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1.  A Novel Tumor-Promoting Function Residing in the 5′ Non-coding Region of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(5):e94.
Background
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is one of the key regulators of tumor development, hence it is considered to be an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, clinical trials have suggested that anti-VEGF monotherapy was less effective than standard chemotherapy. On the basis of the evidence, we hypothesized that vegf mRNA may have unrecognized function(s) in cancer cells.
Methods and Findings
Knockdown of VEGF with vegf-targeting small-interfering (si) RNAs increased susceptibility of human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) to apoptosis caused with 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, or doxorubicin. Recombinant human VEGF165 did not completely inhibit this apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF165 increased resistance to anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis, while an anti-VEGF165-neutralizing antibody did not completely block the resistance. We prepared plasmids encoding full-length vegf mRNA with mutation of signal sequence, vegf mRNAs lacking untranslated regions (UTRs), or mutated 5′UTRs. Using these plasmids, we revealed that the 5′UTR of vegf mRNA possessed anti-apoptotic activity. The 5′UTR-mediated activity was not affected by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. We established HCT116 clones stably expressing either the vegf 5′UTR or the mutated 5′UTR. The clones expressing the 5′UTR, but not the mutated one, showed increased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and formed progressive tumors when implanted in athymic nude mice. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicated that the vegf 5′UTR-expressing tumors had up-regulated anti-apoptotic genes, multidrug-resistant genes, and growth-promoting genes, while pro-apoptotic genes were down-regulated. Notably, expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) was markedly repressed in the 5′UTR-expressing tumors, resulting in down-regulation of a STAT1-responsive cluster of genes (43 genes). As a result, the tumors did not respond to interferon (IFN)α therapy at all. We showed that stable silencing of endogenous vegf mRNA in HCT116 cells enhanced both STAT1 expression and IFNα responses.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that cancer cells have a survival system that is regulated by vegf mRNA and imply that both vegf mRNA and its protein may synergistically promote the malignancy of tumor cells. Therefore, combination of anti-vegf transcript strategies, such as siRNA-based gene silencing, with anti-VEGF antibody treatment may improve anti-cancer therapies that target VEGF.
Shigetada Teshima-Kondo and colleagues find that cancer cells have a survival system that is regulated by vegf mRNA and that vegf mRNA and its protein may synergistically promote the malignancy of tumor cells.
Editors' Summary
Background
Normally, throughout life, cell division (which produces new cells) and cell death are carefully balanced to keep the body in good working order. But sometimes cells acquire changes (mutations) in their genetic material that allow them to divide uncontrollably to form cancers—disorganized masses of cells. When a cancer is small, it uses the body's existing blood supply to get the oxygen and nutrients it needs for its growth and survival. But, when it gets bigger, it has to develop its own blood supply. This process is called angiogenesis. It involves the release by the cancer cells of proteins called growth factors that bind to other proteins (receptors) on the surface of endothelial cells (the cells lining blood vessels). The receptors then send signals into the endothelial cells that tell them to make new blood vessels. One important angiogenic growth factor is “vascular endothelial growth factor” (VEGF). Tumors that make large amounts of VEGF tend to be more abnormal and more aggressive than those that make less VEGF. In addition, high levels of VEGF in the blood are often associated with poor responses to chemotherapy, drug regimens designed to kill cancer cells.
Why Was This Study Done?
Because VEGF is a key regulator of tumor development, several anti-VEGF therapies—drugs that target VEGF and its receptors—have been developed. These therapies strongly suppress the growth of tumor cells in the laboratory and in animals but, when used alone, are no better at increasing the survival times of patients with cancer than standard chemotherapy. Scientists are now looking for an explanation for this disappointing result. Like all proteins, cells make VEGF by “transcribing” its DNA blueprint into an mRNA copy (vegf mRNA), the coding region of which is “translated” into the VEGF protein. Other, “noncoding” regions of vegf mRNA control when and where VEGF is made. Scientists have recently discovered that the noncoding regions of some mRNAs suppress tumor development. In this study, therefore, the researchers investigate whether vegf mRNA has an unrecognized function in tumor cells that could explain the disappointing clinical results of anti-VEGF therapeutics.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first used a technique called small interfering (si) RNA knockdown to stop VEGF expression in human colon cancer cells growing in dishes. siRNAs are short RNAs that bind to and destroy specific mRNAs in cells, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins. The treatment of human colon cancer cells with vegf-targeting siRNAs made the cells more sensitive to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis (a type of cell death). This sensitivity was only partly reversed by adding VEGF to the cells. By contrast, cancer cells engineered to make more vegf mRNA had increased resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Treatment of these cells with an antibody that inhibited VEGF function did not completely block this resistance. Together, these results suggest that both vegf mRNA and VEGF protein have anti-apoptotic effects. The researchers show that the anti-apoptotic activity of vegf mRNA requires a noncoding part of the mRNA called the 5′ UTR, and that whereas human colon cancer cells expressing this 5′ UTR form tumors in mice, cells expressing a mutated 5′ UTR do not. Finally, they report that the expression of several pro-apoptotic genes and of an anti-tumor pathway known as the interferon/STAT1 tumor suppression pathway is down-regulated in tumors that express the vegf 5′ UTR.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that some cancer cells have a survival system that is regulated by vegf mRNA and are the first to show that a 5′UTR of mRNA can promote tumor growth. They indicate that VEGF and its mRNA work together to promote their development and to increase their resistance to chemotherapy drugs. They suggest that combining therapies that prevent the production of vegf mRNA (for example, siRNA-based gene silencing) with therapies that block the function of VEGF might improve survival times for patients whose tumors overexpress VEGF.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050094.
This study is discussed further in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Hughes and Jones
The US National Cancer Institute provides information about all aspects of cancer, including information on angiogenesis, and on bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF therapeutic (in English and Spanish)
CancerQuest, from Emory University, provides information on all aspects of cancer, including angiogenesis (in several languages)
Cancer Research UK also provides basic information about what causes cancers and how they develop, grow, and spread, including information about angiogenesis
Wikipedia has pages on VEGF and on siRNA (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050094
PMCID: PMC2386836  PMID: 18494554
2.  Angiogenesis Associated With Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Severe Human Obesity 
Diabetes  2008;57(12):3247-3257.
OBJECTIVE—The expansion of adipose tissue is linked to the development of its vasculature. However, the regulation of adipose tissue angiogenesis in humans has not been extensively studied. Our aim was to compare the angiogenesis associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from the same obese patients in an in vivo model.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Adipose tissue samples from visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) sites, obtained from 36 obese patients (mean BMI 46.5 kg/m2) during bariatric surgery, were layered on chick chorioallantoïc membrane (CAM).
