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1.  Interaction Between Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus on Bermudagrass and Seashore Paspalum Hosts 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(1):17-20.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus are among the most common nematode parasites of turfgrasses in Florida. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) are the two turf species most commonly used on Florida golf courses. This paper explores the interactions between B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus on bermudagrass and seashore paspalum hosts. Data collected from thousands of nematode samples submitted to the Florida Nematode Assay Lab over a 8-yr period revealed a negative relationship between B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus on bermudagrass, but not seashore paspalum. In a multi-year field plot experiment using multiple cultivars of bermudagrass, and seashore paspalum B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus were negatively related on both turf species. Greenhouse trials where multiple cultivars of both turf species were inoculated with different combinations of B. longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus found that each nematode species was inhibitory to the other on both host species. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and H. pseudorobustus clearly impact each other on turfgrass hosts, although the mechanism of the nematode-nematode interactions is unknown.
PMCID: PMC3625127  PMID: 23589655
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; interaction; Paspalum vaginatum; seashore paspalum; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
2.  Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(4):260-264.
Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ≥ 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm).
PMCID: PMC3873902  PMID: 24379484
Agrostis palustris; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; creeping bentgrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; nematicide; nematode management; sting nematode; turfgrass
3.  Efficacy of Methionine Against Ectoparasitic Nematodes on Golf Course Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2009;41(3):217-220.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pathogens of intensely-managed turf used on golf courses. Two of these nematodes that are common in the southeastern US are Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Mesocriconema ornata. Currently, there is a lack of effective treatments that can be used to manage these important pests. Turfgrass field trials evaluated DL-methionine as a turfgrass nematicide against B. longicaudatus and M. ornata. One trial was on a bermudagrass putting green, the other was on zoysiagrass maintained under putting-green conditions. Two rates of methionine, 1120 kg/ha in a single application, and 112 kg/ha applied twice four weeks apart, were compared with untreated control and fenamiphos treatments. Measurements collected included soil nematode counts, turf density, and root lengths. In both trials, 1120 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species (P ≤ 0.1), and 112 kg/ha of methionine reduced numbers of both nematode species after two applications. Bermudagrass turf density responded favorably to both methionine rates and root lengths were improved by the 1120 kg/ha rate. Zoysiagrass showed short-term phytotoxicity to methionine, but quickly recovered and treated plots were improved compared to the untreated controls by the end of the trial. These trials indicated that methionine has potential for development as a turfgrass nematicide, but further research is needed to determine how it can best be used.
PMCID: PMC3380498  PMID: 22736817
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon; Mesocriconema ornata; nematode management; ring nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass; Zoysia; zoysiagrass
4.  Slit Injection of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Established Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2003;35(3):302-305.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus is a serious problem on bermudagrass, a common warm-season turfgrass, in Florida. The cancellation of organophosphate nematicides necessitates that new management tools be identified for use on sports turf. Postplant application of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) on bermudagrass was evaluated for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course fairways and driving ranges. A series of 10 experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 1,3-D in reducing population densities of B. longicaudatus and enhancing bermudagrass recovery from nematode damage. In 5 of 10 experiments, 1,3-D injected at 46.8 liters/ha was effective in reducing population densities of B. longicaudatus (P < 0.05) compared to untreated plots 2 to 4 weeks after treatment. One month after treatment, population densities of B. longicaudatus ranged from 59% to 97% of those in untreated plots. Nematode suppression generally lasted 2 months or less. Turf visual performance was improved following injection with 1,3-D (P < 0.05) over untreated plots when other factors were not limiting. Turf root development also was enhanced following injection with 1,3-D. Postplant injection of 1,3-D could be a useful nematode management tool for certain sports turf applications.
PMCID: PMC2620649  PMID: 19262765
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Cynodon hybrids; 1,3-dichloropropene; nematicide; nematode; nematode management; soil fumigation; sting nematode; turf
5.  Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Bacillus firmus I-1582 on Golf Course Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(4):331-335.
One of the primary pests of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) on golf courses in the southeastern United States is Belonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode). In 2011, a commercial formulation of Bacillus firmus I-1582, Nortica 5WG, was launched in the United States for management of plant-parasitic nematodes on turfgrasses. To test the efficacy of late winter/early spring application of this biopesticide on B. longicaudatus, two field trials in 2009 compared B. firmus with fenamiphos and untreated control treatments. In 2011, two additional field trials compared treatment with B. firmus with untreated control only. These trials measured treatment effects on the population density of B. longicaudatus, turf root length, and turf percent green cover. In all four trials, treatment with B. firmus improved root length and decreased numbers of B. longicaudatus in contrast to the untreated. These results indicate that late winter/early spring application of B. firmus is an effective biopesticide treatment for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course bermudagrass.
