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1.  Assessing Cancer Stage and Screening Disparities Among Native American Cancer Patients 
SYNOPSIS
Objective
Disparities in cancer-related health outcomes exist among Native Americans. This article assesses barriers to timely and effective cancer care among Native American cancer patients.
Methods
We conducted a community-based participatory survey of newly diagnosed cancer patients to assess their basic knowledge of cancer screening and their beliefs about cancer management. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information was obtained from medical records. Mean scores for correct answers to the screening knowledge battery were tabulated and analyzed by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics in evaluating the association between screening knowledge and race/ethnicity.
Results
The survey response rate was 62%. Of 165 patients, 52 were Native American and 113 were white. Native Americans with cancers for which a screening test is available presented with significantly higher rates of advanced-stage cancer (p=0.04). Native Americans scored lower on the cancer screening knowledge battery (p=0.0001). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, gender, income, education level, employment status, and geographic distance from the cancer center, Native American race/ethnicity was the only factor significantly predictive of lower screening knowledge. Native Americans expressed more negative attitudes toward cancer treatment in some of the items regarding impacts and burden of cancer treatment.
Conclusions
Native American cancer patients presented with higher rates of advanced-stage disease for screening-detectable cancers, lower levels of basic cancer screening knowledge, and more negative attitudes about cancer treatment than white patients. Public health interventions regarding screening and cancer education are needed.
PMCID: PMC2602933  PMID: 19413030
2.  Assessing Cancer Stage and Screening Disparities Among Native American Cancer Patients 
Public Health Reports  2009;124(1):79-89.
SYNOPSIS
Objective
Disparities in cancer-related health outcomes exist among Native Americans. This article assesses barriers to timely and effective cancer care among Native American cancer patients.
Methods
We conducted a community-based participatory survey of newly diagnosed cancer patients to assess their basic knowledge of cancer screening and their beliefs about cancer management. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information was obtained from medical records. Mean scores for correct answers to the screening knowledge battery were tabulated and analyzed by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable regression models were used to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics in evaluating the association between screening knowledge and race/ethnicity.
Results
The survey response rate was 62%. Of 165 patients, 52 were Native American and 113 were white. Native Americans with cancers for which a screening test is available presented with significantly higher rates of advanced-stage cancer (p=0.04). Native Americans scored lower on the cancer screening knowledge battery (p=0.0001). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, gender, income, education level, employment status, and geographic distance from the cancer center, Native American race/ethnicity was the only factor significantly predictive of lower screening knowledge. Native Americans expressed more negative attitudes toward cancer treatment in some of the items regarding impacts and burden of cancer treatment.
Conclusions
Native American cancer patients presented with higher rates of advanced-stage disease for screening-detectable cancers, lower levels of basic cancer screening knowledge, and more negative attitudes about cancer treatment than white patients. Public health interventions regarding screening and cancer education are needed.
PMCID: PMC2602933  PMID: 19413030
3.  Professional Uncertainty and Disempowerment Responding to Ethnic Diversity in Health Care: A Qualitative Study 
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(11):e323.
Background
While ethnic disparities in health and health care are increasing, evidence on how to enhance quality of care and reduce inequalities remains limited. Despite growth in the scope and application of guidelines on “cultural competence,” remarkably little is known about how practising health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities. Using cancer care as a clinical context, we aimed to explore this with a range of health professionals to inform interventions to enhance quality of care.
Methods and Findings
We conducted a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with a purposeful sample of 106 health professionals of differing disciplines, in primary and secondary care settings, working with patient populations of varying ethnic diversity in the Midlands of the UK. Data were analysed by constant comparison and we undertook processes for validation of analysis. We found that, as they sought to offer appropriate care, health professionals wrestled with considerable uncertainty and apprehension in responding to the needs of patients of ethnicities different from their own. They emphasised their perceived ignorance about cultural difference and were anxious about being culturally inappropriate, causing affront, or appearing discriminatory or racist. Professionals' ability to think and act flexibly or creatively faltered. Although trying to do their best, professionals' uncertainty was disempowering, creating a disabling hesitancy and inertia in their practice. Most professionals sought and applied a knowledge-based cultural expertise approach to patients, though some identified the risk of engendering stereotypical expectations of patients. Professionals' uncertainty and disempowerment had the potential to perpetuate each other, to the detriment of patient care.
Conclusions
This study suggests potential mechanisms by which health professionals may inadvertently contribute to ethnic disparities in health care. It identifies critical opportunities to empower health professionals to respond more effectively. Interventions should help professionals acknowledge their uncertainty and its potential to create inertia in their practice. A shift away from a cultural expertise model toward a greater focus on each patient as an individual may help.
From a qualitative study, Joe Kai and colleagues have identified opportunities to empower health professionals to respond more effectively to challenges in their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Communities are increasingly diverse in terms of ethnicity (belonging to a group of people defined by social characteristics such as cultural tradition or national origin) and race (belonging to a group identified by inherited physical characteristics). Although health professionals and governments are striving to ensure that everybody has the same access to health care, there is increasing evidence of ethnic inequalities in health-care outcomes. Some of these inequalities reflect intrinsic differences between groups of people—Ashkenazi Jews, for example, often carry an altered gene that increases their chance of developing aggressive breast cancer. Often, however, these differences reflect inequalities in the health care received by different ethnic groups. To improve this situation, “cultural competence” has been promoted over recent years. Cultural competence is the development of skills by individuals and organizations that allow them to work effectively with people from different cultures. Health professionals are now taught about ethnic differences in health beliefs and practices, religion, and communication styles to help them provide the best service to all their patients.
