in the augmented egg production and juvenile population densities in soil observed in greenhouse studies.
cotton; culture filtrate; egg hatching; Gossypium hirsutum; infectivity; nematode; reniform nematode; Rhizoctonia solani; root exudate; Rotylenchulus reniformis
Rotylenchulus reniformis is rapidly becoming the most economically important pest associated with cotton in the southeastern United States. Incentive programs have been implemented to support sampling of production fields to determine the presence and abundance of R. reniformis. These sampling programs have dramatically increased the number of soils samples submitted to nematology laboratories during autumn. The large numbers of samples overwhelm most labs and require placement in cold storage until extraction. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the length of time soils infested with R. reniformis can be stored before nematode extraction without compromising the accuracy of estimates of population densities. A sandy loam and a silty loam were the two cotton production soils used in this study. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers decreased 61%during the first 180 days of storage in both soils. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers from the initial sampling through 180 days decreased as a linear function. The decline of R. reniformis numbers during storage was estimated as 0.28% of the population lost daily from the maximum population through 180 days. The diminution of nematode numbers from 180 through 1,080 days in storage continued, but at a slower rate. Numbers of R. reniformis declined to less than 89%, 93%, and 99% of the initial population within 360, 720, and 1,080 days, respectively, of storage. The reduction of R. reniformis numbers over 180 days can be adjusted, allowing a more accurate estimation of R. reniformis levels in soil samples stored at 4 °C.
Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil storage; population density
Solarization by covering the soil with transparent polyethylene sheets during the summer months (April, May, June) in 1984 and 1985 significantly (P = 0.01) reduced the population densities of nematodes (Heterodera cajani, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus retusus, Pratylenchus sp., and Tylenchorhynchus sp.) parasitic to chickpea and pigeonpea. Population density reductions of 93% of Heterodera cajani eggs and juveniles, 99% ofHelicotylenchus retusus, 98% of Pratylenchus sp., and 100% of R. reniformis were achieved by solarization in 1984. Irrigation before covering soil with polyethylene improved (P = 0.01) the effects of solarization in reducing the population densities of Heterodera cajani. Similar trends in population density reductions were observed in 1985, but the solarization effects were not the same. Nematode population reductions in the 1984-85 season were evident until near crop harvest, but in the 1985-86 season the effects on nematode populations were not as great and did not last until harvest. Factors such as rains during the solarization, duration of solarization, and sunshine hours may have influenced the efficacy of solarization. Solarization for two seasons reduced the population densities each year about the same as single season solarization, and residual effects of solarization on nematode populations did not last for more than a crop season.
Cajanus cajan; Cicer arietinum; Helicotylenchus retusus; Heterodera cajani; India; irrigation; Pratylenchus sp.; residual effect; Rotylenchulus reniformis; solar heating; solarization; Tylenchorhynchus sp.
A 3-year field trial near Kunia, Oahu, Hawaii, was conducted to evaluate four nematicide treatments for efficacy against Rotylenchulus reniformis in drip-irrigated pineapple (Ananas comosus L. (Merr.)). The treatments were (A) preplant fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) (336 liter/ ha) and postplant drip application of fenamiphos (3.4 kg/ha) with restricted irrigation, (B) preplant 1,3-D only, weekly irrigation, (C) 1,3-D fenamiphos, weekly irrigation, and (D) postplant fenamiphos only, weekly irrigation. Fenamiphos was applied at 3-month intervals for 1 year after planting in three treatments. Although nematode populations increased in all treatments 1 year after planting, no differences in fruit yield were detected among treatments in the first (plant crop) harvest 19 months after planting. In the second (ratoon) crop (33 months after planting) significant yield differences, larger fruit size, and greater root biomass were obtained in the dual nematicide treatments. Root biomass increased continuously throughout the crop cycle, was greatest near the drip line, and showed a shallow depth distribution (30-40 cm). Rotylenchulus reniformis populations and fenamiphos concentrations were negatively correlated in soil profiles taken 13 months after planting. In the absence of postplant fenamiphos applications, nematode numbers were positively correlated with root biomass.
Ananas comosus; 1,3-dichloropropene; drip irrigation; fenamiphos; nematicide; nematode; pineapple; reniform nematode; root development; Rotylenchulus reniformis
Nematode occurrence at specific locations throughout a water catchment-irrigation system was determined. Soil samples were collected from five water source locations on the slopes of Olomana Mountain and Maunawili Valley and from about 40 plant species on 18 farms (56 ha of 480 ha irrigated by the reservoir). Water was sampled from the catchment reservoir at 0.3 m, 9 m, and 18 m (bottom). A farm irrigated with potable water was sampled and compared to areas of the same farm irrigated from the reservoir. Nematodes present in soil from the mountain and farms were root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.), lesion (Pratylenchus spp.), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis), stunt (Tylenchorhynchus sp.), ring (Criconema spp.), dagger (Xiphinema sp.), spiral (Helicotylenchus sp.), Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., and pin (Paratylenchus sp.) nematodes. The economically important genera Rotylenchulus, Meloidogyne, and Pratylenchus occurred in very low numbers (10, 41, and 10/250 cm³ soil, respectively) and in low frequency (10%, 25%, and 8% of the samples, respectively) in the mountain samples compared with high numbers (170-895/250 cm³ soil) from farms. Frequency of occurrence over all farms was near 40% for Meloidogyne and 80% for Rotylenchulus. No nematodes were detected in water from the reservoir. One sample from the outlets contained two specimens of plant-parasitic nematodes. The population densities of nematodes were not different between the soil samples collected from crops irrigated by potable or reservoir water.