PMCID: PMC4284084  PMID: 25580025
Bacillus firmus; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biopesticide; Cynodon spp.; management; sting nematode; turfgrass
6.  Effects of Belonolaimus longicaudatus Management and Nitrogen Fertility on Turf Quality of Golf Course Fairways 
Journal of nematology  2007;39(1):62-66.
Field experiments evaluated the effects of nematicide and fertility on performance of ‘Tifway 419’ bermudagrass parasitized by the sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus). Plot treatments were nontreated or nematicide (1,3-dichloropropene) treated combined with different nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels. Effects of treatments on numbers of B. longicaudatus and turf performance were compared. Nematicide consistently reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus, but fertilizer level had no effect on B. longicaudatus. Turf performance of nematicide-treated plots was improved compared with nontreated plots during both experiments. Increasing N fertilizer level improved turf performance in nematicide-treated plots in some cases, but had no effect on turf performance in nontreated plots in either experiment. Results suggest that increasing N fertilizer levels may not improve turf performance at sites infested with B. longicaudatus unless nematode management tactics are effective in reducing nematode densities.
PMCID: PMC2586477  PMID: 19259477
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; fertilizer; nitrogen; sting nematode; turfgrass; management; turf quality
7.  Nematicidal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Root-knot Nematode in Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(3):261-266.
Certain nematodes are common soilborne organisms found in turfgrass in the United States that cause significant economic damage to golf course turf. One of the most prevalent plant-parasitic nematodes infesting turfgrass are root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Chemical treatment options for root-knot nematodes in turfgrass are limited, and there is a need for new nematicidal active ingredients to address this problem. In this study, we evaluated the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a potential nematicide in laboratory and field experiments. AgNP was synthesized by a redox reaction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride using 0.2% starch as a stabilizer. When J2 of M. incognita were exposed to AgNP in water at 30 to 150 μg/ml, >99% nematodes became inactive in 6 hr. When turfgrass and soil composite samples infested with M. graminis were treated with 150 μg/ml AgNP, J2 were reduced in the soil samples by 92% and 82% after 4- and 2-d exposures, respectively, in the treated compared to the nontreated soil samples. Field trials evaluating AgNP were conducted on a bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) putting green infested with M. graminis. Biweekly application of 90.4 mg/m2 of AgNP improved turfgrass quality in one year and reduced gall formation in the roots in two years without phytotoxicity. The AgNP application did not significantly reduce the number of M. graminis J2 in plots during the growing season. The laboratory assays attested to the nematicidal effect of AgNP, and the field evaluation demonstrated its benefits for mitigating damage caused by root-knot nematode in bermudagrass.
PMCID: PMC4176408  PMID: 25275999
bermudagrass; management; Meloidogyne; nematicide; root-knot nematode; silver nanoparticle; turfgrass
8.  Field Efficacy of Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf 
Journal of Nematology  2014;46(1):8-11.
A commercial formulation of furfural was recently launched in the United States as a turfgrass nematicide. Three field trials evaluated efficacy of this commercial formulation on dwarf bermudagrass putting greens infested primarily with Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis, or both these nematodes, and in some cases with Mesocriconema ornatum or Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. In all these trials, furfural improved turf health but did not reduce population densities of B. longicaudatus, M. graminis, or the other plant-parasitic nematodes present. In two additional field trials, efficacy of furfural at increasing depths in the soil profile (0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 15 cm) against B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass was evaluated. Reduction in population density of B. longicaudatus was observed in furfural-treated plots for depths below 5 cm on several dates during both trials. However, no differences in population densities of B. longicaudatus were observed between the furfural-treated plots and the untreated control for soil depth of 0 to 5 cm during either trial. These results indicate that furfural applications can improve health of nematode-infested turf and can reduce population density of plant-parasitic nematodes in turf systems. Although the degree to which turf improvement is directly caused by nematicidal effects is still unclear, furfural does appear to be a useful nematode management tool for turf.
PMCID: PMC3957574  PMID: 24644368
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; furfural; Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus; management; Meloidogyne graminis; Mesocriconema ornatum; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; spiral nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
9.  Evaluation of Econem™, a Formulated Pasteuria sp. Bionematicide, for Management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Golf Course Turf1 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(2):101-109.