Why Was This Study Done?
Numerous guidelines aim to improve cultural competency but little is known about how health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic groups. Is their behavior influenced by ethnicity in ways that might contribute to health care disparities? For example, do doctors sometimes avoid medical examinations for fear of causing offence because of cultural differences? If more were known about how health professionals handle ethnic diversity (a term used here to include both ethnicity and race) it might be possible to reduce ethnic inequalities in health care. In this qualitative study, the researchers have explored how health professionals involved in cancer care are affected by working with ethnically diverse patients. A qualitative study is one that collects nonquantitative data such as how doctors “feel” about treating people of different ethnic backgrounds; a quantitative study might compare clinical outcomes in different ethnic groups.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled 106 doctors, nurses, and other health-related professionals from different health-service settings in the Midlands, an ethnically diverse region of the UK. They organized 18 focus groups in which the health professionals described their experiences of caring for people from ethnic minority backgrounds. The participants were encouraged to recall actual cases and to identify what they saw as problems and strengths in their interactions with these patients. The researchers found that the health professionals wrestled with many challenges when providing health care for patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds. These challenges included problems with language and with general communication (for example, deciding when it was acceptable to touch a patient to show empathy). Health professionals also worried they did not know enough about cultural differences. As a result, they said they often felt uncertain of their ability to avoid causing affront or appearing racist. This uncertainty, the researchers report, disempowered the health professionals, sometimes making them hesitate or fail to do what was best for their patient.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings reveal that health professionals often experience considerable uncertainty when caring for ethnically diverse patients, even after training in cultural competency. They also show that this uncertainty can lead to hesitancy and inertia, which might contribute to ethnic health care inequalities. Because the study participants were probably already interested in ethnic diversity and health care, interviews with other health professionals (and investigations of patient experiences) are needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, the researchers suggest several interventions that might reduce health care inequalities caused by ethnic diversity. For example, health professionals should be encouraged to recognize their uncertainty and should have access to more information and training about ethnic differences. In addition, there should be a shift in emphasis away from relying on knowledge-based cultural information towards taking an “ethnographic” approach. In other words, health professionals should be helped to feel able to ask their patients about what matters most to them as individuals about their illness and treatment.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040323.
Information on cultural competence and health care is available from the US National Center for Cultural Competence (in English and Spanish) and DiversityRx
PROCEED (Professionals Responding to Cancer in Ethnic Diversity) is a multimedia training tool for educators within the health and allied professions developed from the results of this study; a press release on PROCEED is available from the University of Nottingham
Transcultural Health Care Practice: An educational resource for nurses and health care practitioners is available on the web site of the UK Royal College of Nursing
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040323
PMCID: PMC2071935  PMID: 18001148
4.  Clinical Trial Awareness Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in HINTS 2007: Sociodemographic, Attitudinal, and Knowledge Correlates 
Journal of health communication  2010;15(0 3):92-101.
The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the association of race/ethnicity on clinical trial awareness, controlling for several sociodemographic, attitudinal, and knowledge variables, and (2) to inform future communication campaigns to increase clinical trial awareness and participation. Secondary analysis was conducted among 6,754 Hispanic, Black, and White adult respondents to the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). The dependent variable was awareness of clinical trials. Logistic regression was used to examine possible correlates of clinical trial awareness including sociodemographics, trust of sources of health information, beliefs about safety of health information, family/personal history of cancer, health seeking information, and awareness of three health agencies. Compared with Whites, Blacks and Hispanics were significantly less likely to have heard of a clinical trial. Other significant correlates of clinical trial awareness included education, income, belief that health information is safely guarded, family history of cancer, awareness of the Centers for Disease control, trust of health information from the Internet and charitable organizations, and distrust of health information from religious institutions. Blacks and Hispanics are significantly less aware of clinical trials. Campaigns that exploit unique beliefs and delivery channels for racial/ethnic subgroups should be considered.
doi:10.1080/10810730.2010.525296
PMCID: PMC4013828  PMID: 21154086
5.  Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2014;17(3):279-286.
Purpose
Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening.
Results
Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior.
Conclusion
This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2014.17.3.279
PMCID: PMC4197359  PMID: 25320627
Breast neoplasms; Emigrants and immigrants; Health behavior; Health knowledge; Mass screening
6.  A National Survey of Medical Students’ Beliefs and Knowledge in Screening for Prostate Cancer 
Background
Today’s medical students are being educated at a time when there are no evidence-based guidelines for prostate cancer screening.
Objective
To examine medical students’ knowledge and beliefs concerning prostate cancer screening and specific determinants for their beliefs.
Design, Setting, and Participants
One thousand six hundred and forty four students were sampled at 20 medical schools using a web-based, cross-sectional survey.
Main Outcome Measures
Basic knowledge and beliefs about prostate cancer testing, epidemiology, and therapy were ascertained.
Results
Four of 8 knowledge items were answered incorrectly by 50% or more of students. Seven of 8 students believe that early diagnosis from screening can improve survival from prostate cancer. Second- and third-year students were more likely than fourth-year students to believe that the digital rectal exam (DRE) and the prostate-specific antigen test were accurate, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2 to 2.7 and 1.7; 1.3 to 2.2 for second and third years, respectively, for the DRE. Black and Hispanic students were no more likely than white students to agree that early screening diagnosis improves survival, but blacks were more likely to agree with screening black or Hispanic men (AOR 7.8; 95% CI, 5.3 to 11.4 and 3.2; 2.2 to 4.7, respectively). More knowledgeable students were less likely to believe in the benefit of early detection and the accuracy of the prostate-specific antigen (AOR 0.3; 95%CI, 0.2 to 0.5).