Criconema; dagger nematode; Hawaii; Helicotylenchus; irrigation; lesion nematode; Meloidogyne; nematode; Paratylenchus; pin nematode; Pratylenchus; reniform nematode; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus; spiral nematode; watershed; Xiphinema
Three greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine whether NaOCl-extracted eggs would provide an acceptable inoculum source for Rotylenchulus reniformis. Two tests (one each on loamy sand and sandy clay) were designed to compare eggs extracted from roots with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with mechanically extracted vermiform males, females, and juveniles from soil as inoculum sources. Infection rates for both inoculum types were low (< 1-3%) on roots of 'Ransom' soybean 14 days (loamy sand soil) or 30 days (sandy clay soil) after inoculation. A larger number of infective females from the mechanically extracted than from NaOCl-extracted inoculum penetrated the roots in the loamy sand; however, in the heavier soil (sandy clay), NaOCl-extracted eggs were the better inoculum source. Significant reproduction occurred on infected plants, regardless of inoculum preparation method or soil type. Extraction of eggs by the NaOCl method is much easier and quicker than mechanical extraction of vermiform nematodes from soil. A third test was conducted to determine the infectivity of R. reniformis from eggs extracted at different NaOCl concentrations. Five initial inocnlum levels (0, 500, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000) and four NaOCl concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0%) were compared on 'Rutgers' tomato harvested on two dates, 17 and 23 days after inoculation. Again, infection rates of roots were low (≤10-3%). By 23 days after inoculation, the largest number of females penetrating the roots were from the highest inoculum level extracted with 0.25% NaOCl. The lowest infection rates in both harvests occurred when inoculum was prepared with 1.0% NaOCl.
Glycine max; inoculum; Lycopersicon esculentum; nematode; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; tomato
The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is an important parasite of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Parasitism involves the formation of syncytia to provide nutrition for the female. Events that occur at the feeding site may determine the degree of susceptibility of cotton plants to reniform nematode. The objective of this work was to describe histological modifications associated with reduced reproduction of Rotylenchulus reniformis in upland cotton roots. 'Deltapine 50' cotton and a selection from this line with a moderate level of resistance were inoculated with reniform nematode in the greenhouse, and observations on roots were made 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days after inoculation. No differences in penetration behavior or in the formation and characteristics of syncytia were observed. Reduced reproduction was correlated with an earlier degeneration and collapse of the syncytial cells, and occasionally, with lack of hypertrophy of the pericycle cells involved. These two mechanisms accounted for 40% to 60% reduction of reproduction of reniform nematode in the plants examined.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; histopathology; reniform nematode; reproductive index; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis
The impact of 10 Fusarium species in concomitant association with Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton seedling disease was examined under greenhouse conditions. In experiment 1, fungal treatments consisted of Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. lateritium, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, and F. sporotrichioides; Rhizoctonia solani; and Thielaviopsis basicola. The experimental design was a 2 × 14 factorial consisting of the presence or absence of R. reniformis and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls in autoclaved field soil. In experiment 2, the same fungal and nematode treatments were examined in autoclaved or non-autoclaved soil. This experimental design was a 2 × 2 × 14 factorial consisting of field or autoclaved soil, presence or absence of R. reniformis, and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls. In both tests, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, F. solani, R. solani, and T. basicola consistently displayed extensive root and hypocotyl necrosis that was more severe (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of R. reniformis. Soil treatment (autoclaved vs. non-autoclaved) influenced the impact of the Fusarium species on cotton seedling disease, with disease being more severe in the autoclaved soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction on cotton seedlings was greater in field soil compared to autoclaved soil (P ≤ 0.05). This study suggests the importance of Fusarium species and R. reniformis in cotton seedling disease.