In 2010, a turfgrass bionematicide containing in vitro produced Pasteuria sp. for management of Belonolaimus longicaudatus was launched under the tradename Econem™. Greenhouse pot studies and field trials on golf course fairways and tee boxes evaluated Econem at varied rates and application frequencies. Trials on putting greens compared efficacy of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to untreated controls and 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i/ha. Further putting green trials evaluated the ability of three applications of Econem at 98 kg/ha to prevent resurgence of population densities of B. longicaudatus following treatment with 1,3-dichloropropene at 53 kg a.i./ha. None of the Econem treatments in pot studies were effective at reducing B. longicaudatus numbers (P ≤ 0.05). Econem was associated with reduction in population densities of B. longicaudatus (P ≤ 0.1) on only a single sampling date in one of the eight field trials and did not improve turf health in any of the trials (P > 0.1). These results did not indicate that Econem is an effective treatment for management of B. longicaudatus on golf course turf.
PMCID: PMC3380457  PMID: 22791919
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; biopesticide; Cynodon spp.; nematode management; Pasteuria sp.; sting nematode; turfgrass
10.  Host Status of 'SeaIsle 1' Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) to Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus 
Journal of Nematology  2004;36(4):493-498.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus are considered among the most damaging pathogens of turfgrasses in Florida. However, the host status of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is unknown. Glasshouse experiments were performed in 2002 and 2003 to determine the tolerance of 'SeaIsle 1' seashore paspalum to a population of B. longicaudatus and a population of H. galeatus, and to compare to 'Tifdwarf' bermudagrass for differences. Both nematode species reproduced well on either grass, but only B. longicaudatus consistently reduced root growth as measured by root length. Belonolaimus longicaudatus reduced root growth (P ≤ 0.05) by 35% to 45% at 120 days after inoculation on both grasses. In 2003, higher inoculum levels of H. galeatus reduced root growth (P ≤ 0.05) by 19.4% in seashore paspalum and by 14% in bermudagrass after 60 and 120 days of exposure, respectively. Percentage reductions in root length caused by H. galeatus and B. longicaudatus indicated no differences between grass species, although Tifdwarf bermudagrass supported higher soil population densities of both nematodes than SeaIsle 1 seashore paspalum.
PMCID: PMC2620796  PMID: 19262830
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Hoplolaimus galeatus; host status; lance nematode; Paspalum vaginatum; seashore paspalum; sting nematode; tolerance
11.  Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 on Overseeded Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  2013;45(3):223-227.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus is an important parasite of both warm-season bermudagrass and winter overseed grasses used on golf courses in the southeastern United States. Field trials were conducted to study the effects of a commercial formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 applied to overseed grasses during the winter and early spring on population density of B. longicaudatus and bermudagrass health in late spring after bermudagrass broke dormancy. These studies found that P. lilacinus reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus in most cases, but not below damaging levels. Multiple applications of 1 × 1010 spores/m2 were generally more effective than 2 × 1010 spores/m2 in reducing nematode numbers and improving turf roots. These results indicate that application of this formulation of P. lilacinus strain 251 to overseeded turf in the spring may be a useful integrated pest management tool for B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass, but is not sufficient as a stand-alone nematode management tactic.
PMCID: PMC3792840  PMID: 24115787
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; Paecilomyces lilacinus, sting nematode; turfgrass
12.  Evidence for hydroxyl radical production by human neutrophils. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1977;60(2):374-379.
The possibility that neutrophils produce the hydroxyl radical (OH-) was studied by examining the ability of these cells to support the release of ethylene from methional, a reaction in which it has been shown that OH-, but not O2- or H2O2, may serve as the oxidizing agent. When neutrophils were exposed to opsonized zymosan in the presence of 0.35 mM methional, ethylene was released in quantities amounting to 44.6+/-3.6 pmol/10(6) cells/40 min. Ethylene production required the presence of neutrophils, opsonized zymosan, and methional, indicating that it was formed from methional by stimulated but not resting neutrophils. Ethylene was not produced by zymosan-treated cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, confirming the requirement for respiratory burst activity in this process. Ethylene production was suppressed by benzoic acid, an OH- scavenger. Superoxide dismutase (3 microgram/ml) reduced ethylene production to 21% of control levels, but catalase had no significant effect in this system. These findings indicate that stimulated neutrophils produce a highly reactive oxidizing radical, possibly OH-, which releases ethylene from methional, and that the O2-generated during the respiratory burst is involved in the production of this reactive species.