RESULTS—Both SAT and VAT expressed angiogenic factors without significant difference for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Adipose tissue layered on CAM stimulated angiogenesis. Angiogenic stimulation was macroscopically detectable, with engulfment of the samples, in 39% and was evidenced by angiography in 59% of the samples. A connection between CAM and adipose tissue vessels was evidenced by immunohistochemistry, with recruitment of both avian and human endothelial cells. The angiogenic potency of adipose tissue was not related to its localization (with an angiogenic stimulation in 60% of SAT samples and 61% of VAT samples) or to adipocyte size or inflammatory infiltrate assessed in adipose samples before the graft on CAM. Stimulation of angiogenesis by adipose tissue was nearly abolished by bevacizumab, which specifically targets human VEGF.
CONCLUSIONS—We have established a model to study the regulation of angiogenesis by human adipose tissue. This model highlighted the role of VEGF in angiogenesis in both SAT and VAT.
doi:10.2337/db07-1812
PMCID: PMC2584130  PMID: 18835936
3.  Reduced adipose tissue inflammation represents an intermediate cardiometabolic phenotype in obesity 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese individuals with reduced adipose tissue inflammation exhibit a more favorable cardiovascular risk profile.
Background
Obesity is associated with a low-grade state of chronic inflammation that may be causally related to cardiometabolic disease.
Methods
Using immunohistochemistry, we categorized obese individuals dichotomously as having inflamed fat (n=78) or non-inflamed fat (n=31) based on the presence (+) or absence (-) of macrophage crown-like structures (CLS) in subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsy samples. We compared their metabolic, vascular, and adipose tissue characteristics to lean subjects (n=17).
Results
Inflamed CLS+ obese individuals displayed higher plasma insulin, HOMA, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure, hs-CRP, LDL-C, and lower HDL-C and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) compared to leans (p<0.05). Adipose mRNA expression of inflammatory genes including CD68, leptin, MMP-9, CD163, and CD8A were significantly greater and VEGF lower in the CLS+ group (p<0.05). In contrast, obese subjects with non-inflamed fat exhibited a mixed clinical phenotype with lower insulin resistance, reduced proatherogenic gene expression, and preserved vascular function as in lean subjects. In multiple linear regression adjusting for age and gender, CLS status (beta = -0.28, p=0.008) and waist circumference (beta = -0.25, p =0.03) were independent predictors of FMD.
Conclusion
These findings lend support to the novel concept that factors in addition to absolute weight burden, such as qualitative features of adipose tissue, may be important determinants of cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic modulation of the adipose phenotype may represent a target for treatment in obesity.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.051
PMCID: PMC3132399  PMID: 21737012
obesity; endothelium; inflammation; vasodilation; vasculature
4.  Upregulated EMMPRIN/CD147 might contribute to growth and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma: a good marker for local invasion and prognosis 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;95(10):1371-1378.
Tumour growth depends on angiogenesis, which is closely associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) was reported to involve in the progression of malignancies by regulating expression of VEGF and MMPs in stromal cells. To clarify the role of EMMPRIN in progression and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma, expression of EMMPRIN, ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF was examined on tissue microarray containing gastric carcinomas (n=234) and non-cancerous mucosa adjacent to carcinoma (n=85) by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, microvessel density (MVD) was assessed after labelling with anti-CD34 antibody. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was compared with clinicopathological parameters of tumours, including levels of ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), MVD as well as survival time of carcinoma patients. Gastric carcinoma cell lines (HGC-27, MKN28 and MKN45) were studied for EMMPRIN expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was gradually increased from normal mucosa to carcinomas through hyperplastic or metaplastic mucosa of the stomach (P<0.05). There was strong EMMPRIN expression in all gastric carcinoma cell lines despite different levels of glycosylation. Extracellular MMP inducer expression was positively correlated with tumour size, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, expression of ki-67, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF of tumours (P<0.05), but not with lymph node metastasis, UICC staging or differentiation (P>0.05). Interestingly, there was a significantly positive relationship between EMMPRIN expression and MVD in gastric carcinomas (P<0.05). Survival analysis indicated EMMPRIN expression to be negatively linked to favourable prognosis (P<0.05), but not be independent factor for prognosis (P>0.05). Further analysis showed three independent prognostic factors, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, to influence the relationship between EMMPRIN expression and prognosis. Upregulated expression of EMMPRIN possibly contributes to genesis, growth and local invasion of gastric carcinomas. Altered EMMPRIN expression might enhance growth, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma via upregulating MMP expression of both stromal fibroblasts and gastric cancer cells and could be considered as an objective and effective marker to predict invasion and prognosis.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603425
PMCID: PMC2360592  PMID: 17088917
gastric carcinoma; progression; angiogenesis; prognosis; EMMPRIN
5.  MT1-MMP in breast cancer: induction of VEGF-C correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis 
Background
Recent evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C)- dependent tumour production promotes lymphangiogenesis, while membrane-type matrix 1 metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is involved in the critical steps leading to carcinogenesis. However, the role of MT1-MMP in lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between MT1-MMP and VEGF-C in human breast cancer and correlated MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression with lymphangiogenesis and prognosis.
Methods
MT1-MMP and VEGF-C levels were compared in five breast carcinoma cell lines. We used a membrane invasion assay to assess the effect of MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression, as well as anti-MT1-MMP and VEGF-C antibodies, on cancer cell invasion. We further assessed MT1-MMP and VEGF-C immunoreactivity and lymph vessels in a cohort of human breast cancer specimens (n = 106) and associated MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression with clinicopathological parameters, such as lymphatic vessel density (LVD), and patient prognosis.
Results
MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression differed among the five breast cancer cell lines and MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression were correlated with tumour cell invasion. VEGF-C mRNA expression levels and invasive activity of MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited by an anti-MT1-MMP antibody in a concentration-dependent manner. A significant correlation was found between the expression of MT1-MMP and VEGF-C in breast cancer patient samples and elevated MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression was associated with higher LVD, lymph node metastasis, cancer stage, and a decline in overall survival rates.
Conclusions
Our data demonstrate that MT1-MMP expression is closely correlated with VEGF-C expression, and that MT1-MMP promotes lymphangiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF-C expression in human breast cancer. Thus, elevated MT1-MMP may serve as a significant prognostic factor in breast cancer.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-13-98
PMCID: PMC3852241  PMID: 24119788
Membrane-type matrix 1 metalloproteinases; Vascular endothelial growth factor-C; Lymphangiogenesis; Metastasis; Breast cancer
6.  Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Mediates Intracrine Survival in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells through Internally Expressed VEGFR1/FLT1 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(6):e186.
Background
While vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast tumors has been correlated with a poor outcome in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, the expression, localization, and function of VEGF receptors VEGFR1 (also known as FLT1) and VEGFR2 (also known as KDR or FLK1), as well as neuropilin 1 (NRP1), in breast cancer are controversial.