Conclusions
Medical students generally are very optimistic about the benefits of screening for prostate cancer. Increased knowledge about prostate cancer is associated with a more conservative view of screening. Other predictors are independent of this knowledge.
doi:10.1007/s11606-006-0015-1
PMCID: PMC1824714  PMID: 17351844
prostate cancer; screening; medical students
7.  A National Survey of Medical Students’ Beliefs and Knowledge in Screening for Prostate Cancer 
Background
Today’s medical students are being educated at a time when there are no evidence-based guidelines for prostate cancer screening.
Objective
To examine medical students’ knowledge and beliefs concerning prostate cancer screening and specific determinants for their beliefs.
Design, Setting, and Participants
One thousand six hundred and forty four students were sampled at 20 medical schools using a web-based, cross-sectional survey.
Main Outcome Measures
Basic knowledge and beliefs about prostate cancer testing, epidemiology, and therapy were ascertained.
Results
Four of 8 knowledge items were answered incorrectly by 50% or more of students. Seven of 8 students believe that early diagnosis from screening can improve survival from prostate cancer. Second- and third-year students were more likely than fourth-year students to believe that the digital rectal exam (DRE) and the prostate-specific antigen test were accurate, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2 to 2.7 and 1.7; 1.3 to 2.2 for second and third years, respectively, for the DRE. Black and Hispanic students were no more likely than white students to agree that early screening diagnosis improves survival, but blacks were more likely to agree with screening black or Hispanic men (AOR 7.8; 95% CI, 5.3 to 11.4 and 3.2; 2.2 to 4.7, respectively). More knowledgeable students were less likely to believe in the benefit of early detection and the accuracy of the prostate-specific antigen (AOR 0.3; 95%CI, 0.2 to 0.5).
Conclusions
Medical students generally are very optimistic about the benefits of screening for prostate cancer. Increased knowledge about prostate cancer is associated with a more conservative view of screening. Other predictors are independent of this knowledge.
doi:10.1007/s11606-006-0015-1
PMCID: PMC1824714  PMID: 17351844
prostate cancer; screening; medical students
8.  Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:431.
Background
Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to participate. The recognition of the importance of individual autonomy in decision making requires greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs upon which people's screening choices are founded. Until recently, the technology available required that cancer screening be confined to women. This study aimed to discover whether male and female perceptions of cancer and of screening differed.
Methods
Data on the public's cancer beliefs were collected by means of a postal survey (anonymous questionnaire). Two general practices based in Nottingham and in Mansfield, in east-central England, sent questionnaires to registered patients aged 30 to 70 years. 1,808 completed questionnaires were returned for analysis, 56.5 per cent from women.
Results
Women were less likely to underestimate overall cancer incidence, although each sex was more likely to cite a sex-specific cancer as being amongst the most common cancer site. In terms of risk factors, men were most uncertain about the role of stress and sexually-transmitted diseases, whereas women were more likely to rate excessive alcohol and family history as major risk factors. The majority of respondents believed the public health care system should provide cancer screening, but significantly more women than men reported having benefiting from the nationally-provided screening services. Those who were older, in better health or had longer periods of formal education were less worried about cancer than those who had illness experiences, lower incomes, or who were smokers. Actual or potential participation in bowel screening was higher amongst those who believed bowel cancer to be common and amongst men, despite women having more substantial worries about cancer than men.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that men's and women's differential knowledge of cancer correlates with women's closer involvement with screening. Even so, men were neither less positive about screening nor less likely to express a willingness to participate in relevant screening in the future. It is important to understand gender-related differences in knowledge and perceptions of cancer, if health promotion resources are to be allocated efficiently.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-431
PMCID: PMC2789733  PMID: 19930703
9.  Association of eHealth Literacy With Colorectal Cancer Knowledge and Screening Practice Among Internet Users in Japan 
Background
In rapidly developing Internet-user societies, eHealth literacy has become important in promoting wellness. Although previous studies have observed that poor health literacy is associated with less knowledge and screening practice of colorectal cancer (CRC), little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with these variables.
Objective
The present study examined associations between eHealth literacy, knowledge of CRC, and CRC screening practices.
Methods
Data were analyzed for 2970 Japanese adults (men, 49.9%; mean age ± SD, 39.7 ± 10.9 years) who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Knowledge of the definition of CRC, its risk factors and screening practice, previous experience of CRC screening, score on the Japanese version of the eHEALS (J-eHEALS), sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level), and frequency of Internet usage were obtained. Sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet usage were used as control variables in the multiple regression and logistic regression models.
Results
eHealth literacy was positively associated with CRC knowledge (β = .116, < .001), when the covariables of both eHealth literacy and CRC knowledge were used in the multiple regression model. Moreover, after controlling for sociodemographic factors, which were significantly associated with eHealth literacy and CRC screening practice, an increase of 1 point in the eHEALS score signified that participants were 1.03 times (95% CI = 1.01–1.05) more likely to undergo CRC screening.