PMCID: PMC372378  PMID: 874097
13.  Field Responses of Bermudagrass and Seashore paspalum Cultivars to Sting and Spiral Nematodes 
Journal of Nematology  2011;43(3-4):201-208.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus spp. are damaging nematode species on bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Eight bermudagrass and three seashore paspalum cultivars were tested for responses to both nematode species in field plots for two years in Florida. Soil samples were taken every three months and nematode population densities in soil were quantified. Turfgrass aboveground health was evaluated throughout the growing season. Results showed that all bermudagrass cultivars, except TifSport, were good hosts for B. longicaudatus, and all seashore paspalum cultivars were good hosts for H. pseudorobustus. Overall, bermudagrass was a better host for B. longicaudatus while seashore paspalum was a better host for H. pseudorobustus. TifSport bermudagrass and SeaDwarf seashore paspalum cultivars supported the lowest population densities of B. longicaudatus. Seashore paspalum had a higher percent green cover than bermudagrass in the nematode-infested field. Nematode intolerant cultivars were identified.
PMCID: PMC3547344  PMID: 23430148
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon spp.; field; Helicotylenchus spp.; Paspalum vaginatum; resistance; seashore paspalum; spiral nematodes; sting nematodes
14.  Population Dynamics of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Criconemella ornata and Growth Response of Bermudagrass and Overseeded Grasses on Golf Greens Following Treatment with Nematicides 
Journal of Nematology  1982;14(3):358-363.
Portions of a 'Tifgreen' bermudagrass golf green with poor turf and large numbers of Belonolabnus longicaudatus and Criconemella ornata were treated with selected nematicides in the summers of 1977 and 1978. Improvements in turf quality were observed within 4 wk after treatment with phenamiphos and fensulfothion. Treatment with phenamiphos restulted in lower numbers of B. longicaudatus 4 and 14 wk after treatment in the 1977 experiment and up to 1 yr after treatment in the 1978 experiment. Treatment with fensulfothion reduced the number of B. longicaudatus for only 1 month after treatment and significantly increased the numbers of this nematode in September and March in the 1978 experiment, Negative correlations were obtained between numbers of B. longicaudatus and turf qualily up to 1 yr. Numbers of C. ornata were reduced only in January and June following treatment with phenamiphos and not at any time with fensulfothion. Treatment with fensulfothion resulted in higher numbers of this nematode than in check plots in November and March. The percent area covered by prostrate spurge the following year was reduced following treatment with phenamiphos, but not with fensulfothion.
PMCID: PMC2618188  PMID: 19295721
phenantiphos; fensulfothion; DBCP; sting nematodes; ring nematodes
15.  Isolates of the Pasteuria penetrans Group from Phytoparasitic Nematodes in Bermudagrass Turf 
Journal of Nematology  1990;22(4S):750-762.
A survey was conducted between 1985 and 1989 of isolates of the Pasteuria penetrans group on phytoparasitic nematodes in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) turf in southern Florida. Six different isolates of the P. penetrans group were observed from five different species of phytoparasitic nematode hosts. Five of the bacterial isolates were different (P ≤ 0.01) in sporangium diameter, endospore width, and ratio of sporangium diameter to endospore width. All locations surveyed had one or more isolates present, suggesting that the Pasteuria penetrans group is widespread in its distribution in southern Florida. Three survey sites had high densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, with more than 60% of the host population encumbered with a large-spored isolate of Pasteuria (mean sporangium diameter = 6.10 μm). One of these sites was monitored for 16 months during which the proportion of nematodes encumbered with this Pasteuria isolate remained constant. Soil infested with this isolate was not suppressive to Pasteuria-free populations of B. longicaudatus grown on bermudagrass for 6 months after controlled soil inoculation. However, the proportion of spore-encumbered and parasitized B. longicaudatus after 6 months was 73%, which was similar to the 74% level observed at the field site. The uhrastructure of mature sporangia of the large-spored isolates of Pasteuria from B. longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus is described and compared with ultrastructural descriptions of P. penetrans sensu strictu and P. thornei from the literature. These B. longicaudatus and H. galeatus isolates of Pasteuria appear to be distinct from the known species and may warrant new species status.