cotton seedling disease; Fusarium species; Gossypium hirsutum; Rhizoctonia solani; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Thielaviopsis basicola
Rotylenchulus reniformis was first detected in a single grid (100 m2) in May 2001 in a cotton field in Ashley County, AR, that was being utilized to evaluate the utility of grid-sampling for detection of Meloidogyne incognita. A total of 512 grids were sampled in the 6-ha field in the spring and fall for four years (2001 - 2004), nematode populations were determined for each grid, and nematode population density maps were constructed utilizing Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information Systems. In May 2001, R. reniformis population density in the single grid where it was detected was 6,364 juveniles and adult reniform nematodes/500 cm3 soil. By the end of the first year (October 2001), the nematode was found in 17 of the 512 plots with population densities ranging from 682 to 10,909 nematodes/500 cm3 soil. Over the course of the 4-yr period, reniform nematode incidence increased to 107 of 512 plots, with population density ranging from 227 to 32,727 nematodes/500 cm3 soil. Reniform nematode spread could be explained by the direction of tillage and water flow in the low end of the field. Highest population densities were observed in the areas of the field with soil types ranging from 54% to 60% silt fraction. In addition to R. reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita was commonly detected in many of the grids, and Tylenchorhynchus spp., Helicotylenchus spp., Paratrichodorus minor and Hoplolaimus magnistylus were detected occasionally.
Reniform nematode incidence; spatial correlation; soil texture; geographically weighted regression; management; detection; ecology
One-year crop rotations with corn or highly resistant soybean were evaluated at four locations for their effect on Rotylenchulus reniformis population levels and yield of a subsequent cotton crop. Four nematicide (aldicarb) regimes were included at two of the locations, and rotation with reniform-susceptible soybean was included at the other two locations. One-year rotations to corn or resistant soybean resulted in lower R. reniformis population levels (P ≤ 0.05) than those found in cotton at three test sites. However, the effect of rotation on nematode populations was undetectable by mid-season when cotton was grown the following year. Cotton yield following a one-year rotation to resistant soybean increased at all test locations compared to continuous cotton, and yield following corn increased at three locations. The optimum application rate for aldicarb in this study was 0.84 kg a.i./ha in furrow. Side-dress applications of aldicarb resulted in yield increases that were insufficient to cover the cost of application in 3 of the 4 years.
aldicarb; corn; cotton; crop loss; crop rotation; Glycine max; Gossypium hirsutum; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; Zea mays
The effects of soil type, irrigation, and population density of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton were evaluated in a two-year microplot experiment. Six soil types, Fuquay sand, Norfolk sandy loam, Portsmouth loamy sand, Muck, Cecil sandy loam, and Cecil sandy clay, were arranged in randomized complete blocks with five replications. Each block had numerous plots previously inoculated with R. reniformis and two or more noninoculated microplots per soil type, one half of which were irrigated in each replicate for a total of 240 plots. Greatest cotton lint yields were achieved in the Muck, Norfolk sandy loam, and Portsmouth loamy sand soils. Cotton yield in the Portsmouth loamy sand did not differ from the Muck soil which averaged the greatest lint yield per plot of all soil types. Cotton yield was negatively related to R. reniformis PI (initial population density) in all soil types except for the Cecil sandy clay which had the highest clay content. Supplemental irrigation increased yields in the higher yielding Muck, Norfolk sandy loam, and Portsmouth loamy sand soils compared to the lower yielding Cecil sandy clay, Cecil sandy loam, and Fuquay sand soils. The Portsmouth sandy loam was among the highest yielding soils, and also supported the greatest R. reniformis population density. Cotton lint yield was affected more by R. reniformis Pi with irrigation in the Portsmouth loamy sand soil with a greater influence of Pi on lint yield in irrigated plots than other soils. A significant first degree PI × irrigation interaction for this soil type confirms this observation.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; irrigation; microplot; nematode; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil texture; soil moisture; volumetric water content; yield loss
The host status of 50 commercial maize hybrids for a Mississippi population of Rotylenchulus reniformis was determined in greenhouse experiments. Reproduction was measured by determining RF values ([final egg number + juveniles and vermiform adults in soil] ÷ initial egg number) and number of eggs per gram of fresh root. All hybrids maintained R. reniformis below the initial population level, indicating that they are relatively poor hosts for this species. RF values for R. reniformis among hybrids were different (P ≤ 0.05) and ranged from 0.03 for 'Pioneer 3147' and 'Pioneer 3136' to 0.60 for 'Hy Performer HS60'. No R. reniformis eggs were recovered from the roots of 15 of the maize hybrids.
corn; host suitability; maize; nematode; reniform nematode; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Zea mays
Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a major pest of cotton in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of reniform nematode populations from cotton-growing locations in the United States where it is prevalent. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis were used to determine the variability of morphology in males and immature females. Reproduction indices of populations were measured on selected soybean and cotton genotypes in the greenhouse. High variability in morphometrics and reproduction was observed within all the populations, and several differences were found among populations. DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) were compared among populations from the United States and to sequences of populations from Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, and Japan. No polymorphic nucleotide sites were observed among the amphimictic populations. Only a parthenogenic population from Japan was distinct. The phenotypic polymorphism of the species in the United States could impact the effectiveness of management strategies based on host plant resistance.
cotton; genetic variation; morphometrics; reniform nematode; reproductive index; ribosomal DNA; Rotylenchulus reniformis