Conclusions
Internet users with high eHealth literacy are more likely to have knowledge and previous screening practice related to CRC compared to those with low eHealth literacy.
doi:10.2196/jmir.1927
PMCID: PMC3510729  PMID: 23149453
eHealth Literacy; Internet; Colorectal Neoplasms; Consumer Health Information; Health Promotion
10.  Risk Prediction for Breast, Endometrial, and Ovarian Cancer in White Women Aged 50 y or Older: Derivation and Validation from Population-Based Cohort Studies 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(7):e1001492.
Ruth Pfeiffer and colleagues describe models to calculate absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers for white, non-Hispanic women over 50 years old using easily obtainable risk factors.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.
Methods and Findings
Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP]), we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI); the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort) the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.04) for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97–1.19) for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11–1.29). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power) were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57–0.59), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56–0.63), and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66–0.70) for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively.
Conclusions
These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers from easily obtainable risk factors and may assist in clinical decision-making. Limitations are the modest discriminatory ability of the breast and ovarian models and that these models may not generalize to women of other races.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
In 2008, just three types of cancer accounted for 10% of global cancer-related deaths. That year, about 460,000 women died from breast cancer (the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death). Another 140,000 women died from ovarian cancer, and 74,000 died from endometrial (womb) cancer (the 14th and 20th most common causes of cancer-related death, respectively). Although these three cancers originate in different tissues, they nevertheless share many risk factors. For example, current age, age at menarche (first period), and parity (the number of children a woman has had) are all strongly associated with breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer risk. Because these cancers share many hormonal and epidemiological risk factors, a woman with a high breast cancer risk is also likely to have an above-average risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer.
Why Was This Study Done?
Several statistical models (for example, the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool) have been developed that estimate a woman's absolute risk (probability) of developing breast cancer over the next few years or over her lifetime. Absolute risk prediction models are useful in the design of cancer prevention trials and can also help women make informed decisions about cancer prevention and treatment options. For example, a woman at high risk of breast cancer might decide to take tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention, but ideally she needs to know her absolute endometrial cancer risk before doing so because tamoxifen increases the risk of this cancer. Similarly, knowledge of her ovarian cancer risk might influence a woman's decision regarding prophylactic removal of her ovaries to reduce her breast cancer risk. There are few absolute risk prediction models for ovarian cancer, and none for endometrial cancer, so here the researchers develop models to predict the risk of these cancers and of breast cancer.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Absolute risk prediction models are constructed by combining estimates for risk factors from cohorts with population-based incidence rates from cancer registries. Models are validated in an independent cohort by testing their ability to identify people with the disease in an independent cohort and their ability to predict the observed numbers of incident cases. The researchers used data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50 years or older that were collected during two large prospective US cohort studies of cancer screening and of diet and health, and US cancer incidence and mortality rates provided by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to build their models. The models all included parity as a risk factor, as well as other factors. The model for endometrial cancer, for example, also included menopausal status, age at menopause, body mass index (an indicator of the amount of body fat), oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, and an interaction term between menopausal hormone therapy use and body mass index. Individual women's risk for endometrial cancer calculated using this model ranged from 1.22% to 17.8% over the next 20 years depending on their exposure to various risk factors. Validation of the models using data from the US Nurses' Health Study indicated that the endometrial cancer model overestimated the risk of endometrial cancer but that the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated—the predicted and observed risks for these cancers in the validation cohort agreed closely. Finally, the discriminatory power of the models (a measure of how well a model separates people who have a disease from people who do not have the disease) was modest for the breast and ovarian cancer models but somewhat better for the endometrial cancer model.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer can all be predicted using information on known risk factors for these cancers that is easily obtainable. Because these models were constructed and validated using data from white, non-Hispanic women aged 50 years or older, they may not accurately predict absolute risk for these cancers for women of other races or ethnicities. Moreover, the modest discriminatory power of the breast and ovarian cancer models means they cannot be used to decide which women should be routinely screened for these cancers. Importantly, however, these well-calibrated models should provide realistic information about an individual's risk of developing breast, ovarian, or endometrial cancer that can be used in clinical decision-making and that may assist in the identification of potential participants for research studies.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001492.
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by Lars Holmberg and Andrew Vickers
The US National Cancer Institute provides comprehensive information about cancer (in English and Spanish), including detailed information about breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer;
Information on the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool, the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, and on the prospective cohort study of screening and the diet and health study that provided the data used to build the models is also available on the NCI site
Cancer Research UK, a not-for-profit organization, provides information about cancer, including detailed information on breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer
The UK National Health Service Choices website has information and personal stories about breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer; the not-for-profit organization Healthtalkonline also provides personal stories about dealing with breast cancer and ovarian cancer
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001492
PMCID: PMC3728034  PMID: 23935463
11.  Breast Cancer Knowledge Assessment in Female Chinese Immigrants in New York 
Cancer nursing  2004;27(5):407-412.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between acculturation level and perceptions of health access, Chinese health beliefs, Chinese health practices, and knowledge of breast cancer risk. This descriptive, correlational cross-sectional study used a survey approach. The sample included 135 Chinese women from the New York City metropolitan area. Data were analyzed using correlational techniques and polytomous regression. There were no significant relationships between acculturation and health access, Chinese health beliefs, Chinese health practices, and breast cancer risk knowledge. Only “years of education,” “marital status,” and “household income” significantly predicted breast cancer risk knowledge level. The data indicate that women with a better knowledge of breast cancer risk are twice as likely to have higher income and have more education. The most knowledgeable women are less likely to be married and less likely to have partners compared to least knowledgeable group. Providers need to promote health knowledge and provide information about as well as access to preventive health practices to the immigrant population, given that acculturation to the new dominant society is inevitable.