PMCID: PMC2619098  PMID: 19287792
bacterial parasite; Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; biological control; Helicotylenchus microlobus; Hoplolaimus galeatus; Meloidogyne spp.; Pasteuria penetrans group; Tylenchorhynchus annulatus; ultrastructure
16.  Alternatives to Fenamiphos for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(4):477-482.
Plant-parasitic nematodes can be very damaging to turfgrasses. The projected cancellation of the registration for fenamiphos in the near future has generated a great deal of interest in identifying acceptable alternative nematode management tactics for use on turfgrasses. Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated applications of several commercially available nematicides and root biostimulants for reducing population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and (or) promoting health of bermudagrass in nematode-infested soil. One experimental site was infested with Hoplolaimus galeatus and Trichodorus obtusus, the second with Belonolaimus longicaudatus. In both trials, none of the experimental treatments reduced population densities (P ≤ 0.1) of plant-parasitic nematodes, or consistently promoted turf visual performance or turf root production. Nematologists with responsibility to advise turf managers regarding nematode management should thoroughly investigate the validity of product claims before advising clientele in their use.
PMCID: PMC2621000  PMID: 19262894
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; Hoplolaimus galeatus; lance nematode; sting nematode; stubby-root nematode; Trichodorus obtusus; turf
17.  Diversity and Occurrence of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Golf Course Turfgrasses in North and South Carolina, USA 
Journal of Nematology  2012;44(4):337-347.
One hundred and eleven golf courses from 39 counties in the Carolinas were surveyed for plant-parasitic nematodes. Species diversity within habitats was analyzed with five diversity indices including Diversity index (H’), Evenness (J’), Richness (SR), Dominance (λ) and Diversity (H2). The results revealed a remarkably high diversity of 24 nematode species belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Of those, 23 species were found in SC, 19 species in NC, and 18 species were detected in both states. Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis and Paratrichodorus minor were the most prevalent and abundant species in golf course turfgrasses in both states. Twelve species were new records of plant parasitic nematodes in turfgrasses in both NC and SC. The results also revealed effects of different habitats on diversity of nematode species in turfgrass ecosystem. H’ and SR values were higher in SC than in NC. H’, J’ and H2 values were significantly higher in sandy than in clay soil in NC, but no significant differences between sand and clay soil were detected in SC or in pooled data from both states. There were no significant differences for all indices among the management zones (putting green, fairway and tee) in NC. However, in SC and pooled data, H’, SR and H2 were significantly higher in putting greens than in fairways and tees. Significant differences from different grass species (bermudagrass, creeping bentgrass and zoysiagrass) were detected only in H’, which was significantly higher in zoysiagrass than in bentgrass or bermudagrass in NC. In pooled data, H’ was significantly higher in zoysiagrass samples than in creeping bentgrass samples but was not significantly different from bermudagrass samples.
PMCID: PMC3592363  PMID: 23482422
North Carolina; South Carolina; detection; distribution; diversity; ecology; golf course; identification; plant-parasitic nematode; turfgrass
18.  Influence of Belonolaimus longicaudatus on Nitrate Leaching in Turf 
Journal of nematology  2006;38(4):461-465.
Experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of the sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) on root reductions and quantity of nitrate (NO3 −) leached from ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass in lysimeters. Forty lysimeters were planted with ‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass, of which 20 were inoculated with B. longicaudatus and 20 were noninoculated. Root length was compared between treatments at six, 12, and 18 weeks after initiation of the experiments. Turf was fertilized every three weeks, and leaching events were simulated at 21 and 42-day intervals in trial one and trial two, respectively. Leachate was collected, and the quantity of NO3 − leached was compared between treatments. Root reductions were observed in lysimeters inoculated with B. longicaudatus at all evaluation dates. Quantity of NO3 − leached was greater in inoculated lysimeters at the 18-week evaluation during both trials. This study indicates that nematode damage to turf roots limits root vigor and N uptake, thereby increasing nitrate leaching, adding to water quality concerns.
PMCID: PMC2586471  PMID: 19259464
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; Cynodon dactylon; nitrate leaching; sting nematode; turfgrass; management; water quality
19.  Susceptibility of Diploid St. Augustinegrasses to Belonolaimus longicaudatus 
Journal of Nematology  1991;23(4S):604-610.
A fine-textured, dwarf St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze) genotype, FX-313, was severely damaged in plots in the third year of evaluation in sandy soil in southern Florida. Damage was associated with numerous (> 40/100-cm³ soil) sting nematodes, Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau. Damage was ameliorated (P < 0.05) by fenamiphos applied broadcast at 2.2 g a.i./m², and B. longicaudatus numbers were reduced (P < 0.01), compared with untreated plots. Root dry weights of four diploid (2n = 18) St. Augustinegrasses--FX-261, FX-299, FX-313, and Seville--were reduced (P < 0.001) by B. longicaudatus in a temperature- and light-controlled experiment. Estimated daily transpiration, an indicator of plant health, was reduced (P < 0.001) after 112 days to 3.32 g/pot for inoculated plants, compared with 5.10 g /pot for uninoculated plants. Genotypes did not differ in nematode number per pot (mean 551/215 cm² soil) 128 days after inoculation, but differed (P < 0.05) in nematode numbers on a root dry weight basis, with FX-313 and Seville representing the extremes, 12,300 and 4,000 B. longicaudatus/g root dry weight, respectively. The diploid St. Augustinegrasses evaluated were good hosts for B. longicaudatus, but field data and controlled inoculation demonstrate genetic variation in susceptibility.
