The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is the most damaging nematode pathogen of cotton in Alabama. Soil texture is currently being explored as a basis for the development of economic thresholds and management zones within a field. Trials to determine the reproductive potential of R. reniformis as influenced by soil type were conducted in microplot and greenhouse settings during 2008 to 2010. Population density of R. reniformis was significantly influenced by soil texture and exhibited a general decrease with increasing median soil particle size (MSPS). As the MSPS of a soil increased from 0.04 mm in clay soil to > 0.30 mm in very fine sandy loam and sandy loam soils, R. reniformis numbers decreased. The R. reniformis population densities on all soil types were also greater with irrigation. Early season cotton development was significantly affected by increasing R. reniformis Pi, with plant shoot-weight-to-root-weight ratios increasing at low R. reniformis Pi and declining with increasing R. reniformis Pi. Plant height was increased by irrigation throughout the growing season. The results suggests that R. reniformis will reach higher population densities in soils with smaller MSPS; however, the reduction in yield or plant growth very well may be no greater than in a soil that is less preferential to the nematode.
Gossypium hirsutum; median soil particle size (MSPS); soil moisture; soil texture; site-specific management
The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford &Oliveira, has become a serious threat to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in the United States during the past decade. The objective of this study is to isolate fungi from eggs of R. reniformis and select potential biological control agents for R. reniformis on cotton. Soil samples were collected from cotton fields located in Jefferson County, Arkansas. Eight genera of fungi were included in the 128 fungal isolates obtained, and among them were five strains of the nematophagous fungus ARF. The mtDNA RFLP pattern, colony growth characteristics, and pathogenicity indicate the five ARF isolates represent one described strain and one new strain. Light and electron microscopic observations suggest ARF is an active parasite of R. reniformis, with parasitism ranging from 48% to 79% in in vitro tests. Three greenhouse experiments demonstrated ARF successfully suppressed the number of reniform nematodes during the first and second generation of the nematode. Reductions in numbers of R. reniformis on the roots for the seven application rates of 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% ARF were 87%, 92%, 94%, 96%, 97%, 98%, and and 98%, respectively.
ARF; biological control; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis
The reproductive and damage potential of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, on five cotton breeding lines reported as tolerant to this nematode in Texas were compared with two standard cotton cultivars, Deltapine 50 and Stoneville LA 887, in a North Carolina field naturally infested with R. reniformis. Numbers of R. reniformis in soil were suppressed at mid-season, and cotton-lint yield was increased by preplant fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene. Population densities of R. reniformis at cotton harvest were unaffected by fumigation in 1998, but were affected in 1999. Some of the putatively tolerant breeding lines supported lower levels of R. reniformis and had higher tolerance indices to reniform nematode than the standard cultivars, but the yields of the breeding lines were significantly lower than the standard cultivars. Fumigation resulted in a 100- to 200-kg/ha increase in cotton lint yield for cultivars LA 887 and Deltapine 50.
cotton; crop loss; Gossypium hirsutum; host-plant resistance; nematode; plant disease loss; reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; tolerance
Rotylenchulus reniformis is rapidly becoming the most economically important pest associated with cotton in the southeastern United States. Incentive programs have been implemented to support sampling of production fields to determine the presence and abundance of R. reniformis. These sampling programs have dramatically increased the number of soils samples submitted to nematology laboratories during autumn. The large numbers of samples overwhelm most labs and require placement in cold storage until extraction. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the length of time soils infested with R. reniformis can be stored before nematode extraction without compromising the accuracy of estimates of population densities. A sandy loam and a silty loam were the two cotton production soils used in this study. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers decreased 61%during the first 180 days of storage in both soils. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers from the initial sampling through 180 days decreased as a linear function. The decline of R. reniformis numbers during storage was estimated as 0.28% of the population lost daily from the maximum population through 180 days. The diminution of nematode numbers from 180 through 1,080 days in storage continued, but at a slower rate. Numbers of R. reniformis declined to less than 89%, 93%, and 99% of the initial population within 360, 720, and 1,080 days, respectively, of storage. The reduction of R. reniformis numbers over 180 days can be adjusted, allowing a more accurate estimation of R. reniformis levels in soil samples stored at 4 °C.
Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil storage; population density
Rotylenchulus reniformis is the most damaging nematode pathogen of cotton in Alabama. It is easily introduced into cotton fields via contaminated equipment and, when present, is difficult and costly to control. A trial to monitor the natural migration of R. reniformis from an initial point of origin was established in 2007 and studied over two growing seasons in both irrigated and non-irrigated no-till cotton production systems. Vermiform females, juveniles and males reached a horizontal distance of 200 cm from the initial inoculation point, and a depth of 91 cm in the first season in both systems. Irrigation had no effect on the migration of vermiform females and juveniles, but males migrated faster in the irrigated trial than in the non-irrigated trial. Population density increased steadily in the irrigated trial during both years, exceeding the economic threshold of 1,000 per 150 cm3, but was highly correlated with rainfall in the non-irrigated trial. The average speed of migration ranged from 0- to 3.3-cm per day over 150 days. R. reniformis was able to establish in both the irrigated and non-irrigated trials in one season and to increase population density significantly.
Behavior; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; host-parasite relationship; movement; no-till; population dynamics; root growth; Rotylenchulus reniformis
More plants can be screened for reniform nematode resistance each year if the time involved can be shortened. In this study, the hypothesis that female counts are as efficient as egg counts in identifying resistant genotypes was tested. In two greenhouse experiments Gossypium genotypes which varied from resistant to susceptible to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) were compared to a susceptible control cultivar. Infested field soil served as the inoculum source for the first experiment, and vermiform stages extracted from greenhouse cultures were used to infest soil in the second experiment. Six replicates of each genotype were harvested 25 d after planting and swollen females were counted. The remaining plants were harvested 35 d after planting and eggs extracted from the roots were counted. Processing and counting times recorded in the first experiment were similar for both assessment methods, but 10 additional days were required for egg-based assessment. Contrast analyses showed that assessments based on females per gram of root were equivalent to assessments based on eggs per gram of root for the five genotypes tested in the first experiment and for an expanded set of 13 genotypes tested in the second experiment. The results indicated that either life stage can be used to screen for resistance.
cotton; Gossypium barbadense; G. hirsutum; reniform nematode; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis
It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniformis in the following ratios (Mi:Rr): 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Soil populations of M. incognita and R. reniformis were recorded at 3, 6, 9, 14, 19, 25, 35, 45, and 60 days after inoculations. At each date, samples were taken to determine the life stage of development, number of egg masses, eggs per egg mass, galls, and giant cells or syncytia produced by the nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita and R. reniformis were capable of initially inhibiting each other when the inoculum ratio of one species was higher than the other. In concomitant infections, M. incognita was susceptible to the antagonistic effect of R. reniformis. Rotylenchulus reniformis affected hatching of M. incognita eggs, delayed secondary infection of M. incognita J2, reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita, and reduced J2 of M. incognita 60 days after inoculations. In contrast, M. incognita reduced R. reniformis soil populations only when its proportion in the inoculum ratio was higher than that of R. reniformis. Meloidogyne incognita reduced egg masses produced by R. reniformis, but not production of eggs and secondary infection.
antagonism; competition; concomitant infections; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; Reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; sequential infections
The effects of soil type and initial inoculum density (Pi) on the reproductive and damage potentials of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton were evaluated in microplot experiments from 1991 to 1993. The equilibrium nematode population density for R. reniformis on cotton was much greater than that of M. incognita, indicating that cotton is a better host for R. reniformis than M. incognita. Reproduction of M. incognita was greater in coarse-textured soils than in fine-textured soils, whereas R. reniformis reproduction was greatest in a Portsmouth loamy sand with intermediate percentages of clay plus silt. Population densities of M. incognita were inversely related to the percentage of silt and clay, but R. reniformis was favored by moderate levels of clay plus silt (ca. 28%). Both M. incognita races 3 and 4 and R. reniformis effected suppression of seed-cotton yield in all soil types evaluated. Cotton-yield suppression was greatest in response to R. reniformis at high Pi. Cotton maturity, measured as percentage of open bolls at different dates, was affected by the presence of nematodes in all 3 years.