PMCID: PMC3653178  PMID: 15525869
Acculturation; Breast cancer; Chinese medicine; Immigrants; Knowledge
12.  Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to the Association between Socioeconomic Position and Takeaway Food Consumption 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108799.
Objective
To examine whether psychosocial factors mediate (explain) the association between socioeconomic position and takeaway food consumption.
Design
A cross-sectional postal survey conducted in 2009.
Setting
Participants reported their usual consumption of 22 takeaway food items, and these were grouped into a “healthy” and “less healthy” index based on each items' nutritional properties. Principal Components Analysis was used to derive three psychosocial scales that measured beliefs about the relationship between diet and health (α = 0.73), and perceptions about the value (α = 0.79) and pleasure (α = 0.61) of takeaway food. A nutrition knowledge index was also used. Socioeconomic position was measured by highest attained education level.
Subjects
Randomly selected adults (n = 1,500) aged between 25–64 years in Brisbane, Australia (response rate  =  63.7%, N = 903).
Results
Compared with those with a bachelor degree or higher, participants with a diploma level of education were more likely to consume “healthy” takeaway food (p = 0.023) whereas the least educated (high school only) were more likely to consume “less healthy” choices (p = 0.002). The least educated were less likely to believe in a relationship between diet and health (p<0.001), and more likely to have lower nutritional knowledge compared with their highly educated counterparts (p<0.001). Education differences in beliefs about the relationship between diet and health partly and significantly mediated the association between education and “healthy” takeaway food consumption. Diet- and health-related beliefs and nutritional knowledge partly and significantly mediated the education differences in “less healthy” takeaway food consumption.
Conclusions
Interventions that target beliefs about the relationship between diet and health, and nutritional knowledge may reduce socioeconomic differences in takeaway food consumption, particularly for “less healthy” options.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108799
PMCID: PMC4182602  PMID: 25268899
13.  Communication Inequalities, Social Determinants, and Intermittent Smoking in the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2009;6(2):A40.
Introduction
Intermittent smokers account for a large proportion of all smokers, and this trend is increasing. Social and communication inequalities may account for disparities in intermittent smoking status.
Methods
Data for this study came from 2,641 ever-smokers from a 2003 nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Independent variables of interest included race/ethnicity, sex, household income, education, health media attention, and cancer-related beliefs. The outcome of interest was smoking status categorized as daily smoker, intermittent smoker, or former smoker. Analyses used 2 sets of multivariable logistic regressions to investigate the associations of covariates with intermittent smokers compared with former smokers and with daily smokers.
Results
People with high education and high income, Spanish-speaking Hispanics, and women were the most likely to be intermittent rather than daily smokers. Women and Spanish-speaking Hispanics were the most likely to be intermittent rather than former smokers. Attention to health media sources increased the likelihood that a person would be an intermittent smoker instead of a former or daily smoker. Believing that damage from smoking is avoidable and irreversible was associated with lower odds of being an intermittent smoker rather than a former smoker but did not differentiate intermittent smoking from daily smoking.
Conclusion
The results indicate that tailoring smoking-cessation campaigns toward intermittent smokers from specific demographic groups by using health media may improve the effect of these campaigns and reduce social health disparities.
PMCID: PMC2687846  PMID: 19288983
14.  Sun Protection Beliefs among Hispanics in the US 
Journal of Skin Cancer  2014;2014:161960.
Purpose. We reviewed the literature on sun protection beliefs in Hispanics living in the United States to explore what challenges are faced by area of research. Method. A review of PubMED, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases was performed. Studies were published in peer-reviewed journals (in all years available) and written in English. The search terms used were [“skin cancer” OR “sun protection”] AND [“Latino” OR “Hispanic”] AND “beliefs.” Eligible papers were included in the final analysis after meeting the following inclusion criteria: (1) the records had to quantitatively examine and report sun protection beliefs in Hispanics, (2) the number of Hispanic participants in the sample had to be clearly specified, and (3) studies reporting differences in sun protection beliefs between Hispanics and other racial and ethnic groups were included in the review. Results. Of the 92 articles identified, 11 met inclusion criteria and addressed sun protection beliefs regarding skin cancer seriousness and susceptibility, and benefits and barriers of sun protection and skin cancer risk behaviors. Characteristics of studies and results were examined. Conclusion. There is insufficient evidence to determine a pattern of sun protection beliefs among Hispanics in the United States. More quality studies are needed which focus on sun protection beliefs in Hispanics.
doi:10.1155/2014/161960
PMCID: PMC4241737  PMID: 25431673
15.  Determinants of diabetes knowledge in a cohort of Nigerian diabetics 
Background
One of the consequences of the generational paradigm shift of lifestyle from the traditional African model to a more "western" standard is a replacement of communicable diseases by non-communicable or life style related diseases like diabetes. To address this trend, diabetes education along with continuous assessment of diabetes related knowledge has been advocated. Since most of the Nigerian studies assessing knowledge of diabetes were hospital-based, we decided to evaluate the diabetes related knowledge and its sociodemographic determinants in a general population of diabetics.
Methods
Diabetics (n = 184) attending the 2012 world diabetes day celebration in a Nigerian community were surveyed using a two part questionnaire. Section A elicited information on their demographics characteristics and participation in update courses, and exercise, while section B assessed knowledge of diabetes using the 14 item Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Centre's Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test.