Methods and Findings
We investigated the expression and function of VEGF and VEGF receptors in breast cancer cells. We observed that VEGFR1 expression was abundant, VEGFR2 expression was low, and NRP1 expression was variable. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, transfected with antisense VEGF cDNA or with siVEGF (VEGF-targeted small interfering RNA), showed a significant reduction in VEGF expression and increased apoptosis as compared to the control cells. Additionally, specifically targeted knockdown of VEGFR1 expression by siRNA (siVEGFR1) significantly decreased the survival of breast cancer cells through down-regulation of protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation, while targeted knockdown of VEGFR2 or NRP1 expression had no effect on the survival of these cancer cells. Since a VEGFR1-specific ligand, placenta growth factor (PGF), did not, as expected, inhibit the breast cancer cell apoptosis induced by siVEGF, and since VEGFR1 antibody also had no effects on the survival of these cells, we examined VEGFR1 localization. VEGFR1 was predominantly expressed internally in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Specifically, VEGFR1 was found to be colocalized with lamin A/C and was expressed mainly in the nuclear envelope in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancer tumors. Breast cancer cells treated with siVEGFR1 showed significantly decreased VEGFR1 expression levels and a lack of VEGFR1 expression in the nuclear envelope.
Conclusions
This study provides, to our knowledge for the first time, evidence of a unique survival system in breast cancer cells by which VEGF can act as an internal autocrine (intracrine) survival factor through its binding to VEGFR1. These results may lead to an improved strategy for tumor therapy based on the inhibition of angiogenesis.
Shalom Avraham and colleagues' study provides evidence of a survival system in breast cancer cells by which VEGF acts as an internal autocrine survival factor through its binding to VEGFR1.
Editors' Summary
Background.
One woman in eight will develop breast cancer during her lifetime. Most of these women live for many years after their diagnosis and many are cured of their cancer. However, sometimes the cancer grows inexorably and spreads (metastasizes) around the body despite the efforts of oncologists. Characteristics of the tumor known as prognostic factors can indicate whether this spreading is likely to happen. Large tumors that have metastasized have a poorer prognosis than small tumors that are confined to the breast. The expression of specific proteins within the tumor also provides prognostic information. One protein whose expression is associated with a poor prognosis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF stimulates angiogenesis—the growth of new blood vessels. Small tumors get the nutrients needed for their growth from existing blood vessels but large tumors need to organize their own blood supply. They do this, in part, by secreting VEGF. This compound binds to proteins (receptors) on the surface of endothelial cells (the cells lining blood vessels), which then send a signal into the cell instructing it to make new blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors, including molecules that block the activity of VEGF receptors, are being developed for the treatment of cancer.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some breast cancer cell lines (cells isolated from breast cancers and grown in the laboratory) make VEGF and VEGF receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and neuropilin 1 [NRP1]). But, although some studies have reported an association between VEGFR1 expression in breast tumors and a poor prognosis, other studies have found no expression of VEGFR1 in breast tumors. Consequently, the role of VEGF receptors in breast cancer is unclear. In this study, the researchers analyzed the expression and function of VEGF and its receptors in breast cancer cells to investigate whether and how VEGF helps these cells to survive.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers first examined the expression of VEGF receptors in several human breast cancer cell lines. All of them expressed VEGFR1, some expressed NRP1, but VEGFR2 expression was universally low. They then investigated the function of VEGF and its receptors in two human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). In both cell lines, blocking the expression of VEGF or of VEGFR1 (but not of the other two receptors) reduced cell survival by stimulating a specific process of cell death called apoptosis. Unexpectedly, adding VEGF to the cultures did not reverse the effect of blocking VEGF expression, a result that suggests that VEGF and VEGFR1 do not affect breast cancer cell survival by acting at the cell surface. Accordingly, when the researchers examined where VEGFR1 occurs in the cell, they found it on the membranes around the nucleus of the breast cancer cell lines and not on the cell surface; several primary breast tumors and normal breast tissue had the same localization pattern. Finally, the researchers showed that inhibitors of VEGF action that act at the cell surface did not affect the survival of the breast cancer cell lines.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings suggest that VEGF helps breast cancer cells to survive in a unique way: by binding to VEGFR1 inside the cell. In other words, whereas VEGF normally acts as a paracrine growth factor (it is released by one cell and affects another cell), in breast cancer cells it might act as an internal autocrine (intracrine) survival factor, a factor that affects the cells in which it is produced. These findings need confirming in more cell lines and in primary breast cancers but could have important implications for the treatment of breast cancer. Inhibitors of VEGF and VEGFR1 that act inside the cell (small molecule drugs) might block breast cancer growth more effectively than inhibitors that act at the cell surface (for example, proteins that bind to the receptor), because internally acting inhibitors might both kill the tumor directly and have antiangiogenic effects, whereas externally acting inhibitors could only have the second effect.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040186.
US National Cancer Institute information for patients and professionals on breast cancer (in English and Spanish) and on angiogenesis (in English and Spanish)
MedlinePlus Encyclopedia information for patients on breast cancer (in English and Spanish)
CancerQuest, information from Emory University on cancer biology and on angiogenesis and angiogenesis inhibitors (in several languages)
Wikipedia pages on VEGF (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040186
PMCID: PMC1885450  PMID: 17550303
7.  VEGF in the Crosstalk between Human Adipocytes and Smooth Muscle Cells: Depot-Specific Release from Visceral and Perivascular Adipose Tissue 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:982458.
Adipose tissue secrets adipokines and fatty acids, which may contribute to obesity-associated vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. This study investigated which factors are responsible for the synergistic effect of adipokine and oleic acid- (OA-) induced proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM) from human adipocytes induces proliferation of VSMC in correlation to its vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) content. CM increases VEGF-receptor (VEGF-R) 1 and 2 expression and VEGF secretion of VSMC, while OA only stimulates VEGF secretion. VEGF neutralization abrogates CM- and OA-induced proliferation and considerably reduces proliferation induced by CM and OA in combination. VEGF release is higher from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese subjects compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT from lean controls. Furthermore, VEGF release from VAT correlates with its proliferative effect. Perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) from type 2 diabetic patients releases significantly higher amounts of VEGF and induces stronger proliferation of VSMC as compared to SAT and SAT/PAT of nondiabetics. In conclusion, VEGF is mediating CM-induced proliferation of VSMC. As this adipokine is released in high amounts from VAT of obese patients and PAT of diabetic patients, VEGF might link adipose tissue inflammation to increased VSMC proliferation.
doi:10.1155/2013/982458
PMCID: PMC3723083  PMID: 23935253
8.  Neutrophil granulocyte derived MMP-9 is a VEGF independent functional component of the angiogenic switch in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 
Angiogenesis  2011;14(3):235-243.