PMCID: PMC2619225  PMID: 19283170
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; breeding; fenamiphos; nematode; resistance; St. Augustinegrass; Stenotaphrum secundatum; sting nematode; turfgrass
20.  Saline Irrigation Affects Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus on Seashore Paspalum 
Journal of Nematology  2005;37(1):37-44.
Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) has great potential for use in salt-affected turfgrass sites. Use of this grass on golf courses, athletic fields, and lawns in subtropical coastal areas may aid in conservation of freshwater resources. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Hoplolaimus galeatus are considered among the most damaging root pathogens of turfgrasses in Florida. Glasshouse experiments were performed in 2002 and 2003 to examine the effects of increasing levels of irrigation salinity on B. longicaudatus and H. galeatus. Irrigation treatments were formulated by concentrating deionized water to six salinity levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 dS/m). Final population densities of H. galeatus followed a negative linear regression (r² = 0.92 and 0.83; P <= 0.01) with increasing salinity levels. Final population densities of B. longicaudatus were quadratically (r² = 0.72 and 0.78; P <= 0.01) related to increasing salinity levels from 0 to 25 dS/m. An increase in population densities of B. longicaudatus was observed at moderate salinity levels (10 and 15 dS/m) compared to 0 dS/m. Root-length comparisons revealed that B. longicaudatus caused root stunting at low salinity levels, 0 to 10 dS/m, but roots were not affected at 15 to 25 dS/m. These results indicate that the ability of B. longicaudatus to feed and stunt root growth was negatively affected at salinity levels of 15 dS/m and above.
PMCID: PMC2620935  PMID: 19262841
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; Hoplolaimus galeatus; lance nematode; Paspalum vaginatum; salinity; seashore paspalum; sting nematode
21.  Oxidatively Generated DNA Damage Following Cu(II)-Catalysis of Dopamine and Related Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Neurotoxins: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species1 
Free radical biology & medicine  2010;50(1):139-147.
There is increasing evidence supporting a causal role of oxidatively damaged DNA in neurodegeneration during the natural aging process and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The presence of redox-active catecholamine neurotransmitters coupled with the localization of catalytic copper to DNA suggests a plausible role for these agents in the induction of oxidatively generated DNA damage. In this study we have investigated the role of Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of several catecholamine neurotransmitters and related neurotoxins to induce oxidatively generated DNA damage. Auto-oxidation of all catechol neurotransmitters and related congeners tested resulted in the formation of nearly a dozen oxidation DNA products resulting in a decomposition pattern that was essentially identical for all agents tested. The presence of Cu(II), and to a lesser extent Fe(III), had no effect on the decomposition pattern but substantially enhanced the DNA product levels by up to 75 fold, with dopamine producing the highest levels of unidentified oxidation DNA products (383 ± 46 adducts/106 nucleotides), comparable to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine levels under the same conditions (122 ± 19 adducts/106 nucleotides). The addition of sodium azide, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone, tiron, catalase, bathocuproine or methional to the dopamine/Cu(II) reaction mixture resulted in a substantial decrease (>90%) in oxidation DNA product levels, indicating a role of singlet oxygen, superoxide, H2O2, Cu(I) and Cu(I)OOH in their formation. While the addition of N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone significantly decreased (67%) dopamine-mediated oxidatively damaged DNA, three other hydroxyl radical scavengers, ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate and mannitol, had little to no effect on these oxidation DNA product levels, suggesting that free hydroxyl radicals may have limited involvement in this dopamine/Cu(II)-mediated oxidatively generated DNA damage. These studies suggest a possible contributory role of oxidatively generated DNA damage by dopamine and related catechol neurotransmitters/neurotoxins in neurodegeneration and cell death. We also found that a naturally occurring broad spectrum antioxidant, ellagic acid, was substantially effective (nearly 50% inhibition) at low doses (1 μM) at preventing this dopamine/Cu(II)-mediated oxidatively generated DNA damage. Since dietary ellagic acid has been found to reduce oxidative stress in rat brains, a neuro-protective role of this polyphenol is plausible.