Results
We found that Nigerian diabetics had poor knowledge of diabetes, with pervasive fallacies. Majority did not have knowledge of "diabetes diet", "fatty food", "free food", effect of unsweetened fruit juice on blood glucose, treatment of hypoglycaemia, and the average duration glycosylated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A1) test measures blood glucose. Attaining tertiary education, falling under the 51-60 years age group, frequent attendance at seminars/updates and satisfaction with education received, being employed by or formerly working for the government, and claiming an intermediate, or wealthy income status was associated with better knowledge of diabetes.
Conclusion
Nigerian diabetics' knowledge of diabetes was poor and related to age, level of education, satisfaction with education received, employment status and household wealth.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-13-39
PMCID: PMC3984720  PMID: 24593904
Determinants; Knowledge; Sociodemographic; Diabetes; Nigeria
16.  Reliability of Internet- Versus Telephone-Administered Questionnaires in a Diverse Sample of Smokers 
Background
Smoking is more prevalent among lower-income individuals and certain racial/ethnic minorities. Addressing tobacco cessation among diverse populations is an urgent public health priority. As Internet use continues to rise among all segments of the US population, Web-based interventions have enormous potential to reach priority populations. Conducting Web-based smoking cessation research in priority populations requires psychometrically sound measurement instruments. To date, only one published study has examined the psychometric properties of Internet-administered measures commonly used in Web-based cessation trials. However, the sample was homogeneous with regard to race/ethnicity and income. We sought to replicate and extend these findings in a more diverse sample of smokers.
Objective
The aim was to examine the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of measures commonly used in smoking cessation clinical trials among racial/ethnic minorities and smokers with lower income.
Methods
Participants were enrolled in a randomized trial of the efficacy of an Internet smoking cessation program between June 2005 and September 2006. Following a baseline telephone assessment and randomization into the parent trial, participants were recruited to the reliability substudy. In phase I of recruitment, all participants in the parent trial were recruited to the substudy; in phase II, all consecutive racial/ethnic minority participants in the parent trial were recruited. Race and ethnicity were assessed via self-report using two standard items from the US Office of Management and Budget. An email was sent 2 days after the telephone assessment with a link to the Internet survey. Measures examined were quit methods, perceived stress, depression, social support, smoking temptations, alcohol use, perceived health status, and income. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of Internet- versus telephone-administered measures were examined within four strata defined by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, racial/ethnic minority) and annual household income (US $40,000 or less, more than $40,000).
Results
Of the 442 individuals invited, 319 participated (72% response rate): 52.4% were non-Hispanic White, 22.9% Black, 11.6% Hispanic, 7.8% Asian, 4.4% American Indian / Alaska Native, and 1% Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander. About half (49.4%) reported an annual household income of US $40,000 or less, and 25.7% had a high school degree or less. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory to excellent across all strata for the majority of measures examined: 9 of 12 continuous variables had intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.70, and 10 of 18 binary variables and both ordinal variables had kappa coefficients ≥ 0.70. Test-retest reliability of several quit methods varied across strata.
Conclusions
Race/ethnicity and income do not affect the psychometric properties of most Internet-administered measures examined. This knowledge adds to the confidence of conducting Web-based smoking cessation research and strengthens the scientific rigor of collecting information via the Internet on racial/ethnic minority and low-income subgroups.
Trial registration
clinicaltrials.gov NCT00282009 (parent trial)
doi:10.2196/jmir.987
PMCID: PMC2483847  PMID: 18364345
Reliability; smoking; Internet; diversity; measurement; psychometrics; minority groups; questionnaires; socioeconomic factors; social class; poverty; African Americans; Hispanic Americans
17.  Distinct Beliefs, Attitudes, and Experiences of Latino Smokers: Relevance for Cessation Interventions 
Purpose
Determine the extent to which Latino smokers are using effective interventions for smoking cessation, with particular focus on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Related aims were to explore cultural, attitudinal, knowledge, and socioeconomic variables associated with treatment use.
Design
Cross-sectional telephone survey of two groups of Colorado adult smokers: Latinos (n = 1010) and non-Latino whites (n = 519).
Setting
Colorado.
Methods
Computer-assisted telephone survey in either Spanish or English. Survey addressed sociodemographic variables; smoking and cessation history; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about smoking and quitting; and experiences in and attitudes toward the health care setting.
Participants
Latino and non-Latino white adult Colorado residents who reported being regular smokers.
Results
Colorado Latinos report using NRT substantially less often than do non-Latino whites residing in the state. This and other differences in the study were more pronounced in Latinos characterized as low acculturation on the basis of a language preference variable. Latinos smoke somewhat less than non-Latino whites and report lower levels of dependence. They appear to be motivated to quit but endorse attitudes and beliefs antithetical to NRT use. Health care access was lower among Latinos, and this was related to lower reports of lifetime NRT use. Receipt of recommended practitioner intervention (the “five As”) did not differ by ethnicity.