cotton; ecology; edaphic factor; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; plant-disease loss; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil texture; yield
A survey was conducted in northeastern Louisiana to determine the frequency and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton. In fall 1997 and 1998, more than 600 soil samples were collected from cotton fields representing 6,200 ha, which is 5.3% of the cotton production hectarage in this region. Composite soil samples were collected from 10 ha in each field. Nematodes were extracted by gravity screening and sucrose centrifugation, identified to genus, and quantified. Nine genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified. Rotylenchulus reniformis was found in 67% of the fields sampled, with an average population of 12,959 juveniles and vermiform adult stages per 500 cm³ of soil. Meloidogyne incognita was identified in 25% of the fields sampled, with an average population of 998 juveniles per 500 cm³ of soil. Hoplolaimus spp. were identified in 3%, or 155 ha, with an average population of 282 juveniles and adult stages per 500 cm[sup3] of soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis and M. incognita occurred at population levels above reported economic thresholds in 49% and 21% of the fields, respectively.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; survey
The effects of culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia solani and root exudates of R. solani-infected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings on hatching of eggs and infectivity of females of Rotylenchulus reniformis were evaluated in an attempt to account for the enhanced nematode reproduction observed in the presence of this fungus. Crude filtrates of R. solani cultures growing over sterile, deionized distilled water did not affect egg hatching. Exudates from roots of cotton seedlings increased hatching of R. reniformis eggs over that observed in water controls. Exudates from cotton seedling roots not infected or infected with R. solani did not differ in their effect on egg hatching. However, infection of cotton seedlings by reniform females was increased in the presence of R. solani, resulting in the augmented egg production and juvenile population densities in soil observed in greenhouse studies.
cotton; culture filtrate; egg hatching; Gossypium hirsutum; infectivity; nematode; reniform nematode; Rhizoctonia solani; root exudate; Rotylenchulus reniformis
The effect of soybean genotype on competition between Meloidogyne incognita race 2 (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) was evaluated in greenhouse and microplot replacement series experiments. Soil in pots containing seedlings of 'Davis' (susceptible to Mi) or 'Buckshot 66' (resistant to Mi) was infested with 1,000 vermiform individuals in the following Mi:Rr ratios: 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, or 0:100. After 91 days, the relative nematode yields (number of nematodes in mixed culture divided by the number in nonmixed culture) of each species were calculated based on soil and root nematode populations expressed as nematodes per gram of dry root tissue. To define the relationship between the two species, calculated relative nematode yields were compared with a theoretical noncompetition model using lack-of-fit regression. In the greenhouse, Mi populations on 'Davis' were stimulated in the presence of Rr. In microplots, low Mi and Rr population densities likely resulted from severe galling and destruction of feeder roots that probably occurred early in the season. Enhanced susceptibility to Mi was not observed on 'Buckshot 66', which remained resistant to Mi even when colonized by Rr. Host resistance is a key factor in determining the nature of the relationship between Mi and Rr.