PMCID: PMC3353411  PMID: 21075203
Neurotransmitters; Dopamine; Catecholamines; Oxidative DNA adducts; 32P-Postlabeling
22.  Evaluation of Three Nematicides for the Control of Phytoparasitic Nematodes in 'Tifgreen II' Bermudagrass 
Journal of Nematology  1988;20(Annals 2):46-49.
Three nematicides were evaluated for control of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Criconemella spp., and Meloidogyne spp. in 'Tifgreen II' bermudagrass mowed at golf course fairway height (1.3 cm) in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Bermudagrass plots were treated with fenamiphos (13.5 kg a.i./ha), oxamyl (13.5 kg a.i./ha), or 30% formaldehyde (6.4 liter a.i./ha). The plots treated with fenamiphos or formaldehyde were split 14 days later and one-half of each plot received two biweekly applications of formaldehyde. Forty-two days after the treatments were applied, the turfgrass vigor ratings and dry root weights in plots treated with fenamiphos were higher (P < 0.05) than the control, oxamyl, or formaldehyde treatments. The population levels of B. longicaudatus were suppressed (P < 0.05) in the fenamiphos, fenamiphos plus formaldehyde, and oxamyl treatments.
PMCID: PMC2618884  PMID: 19290302
Belonolaimus longicaudatus; bermudagrass; chemical control; Criconemella spp.; fenamiphos; formaldehyde; lance nematode; Hoplolaimus galeatus; Meloidogyne spp.; oxamyl; ring nematode; root-knot nematode; sting nematode; turfgrass
23.  An Allosteric Mechanism for Switching between Parallel Tracks in Mammalian Sulfur Metabolism 
PLoS Computational Biology  2008;4(5):e1000076.
Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid that is needed for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the major biological methylating agent. Methionine used for AdoMet synthesis can be replenished via remethylation of homocysteine. Alternatively, homocysteine can be converted to cysteine via the transsulfuration pathway. Aberrations in methionine metabolism are associated with a number of complex diseases, including cancer, anemia, and neurodegenerative diseases. The concentration of methionine in blood and in organs is tightly regulated. Liver plays a key role in buffering blood methionine levels, and an interesting feature of its metabolism is that parallel tracks exist for the synthesis and utilization of AdoMet. To elucidate the molecular mechanism that controls metabolic fluxes in liver methionine metabolism, we have studied the dependencies of AdoMet concentration and methionine consumption rate on methionine concentration in native murine hepatocytes at physiologically relevant concentrations (40–400 µM). We find that both [AdoMet] and methionine consumption rates do not change gradually with an increase in [Met] but rise sharply (∼10-fold) in the narrow Met interval from 50 to 100 µM. Analysis of our experimental data using a mathematical model reveals that the sharp increase in [AdoMet] and the methionine consumption rate observed within the trigger zone are associated with metabolic switching from methionine conservation to disposal, regulated allosterically by switching between parallel pathways. This regulatory switch is triggered by [Met] and provides a mechanism for stabilization of methionine levels in blood over wide variations in dietary methionine intake.
Author Summary
Methionine is an essential amino acid that is highly toxic at elevated levels, and the liver is primarily responsible for buffering its concentration in circulation. Intracellularly, methionine is needed for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the major biological methylating agent. Methionine used for AdoMet synthesis can be replenished via remethylation of homocysteine. Alternatively, homocysteine can be converted to cysteine via the transsulfuration pathway. A specific feature of liver methionine metabolism is the existence of twin pathways for AdoMet synthesis and degradation. In this study, we analyzed the dependence of methionine metabolism on methionine concentration in liver cells using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We find a sharp transition in rat hepatocyte metabolism from methionine conservation to a disposal mode with an increase in methionine concentration above its physiological range. Mathematical modeling reveals that this transition is afforded by an allosteric mechanism for switching between parallel metabolic pathways. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism of trigger behavior in biological systems by which the substrate for the metabolic network switches metabolic flux between parallel tracks for sustaining two different metabolic modes.