Conclusions
Results suggested that use of effective cessation interventions among Latinos may be enhanced by education about nicotine addiction and NRT. Policy change to increase health care access also showed promise.
doi:10.4278/ajhp.100616-QUAN-200
PMCID: PMC3166215  PMID: 21510796
Cigarette Smoking; Hispanic Americans; Culture; Acculturation; Smoking Cessation; Prevention Research
18.  ParticipACTION: Awareness of the participACTION campaign among Canadian adults - Examining the knowledge gap hypothesis and a hierarchy-of-effects model 
Background
ParticipACTION was a pervasive communication campaign that promoted physical activity in the Canadian population for three decades. According to McGuire's hierarchy-of-effects model (HOEM), this campaign should influence physical activity through intermediate mediators such as beliefs and intention. Also, when such media campaigns occur, knowledge gaps often develop within the population about the messages being conveyed. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the current awareness of ParticipACTION campaigns among Canadians; (b) confirm if awareness of the ParticipACTION initiative varied as a function of levels of education and household income; and, (c) to examine whether awareness of ParticipACTION was associated with physical activity related beliefs, intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) as suggested by the HOEM. Specifically, we tested a model including awareness of ParticipACTION (unprompted, prompted), outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and physical activity status.
Methods
A population-based survey was conducted on 4,650 Canadians over a period of 6 months from August, 2007 to February, 2008 (response rate = 49%). The survey consisted of a set of additional questions on the 2007 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM). Our module on the PAM included questions related to awareness and knowledge of ParticipACTION. Weighted logistic models were constructed to test the knowledge gap hypotheses and to examine whether awareness was associated with physical activity related beliefs (i.e., outcome expectations, self-efficacy), intention, and LTPA. All analyses included those respondents who were 20 years of age and older in 2007/2008 (N = 4424).
Results
Approximately 8% of Canadians were still aware of ParticipACTION unprompted and 82% were aware when prompted. Both education and income were significant correlates of awareness among Canadians. The odds of people being aware of ParticipACTION were greater if they were more educated and reported higher income. Awareness of ParticipACTION was also associated with outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and LTPA status.
Conclusion
Awareness of ParticipACTION is associated with LTPA. Knowledge gaps in awareness are associated with level of education and household income. Thus, future promotion campaigns should include specific strategies to target different segments of the population, especially people who are living in deprived conditions with lower levels of education.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-85
PMCID: PMC2795738  PMID: 19995456
19.  Public knowledge and beliefs about dementia risk reduction: a national survey of Australians 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:661.
Background
With the dramatically increasing contribution of Alzheimer’s Disease and other forms of dementia to the global burden of disease, countries are being urged to address this as a public health priority. This study investigated whether Australian adults recognise this as an important health issue, and hold beliefs and knowledge that are consistent with recommendations concerning dementia risk reduction. This research was undertaken to guide national brain health awareness and education strategies.
Methods
A cross-sectional telephone survey was undertaken of 1,003 Australians aged 20–75 years. This measured the importance placed on dementia, beliefs and confidence related to risk reduction, knowledge of risk reduction methods, and the perceived age-relevance of these. In analysis the data were stratified by sex, age, educational attainment, household income, language preference and previous exposure to dementia. Multivariable logistic regression was undertaken to identify variables independently associated with beliefs and knowledge.
Results
People aged 60 years and over identified dementia as very important (17.2%) more often than those aged 40–59 years (5.1%) or 20–39 years (2.1%). While 41.5% of respondents believed the risk of dementia could be reduced, 26.9% were very confident that they could achieve this. Mental activity (57.1%) was identified as beneficial much more often than physical activity (31.3%), healthy eating (23.3%) and other cardiovascular health behaviours. Women, people of English-speaking origin, and those having contact with a person with dementia, showed better knowledge of several health behaviours.
Conclusions
Growing attention is being given to population risk reduction to combat the dramatic increase in the burden of disease due to dementia. In Australia many people do not yet hold beliefs and knowledge that support this, which highlights the need for concerted awareness raising that dementia is not an inevitable aspect of ageing, and for education about the role of vascular health in dementia risk reduction.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-661
PMCID: PMC4226999  PMID: 24972448
Dementia; Cognitive health; Health behaviours; Health promotion
20.  Predictors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Knowledge among Jordanian Youths 
Objectives:
Understanding factors associated with the level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge acquisition is crucial to inform preventative programmes for young people. This study examines predictors of HIV knowledge among Jordanian youths.
Methods:
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 8,129 youths aged between 14 and 25 years randomly selected from schools representing each of the 12 governorates of Jordan. A total of 50% of respondents were female and, on average, 17 years old. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, gender awareness, exposure to and favourable attitudes toward risky behaviours.
Results:
On a 13-item HIV knowledge test, participants answered an average of 7 questions correctly (mean = 7.21; standard deviation = 2.63). Female respondents from rural areas demonstrated significantly lower levels of HIV knowledge, while college and university students demonstrated higher levels. HIV knowledge differed significantly by sources of information, with peer-acquired information associated with more accuracy, while HIV information from parents or health centres was associated with a lower score. Youths with more egalitarian gender views also demonstrated higher knowledge levels, whereas youths approving of drug use showed lower levels of HIV knowledge.
Conclusion:
HIV education programmes in Jordan should focus on females and youths living in rural areas. Educational institutions have been shown to be effective in providing accurate information to students, while parents and health professionals should also be included in HIV prevention programmes in order to reduce misconceptions and raise the level of HIV knowledge among Jordanian youths.
PMCID: PMC3706112  PMID: 23862028
HIV knowledge; Youth; Jordan; Middle East
21.  Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults 
Global Health Action  2013;6:10.3402/gha.v6i0.18707.
Background
Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%.
Objectives
To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults.
Design
GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc.) and knowledge on health risks.
Results
General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS) and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was good (90% and 83%, respectively). However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer) appeared to be lower (51.5%). Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6) and SHS (OR 1.7) than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively). Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively). Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups.