competition; concomitant populations; Glycine max; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; reniform nematode; replacement series; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
During September 1990, 30 cotton fields in each of three Missouri counties were surveyed for plant-parasitic nematodes. Soil samples for nematode analysis consisted of a composite of 20 cores collected in a zig-zag pattern within a 1-ha block in each field. Cores were taken from within weed-free cotton rows. Nine genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were found (Rotylenchulus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Heterodera, and Trichodorus), and five species were identified: Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Pratylenchus vulnus, and P. scribneri. This is the first report of R. reniformis, H. galeatus, P. vulnus, and P. scribneri in Missouri cotton fields and the first report of R. reniformis and P. vulnus in Missouri. The known cotton pathogens M. incognita, R. reniformis, and H. galeatus were found in 30%, 3%, and 2% of the fields sampled, respectively. The correlation between sand content of the soil sample and the number of vermiform M. incognita in the sample was not significant, with r² = 0.13. Select fields where H. galeatus and R. reniformis were found in 1990 were sampled more intensely in 1991. The 1-ha block sampled in 1990 was sampled in 1991, along with three other 1-ha blocks uniformly distributed within the field. In addition, a 1-ha block was sampled in each of eight nearby fields, within 2 km of the first field. The nine plant-parasitic nematode genera identified in the 1990 survey were observed again in 1991. Within-field distribution of M. incognita, R. reniformis, and H. galeatus was not uniform. When M. incognita, R. reniformis, or H. galeatus were present in a field, the same species was found in 38%, 25%, or 50% of nearby fields, respectively.
cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; Missouri; nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Hoplolaimus galeatus; survey
A field infested with Rotylenchulus reniformis in the Arkansas River valley near Pine Bluff, Jefferson County, Arkansas, was used to test the effects of R. reniformis on four commonly grown soybean cultivars (Lloyd, Tracy-M, Bedford, Forrest). At planting, the plots averaged 950 vermiform reniform nematodes per 100 cm³ of soil. At harvest, the average R. reniformis reproductive index (final/initial population density) was 2.62 for Tracy-M, 2.50 for Lloyd, 1.72 for Bedford, and 0.81 for Forrest. Yields were highest for the cultivar Lloyd, followed by Bedford, Forrest, and Tracy-M. Initial population densities of R. reniformis were positively correlated (P = 0.05) with final population densities when all cultivars were calculated together. Neither initial nor final densities were correlated with yield.
Glycine max; Heterodera glycines; nematode; reniform nematode; resistance; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; yield
The impact of 10 Fusarium species in concomitant association with Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton seedling disease was examined under greenhouse conditions. In experiment 1, fungal treatments consisted of Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. lateritium, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, and F. sporotrichioides; Rhizoctonia solani; and Thielaviopsis basicola. The experimental design was a 2 × 14 factorial consisting of the presence or absence of R. reniformis and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls in autoclaved field soil. In experiment 2, the same fungal and nematode treatments were examined in autoclaved or non-autoclaved soil. This experimental design was a 2 × 2 × 14 factorial consisting of field or autoclaved soil, presence or absence of R. reniformis, and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls. In both tests, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, F. solani, R. solani, and T. basicola consistently displayed extensive root and hypocotyl necrosis that was more severe (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of R. reniformis. Soil treatment (autoclaved vs. non-autoclaved) influenced the impact of the Fusarium species on cotton seedling disease, with disease being more severe in the autoclaved soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction on cotton seedlings was greater in field soil compared to autoclaved soil (P ≤ 0.05). This study suggests the importance of Fusarium species and R. reniformis in cotton seedling disease.
cotton seedling disease; Fusarium species; Gossypium hirsutum; Rhizoctonia solani; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Thielaviopsis basicola
Rotylenchulus reniformis is a major problem confronting cotton production in the central part of the cotton belt of the United States of America. In this study, the hypothesis that natural antagonists in some cases are responsible for unusually low densities of the nematode in certain fields was tested by assaying soils from 22 selected fields for the presence of transferable agents in pots containing cotton plants. In one field, soil from four different depth ranges was tested. In the first of two types of assays, 1 part nematode infested soil was added to 9 parts test soil that was left untreated or autoclaved before mixing; this mixture was used to fill pots. In the second type of assay, 1 part test soil was added to 9 or 19 parts pasteurized fine sand, and nematodes were introduced in aqueous suspension. In three experiments representing both types of assay, transferable or autoclavable agent(s) from four fields in South Texas suppressed nematode populations by 48, 78, 90 and 95%. In one experiment, transferable agents in five fields in Louisiana suppressed populations from 37 to 66%. Identification and evaluation of these agents for biological control of R. reniformis merits further study.