Background
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is secreted by tumor cells plays a key role in angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is produced by inflammatory cells, such as stromal granulocytes (PMN), remodels the extracellular matrix and is known to promote angiogenesis indirectly by interacting with VEGF. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PMN-derived MMP-9, its interaction with VEGF, and the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy targeting MMP-9 with oral Doxycycline and VEGF with Bevacizumab in pancreatic cancer (PDAC).
Methodology/principal findings
Inhibitors to MMP-9 (Doxycycline) and VEGF (Bevacizumab) were used alone or in combination in an in vitro angiogenesis assay to test their effect on angiogenesis caused by MMP-9, VEGF, PMN and PDAC cells. In an in vivo model of xenografted PDAC, treatment effects after 14 days under monotherapy with oral Doxycycline or Bevacizumab and a combination of both were evaluated.
In vitro, PMN-derived MMP-9 had a direct and strong proangiogenic effect that was independent and additive to PDAC-derived VEGF. Complete inhibition of angiogenesis required the inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9. In vivo, co-localization of MMP-9, PMN and vasculature was observed. MMP inhibition with oral Doxycycline alone resulted in a significant decrease in PDAC growth and mean vascular density comparable to VEGF inhibition alone.
Conclusions/significance
PMN derived MMP-9 acts as a potent, direct and VEGF independent angiogenic factor in the context of PDAC. MMP-9 inhibition is as effective as VEGF inhibition. Targeting MMP-9 in addition to VEGF is therefore likely to be important for successful anti-angiogenic treatment in pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.1007/s10456-011-9207-3
PMCID: PMC3688040  PMID: 21442180
VEGF; MMP-9; Neutrophil granulocyte; Pancreatic cancer
9.  A model for co-expression pattern analysis of genes implicated in angiogenesis and tumour cell invasion in cervical cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2002;87(5):537-544.
To date, numerous genes have been identified which are involved in both tumour neovascularisation (angiogenesis) and tumour cell invasion, and most of them are also expressed to some extent under normal physiological conditions. However, little is known about how these genes co-express in these settings. This study was undertaken to quantitate mRNA levels in normal and malignant cervical tissues of nine selected genes (VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF189, VEGF-C, eIF-4E, b-FGF, TSP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9) implicated in the above processes using real-time quantitative RT–PCR. In addition, the Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine their co-expression patterns. The transcript levels for the different VEGF-A splice variants (VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF189) were at least 10-fold higher in the cancer cases, with the highest levels in the primary tumours demonstrating lympho-vascular space involvement. The lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C and MMP-9 were upregulated 130- and 80-fold respectively in cervical cancers. The highest levels of VEGF-C mRNA were found in the lymph-node positive group. The transcript levels for b-FGF were similar in normal cervical tissue and early-stage cervical cancer, however, higher levels were found in the cervical cancers with advanced stage disease. Comparing gene transcript levels between recurrent and non-recurrent cervical cancer patients revealed significant differences (P=0.038) in transcript levels for the angiogenesis inhibitor TSP-2, with the highest levels in non-recurrent cases. Co-expression pattern analysis in normal cervical tissue revealed highly significant co-expressions (P<0.0001) between TSP-2 and most other genes analysed (VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF-C, b-FGF and MMP-2). In cervical cancer, TSP-2 appears only to be highly co-expressed with MMP-2 (P<0.0001). In contrast to normal cervical tissue, we found a highly significant co-expression (P<0.0001) between MMP-9 and VEGF189 in cervical cancer. The combined application of real-time quantitative RT–PCR and Spearman's rank correlation identifies gene transcripts which are simultaneously co-expressed. Our results revealed a significant co-expression between the angiogenesis inhibitor TSP-2 and most other genes analysed in normal cervical tissue. In cervical cancer, we found a strong upregulation of VEGF-C and MMP-9 mRNA, with a highly significant co-expression between MMP-9 and VEGF189.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 537–544. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600471 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600471
PMCID: PMC2376148  PMID: 12189553
cervical cancer; angiogenesis; tumour cell invasion; co-expression pattern analysis
10.  VEGF121b and VEGF165b are weakly angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A 
Molecular Cancer  2010;9:320.
Background
Different isoforms of VEGF-A (mainly VEGF121, VEGF165 and VEGF189) have been shown to display particular angiogenic properties in the generation of a functional tumor vasculature. Recently, a novel class of VEGF-A isoforms, designated as VEGFxxxb, generated through alternative splicing, have been described. Previous studies have suggested that these isoforms may inhibit angiogenesis. In the present work we have produced recombinant VEGF121/165b proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris and constructed vectors to overexpress these isoforms and assess their angiogenic potential.
Results
Recombinant VEGF121/165b proteins generated either in yeasts or mammalian cells activated VEGFR2 and its downstream effector ERK1/2, although to a lesser extent than VEGF165. Furthermore, treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF121/165b increased cell proliferation compared to untreated cells, although such stimulation was lower than that induced by VEGF165. Moreover, in vivo angiogenesis assays confirmed angiogenesis stimulation by VEGF121/165b isoforms. A549 and PC-3 cells overexpressing VEGF121b or VEGF165b (or carrying the PCDNA3.1 empty vector, as control) and xenotransplanted into nude mice showed increased tumor volume and angiogenesis compared to controls. To assess whether the VEGFxxxb isoforms are differentially expressed in tumors compared to healthy tissues, immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on a breast cancer tissue microarray. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in both VEGFxxxb and total VEGF-A protein expression in infiltrating ductal carcinomas compared to normal breasts was observed. A positive significant correlation (r = 0.404, p = 0.033) between VEGFxxxb and total VEGF-A was found.
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate that VEGF121/165b are not anti-angiogenic, but weakly angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A. In addition, VEGFxxxb isoforms are up-regulated in breast cancer in comparison with non malignant breast tissues. These results are to be taken into account when considering a possible use of VEGF121/165b-based therapies in patients.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-9-320
PMCID: PMC3022671  PMID: 21194429
11.  Distinct Characteristics of Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and C Levels in Human Subjects 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e29351.