PMCID: PMC2346559  PMID: 18451990
24.  Ethylene formation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Role of myeloperoxidase 
Ethylene formation from the thioethers, beta-methylthiopropionaldehyde (methional) and 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was found to be largely dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). Conversion was less than 10% of normal when MPO-deficient PMNs were employed; formation by normal PMNs was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitors, azide, and cyanide, and a model system consisting of MPO, H2O2, chloride (or bromide) and EDTA was found which shared many of the properties of the predominant PMN system. MPO-independent mechanisms of ethylene formation were also identified. Ethylene formation from methional by phagocytosing eosinophils and by H2O2 in the presence or absence of catalase was stimulated by azide. The presence of MPO-independent, azide-stimulable systems in the PMN preparations was suggested by the azide stimulation of ethylene formation from methional when MPO-deficient leukocytes were employed. Ethylene formation by dye-sensitized photooxidation was also demonstrated and evidence obtained for the involvement of singlet oxygen (1O2). These findings are discussed in relation to the participation of H2O2, hydroxyl radicals, the superoxide anion and 1O2 in the formation of ethylene by PMNs and by the MPO model system.
PMCID: PMC2184952  PMID: 212502
25.  Acute Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, and Serine Supplements on Flow-Mediated Dilation after Methionine Loading: A Randomized Trial 
PLoS Clinical Trials  2006;1(1):e4.
We investigated whether reducing post-methionine homocysteine concentrations via various treatments other than folic acid affects vascular function, as measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. High fasting and post-methionine homocysteine concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease risk, but homocysteine might be a surrogate marker for low folate status.
This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study.
The study took place at Wageningen University in Wageningen in the Netherlands.
Participants were 39 apparently healthy men and women, aged 50–70 y.
Participants ingested 10 mg of folic acid, 3 g of betaine, 5 g of serine, and placebo together with an oral methionine load. Each supplement was tested on two different days.
Outcome Measures:
On each of the eight treatment days, plasma homocysteine concentrations and FMD were measured before (t = 0 h, fasting) and 6 h (t = 6 h) after methionine loading.
The mean (± SD) fasting homocysteine concentrations averaged over the eight test days were 9.6 ± 2.1 μmol/l. Mean fasting FMD was 3.1 ± 2.4 FMD%. A methionine load with placebo increased homocysteine concentrations by 17.2 ± 9.3 μmol/l at 6 h after loading, similar to the increase following methionine loading with folic acid. A methionine load together with betaine and with serine increased homocysteine by 10.4 ± 2.8 μmol/l (p < 0.001 relative to placebo) and by 12.1 ± 8.2 μmol/l (p < 0.001 relative to placebo), respectively. Methionine loading with placebo did not affect FMD, and neither did methionine loading with folic acid, betaine, or serine; differences relative to placebo were +0.7 FMD% (95%CI, −0.6; 1.9), +0.2 FMD% (−1.0; 1.3), and +0.3 FMD% (−0.8; 1.4), respectively.
Experimentally induced acute changes in homocysteine concentrations did not affect FMD in healthy volunteers. This implies that potential adverse effects of high homocysteine concentrations on the cardiovascular system are not mediated through vascular function. However, homocysteine or folate may affect cardiovascular disease risk through other mechanisms.
Editorial Commentary
Background: It is already known from observational studies that people with high concentrations of homocysteine (an amino acid) in the blood are at increased risk of disease involving the heart and blood vessels, known as cardiovascular disease. Some randomized trials have also shown that lowering homocysteine levels decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but not all trials show this. The mechanisms linking homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease are not well understood. Olthof and colleagues wanted to explore further the mechanisms linking homocysteine levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The investigators did a trial in healthy volunteers in which homocysteine concentrations were experimentally raised, then lowered, over short periods of time. The volunteers took a methionine supplement (an amino acid that is converted to homocysteine in the body) to raise homocysteine levels and either betaine (a dietary nutrient), serine (an amino acid), or folic acid (a B vitamin) to lower them. During the trial, the researchers then looked at how well the volunteers' arm arteries functioned, as a surrogate for measuring cardiovascular disease risk.
What this trial shows: The investigators found that functioning of the volunteers' arteries, as measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD), was not affected by the changes in homocysteine levels that were brought about in the experiment.
Strengths and limitations: Although the number of participants analyzed in the trial was small (n = 39), it was large enough to adequately test the researchers' hypothesis. The vast majority of participants received the experimental treatment, with only one participant dropping out of the study. However, the observations were made over a short period of time, within 6 h of the experimental treatments being given. The investigators did not look at clinical outcomes, such as heart disease or stroke. Therefore, this trial does not provide evidence on whether altered homocysteine levels cause, or could be manipulated to prevent, such clinical outcomes.
Contribution to the evidence: This trial adds information on the short-term effects of changes in homocysteine levels.
PMCID: PMC1488894  PMID: 16871326

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