biological control; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Rotylenchulus reniformis; reniform nematode; soil suppressiveness
The effects of intercycle cover crops on Rotylenchulus reniformis population densities in pineapple were evaluated in one greenhouse and two field experiments. In the greenhouse, Crotalaria juncea, Brassica napus, and Tagetes erecta were planted for 3 months and then incorporated. These treatments were compared to weedy fallow with or without 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in three soils (Makawao fallow, Wahiawa fallow, and Wahiawa pineapple) naturally infested with R. reniformis. All cover crop incorporation suppressed R. reniformis numbers in cowpea more than did the weedy treatment in the Makawao (P < 0.05) but not in the Wahiawa soils. Crotalaria juncea treatment increased bacterivorous nematodes and nematode-trapping fungal population densities more than the other treatments in Makawao fallow and Wahiawa pineapple-planted soils. The field trials included the same plants as well as Sinapis alba. Treatments with Crotalaria juncea and 1,3-D maintained lower R. reniformis population densities on pineapple longer than other cover crops or weedy fallow treatments. Crotalaria juncea could have suppressed R. reniformis because it is a poor host and because it enhances nematode-trapping fungi when incorporated into soil. Treatment with 1,3-D reduced microbial activities but produced the greatest pineapple yield.
Brassica napus; cover crop; Crotalaria juncea; management; marigold; nematode; pineapple; rapeseed; Rotylenchulus reniformis; Sinapis alba; soil; sunn hemp Tagetes erecta; yellow mustard
Reproduction of reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis on 139 soybean lines was evaluated in a greenhouse in the summer of 2001. Cultivars and lines (119 total) were new in the Arkansas and Mississippi Soybean Testing Programs, and an additional 20 were submitted by C. Overstreet, Louisiana State Extension Nematologist. A second test of 32 breeding lines and 2 cultivars from the Clemson University soybean breeding program was performed at the same time under the same conditions. Controls were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, susceptible Braxton, and fallow infested soil. Five treatment replications were planted in sandy loam soil infested with 1,744 eggs and vermiform reniform nematodes, grown for 10 weeks in 10 cm-diam.- pots. Total reniform nematodes extracted from soil and roots was determined, and a reproductive factor (final population (Pf)/ initial inoculum level (Pi)) was calculated for each genotype. Reproduction on each genotype was compared to the reproduction on the resistant cultivar Forrest (RF), and the log ratio [log₁₀(RF + 1) is reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest (log ratio) were not suitable hosts, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered suitable hosts. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton or other susceptible crops to help control the reniform nematode and to select useful breeding lines as parent material for future development of reniform nematode resistant cultivars and lines.
breeding lines; cultivars; Glycine max; nematode; reniform nematode; reproductive index; rotation; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean
The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, has been reported from all Gulf Coast states, Arkansas, Hawaii, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Experts in 11 states identified the counties or parishes where the nematode is found and provided information regarding associated soil parameters, climate, crops, and crop management. Rotylenchulus reniformis has been detected in 187 counties and parishes of the southeastern United States and is most widespread in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. In every state except Florida and Hawaii, economically damaging soil populations were associated with continuous cotton production. Other crops considered to be damaged by R. reniformis were soybean, tobacco, several vegetables, and pineapple (Hawaii). There was no consistent relationship between the nematode's presence and soil texture, soil pH, rainfall, or irrigation regime. However, certain respondents associated damage from the nematode primarily with silty or clay soils (Texas, Hawaii, Florida, and Georgia) or with silty soils with exceptionally tow pH (Hawaii and Louisiana).