The mechanisms that lead from obesity to atherosclerotic disease are not fully understood. Obesity involves angiogenesis in which vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays a key role. On the other hand, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) plays a pivotal role in lymphangiogenesis. Circulating levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-C are elevated in sera from obese subjects. However, relationships of VEGF-C with atherosclerotic risk factors and atherosclerosis are unknown. We determined circulating levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in 423 consecutive subjects not receiving any drugs at the Health Evaluation Center. After adjusting for age and gender, VEGF-A levels were significantly and more strongly correlated with the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference than VEGF-C. Conversely, VEGF-C levels were significantly and more closely correlated with metabolic (e.g., fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, immunoreactive insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipid parameters (e.g., triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C)) than VEGF-A. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that independent determinants of VEGF-A were the BMI and age, whereas strong independent determinants of VEGF-C were age, triglycerides, and non-HDL-C. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat-diet (HFD) or normal chow (NC) for 16 weeks, levels of VEGF-A were not significantly different between the two groups. However, levels of VEGF-C were significantly higher in HFD mice with advanced atherosclerosis and marked hypercholesterolemia than NC mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of VEGF-C in atheromatous plaque of the aortic sinus was significantly intensified by feeding HFD compared to NC, while that of VEGF-A was not. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that VEGF-C, rather than VEGF-A, is closely related to dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029351
PMCID: PMC3243691  PMID: 22206010
12.  Computational Model of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Spatial Distribution in Muscle and Pro-Angiogenic Cell Therapy 
PLoS Computational Biology  2006;2(9):e127.
Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of proteins are critical regulators of angiogenesis. VEGF concentration gradients are important for activation and chemotactic guidance of capillary sprouting, but measurement of these gradients in vivo is not currently possible. We have constructed a biophysically and molecularly detailed computational model to study microenvironmental transport of two isoforms of VEGF in rat extensor digitorum longus skeletal muscle under in vivo conditions. Using parameters based on experimental measurements, the model includes: VEGF secretion from muscle fibers; binding to the extracellular matrix; binding to and activation of endothelial cell surface VEGF receptors; and internalization. For 2-D cross sections of tissue, we analyzed predicted VEGF distributions, gradients, and receptor binding. Significant VEGF gradients (up to 12% change in VEGF concentration over 10 μm) were predicted in resting skeletal muscle with uniform VEGF secretion, due to non-uniform capillary distribution. These relative VEGF gradients were not sensitive to extracellular matrix composition, or to the overall VEGF expression level, but were dependent on VEGF receptor density and affinity, and internalization rate parameters. VEGF upregulation in a subset of fibers increased VEGF gradients, simulating transplantation of pro-angiogenic myoblasts, a possible therapy for ischemic diseases. The number and relative position of overexpressing fibers determined the VEGF gradients and distribution of VEGF receptor activation. With total VEGF expression level in the tissue unchanged, concentrating overexpression into a small number of adjacent fibers can increase the number of capillaries activated. The VEGF concentration gradients predicted for resting muscle (average 3% VEGF/10 μm) is sufficient for cellular sensing; the tip cell of a vessel sprout is approximately 50 μm long. The VEGF gradients also result in heterogeneity in the activation of blood vessel VEGF receptors. This first model of VEGF tissue transport and heterogeneity provides a platform for the design and evaluation of therapeutic approaches.
Synopsis
It is not currently possible to experimentally quantify the gradients of protein concentration in the extracellular space in vivo. However, the concentration gradients of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are essential for both initiation and directed guidance of new blood vessels. The authors develop a computational model of VEGF transport in tissue in vivo (skeletal muscle, though the method is applicable to other tissues and other proteins) with realistic geometry and including biophysical interactions of VEGF, its receptors, and the extracellular matrix. Using this model, the authors predict for the first time the distribution of VEGF concentration and VEGF receptor activation throughout the tissue. VEGF concentration gradients are significant, up to 12% change in VEGF concentration over 10 μm in resting muscle. Transplanting VEGF-overexpressing myocytes (for therapeutic induction of blood vessel growth) increases the gradients significantly. Endothelial cells in sprouting vessels are approximately 50 μm long, and therefore the predicted gradients across the cell are high and sufficient for chemotactic guidance of the new vessels. The VEGF concentration gradients also result in significant heterogeneity in the activation of VEGF receptors on blood vessels throughout the tissue, a possible reason for the sporadic nature of sprout initiation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020127
PMCID: PMC1570371  PMID: 17002494
13.  Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in radicular and residual radicular cysts 
Journal of Applied Oral Science  2010;18(6):613-620.
Objective
This study assessed and compared the immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in radicular cysts (RCs) and residual radicular cysts (RRCs), relating them to the angiogenic index and the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate.
Material and Methods
Twenty RCs and 10 RRCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-VEGF and anti-MMP-9 antibodies. The angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count (MVC) using anti-von Willebrand factor antibody.
Results
The expression of both VEGF and MMP-9 was higher in RCs than in RRCs. RCs and RRCs presented strong epithelial expression of VEGF, irrespective of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. Lesions with strong expression of MMP-9 showed significantly higher number of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05) and higher MVC (p<0.05). Lesions with dense inflammatory infiltrate exhibited significantly higher MVC (p<0.05) and higher number of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between both MVC (p<0.05) and the quantity of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05), with intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. In addition, it was observed a positive correlation between the number of immunopositive cells for VEGF and MVC (p<0.05).
Conclusions
VEGF and MMP-9 might play important roles in the angiogenesis in RCs and RRCs. In these lesions, the expression of these molecules and the MVC is closely related to the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. The expression of VEGF in the epithelial lining of RCs and RRCs might be important for the enlargement of these lesions.
doi:10.1590/S1678-77572010000600013
PMCID: PMC3881759  PMID: 21308293
Matrix metalloproteinase 9; Vascular endothelial growth factors; von Willebrand factor; Radicular cyst; Inflammation
14.  Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and matrix metalloproteinases in Lewis lung carcinoma cells 
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP9 and wild-type (WT) p53 has been found to regulate the production of VEGF. Whether VEGF regulates the production of COX-2, MMP2, MMP9 and WTp53, however, has yet to be determined. This study examined the influence of the overexpression or knockdown of VEGF on the protein levels of COX-2, MMP2, MMP9 and WTp53 as well as cell growth and cell cycle progression in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. LLC cells were transfected with pIRES2-VEGF-GFP in the VEGF-overexpressing group (LLC-VEGF), pIRES2-GFP in the mock group (LLC-GFP) or pSUPER-VEGF-GFP in the VEGF knockdown group (LLC-RNAi). Protein levels were detected by western blot analysis. LLC cell growth exhibited no marked change in the LLC-VEGF group, but was significantly retarded in the LLC-RNAi group. Further examination revealed that more cells entered the S stage in the LLC-VEGF group than in the control (or mock) group (45.3 vs. 29.1%, P<0.05), and that cell growth was retarded in the LLC-RNAi group. Moreover, COX-2 and MMP2 and MMP9 proteins were significantly increased in the LLC-VEGF group (approximately 1.84-, 1.89- and 1.83-fold, respectively, vs. control, P<0.05), but significantly decreased in the LLC-RNAi group, whereas the expression of WTp53 exhibited the opposite pattern of change. VEGF expression was positively correlated with COX-2, MMP2 and MMP9 expression (r=0.984, r=0.978, r=0.969, respectively, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with WTp53 (r=−0.833, p<0.01). The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 were increased in the LLC-VEGF group. In conclusion, VEGF overexpression may promote the expression of COX-2 and MMPs, but inhibits WTp53 production in LLC cells; VEGF underexpression may have an inverse effect. These changes are closely correlated with the infiltration and metastasis of lung cancer.
doi:10.3892/etm.2012.702
PMCID: PMC3494119  PMID: 23226772
lung neoplasm; vascular endothelial growth factor; cyclo oxygenase-2; metalloproteinases
15.  Identification of colorectal cancer metastasis markers by an angiogenesis-related cytokine-antibody array 
AIM: To investigate the angiogenesis-related protein expression profile characterizing metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with the aim of identifying prognostic markers.