Conclusions
It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to increase their knowledge on health risks of smoking. Comprehensive messages and/or images about specific diseases related to AS/SHS should be conveyed using of different channels and modes specific to local cultures to increase knowledge on smoking health consequences for general population.
doi:10.3402/gha.v6i0.18707
PMCID: PMC3562361  PMID: 23374702
knowledge; smoking; health consequences; global adult tobacco survey; Vietnam
22.  Ethnic Differences in Cancer Pain Experience 
Nursing research  2007;56(5):296-306.
Background
Inconsistent findings on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience suggest the need for further studies on this topic for adequate cancer pain management.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine ethnic differences in cancer pain experience of 4 ethnic groups in the U.S.
Methods
A feminist perspective provided the theoretical basis. This was a survey of a multiethnic sample of 480 cancer patients asking questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status, 3 unidimensional cancer pain scales, 2 multidimensional cancer pain scales, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Results
The results indicated certain ethnic differences in types of pain and symptoms that patients experienced. Also, the results demonstrated significant ethnic differences in cancer pain and functional status. The VDS, VAS, FS, MPQ, and BPI scores of Non-Hispanic (N-H) Asian participants were significantly lower than those of Hispanic and N-H White participants (p<.01). The VAS and MPQ scores of N-H African American participants were significantly lower than those of Hispanic and N-H White participants (p<.01). The FACT-G scores of N-H Asian participants were significantly lower than Hispanic participants (p<.01). The findings also indicated that being N-H Asian or not was a significant predictor of the VDS, FS, and BPI scores.
Discussion
The findings suggest further in-depth qualitative exploration on cultural values and beliefs related to cancer pain in each ethnic group and national-scope studies with a larger number of ethnic minorities on this topic.
doi:10.1097/01.NNR.0000289502.45284.b5
PMCID: PMC2728600  PMID: 17846550
23.  A Test of Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening 
BACKGROUND
Although the benefits of prostate cancer screening are uncertain and guidelines recommend that physicians share the screening decision with their patients, most U.S. men over age 50 are routinely screened, often without counseling.
OBJECTIVE
To develop an instrument for assessing physicians' knowledge related to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations on prostate cancer screening.
PARTICIPANTS
Seventy internists, family physicians, and general practitioners in the Los Angeles area who deliver primary care to adult men.
MEASUREMENTS
We assessed knowledge related to prostate cancer screening (natural history, test characteristics, treatment effects, and guideline recommendations), beliefs about the net benefits of screening, and prostate cancer screening practices for men in different age groups, using an online survey. We constructed a knowledge scale having 15 multiple-choice items.
RESULTS
Participants' mean knowledge score was 7.4 (range 3 to 12) of 15 (Cronbach's α=0.71). Higher knowledge scores were associated with less belief in a mortality benefit from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing (r=−.49, P <.001). Participants could be categorized as low, age-selective, and high users of routine PSA screening. High users had lower knowledge scores than age-selective or low users, and they believed much more in mortality benefits from PSA screening.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on its internal consistency and its correlations with measures of physicians' net beliefs and self-reported practices, the knowledge scale developed in this study holds promise for measuring the effects of professional education on prostate cancer screening. The scale deserves further evaluation in broader populations.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00337.x
PMCID: PMC1484731  PMID: 16499545
physicians' attitudes and practices; knowledge evaluation; continuing medical education; prostate cancer screening
24.  Effects of Personal Characteristics on African-American Women's Beliefs about Breast Cancer 
Purpose
This study measured the effect of demographic and clinical characteristics on health and cultural beliefs related to mammography.
Design
Cross-sectional study.
Setting
Interviews were conducted during 2003 and 2004 in a Midwestern urban area.
Subjects
Subjects were 344 low-income African-American women aged 40 years and older who had not had a mammography within the previous 18 months.
Measures
The instrument measured personal characteristics, belief and knowledge scales and participants' mammography experience and plans.
Analysis
Multiple regression analysis assessed the effect of specific demographic and clinical characteristics on each of the scale values and on subjects' stage of readiness to change.
Results
The subjects' level of education significantly affected six of the 12 belief and knowledge scales. Higher educated women felt less susceptible to breast cancer, had higher self-efficacy, had less fear, had lower fatalism scores, were less likely to be present-time oriented, and were more knowledgeable about breast cancer. Older women felt they were less susceptible to breast cancer, had higher fatalism scores, were more present-time oriented, and were less knowledgeable about breast cancer.
Conclusions
The findings suggest that mammography promotion programs for African-Americans should consider the education level and age of the target women to be most effective.
doi:10.4278/ajhp.07031727
PMCID: PMC2965407  PMID: 20594093
Mammography; Breast Cancer Screening; African-American; Health and Cultural Beliefs
25.  Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:888.
Background
Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State.
Methods
This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed.
Results
Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Most respondents showed a reasonable belief over the cause of their children’s condition rather than the erroneous traditional belief that paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by spirit forces.
Conclusions
It is of great concern that the good knowledge, positive attitude and reasonable belief by parents/primary caregivers about paralytic poliomyelitis observed in this study did not play a prominent role in preventing susceptibility of children in north-west Nigeria to paralytic poliomyelitis. It is imperative that Nigerian policy makers should device more strategic measures toward the prevention of paralytic poliomyelitis in this sub region.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-888
PMCID: PMC3487889  PMID: 23083466
Paralytic poliomyelitis; Knowledge; Beliefs; Attitude; Parents; Nigeria

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