geographical distribution; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soil type; survey
A sampling of 15% of the cotton hectarage in each Florida county was assayed for nematodes and soil particle components following the 1990 harvest. The distribution of juveniles of Meloidogyne spp., which were found in 61% of the 178 fields sampled statewide, was not influenced by soil type. Rotylenchulus reniformis was more prevalent in the heavier soils and occurred in 15% of the sampled fields. In fields with concomitant infestations (9% of the sampled fields), densities of root-knot juveniles per 10 cm³ soil wer e negatively related to those of reniform nematodes (R² =-0.32; P < 0.02; df = 14). Gall ratings of cotton plants, assayed in sampled soils, were positively related to the densities of root-knot juveniles per 100 cm³ soil (R² = 0.23; P < 0.01; df = 175). Other nematode genera and their frequency of occurrence were Helicotylenchus (76%), Paratrichodorus (57%), Criconemella (53%), Pratylenchus (42%), Xiphinema (7%), Heterodera (2%), and Hoplolaimus (1%).
cotton; Criconenella; galling; Gossypium hirsutum; Helicotylenchus; Heterodera; Hoplolaimus; Meloidogyne; nematode; Paratrichodorus; Pratylenchus; Rotylenchulus; soil texture; Xiphinema
The sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a serious pest of cotton and soybean in the United States. In recent years, interest in the molecular biology of the interaction between R. reniformis and its plant hosts has increased; however, the unusual life cycle of R. reniformis presents a unique set of challenges to researchers who wish to study the developmental expression of a particular nematode gene or evaluate life stage–specific effects of a specific treatment such as RNA-interference or a potential nematicide. In this report, we describe a simple method to collect R. reniformis juvenile and vermiform adult life stages under in vitro conditions and a second method to collect viable parasitic sedentary females from host plant roots. Rotylenchulus reniformis eggs were hatched over a Baermann funnel and the resultant second-stage juveniles incubated in petri plates containing sterile water at 30°C. Nematode development was monitored through the appearance of fourth-stage juveniles and specific time-points at which each developmental stage predominated were determined. Viable parasitic sedentary females were collected from infected roots using a second method that combined blending, sieving, and sucrose flotation. Rotylenchulus reniformis life stages collected with these methods can be used for nucleic acid or protein extraction or other experimental purposes that rely on life stage–specific data.
host-parasitic relationship; life stages; reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; technique
The microbial degradation of aldicarb was examined in the greenhouse using soil from four cotton fields with a history of aldicarb use. The addition of aldicarb at 0.59 kg a.i./ha to natural soil increased Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers 6.6% in one soil and decreased R. reniformis numbers only 25.8% in another soil as compared to the corresponding natural soil without aldicarb. The use of increasing rates of aldicarb did not increase the efficacy of aldicarb in these soils. Rotylenchulus reniformis numbers were reduced 39.8, 22.6, and 6.8%, and increased 5.7% for aldicarb applied at 0.29, 0.59, 0.85, and 1.19 kg a.i./ha, respectively, in one natural soil. In another natural soil, R. reniformis numbers were reduced 42.5 and 21.9% for aldicarb applied at 0.29 and 1.19 kg a.i./ha, respectively, but increased 19.1 and 10.6% for aldicarb applied at 0.59 and 0.85 kg a.i./ha, respectively. Autoclaving the soils restored aldicarb toxicity in both soils, and R. reniformis numbers were reduced 96 and 99%, respectively, as compared to autoclaved soil without aldicarb. Bacterial populations were greater in the natural soils where aldicarb did not reduce R. reniformis numbers relative to the same soils that were autoclaved. However, no bacterial species was consistently associated with aldicarb degradation.
aldicarb; microbial degradation; Rotylenchulus reniformis
Ultra-narrow row cotton studies were conducted during 1999 at two field sites in northern Florida. One site was naturally infested with Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 and the other with Rotylenchulus reniformis. The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) was applied broadcast at rates of 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, and 96 kg ai./ha in replicated plots before planting Delta Pine 655 BRR cotton in 25-cm-wide rows. Post-harvest soil population densities at the root-knot nematode site had a significant (P ≤ 0.01) negative linear relationship to 1,3-D dosage level. Cotton lint yields at this site had a significant (P ≤ 0.01) positive linear relationship to 1,3-D dosage level. At the reniform nematode site, there was no relationship between post-harvest soil population densities of reniform nematodes and 1,3-D dosage level. However, significant (P ≤ 0.01) positive curvilinear relationships were found between both plant heights and lint yield to 1,3-D dosage levels.