METHODS: The expression of 44 angiogenesis-secreted factors was measured by a novel cytokine antibody array methodology. The study evaluated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR)-1 protein levels by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in a panel of 16 CRC cell lines. mRNA VEGF and VEGF-A isoforms were quantified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Metastasis-derived CRC cell lines expressed a distinctive molecular profile as compared with those isolated from a primary tumor site. Metastatic CRC cell lines were characterized by higher expression of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), macrophage chemoattractant proteins-3/4 (MCP-3/4), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and the chemokines interferon γ inducible T cell α chemoattractant protein (I-TAC), monocyte chemoattractant protein I-309, and interleukins interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-1α, as compared to primary tumor cell lines. In contrast, primary CRC cell lines expressed higher levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IL-6, leptin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), thrombopoietin, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and VEGF-D, as compared with the metastatic cell lines. VEGF expression does not significantly differ according to the CRC cellular origin in normoxia. Severe hypoxia induced VEGF expression up-regulation but contrary to expectations, metastatic CRC cell lines did not respond as much as primary cell lines to the hypoxic stimulus. In CRC primary-derived cell lines, we observed a two-fold increase in VEGF expression between normoxia and hypoxia as compared to metastatic cell lines. CRC cell lines express a similar pattern of VEGF isoforms (VEGF121, VEGF165 and VEGF189) despite variability in VEGF expression, where the major transcript was VEGF121. No relevant expression of VEGFR-2 was found in CRC cell lines, as compared to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and sVEGFR-1 expression did not depend on the CRC cellular origin.
CONCLUSION: A distinct angiogenesis-related expression pattern characterizes metastatic CRC cell lines. Factors other than VEGF appear as prognostic markers and intervention targets in the metastatic CRC setting.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i7.637
PMCID: PMC3281220  PMID: 22363134
Colorectal cancer metastasis; Cytokine-antibody array; Angiogenesis; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Biomarkers
16.  Distinct effects of calorie restriction on adipose tissue cytokine and angiogenesis profiles in obese and lean mice 
Background
Obesity associates with low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue remodeling. Using sensitive high-throughput protein arrays we here investigated adipose tissue cytokine and angiogenesis-related protein profiles from obese and lean mice, and in particular, the influence of calorie restriction (CR).
Methods
Tissue samples from visceral fat were harvested from obese mice fed with a high-fat diet (60% of energy), lean controls receiving low-fat control diet as well as from obese and lean mice kept under CR (energy intake 70% of ad libitum intake) for 50 days. Protein profiles were analyzed using mouse cytokine and angiogenesis protein array kits.
Results
In obese and lean mice, CR was associated with 11.3% and 15.6% reductions in body weight, as well as with 4.0% and 4.6% reductions in body fat percentage, respectively. Obesity induced adipose tissue cytokine expressions, the most highly upregulated cytokines being IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-16, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, C5a, sICAM-1 and TIMP-1. CR increased sICAM-1 and TIMP-1 expression both in obese and lean mice. Overall, CR showed distinct effects on cytokine expressions; in obese mice CR largely decreased but in lean mice increased adipose tissue cytokine expressions. Obesity was also associated with increased expressions of angiogenesis-related proteins, in particular, angiogenin, endoglin, endostatin, endothelin-1, IGFBP-3, leptin, MMP-3, PAI-1, TIMP-4, CXCL16, platelet factor 4, DPPIV and coagulation factor III. CR increased endoglin, endostatin and platelet factor 4 expressions, and decreased IGFBP-3, NOV, MMP-9, CXCL16 and osteopontin expressions both in obese and lean mice. Interestingly, in obese mice, CR decreased leptin and TIMP-4 expressions, whereas in lean mice their expressions were increased. CR decreased MMP-3 and PAI-1 only in obese mice, whereas CR decreased FGF acidic, FGF basic and coagulation factor III, and increased angiogenin and DPPIV expression only in lean mice.
Conclusions
CR exerts distinct effects on adipocyte cytokine and angiogenesis profiles in obese and lean mice. Our study also underscores the importance of angiogenesis-related proteins and cytokines in adipose tissue remodeling and development of obesity.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-64
PMCID: PMC3478179  PMID: 22748184
adipose tissue; cytokines; angiogenesis; calorie restriction
17.  VEGF Gene Expression in Adult Human Thymus Fat: A Correlative Study with Hypoxic Induced Factor and Cyclooxigenase-2 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(12):e8213.
It is well known that the adult human thymus degenerates into fat tissue; however, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. Recently, we have described that this fat (TAT) produces angiogenic factors and induces human endothelial cell proliferation and migration, indicating its potential angiogenic properties.
Design
Adult thymus fat and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were obtained from 28 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, making this tissue readily available as a prime source of adipose tissue. We focused our investigation on determining VEGF gene expression and characterizing the different genes, mediators of inflammation and adipogenesis, and which are known to play a relevant role in angiogenesis regulation.
Results
We found that VEGF-A was the isoform most expressed in TAT. This expression was accompanied by an upregulation of HIF-1α, COX-2 and HO-1 proteins, and by increased HIF-1 DNA binding activity, compared to SAT. Furthermore, we observed that TAT contains a high percentage of mature adipocytes, 0.25% of macrophage cells, 15% of endothelial cells and a very low percentage of thymocyte cells, suggesting the cellular variability of TAT, which could explain the differences in gene expression observed in TAT. Subsequently, we showed that the expression of genes known as adipogenic mediators, including PPARγ1/γ2, FABP-4 and adiponectin was similar in both TAT and SAT. Moreover the expression of these latter genes presented a significantly positive correlation with VEGF, suggesting the potential association between VEGF and the generation of adipose tissue in adult thymus.