1,3-dichloropropene; cotton; Gossypium hirsutum; Meloidogyne incognita; nematicide; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis
Soil solarization was evaluated for control of Rotylenchulus reniformis in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. In field experiments, solarization significantly reduced soil nematode population densities 0-15 cm deep and increased yields of lettuce and cowpea. The length of time required for 90% mortality of nematodes in soil heated under controlled conditions in the laboratory varied from 25 hours to less than 1 hour between 41 and 47 C. Daily exposures of nematode-infested soil to lethal temperatures for sublethal time periods had a cumulative lethal effect. In water, vermiform stages required up to 10 days to recover from sublethal thermal stress. Eggs were similar to juveniles in their sensitivity to high temperatures. Lethal time-temperatures under controlled conditions were in general agreement with field results.
reniform nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; solarization; temperature; thermal death
The replacement series approach was used to detect and define competition between Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) on soybean. In three greenhouse tests, soybean cv. Davis seedlings were inoculated with 1,000 vermiform nematodes in the following Mi:Rr ratios: 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. After 86 days, relative nematode-yield values (number of each species in mixed culture divided by number in nonmixed culture) were calculated based on nematodes in soil per gram of dry root tissue. Calculated values were plotted and the resulting line compared with a reference line representing equal inter- and intraspecific competition predicted by the replacement series. Relative yields for Mi were higher than predicted at all ratios where Mi and Rr occurred together (lack-of-fit regression, F= 5.9401, P = 0.0008), indicating increased reproduction in the presence of Rr. Relative yields for Rr did not differ from predicted yields (lack-of-fit regression, F= 0.7565, P = 0.5203), indicating no effect of Mi on Rr. These relationships were not detected using analysis of variance. The relationship between Mi and Rr was independent of host colonization by Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora, the stem canker fungus.
competition; Diapoothe phaseolorum var. caulivooa; Glycine max; Meloidogyne incognita; nematode; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; soybean; stem canker
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which results in enhanced defense mechanisms in plants, can be elicited by virulent and avirulent strains of pathogens including nematodes. Recent studies of nematode reproduction strongly suggest that Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis induce SAR in cotton, but biochemical evidence of SAR was lacking. Our objective was to determine whether infection of cotton by M. incognita and R. reniformis increases the levels of P-peroxidase, G-peroxidase, and catalase enzymes which are involved in induced resistance. A series of greenhouse trials was conducted; each trial included six replications of four treatments applied to one of three cotton genotypes in a randomized complete block design. The four treatments were cotton plants inoculated with i) R. reniformis, ii) M. incognita, iii) BTH (Actigard), and iv) a nontreated control. Experiments were conducted on cotton genotypes DP 0935 B2RF (susceptible to both nematodes), LONREN-1 (resistant to R. reniformis), and M-120 RNR (resistant to M. incognita), and the level of P-peroxidase, G-peroxidase, and catalase activity was measured before and 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 d after treatment application. In all cotton genotypes, activities of all three enzymes were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaves of plants infected with M. incognita and R. reniformis than in the leaves of control plants, except that M. incognita did not increase catalase activity on LONREN-1. Increased enzyme activity was usually apparent 6 d after treatment. This study documents that infection of cotton by M. incognita or R. reniformis increases the activity of the enzymes involved in systemic acquired resistance; thereby providing biochemical evidence to substantiate previous reports of nematode-induced SAR in cotton.
BTH; catalase; Meloidogyne incognita, peroxidase; reniform nematode; root-knot nematode; Rotylenchulus reniformis; systemic acquired resistance