Conclusion
Here we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function related to ongoing adipogenesis, which substitutes immune functions within the adult thymus. The expression of VEGF seems to be associated with COX-2, HO-1 and adipogenesis related genes, suggesting the importance that this new fat has acquired in research in relation to adipogenesis and angiogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008213
PMCID: PMC2788242  PMID: 20011601
18.  The Presence of VEGF Receptors on the Luminal Surface of Endothelial Cells Affects VEGF Distribution and VEGF Signaling 
PLoS Computational Biology  2009;5(12):e1000622.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine that binds to specific receptors on the endothelial cells lining blood vessels. The signaling cascade triggered eventually leads to the formation of new capillaries, a process called angiogenesis. Distributions of VEGF receptors and VEGF ligands are therefore crucial determinants of angiogenic events and, to our knowledge, no quantification of abluminal vs. luminal receptors has been performed. We formulate a molecular-based compartment model to investigate the VEGF distribution in blood and tissue in humans and show that such quantification would lead to new insights on angiogenesis and VEGF-dependent diseases. Our multiscale model includes two major isoforms of VEGF (VEGF121 and VEGF165), as well as their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) and the non-signaling co-receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP1). VEGF can be transported between tissue and blood via transendothelial permeability and the lymphatics. VEGF receptors are located on both the luminal and abluminal sides of the endothelial cells. In this study, we analyze the effects of the VEGF receptor localization on the endothelial cells as well as of the lymphatic transport. We show that the VEGF distribution is affected by the luminal receptor density. We predict that the receptor signaling occurs mostly on the abluminal endothelial surface, assuming that VEGF is secreted by parenchymal cells. However, for a low abluminal but high luminal receptor density, VEGF binds predominantly to VEGFR1 on the abluminal surface and VEGFR2 on the luminal surface. Such findings would be pertinent to pathological conditions and therapies related to VEGF receptor imbalance and overexpression on the endothelial cells and will hopefully encourage experimental receptor quantification for both luminal and abluminal surfaces on endothelial cells.
Author Summary
Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature that occurs in physiological (e.g., exercise) and pathological contexts (e.g., cancer). This process is often triggered by a signaling cascade that occurs upon ligand-receptor binding between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR1/Flt-1, VEGFR2/KDR). These receptors are expressed by endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. Little is known about the quantitative proportion of abluminal receptors (facing the tissue) as compared to those on the luminal surface (facing the blood). We have built a compartment model with molecular details from human tissues to investigate why such experimental data would be of importance. We conclude that the receptor distribution on the endothelial cells can significantly alter the VEGF distribution and the VEGF signaling (through its binding to the receptors) and that quantification of luminal vs. abluminal VEGF receptors would shed light on VEGF signaling and VEGF-dependent mechanisms of angiogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000622
PMCID: PMC2790341  PMID: 20041209
19.  Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Factors Related to Lipid Processing in Obesity 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e24783.
Background
Adipose tissue lipid storage and processing capacity can be a key factor for obesity-related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes. Lipid uptake is the first step to adipose tissue lipid storage. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression of factors involved in lipid uptake and processing in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue according to body mass index (BMI) and the degree of insulin resistance (IR).
Methods and Principal Findings
VLDL receptor (VLDLR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acylation stimulating protein (ASP), LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene expression was measured in VAT and SAT from 28 morbidly obese patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) or high IR, 10 morbidly obese patients with low IR, 10 obese patients with low IR and 12 lean healthy controls. LPL, FABP4, LRP1 and ASP expression in VAT was higher in lean controls. In SAT, LPL and FABP4 expression were also higher in lean controls. BMI, plasma insulin levels and HOMA-IR correlated negatively with LPL expression in both VAT and SAT as well as with FABP4 expression in VAT. FABP4 gene expression in SAT correlated inversely with BMI and HOMA-IR. However, multiple regression analysis showed that BMI was the main variable contributing to LPL and FABP4 gene expression in both VAT and SAT.
Conclusions
Morbidly obese patients have a lower gene expression of factors related with lipid uptake and processing in comparison with healthy lean persons.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024783
PMCID: PMC3178563  PMID: 21966368
20.  Reduced Adipose Tissue Oxygenation in Human Obesity 
Diabetes  2009;58(3):718-725.
OBJECTIVE— Based on rodent studies, we examined the hypothesis that increased adipose tissue (AT) mass in obesity without an adequate support of vascularization might lead to hypoxia, macrophage infiltration, and inflammation.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Oxygen partial pressure (AT pO2) and AT temperature in abdominal AT (9 lean and 12 overweight/obese men and women) was measured by direct insertion of a polarographic Clark electrode. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Abdominal subcutaneous tissue was used for staining, quantitative RT-PCR, and chemokine secretion assay.
RESULTS— AT pO2 was lower in overweight/obese subjects than lean subjects (47 ± 10.6 vs. 55 ± 9.1 mmHg); however, this level of pO2 did not activate the classic hypoxia targets (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). AT pO2 was negatively correlated with percent body fat (R = −0.50, P < 0.05). Compared with lean subjects, overweight/obese subjects had 44% lower capillary density and 58% lower VEGF, suggesting AT rarefaction (capillary drop out). This might be due to lower peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ1 and higher collagen VI mRNA expression, which correlated with AT pO2 (P < 0.05). Of clinical importance, AT pO2 negatively correlated with CD68 mRNA and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α secretion (R = −0.58, R = −0.79, P < 0.05), suggesting that lower AT pO2 could drive AT inflammation in obesity.
CONCLUSIONS— Adipose tissue rarefaction might lie upstream of both low AT pO2 and inflammation in obesity. These results suggest novel approaches to treat the dysfunctional AT found in obesity.
doi:10.2337/db08-1098
PMCID: PMC2646071  PMID: 19074987
21.  Notch modulates VEGF action in endothelial cells by inducing Matrix Metalloprotease activity 
Vascular Cell  2011;3:2.
Background
In the vasculature, Notch signaling functions as a downstream effecter of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) signaling. VEGF regulates sprouting angiogenesis in part by inducing and activating matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). This study sought to determine if VEGF regulation of MMPs was mediated via Notch signaling and to determine how Notch regulation of MMPs influenced endothelial cell morphogenesis.
Methods and Results
We assessed the relationship between VEGF and Notch signaling in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Overexpression of VEGF-induced Notch4 and the Notch ligand, Dll4, activated Notch signaling, and altered endothelial cell morphology in a fashion similar to that induced by Notch activation. Expression of a secreted Notch antagonist (Notch1 decoy) suppressed VEGF-mediated activation of endothelial Notch signaling and endothelial morphogenesis. We demonstrate that Notch mediates VEGF-induced matrix metalloprotease activity via induction of MMP9 and MT1-MMP expression and activation of MMP2. Introduction of a MMP inhibitor blocked Notch-mediated endothelial morphogenesis. In mice, analysis of VEGF-induced dermal angiogenesis demonstrated that the Notch1 decoy reduced perivascular MMP9 expression.
Conclusions
Taken together, our data demonstrate that Notch signaling can act downstream of VEGF signaling to regulate endothelial cell morphogenesis via induction and activation of specific MMPs. In a murine model of VEGF-induced dermal angiogenesis, Notch inhibition led to reduced MMP9 expression.
doi:10.1186/2045-824X-3-2
PMCID: PMC3039832  PMID: 21349159
22.  Adipose Tissue Overexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Protects Against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes  2012;61(7):1801-1813.
During the expansion of fat mass in obesity, vascularization of adipose tissue is insufficient to maintain tissue normoxia. Local hypoxia develops and may result in altered adipokine expression, proinflammatory macrophage recruitment, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether an increase in adipose tissue angiogenesis could protect against obesity-induced hypoxia and, consequently, insulin resistance. Transgenic mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) were generated. Vessel formation, metabolism, and inflammation were studied in VEGF transgenic mice and wild-type littermates fed chow or a high-fat diet. Overexpression of VEGF resulted in increased blood vessel number and size in both WAT and BAT and protection against high-fat diet–induced hypoxia and obesity, with no differences in food intake. This was associated with increased thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Moreover, whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were improved. Transgenic mice presented increased macrophage infiltration, with a higher number of M2 anti-inflammatory and fewer M1 proinflammatory macrophages than wild-type littermates, thus maintaining an anti-inflammatory milieu that could avoid insulin resistance. These studies suggest that overexpression of VEGF in adipose tissue is a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance.
doi:10.2337/db11-0832
PMCID: PMC3379662  PMID: 22522611
23.  Thymus fat as an attractive source of angiogenic factors in elderly subjects with myocardial ischemia 
Age  2012;35(4):1263-1275.
Aging negatively affects angiogenesis which is found to be linked to declined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Adult human thymus degenerates into fat tissue (thymus adipose tissue (TAT)). Recently, we described that TAT from cardiomyopathy ischemic subjects has angiogenic properties. The goal of our study was to analyze whether aging could also impair angiogenic properties in TAT as in other adipose tissue such as subcutaneous (subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)). SAT and TAT specimens were obtained from 35 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, making these tissues readily available as a prime source of adipose tissue. Patients were separated into two age-dependent groups; middle-aged (n = 18) and elderly (n = 17). Angiogenic, endothelial, and adipogenic expression markers were analyzed in both tissues from each group and correlations were examined between these parameters and also with age. There were no significant differences in subjects from either group in clinical or biological variables. Angiogenic markers VEGF-A, B, C, and D and adipogenic parameters, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARγ2), FABP4, and ADRP showed elevated expression levels in TAT from elderly patients compared to the middle-aged group, while in SAT, expression levels of these isoforms were significantly decreased in elderly patients. VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, VEGF-R3, Thy1, CD31, CD29, and VLA1 showed increased levels in TAT from the elderly compared to the middle-aged, while in SAT these levels displayed a decline with aging. Also, in TAT, angiogenic and endothelial parameters exhibited strong positive correlations with age. TAT appears to be the most appropriate source of angiogenic and endothelial factors in elderly cardiomyopathy subjects compared to SAT.
doi:10.1007/s11357-012-9418-6
PMCID: PMC3705093  PMID: 22576336
Human aging; Ischemic cardiomyopathy; Adult thymus adipose tissue; Subcutaneous adipose tissue; Angiogenic factors; Endothelial markers
24.  Elevated IGFIR expression regulating VEGF and VEGF-C predicts lymph node metastasis in human colorectal cancer 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:184.
Background
Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGFIR) has been shown to regulate the tumor development. The objective of the current study is to determine the association of IGFIR with lymph node metastasis and to explore the related mechanism in human colorectal cancer in clinic.
Methods
In a random series of 98 colorectal cancer patients, the expressions of IGFIR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-C were investigated by immunohistochemistry, and the association of these expressions with lymph node metastasis was statistically analyzed. The expressions of VEGF and VEGF-C in colorectal cancer cells stimulated with IGF-I were also examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
Higher rates of IGFIR (46%), VEGF (53%), and VEGF-C (46%) expression were found in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal and colorectal adenoma tissues. These expressions were significantly associated with clinicopathologic factors and lymph node status. We also found the concomitant high expressions of IGFIR/VEGF (P < 0.001) and IGFIR/VEGF-C (P = 0.001) had a stronger correlation with lymph node metastasis than did each alone or both low expressions. In addition, IGF-I could effectively induce the VEGF and VEGF-C mRNA expression and protein secretion in colorectal cancer cells expressing IGFIR molecules. Moreover, Patients who had strong staining for IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C showed significantly less favorable survival rates compared with patients who had low staining for these molecules (P < 0.001). The survival rates of patients who were both high expression of IGFIR/VEGF and IGFIR/VEGF-C also were significantly lower compared with patients who were negative or one of high expression of these molecules (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Together the findings indicated for the first time that simultaneous examination of the expressions of IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C will benefit the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in order to assay the prognosis and determine the treatment strategy in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing surgery.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-184
PMCID: PMC2873398  PMID: 20459642
25.  MMP-2 Alters VEGF Expression via αVβ3 Integrin-Mediated PI3K/AKT Signaling in A549 Lung Cancer Cells 
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important angiogenic growth factors for tumor angiogenesis. Here, we sought to explore whether RNA interference (RNAi) targeting Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) could disrupt VEGF mediated angiogenesis in lung cancer. MMP-2 siRNA inhibited lung cancer cell-induced tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro; addition of recombinant human-MMP-2 restored angiogenesis. MMP-2 transcriptional suppression decreased VEGF, PI3K protein levels, and AKT phosphorylation in lung cancer cells. In addition, MMP-2 suppression decreased Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcription factor for VEGF, as determined by Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We also show that MMP-2 suppression disrupted phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) dependent VEGF expression; ectopic expression of myr-AKT restored VEGF inhibition. Further, MMP-2 suppression decreased the interaction of integrin-αVβ3 and MMP-2 as confirmed by immunoprecipitation analyses. Studies with either function blocking integrin-αVβ3 antibody or MMP-2 specific inhibitor (ARP-100) indicate that suppression of MMP-2 decreased integrin-αVβ3-mediated induction of PI3K/AKT leading to decreased VEGF expression. Moreover, A549 xenograft tissue sections from mice that treated with MMP-2 siRNA showed reduced expression of VEGF, and the angiogenic marker, Factor-VIII. The inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in MMP-2 suppressed tumor sections was associated with decreased co-localization of integrin-αVβ3 and MMP-2. In summary, these data provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying MMP-2-mediated VEGF expression in lung tumor angiogenesis.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25134
PMCID: PMC2891576  PMID: 20027628
MMP-2; siRNA; VEGF; angiogenesis; lung cancer

Results 1-25 (1276771)